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Encyclopedia > Vigilante
The Bald Knobbers, an 1880s vigilante group from Missouri.
The Bald Knobbers, an 1880s vigilante group from Missouri.

A vigilante is a person who ignores due process of law and enacts his/her own form of justice when they deem the response of the authorities to be insufficient. Several groups and individuals have been labeled as vigilantes by various historians and media. Their stories are often interesting when their intent often turns into unintended consequences.[1] Vigilantes have been central to several creative fictional works and are often depicted as being heroes and retaliatory against wrongdoers. Vigilante may refer to: a vigilante, one who takes the law into their own hands. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bald Knobbers refers to a group of non-racially motivated vigilantes in the southern part of the state of Missouri in the United States, who were active during the period 1883-1889. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Due process of law is a legal concept that ensures the government will respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights, when the government deprives a person of life, liberty, or property. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... For the Law of unintended consequences, see Unintended consequence Unintended Consequences by John Ross, 1996 Unintended Consequences is a novel by author John Ross, first published in 1996 by Accurate Press. ...

Contents

Etymology

The term vigilante is Spanish for "watchman" or "watcher," ultimately from Latin "vigilans"- the present participle of "vigilare" (to watch). It was introduced into English from the southwestern United States. Vigilantism is generally denounced by official agencies, especially when it gives way to criminal behavior on the part of the vigilante.


Vigilante behavior

An impetus of vigilant behavior must exist to facilitate a subjective definition of vigilantism. Impetus is an obsolete scientific theory of motion, largely developed by Jean Buridan in the 14th century. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


"Vigilante justice" is usually spurred on by the perception that criminal punishment is insufficient or nonexistent to the crime. Some people see their governments as ineffective in enforcing the law; thus, such individuals fulfill the like-minded wishes of the community. In other instances a person may choose a role of vigilante as a result of personal experience as opposed to a social demand.


Persons seen as escaping from the law, or "above the law" are generally the targets of vigilantism.[2] It may target persons or organizations involved in illegal activities in general or it may be aimed against a specific group or type of activity, e.g. corrupt police.


Vigilante behavior may differ in degree of violence. In some cases vigilantes may assault targets verbally, terrorize victims, perform inhumane acts, or may exhibit no violence at all choosing other means of making a pressure on the target.


History

Vigilantism existed long before the word vigilante was introduced into the English language. In the Western literary and cultural tradition, characteristics of vigilantism have often been noted as folkloric heroes and legendary outlaws (e.g., Robin Hood[3]). Vigilantism in literature, folklore and legend is deeply connected to the fundamental issues of morality, the nature of justice, the limits of bureaucratic authority and the ethical function of legitimate governance. For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... An outlaw is a person living outside the law. ... For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation). ...


Colonial era

Formally-defined vigilantism arose in the early North American colonies. In these instances, the line between "taking the law into one's own hands," and rebellion or tyrannicide (to destroy an abusive corruption of a legitimate government and vindicate moral ends) was not clear. Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tyrannicide literally means the killing of a tyrant. ...

  • Established the mid-18th century, for instance, the Regulator movement of American colonial times was composed of citizen volunteers of the frontier who opposed official misconduct and extrajudicially punished banditry.

// Causes of the War In 1764, several thousand people from North Carolina, mainly from Orange, Anson, and Granville counties in the western region, were extremely dissatisfied with officials whom they considered to practice cruel, arbitrary, and overall tyrannical rule. ... Malfeasance in office, or official misconduct, is the commission of an unlawful act, done in an official capacity, which affects the performance of official duties. ...

19th century

A lynching carried out by the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance of 1856.
A lynching carried out by the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance of 1856.

Later in America, vigilance groups established themselves in poorly governed frontier areas where criminals preyed upon the citizenry with impunity.[4] Image File history File links lynching of Charles Cora and James Casey, San Francisco, 1856 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links lynching of Charles Cora and James Casey, San Francisco, 1856 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Charles Cora and James Casey are lynched by the Committee of Vigilance, San Francisco, 1856. ...

