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Encyclopedia > Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
Image:Vijayanagar_territories.png
Vijayanagar Empire during Deva Raya II (1446 CE.) and Krishnadevaraya (1520 CE.),
Official languages Kannada
Telugu
Capitals Early Capital: Anegondi, Regal Capital: Vijayanagara
Government Monarchy
Preceding states Hoysala, Kakatiya
Succeeding states Kingdom of Mysore, Vijayanagar Empire in Penugonda,

Nayakas of Shimoga, Madurai etc. Image File history File links Vijayanagar_territories. ... Background Deva Raya II (1426-1446 AD, note that Nuniz states differently in that his reign was for 25 years, not 20) was a monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire who succeeded his father , Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya (or simply Vijaya Raya) after Vijaya Rayas short uneventful two year reign... Sri Krishnadevaraya (Kannada: ಕ್ರಷ್ಣದೇವರಾಯ, Telugu:శ్రీకృష్ణదేవరాయ;) was a Vijaynagar emperor who presided over the empire at its zenith and ruled from 1509 until his death in 1529. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Telugu (తెలుగు) belongs to the Dravidian language family but with ample influence from the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family and is the official language of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Anegondi is a small village located on the north side of the Tungabhadra and opposite to the Vittala Temple. ... Vijayanagara (often written Vijayanagar, meaning the city of victory), in northern Karnataka, is the name of the now ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagara empire in the Southern part of India. ... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Kakatiya Dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. ... Mysore (Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು) is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... For other uses of Nayak, see Nayak (disambiguation) A Nayak (also Nayaka, Nayaker or Naicker) is the title of a government official, equivalent to a provincial governor or viceroy, in the Telugu kingdoms of southern India, including the Kakatiya kingdom of Warangal (11th-14th centuries) and the Vijayanagara kingdom (14th... Shimoga (ಶಿವಮೊಗ್ಗ in Kannada, locally known as Shivamogga) is a city in west-central Karnataka state, India. ... Madurai (மதுரை in Tamil) is situated on the banks of Vaigai River in Tamil Nadu, a southern Indian state. ...

The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. It was founded by Harihara, also known as Hakka, and his brother Bukka Raya. It is named after its capital city Vijayanagara, whose impressive ruins surround Hampi in modern Karnataka, India. It lasted from about 1336 to perhaps about 1660, though throughout its last century it was in a slow decline due to a massive and catastrophic defeat at the hands of an alliance of the sultanates, and the capital was taken and brutally razed and looted. Its foundation, and even great part of its history, is obscure; but its power and wealth are attested by more than one European traveller, such as the Portuguese travelers Domingo Paes and Nuniz, and the Venetian Niccolò Da Conti. The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... A map of South India, its rivers, regions and water bodies. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... Harihara I, also called as Vira Harihar I, was the founder of the Vijayanagara empire, one of the best known empires of the Indian subcontinent. ... Background Bukka (also known as Bukka Raya) as well as his brother Hakka (also known as Harihara) would found the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire from the year 1336 and onwards. ... A Raja (sometimes spelled Rajah) is a king, or princely ruler. ... Vijayanagara (often written Vijayanagar, meaning the city of victory), in northern Karnataka, is the name of the now ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagara empire in the Southern part of India. ... Virupaksha Temple Hampi (ಹ೦ಪೆ, Hampe in Kannada) is a village in southern Karnataka, India. ... It has been suggested that Divisions of Karnataka be merged into this article or section. ... Niccolò Da Conti (also Nicolò de Conti) (1395–1469) was a Venetian merchant and explorer, born in Chioggia, who traveled to India and Southeast Asia during the early 15th century. ...

Contents


Founding

The founding of the original kingdom was based on the principality of Anegondi, based on a fortified town on the Tungabhadra river in the Deccan. In the century preceding the founding of the empire, the old kingdoms of the Deccan had been overrun by Muslim invaders from the north. From 1309, Malik Kafur reached and captured Warangal, later on reaching the Malabar kingdoms. Mubarak of Delhi reached Warangal again in 1323. Between 1334 and 1336, Muhammad Tughlaq of Delhi again overran the region, capturing Anegondi. Anegondi is a small village located on the north side of the Tungabhadra and opposite to the Vittala Temple. ... The Tungabhadra is a river of southern India. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish:Müslüman, Persian:مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Malik Kafur ( - 1318 C.E.) was a eunuch general who conquered Tamil Nadu around 1310 C.E. Malik Kafur was a slave, who was purchased by Nusrat Khan. ... Warangal is a city in Andhra Pradesh state of southeastern India. ... It has been suggested that Malabarian Coast be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that National Capital Territory of Delhi be merged into this article or section. ... Muhammad bin Tughluq was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. ...