  • In the 1850s, the San Francisco Vigilance Movement was an example of secretive groups of vigilantes who cleaned up city streets of crime with a segment focused against immigrants.[5]
  • Active in 1883-1889, the Bald Knobbers were masked men who retaliated against invading marauders and drove out outlaws in Taney County.

Charles Cora and James Casey are lynched by the Committee of Vigilance, San Francisco, 1856. ... Bald Knobbers refers to a group of non-racially motivated vigilantes in the southern part of the state of Missouri in the United States, who were active during the period 1883-1889. ... Taney County is a county located in the state of Missouri. ...

20th century

  • In the 1920s, the Big Sword Society of China protected life and property in a state of anarchy.
  • Founded in 1979 in New York City, the Guardian Angels is a recognized crime fighting organization that now has chapters in many other cities. It has sometimes been incorrectly called a vigilante organization. Safety Patrol members are instructed to call police, are trained in basic first aid, CPR, law, conflict resolution, communication, and basic martial arts, and are prohibited from carrying weapons.
  • Recognized since the 1980s, Sombra Negra or "Black Shadow" of El Salvador is a group of mostly retired police officers and military personnel whose sole duty is to cleanse the country of "impure" social elements. Along with several other organizations, Sombra Negra are a remnant of the death squads from the civil war of the 1970s and 1980s.[6]
  • In 1984, Bernhard Goetz entered a subway train in New York and was surrounded by a group. He shot all four, fled the scene, and was called "the subway vigilante" by some media.
  • Known since 1995, the Davao Death Squad of present-day Davao City, Philippines unleashed a killing spree aimed at the city's (supposed) notorious criminals (and children) by unknown motorcycle riding vigilantes.
  • Formed since 1996, the People Against Gangsterism and Drugs of Cape Town, South Africa fights drugs and gangsterism in their region.
  • Formed since 1998, the Bakassi Boys of Nigeria were viewed as the frontmen in lowering the regions high crime when police were ineffective.

The Big Sword Society originated as a secret vigilante group of southwestern Shantung after the Second Sino-Japanese War when the countryside was in anarchy and rife with banditry. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... A death squad is an extra-judicial group whose members execute or assassinate persons they believe to be politically unreliable or undesirable. ... Bernard Hugo Goetz, known as Bernhard or Bernie (born November 7, 1947) was dubbed the Subway Vigilante by the New York press. ... The summary executions of victims in Davao by the Davao Death Squads is an ongoing problem. ... Nickname: Motto: In God We Trust Map of Davao Region showing the location of Davao City Coordinates: 7° 30 N, 126° E Country Region Province None Districts 1st to 3rd Districts of Davao City Barangays 184 Incorporated (town) 1848 Incorporated (city) October 16, 1936 Government  - Mayor Rodrigo Duterte (Hugpong/PDP... People Against Gangsterism and Drugs (PAGAD) was formed in 1996 as a community anticrime group fighting drugs and violence in the Cape Flats section of Cape Town, South Africa, but by early 1998 had also become antigovernment and anti-Western. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

21st century (present day)

  • Formed since 2000, Ranch Rescue is a still functioning organization in the southwest United States ranchers call upon to forcibly remove illegal aliens and squatters off their property.
  • In the early decade of 2000, after the September 11 attacks, Jonathan Idema, a self-proclaimed vigilante, entered Afghanistan and captured many people he claimed to be terrorists. Idema claimed he was collaborating with, and supported by the United States Government. He even sold news-media outlets tapes that he claimed showed an Al Qaeda training camp in action. His operations ended abruptly when he was arrested with his partners in 2004 and sentenced to 10 years in a notorious Afghan prison, before being pardoned in 2007.
  • Operated since 2002, perverted-justice.com opponents have accused the website of being modern day cyber vigilantes.[7]
  • Formed since 2005, U.S.-Mexico border minutemen keep a lookout for illegal aliens.[8]
  • In 2005, vigilantism was observed after the destruction of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina, as individuals took vigil over their private homes to protect them from looters, since local police were preoccupied dealing with large numbers of displaced citizens.[9]
  • In late 2006, reports began to surface in West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania of criminal activity being subjugated through vigilante style justice rumored to be linked to activist/hip-hop group "Truth Nation".[citation needed]

In Northern Ireland Vigilantism has been observed aginst drug dealers and Paedophiles. In one such case a known Paedophile who had been released from prison early, was kidnapped by a group of men dressed in black clothing and balaclavas, much alike the Irish Republican Party, stabbed twice, put in the back of a Ford Transit van where four Bull Mastiff dogs were waiting for him, he was then driven around Belfast and Londonderry for two hours, while the dogs mauled him, he was then dumped in the verges of a dual carriageway. He survived. Ranch Rescue is a volunteer organization that assists ranchers and owners of property near the United States-Mexico border in the protection of their property. ... Jonathan Keith Jack Idema is an American citizen convicted in September 2004 for running a private prison in Afghanistan and torturing Afghan citizens. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of terrorist organizations founded in 1988[4] by Osama bin Laden and other veteran Afghan Arabs after the Soviet War in... Screenshot of the Perverted Justice website[1] Perverted-Justice. ... Internet vigilantism is the act of vigilantism on the Internet against people who the vigilantes think have committed wrongs. ... The Minuteman Project is an activist organization started in April 2005 by a group of private United States individuals to monitor the United States–Mexico borders flow of illegal immigrants, although it has expanded to include the United States-Canada border as well. ... Illegal Aliens is a 2007 movie starring Anna Nicole Smith and Joanie Laurer. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... West Philadelphia is a section of the City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For the aircraft, see A-5 Vigilante. ... Pedophilia (American English) or paedophilia / pædophilia (British English), from the Greek &#960;&#945;&#953;&#948;&#959;&#966;&#953;&#955;&#953;&#945; (paidophilia) < &#960;&#945;&#953;&#962; (pais) boy, child and &#966;&#953;&#955;&#953;&#945; (philia) friendship, (ICD-10 F65. ... Pedophilia (American English) or paedophilia / pædophilia (British English), from the Greek &#960;&#945;&#953;&#948;&#959;&#966;&#953;&#955;&#953;&#945; (paidophilia) < &#960;&#945;&#953;&#962; (pais) boy, child and &#966;&#953;&#955;&#953;&#945; (philia) friendship, (ICD-10 F65. ...

  • On November 14th, 2007 61 year old retiree Joe Horn shot and killed two men who were burgularizing his neighbor's home while a 911 operator begged him to stay in his home and wait for Police.

Works of fiction

In cinema

The Hollywood vigilante had its development in the 1960s[10] and 1970s[11] at a time when the cop or detective story was popular. There was a change in the film industry, change in self regulation in the industry, and change in American values all which opened up production to violent content without completely banning it or censoring it to viewers making way for a "vigilante cop."[10] These cops are said to express unrelenting and uncompromising violence towards anyone who got in between both the vigilante cop and criminal that broke laws to accomplish their objectives.[10]


For example the film Léon The Professional features a DEA agent who, without any repercussion, kills a family, including an innocent young child, in order to eliminate a narcotics trafficker who has stolen a percentage of the heroin that the DEA agent asked him to hold. Therefore the DEA agent wasn't acting as a vigilante cop but as a criminal drug dealer who uses his authority position as a DEA agent to his advantage. The real vigilantes in that film were Matilda and Leon. Léon (aka The Cleaner, The Professional, or Léon the Professional) is a 1994 film written and directed by French director Luc Besson. ...


Another prime example of vigilantism in movies is the film The Boondock Saints. It depicts the story two enraged Bostonian Irishmen who, believing themselves to be on a mission from God, indiscriminately kill anyone involved in organized crime. This film has become something of a cult classic because of the righteous indignation it often spurns in viewers, and the fantastic violence which the vigilantes turn upon those they judge to be morally bankrupt. The Boondock Saints is a 1999 action crime drama film written and directed by Troy Duffy. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ...