Vijayanagara Empire
Sangama Dynasty
Harihara Raya I
Bukka Raya I
Harihara Raya II
Virupaksha Raya
Bukka Raya II
Deva Raya I
Ramachandra Raya
Vira Vijaya Bukka Raya
Deva Raya II
Mallikarjuna Raya
Virupaksha Raya II
Praudha Raya
Saluva Dynasty
Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya
Thimma Bhupala
Narasimha Raya II
Tuluva Dynasty
Tuluva Narasa Nayakudu
Viranarasimha Raya
Krishna Deva Raya
Achyuta Deva Raya
Sadashiva Raya
Araviti Dynasty
Aliya Rama Raya
Tirumala Deva Raya
Sriranga Deva Raya
Rama Raju
Venkatapati Deva Raya
Sriranga Raya
Venkatapati Raya
Sriranga Raya II
Venkatapati Raya II

Well known historians from Archeological Survey of India hold their own opinions about the origin of the empire. While Prof. K.A. Nilakanta Sastry, Dr. N. Ventakaramanayya and B. Surya Narayana Rao claim a Telugu origin of Harihara and Bukka Raya, historians, Dr. Desai, Dr. Henry Heras, Prof. Dr. B.A. Saletore attest to the empires Kannada origin. Their claim is supported by certain findings. Among them are that almost half of the Vijayanagar inscriptions are in Kannada, the parton saint of the early kings was saint Vidyaranya, the 12th Shankaracharya of Sringeri in Karnataka, the surnames of many kings were in Kannada language, Lord Chennakeshava of Belur and Lord Virupaksha of Hampi were the family gods of the Sangama clan. Also, they claim that in political and administrative matters, the Vijayanagar kings followed the Hoysala framework. They also mention that where as the Sangama brothers had to wage war against the Reddy's of Kondavidu and Velamas of Rachakonda in Telugu country, Gajapathis of Orissa, chieftens of Madhuri and Quilon etc., the entire area that constituted the Hoysala kingdom came under the rule of the Sangama brothers without any clash for power. This would not have been possible unless the Sangama brothers were local to Hampi and of Kannada origin. Historically, it is also known the Sangama dynasty was followed by the Saluva and Tuluva dynasties who hailed from Coastal Karnataka. As well known historian K. Appadurai puts it, The Karnataka Empire or Vijayanagar Empire embraced in its ample fold all of Karnataka and Andhra, all Tamilnadu and perhaps parts of northern Kerala and even extended into the Utkal or Orissa region. But as its name implies, it was originally of the Karnataka country and it drew its inspirations from the Hoysalas and the Gangas of the Karnataka and the Cholas and Pandyas of the Tamil country. But it is chiefly remarkable in raising above all regionalism and in creating the all India nationalism of to-day in all of its spheres of activities. The Sangama Dynasty was the first dynasty of the Vijayanagara Empire founded by Harihara and Bukka who had been the sons of the Sangama of Warrangal and ran away from Warrangal to found the basis of the Vijayanagara Empire because of poverty resulting from Muslim attacks in 1323. ... Harihara I, also called as Vira Harihar I, was the founder of the Vijayanagara empire, one of the best known empires of the Indian subcontinent. ... Background Bukka (also known as Bukka Raya) as well as his brother Hakka (also known as Harihara) would found the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire from the year 1336 and onwards. ... Background Harihara II (1377-1404) suceeded Bukka Raya as king of the Vijayanagara Empire and was infamous for conquering almost all of Southern India. ... Virupaksha Raya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty. ... Virupaksha Raya (1404 – 1406 AD) was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty. ... Background After Harihara II died there was a dispute between his sons for the throne of the Vijayanagara Empire in which Deva Raya would eventually come out as victor. ... Background Ramachandra Raya was the son of Deva Raya I who became king of the Vijayanagara Empire after his fathers death in 1422 AD. Throughout his reign there were no recorded significant changes in territory or major events. ... Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya (or Vijaya Raya) was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty. ... Background Deva Raya II (1426-1446 AD, note that Nuniz states differently in that his reign was for 25 years, not 20) was a monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire who succeeded his father , Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya (or simply Vijaya Raya) after Vijaya Rayas short uneventful two year reign... Background Mallikarjuna Raya (1446-1465) succeeded his father Deva Raya II, who had brought prosperity throughout the Vijayanagara empire as well as a golden age for the Sangama Dynasty. ... Virupaksha Raya II was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Saluva Dynasty. ... The Tuluva Dynasty were chieftans who ruled parts of coastal Karnataka (ref: Dr. Jyothsna Kamat)  This ethnic-group-related article is a stub. ... Sri Krishnadevaraya (Kannada: ಕ್ರಷ್ಣದೇವರಾಯ, Telugu:శ్రీకృష్ణదేవరాయ;) was a Vijaynagar emperor who presided over the empire at its zenith and ruled from 1509 until his death in 1529. ... The Emperor Sri Achyuta Raya was a ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire of south India. ... Rama Raya, popularly known as Aliya Rama Raya, was the progenitor of the Aravidu dynasty of Vijayanagara Emperors. ... B Ramalinga Raju (born September 16, 1954) whos surname is Byrraju, is an Indian businessman, and a pioneer of the Information Technology industry in India. ... Sri Adi Sankara Shri Shankaracharya, Adhi Shankaracharya, or Adi Shankara (the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord), Shankara (approximately 509- 477 BC) [1] was the most famous Advaita philosopher who had a profound influence on the growth of Hinduism through... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ...