This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Released on Wednesday, March 30, 1994, Jimmy Hollywood is the American comedy film starting Joe Pesci and Christian Slater. ... Coffy , Jack Hills 1973 movie about an African American woman vigilante, catapulted Pam Grier to stardom as one of blaxploitations biggest icons. ... Walking Tall is a 1973 semi-biopic of Sheriff Buford Pusser, a former professional wrestler-turned lawman in McNairy County, Tennessee. ... Magnum Force was the first of the sequels to the film Dirty Harry, starring Clint Eastwood as maverick cop Dirty Harry Callahan. ... Death Wish is a 1974 film based on the 1972 novel by Brian Garfield. ... This section has been identified as trivia. ... Death Wish 3 is the second sequel to Death Wish. ... This article is about the 1976 American film. ... The Exterminator is a 1980 action movie directed by James Glickenhaus and starring Robert Ginty as the leading role. ... Exterminator 2 is a 1984 action film written and directed by Mark Buntzman and starring Robert Ginty and Mario Van Peebles, with a cameo by Arye Gross. ... Above the Law (otherwise known as Nico in the majority of Europe) is a 1988 action film directed by Andrew Davis, probably best-known for being the film debut of Steven Seagal. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... For the video game based on the film, see Batman Returns (video game). ... Batman Forever is a 1995 superhero film. ... Batman & Robin, directed by Joel Schumacher, is the fourth installment in the comic book-inspired film series initiated by Tim Burton. ... The Punisher (film) relates to either one of two films about Marvel Comics character, The Punisher: The Punisher (1989 film) The Punisher (2004 film) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... Batman: Mask of the Phantasm is an animated film first released in 1993. ... For other uses, see The Crow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Time to Kill (disambiguation) For the 1996 film, see A Time to Kill (film) A Time to Kill is the name of a legal suspense thriller authored by John Grisham in 1989. ... The Boondock Saints is a 1999 action crime drama film written and directed by Troy Duffy. ... Chopper may mean: Chopper (motorcycle), where many parts were removed (chopped) or replaced Raleigh Chopper, a bicycle model styled and named after these motorcycles Helicopter, slang for chopper (archaeology), a type of crude stone tool Mark Brandon Chopper Read, Australian criminal, author and recording artist Lambda Chi Alpha, nickname for... This page refers to Unbreakable the film. ... Skins is a British teen drama from Company Pictures which premiered on E4 on 25 January 2007. ... A Man Apart - Poster 1 A Man Apart - Poster 2 A Man Apart is a 2003 action film starring Vin Diesel and directed by F. Gary Gray. ... Daredevil is a 2003 movie directed by Mark Steven Johnson, who also wrote the screenplay. ... For the episode of The Twilight Zone, see Dead Mans Shoes (The Twilight Zone). ... This article is about the 2004 film. ... For the video game based on the film, see Batman Begins (video game). ... The Dark Knight is a 2008 American superhero film based on the fictional DC Comics character Batman. ... The Devils Rejects is a 2005 horror film written and directed by Rob Zombie. ... Sin City is a 2005 neo-noir anthology film written, produced and directed by Frank Miller and Robert Rodriguez. ... Hard Candy is a 2005 film about Hayley Stark, a 14-year-old girl who meets Jeff, a 32-year-old photographer who might be a sexual predator. ... See No Evil is a 2006 horror film directed by Gregory Dark, written by Dan Madigan, produced by Joel Simon, and starring professional wrestler Kane (Glen Jacobs). ... UK promotional movie poster for the film Outlaw, is a film by director Nick Love and Vertigo Films is due for release on 9th March 2007 and stars Sean Bean, Danny Dyer, Bob Hoskins, Lennie James, Rupert Friend and Sean Harris. ... Hot Fuzz is a 2007 British police action comedy film written by Simon Pegg and Edgar Wright and starring Simon Pegg and Nick Frost. ... Death Sentence is a 2007 film loosely based on the 1975 novel by Brian Garfield. ... Shooter is a 2007 action/conspiracy thriller directed by Antoine Fuqua. ... The Brave One is a 2007 crime drama film starring Jodie Foster. ...