A popular account (supported by Department Of Tourism, Govt. Of India, copyright 2003 Eicher Goodearth Ltd. New Delhi) says that the Hampi region was part of a tiny kingdom of Kampili in the 14th Century AD when large parts of north India was under Muslim rule. In 1326 AD Mohammed Bin Tughluq defeated and killed the king of Kampili. Among those taken prisoner were sons of Sangama, Hukka and Bukka, both treasury officers of Kampili, who were forced to convert to Islam. Some years later the sultan sent the two brothers back to govern the province. In 1336 AD, they laid foundation of an independent kingdom, with the help of sage Vidyaranya, denying any allegiance to the Tughluqs and became Hindu again. They laid foundation to the Sangama dynsaty with its citadel in Vijayanagara. History has it that the governors of Hoysala, Singeya Nayaka-III (1280 - 1300) declared independence and formed the kingdom of Kampili around 1280 AD. The kingdom faced constant threat from the powerful kingdom of Hoysalas and Yadavas. But in 1327 AD, the Muslim expedition took toll of Yadavas and the kingdom of Kampiladeva as well and opened up routes for the Muslim rulers.


Another story avers that the hermit Vidyarnya himself founded the city after the discovery of a hidden treasure, ruled over it himself, and left it after his death to a Kuruba family who established the first regular dynasty. + Many other stories add intrigue and mystery to the founding of the Empire but with lack of epigraphal support. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kuruma. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ...


A fourth account states that while Vidyaranya was living his ascetic life amongst the mountains he was supported by meals brought to him by a shepherd of Kuruba caste called Bukka, "and one day the Brahmin said to him, 'You shall be king and emperor of all Bharata.' The other shepherds learned this, and began to treat this shepherd with veneration and made him their head; and he acquired the name of 'king,' and began to conquer his neighbours. Bukka established a city "and called it Vijaya Nagar – the city of victory . As Muhammud Tughlaq's rule ended amidst revolts against him by his Muslim subjects in the Deccan, the area ruled by Harihara expanded greatly and quickly. The city of Vijayanagara was established by about 1340 on the bank of the Tungabhadra opposite Anegondi. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kuruma. ... Bharata is the name of three different persons in Hindu mythology. ... Harihara is a term used to denote the unity of Vishnu and Shiva as one and the same with Hari being the name of Vishnu and Hara that of Shiva. ... The Tungabhadra is a river of southern India. ...


Harihara was succeeded, probably around 1343, by his brother, Bukka Raya, who ruled till about 1379. By the end of Bukka's reign, most of southern India to the south of the Tungabhadra had accepted his suzerainity.

History of the Indian Subcontinent
Stone Age 70,000–7000 BCE
Mehrgarh Culture 7000–3300 BCE
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE
Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE
Vedic Civilization 1500–500 BCE
Kuru Dynasty 1200–316 BCE
Maha Janapadas 700–321 BCE
Magadha Empire 684–321 BCE
Middle Kingdoms 600 BCE–1279 CE
Maurya Empire 321–184 BCE
Gupta Empire 240–550 CE
Chola Empire 848–1279 CE
Islamic Sultanates 979–1596
Hoysala Empire 1040–1346
Delhi Sultanate 1210–1526
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1565
Mughal Era 1526–1707
Maratha Empire 1674–1761
Colonial Era 1757–1947
Republic of India 1947 onwards
General Histories
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Regional Histories
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This article is about the History of South Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... It has been suggested that Ancient Metropolitan City be merged into this article or section. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The Vedic Civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas. ... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... Mahajanapadas (महाजनपद) literally means Great kingdoms (from Sanskrit Maha = great, Janapada = foothold of tribe = country). ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322–298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ... The Gupta Empire in 400 CE (not including vassal states) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... // The Mughal Empire Main article: Mughal Empire India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and who failed to create a common body of laws or institutions. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... In 1498, the Portuguese set foot in Goa. ... // Introduction The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the... The history of South India begins with the Sangam age, from 200 BC to 300 AD. It is called so after the sangam literature. ... The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman cultures. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ... Bengal had been quite distant and cut off (by the rivers, especially the Ganga and the Brahmaputra) from the mainland of India for ages. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. ... India has had a maritime history dating back around 5,000 years. ... The chronology of Indian mathematics spans from the Indus Valley civilization (3300-1500 BC) and Vedic civilization (1500-500 BC) to modern India (21st century AD). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

The empire at its peak

In the following two centuries, the Vijayanagar empire dominated all of southern India, and was probably stronger than any other power in the subcontinent. The empire during that period served as a bulwark against invasion from the Turkic Sultanates of the Indo-Gangetic Plain; and remained in constant competition and conflict with the five Deccan Sultanates that established themselves in the Deccan to the north of it. It remained a land power. A subcontinent is a large part of a continent. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ...


In about 1510, Goa, which had been under the rule of the Sultan of Bijapur, was captured by the Portuguese, possibly with the approval or connivance of Vijayanagara. Commerce between the Portuguese and Vijayanagara became very important to both sides. For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ...


The empire is generally considered to have reached its peak during the rule of Krishna Deva Raya. He conquered or subjugated territories on the east of the Deccan that belonged previously to Orissa. Many of the great monuments of the empire date from his time. Among these are the Hazara Rama temple, the Krishna temple and the Ugra Narasimha idol, all at Vijayanagara. This article needs cleanup. ... Orissa (2001 provisional pop. ...


Krishna Deva Raya was followed by Achyuta Raya in 1530. In 1542, Achyuta was succeeded by Sada Siva Raya. But the real power lay with Rama (of the third dynasty, who followed him), who seems to have made a point of unnecessarily provoking the Deccan sultanates, so that eventually they allied against him. In 1565, at the Battle of Talikota, the army of Vijayanagara was routed by an alliance of the Deccan sultanates. Rama Raya was killed and his head annually covered with oil and red pigment was exhibited in Ahmednagar till 1829. With this, the last significant Hindu state in the Deccan came to an end. Tirumala Raya, the sole survivor left Vijayanagar with treasure on back of 550 elephants to Penukonda. Please refer to Robert Sewell's excellent reasearch on Vijayanagar [1] The Emperor Sri Achyuta Raya was a ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire of south India. ... Battle of Talikota or Tellikota (January 26, 1565) fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Deccan sultanates resulted in a rout for Vijayanagara and ended the last great Hindu kingdom in South India. ... Ahmednagar is a city in the state of Maharashtra, India, on the left bank of the Sina river, about 100 km southeast of Pune. ...