In television

For the professional wrestler known as The Equalizer, see Bill Dannenhauser. ... Dark Justice was an American television series which ran for 65 episodes from 1991 to 1993. ... The animated Batman shoots his grappling gun from a rooftop in a scene from the episode, On Leather Wings. ... Categories: Television stubs | Animated television series | Hanna-Barbera and Cartoon Network Studios cartoons and characters | Fictional cats ... Bubblegum Crisis ) is a cyberpunk-style anime set in a future, post-disaster Tokyo, called Megatokyo. The series has a manga adaptation. ... Tales from the Crypt is an American horror anthology TV series that ran from 1989 to 1996 on the premium cable channel HBO. It was based on the 1950s EC Comics series of the same name and was produced by The Geffen Film Company in association with Warner Bros. ... Bubblegum Crash is a three episode OVA anime series, the sequel to Bubblegum Crisis. ... Bubblegum Crisis Tokyo 2040 is an alternate-universe spinoff to the original Bubblegum Crisis anime OVA series. ... For other uses, see Mezzo forte. ... Mezzo DSA is a 13-episode anime series created by Yasuomi Umetsu. ... Vengeance Unlimited is a TV series broadcast during 1998-1999 on ABC which lasted for just one season of sixteen episodes. ... Dark Angel is an American cyberpunk science fiction television program, created by James Cameron and Charles H. Eglee, which ran from 2000 to 2002 on the FOX network. ... For other meanings of the term, see Bird of prey. ... Death note redirects here. ... The 4400 is a science fiction program on the USA Network. ... This article is about the CBS television drama. ... For the Hanna-Barbera animated series, see Dexters Laboratory. ... Homer the Vigilante is the eleventh episode of The Simpsons fifth season. ... Simpsons redirects here. ...

In literature

  • The Virginian by Owen Wister (1902) is the first American western novel based on the theme of "frontier justice."
  • Blue Belle (1988) by Andrew Vachss
  • Without Remorse by Tom Clancy is explicitly about an ex-US Navy SEAL wiping out a gang of drug dealers.
  • Darkly Dreaming Dexter (2004), Dearly Devoted Dexter (2005), and Dexter in the Dark (2007) by Jeff Lindsay, with adapted TV series Dexter (2006), are all about fictional character Dexter Morgan who by day is a blood splatter expert for the Miami-Dade Police Department and by night hunts down and kills those who he feels "deserve to die."
  • A Stout Cord and a Good Drop by James Gaitis (Globe Pequot 2006) is a lengthy literary work of historical fiction based on a rigorous analysis of the facts associated with the Montana Vigilantes, the infamous Montana hanging spree of 1863-64, and the foundation of the Montana Territory in the midst of the American Civil War.

The Virginian was a pioneering Wild West (see also Frontier and Western movie) novel by the American author Owen Wister, published in 1902. ... Owen Wister, author of the Western novel, The Virginian and friend of Theodore Roosevelt Owen Wister (July 14, 1860 – July 21, 1938) was an American writer of western novels. ... Andrew Vachss & Honey Pit Bull, courtesy of Ellery Queens Mystery Magazine Andrew Henry Vachss (born 1942) is an American crime fiction author, child protection consultant, and attorney exclusively representing children and youths. ... Without Remorse is a novel by Tom Clancy set in 1971, in the middle of the Vietnam War. ... For the member of the Irish folk band The Clancy Brothers, see Tom Clancy (singer) and for the American Celticist, see Thomas Owen Clancy. ... SEALs in from the water. ... Darkly Dreaming Dexter is a 2004 novel by Jeff Lindsay. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dearly Devoted Dexter is a 2005 novel written by Jeff Lindsay. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dexter in the Dark original U.S. 2007 version Dexter in the Dark original U.K. 2007 version Dexter in the Dark is a 2007 novel written by Jeff Lindsay. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Jeff Lindsay is the pen name of an American crime writer, who lives in south Florida with his wife, author Hilary Hemingway, Ernest Hemingways niece. ... For the Hanna-Barbera animated series, see Dexters Laboratory. ... Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is one of several specialties in the field of forensic science. ... The Miami-Dade Police Department (formerly known as the Metro-Dade Police Department (1981–1994) and the Dade County Sheriffs Office (1836–1981)) is a full service metropolitan police department serving Miami-Dade Countys unincorporated areas, although they have lenient mutual aid agreements with other municipalities, most often...