Vijayanagara is considered by many today, especially in the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, to have been a golden age of culture and learning. It has been suggested that Divisions of Karnataka be merged into this article or section. ... Andhra Pradesh : (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Hindi: आंध्र प्रदेश; Āndhra Prādesh), is a state in South India but is also debated as Central India as well. ...


Inscriptions

Kannada and Telugu inscriptions deciphered and recorded by historians of Archeological Survey of India - South Indian Inscriptions (vol 9, 15,16, 17 & 18)


The Haridasa Movement and the Empire

The Haridasa movement presented, like the Virashaiva movement, another strong current of Bhakthi, pervading the lives of millions. Thus the Haridasas presented two groups – Vyasakuta and Dasakuta. The former were required to be proficient in the Vedas, Upanishads and other Darshanas, while the Dasakuta merely conveyed the message of Madhwacharya through Kannada language to the people. The philosophy of Madhwacharya was preserved and perpetuated by his eminent disciples like Vyasathirtha or Vyasaraja, Narahari Thirtha, Padmanabha Thirtha, Akshobhya Thirtha, Jaya Thirtha and others. In the fifteenth century, the Haridasa movement took shape under Sripadaraja of Mulbagal; but this disciple Vyasathirtha or Vyasaraja (1447 – 1539 A. D.) provided it a strong organizational base. He was intimately associated with the Vijayanagar Empire, where he became a great moral and spiritual force. His eminent disciples were Sri Vadirajaswami, Purandaradasa and Kanakadasa. Vyasathirtha was the guru of Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara empire. Lingayatism is a religious movement in India. ... Bhakti is a Tamil or Sanskrit term from Hinduism that means intense devotion expressed by action (service). ... The Vedas (Sanskrit वेद, Knowledge, Praising, Truth) are part of the Hindu Shruti -- these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... There are Six Systems of Vedic or Hindu Philosophy. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Shri Madhvacharya,(1238-1317), was the chief propounder of the Dvaita or dualistic school of Hindu philosophy, one of the three influential Vedanta philosophies. ... Vyasatirtha (1460-1539) (also known as Vyasaraja, Vyasaraayaru) was one of the foremost dialecticians in the history of Indian philosophy. ... Sri Purandara Dasa (1494-1564) (the follower (dasa) of Lord Purandara Vittala [Lord Vishnu in one of his many avatars. ... Kanakadasa (c 1509-1609 A.D.) belongs to the tradition of Haridasa literary movement which ushered in an era of devotional literature in Karnataka. ... Vyasatirtha (1460-1539) (also known as Vyasaraja, Vyasaraayaru) was one of the foremost dialecticians in the history of Indian philosophy. ... Sri Krishnadevaraya (Kannada: ಕ್ರಷ್ಣದೇವರಾಯ, Telugu:శ్రీకృష్ణదేవరాయ;) was a Vijaynagar emperor who presided over the empire at its zenith and ruled from 1509 until his death in 1529. ...


Kannada Literature

Kannada literature took a strong Hindu bend with the orthodox Vijayanagara kings. Some eminent names were Kumara Vyasa, Narahari, BhimaKavi, Padmanaka, Mallanarya, Singiraja and Chamarasa. Kumar Vyasa wrote Gadugina Bharata which was completed by Timmanna Kavi, Narahari wrote Torave Ramayana. Other important works were Bhagavatha by Vittalanatha, Nala Charite, Haribhakthisara, Mohana Tarangini and Ramadhanya Charitre by the saint Kanakadasa, Dasa Sahithya and Keerthanas by Purandaradasa and Kanakadasa, Bharatesha Vaibhava and Triloka Sataka, Maggeya Mayideva, and Someswara Sataka of Ratnakarvarni, Prabhulinga Leele of Chamarasa and Kumara Rama Charita of Nanjunda, Kereya Padmarasa's Padmaraja Purana, Lakkana Dandesa's Shivatatwa Chintamani, BhimaKavi's Basavapurana, Mallanarya's Veerasaivamrita, Mangaraja wrote Khagendra-Mani-Darpana, a work on poisons and antidotes. Kanakadasa's Ramadhanya Charitre is considered a unique work on class struggle. The Vijayanagar period continued the ancient tradition of Kannada literature. Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Kanakadasa (c 1509-1609 A.D.) belongs to the tradition of Haridasa literary movement which ushered in an era of devotional literature in Karnataka. ... Sri Purandara Dasa (1494-1564) (the follower (dasa) of Lord Purandara Vittala [Lord Vishnu in one of his many avatars. ... Kanakadasa (c 1509-1609 A.D.) belongs to the tradition of Haridasa literary movement which ushered in an era of devotional literature in Karnataka. ...


Sanskrit Literature

Sanskrit literature was given patronage by the Vijayanagar kings. Some important works from this period were Sayana's Vedartha Prakasha, Yajnatantra Sudhanidhi, Prayaschitra Sudhanidhi and Purushartha Sudhanidhi, Madhva Vidyaranya, the spiritual force behind the empire wrote Parasara – Madhaviya, Devanna Bhatta wrote Smriti Chandrika, Gangadevi, a Poetess wrote , Madhura Vijayam, Tirumalamba Devi also a poetess wrote Varadambika Parinayam. Krishnadevaraya himself an accomplished scholar wrote Madalasa Charita, Satyavadu Parinaya and Rasamanjari. Vidyaranya is variously known as being a king maker, patron saint and high priest to Hakka and Bukka, the founders of the Vijayanagar empire. ... Sri Krishnadevaraya (Kannada: ಕ್ರಷ್ಣದೇವರಾಯ, Telugu:శ్రీకృష్ణదేవరాయ;) was a Vijaynagar emperor who presided over the empire at its zenith and ruled from 1509 until his death in 1529. ...


Architecture

The architecture of Vijayanagar Empire is considered by many historians as a vibrant combination of Chalukya, Hoysala and Dravida styles. The hallmark of their architecture was the ornate pillared Kalyana Mantapa. While their monuments are spread over the whole of Southern India, nothing surpasses the vast open air museum of monumnets at their regal capital at Hampi. Up to about 1450AD, the kings continued to build Vesara or deccan style monuments but later also incorporated more dravida style gopurams to meet their ritualistic needs. At Hampi, though the Vittala temple is the epitome of their pillared Kalyanamantapa style, the Hazara Ramaswamy temple is a more modest but perfectly finished example of this style. Vijayanagar temples of Bhatkal, and other towns of coastal Karnataka, Kanakagiri, Sringeri in interior Karnataka, Tadapatri and Lepakshi in AndhraPradesh, Velluru, Kumbhakonam, Kanchi and Srirangam in Tamil Nadu are also great examples of their style. Some structures in Hampi also exhibit secular architecture with mixing of Hindu and Islamic styles. The Chalukya Dynasty was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. They began to assert their independence at the decline of the Satavahana empire and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesi... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... Dravida is a term that represented various identities throughout the history of India. ... Vesara is a type of Indian architecture primarily used in temples. ...


Coinage

The Empire minted coins with Nagari, Kannada or Telugu inscriptions on them, usually giving the name of the ruler. The empire had its mints in Hampi, Penugonda and Tirupathi. Gold, silver and copper were used to make coins. Gadyana, Varaha, Pon, Pagoda, Pratapa, Pana, Kasu and Jital were the various coins issued in the Vijayanagar period The most beautiful Vijayanagar coins were those with the images of various gods and goddesses and animals and birds. The earliest coins feature Hanuman and the Garuda (divine eagle), the mount of Lord Vishnu. The Vijayanagar rulers also issued gold coins featuring divine couples. Venkatapatiraya III, one of the last Vijayanagar rulers, minted coins showing Vishnu with Sridevi and Bhudevi. Krishnadevaraya issued many coins featuring Balakrishna. He issued these coins after he built a Krishna Temple at Hampi and installed in it an image of Krishna that he had brought from Udayagiri after conquering it from the Gajapati ruler of Orissa. On these coins, the playful Krishna is seen seated. Lord Venkateshwara, the presiding deity of the temple at Tirumala (Tirupati), also figures on Vijayanagar coins. A rare copper coin of the Vijayanagar ruler Sriranga I shows a standing figure of the emperor with a sword in his hand. Another rare copper coin issued by Sadasivaraya shows a fully caparisoned galloping horse. The elephant and the bull too appear on many Vijayanagar coins.


A link included below depicts coins issued by each Vijayanagar ruler.


The decline

While the empire still continued to have some power, and commanded respect, it went into a considerable decline. The rulers of this period are difficult to place clearly. It is known however that they continued to trade with the Portuguese, and that they gave the British the land grant that enabled the establishment of Madras. The Telugu work Vasucharitamu refers to Tirumala, the first of the Aravidu line of rulers as the reviver of the Karnata empire. He is said to have crowned himself as king in 1570 A.D. at Penugonda (Telugu Inscriptions from Vijayanagar Empire, ASI) Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ...


Dynasties and rulers

This list is based on the book by Robert Sewell (A Forgotten Empire).


Sangama Dynasty

  • Harihara I (Deva Raya) 1336-1343
  • Bukka I 1343-1379
  • Harihara II 1379-1399
  • Bukka II 1399-1406
  • Deva Raya I 1406-1412
  • Vira Vijaya 1412-1419
  • Deva Raya II 1419-1444
  • (unknown) 1444-1449
  • Mallikarjuna 1452-1465 (Dates uncertain)
  • Rajasekhara 1468-1469 (Dates uncertain)
  • Virupaksha I 1470-1471 (Dates uncertain)
  • Praudha Deva Raya 1476-? (Dates uncertain)
  • Rajasekhara 1479-1480 (Dates uncertain)
  • Virupaksha II 1483-1484 (Dates uncertain)
  • Rajasekhara 1486-1487 (Dates uncertain)

Saluva Dynasty Harihara I, also called as Vira Harihar I, was the founder of the Vijayanagara empire, one of the best known empires of the Indian subcontinent. ... Bukka (also known as Bukka Raya) was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty. ... Background Harihara II (1377-1404) suceeded Bukka Raya as king of the Vijayanagara Empire and was infamous for conquering almost all of Southern India. ... Background After Harihara II died there was a dispute between his sons for the throne of the Vijayanagara Empire in which Deva Raya would eventually come out as victor. ... Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya (or Vijaya Raya) was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty. ... Background Deva Raya II (1426-1446 AD, note that Nuniz states differently in that his reign was for 25 years, not 20) was a monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire who succeeded his father , Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya (or simply Vijaya Raya) after Vijaya Rayas short uneventful two year reign... Mallikarjuna Raya (1446-1465) was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty. ... Virupaksha Raya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty. ...

Tuluva dynasty Sri Krishnadevaraya (Kannada: ಕ್ರಷ್ಣದೇವರಾಯ, Telugu:శ్రీకృష్ణదేవరాయ;) was a Vijaynagar emperor who presided over the empire at its zenith and ruled from 1509 until his death in 1529. ... The Emperor Sri Achyuta Raya was a ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire of south India. ...

  • Rama (ruled in practice) 1542-1565
  • Tirumala (ruled in practice) 1565-1567
  • Tirumala (crowned ruler) 1567-1575
  • Ranga II 1575-1586
  • Venkata I 1586-1614

Aravidu (dates uncertain, this information is based only on inscriptions), includes rulers by the names below. There is certainly more than one ruler under each name. The period extends from 1614 onward, till the last known reference in 1739.

  • Ranga
  • Venkata
  • Rama

The last known inscription referring to a monarch of his line is from 1793.


Related links


  Results from FactBites:
 
OurKarnataka.com: History of Karnataka: The Vijayanagara Empire (623 words)
The establishment of the famous Vijayanagara Empire in the fourteenth century A. constitutes an event of great significance in the history of India.
The credit of the foundation of the Vijayanagara kingdom goes to the initiative taken up by the five sons of Sangama, “a petty Chief of noble traditions, claiming descent in the Yadava lineage”.
Desai is of the opinion that the founders of Vijayanagara never belonged to the Telugu region and the story of their captivity and conversion by the Sultan of Delhi is false.
Vijayanagara Empire Summary (2984 words)
Vijayanagara, the "City of Victory," the greatest of all medieval Hindu capitals, was founded in 1336 CE by Hukka and Bukka, two princes of a local family, the Sangama.
The empire during that period served as a bulwark against invasion from the Turkic Sultanates of the Indo-Gangetic Plain; and remained in constant competition and conflict with the five Deccan Sultanates that established themselves in the Deccan to the north of it.
In 1565, at the Battle of Talikota, the army of Vijayanagara was routed by an alliance of the Deccan sultanates.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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