In comic books

Vigilantism in the comic book arena has its basic concepts in several fictional genres, including stories published in dime novels and comic books. Many of the heroes of pulp fiction and comic book superheroes are vigilantes because they operate outside the law in order to combat lawlessness. In fact, virtually any superhero can be considered a vigilante if he or she is not acting under the direct authority of a law enforcement agency or other government body. An example of the original dime novel series, circa 1860. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... This article is about inexpensive fiction magazines. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... For other uses, see Superhero (disambiguation). ...


A key example is Watchmen, a DC Comics limited series of the late 1980s written by Alan Moore, in which superheroes are portrayed by society and government as illegal vigilantes. Also of note is the DC comic book character of the 1940s and revived in the 1980s, the Vigilante. For other uses, see Watchman. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... The limited series is a term referring to a comic book series with a set finite number of issues. ... For other persons named Alan Moore, see Alan Moore (disambiguation). ... Vigilante is the name used by several fictional characters appearing in DC Comics. ...

Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... For other uses, see Daredevil (comics). ... Death note redirects here. ... Doc Savage is a fictional character, one of the pulp heroes of the 1930s and 1940s. ... This article is about the Marvel Comics character. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... Spider-Man swinging around his hometown, New York City. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... This article is about the comic book series. ...

In video games

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Billy and Jimmy Lee, the protagonists of the Double Dragon series. ... Vigilante is an arcade game released by Irem in 1988, and released in the US by Data East. ... River City Ransom , Downtown Nekketsu Story) in Japan and Street Gangs in PAL regions) is a video game for the Nintendo Family Computer and the Nintendo Entertainment System from the now defunct Technos Japan Corporation, originally released in 1989. ... Final Fight ) is a beat em up series from Capcom. ... This article is about the first game in the Streets of Rage series. ... Final Fight 2 is a 1993 beat em up for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System and the second game in Capcoms Final Fight series. ... Final Fight 3, known in Japan as Final Fight Tough ), is the third game in the Final Fight series. ... Max Payne is a third-person shooter computer game developed by the Finnish company Remedy Entertainment, produced by 3D Realms and published by Gathering of Developers in July, 2001 for Windows. ... For other uses, see The Punisher (disambiguation). ...

See also

Internet vigilantism is the act of vigilantism on the Internet against people who the vigilantes think have committed wrongs. ... In literature and film, an anti-hero is a central or supporting character that has some of the personality flaws and ultimate fortune traditionally assigned to villains but nonetheless also have enough heroic qualities or intentions to gain the sympathy of readers or viewers. ... Pixelante is a term coined in October 2005 by Miami, Florida-based Attorney Jack Thompson (also known as John B. Thompson) to describe what he believes to be corrupted members of the computer and video game community, driven to harassment, threats, violence, and other illegal activities as a result of... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... For other uses, see Bounty hunter (disambiguation). ... Honour killings are often perpetrated in Muslim-majority areas, especially in countries of the Middle East. ...

References

  1. ^ Vigilante mob beats wrong man to death in N.C.. Associated Press (2006-09-03).
  2. ^ Harris, Bronwyn (May 2001). "As for Violent Crime that's our Daily Bread": Vigilante violence during South Africa's period of transition.
  3. ^ Mark D. Meyerson, Daniel Thiery (2004-11-01). A Great Effusion of Blood?: Interpreting Medieval Violence.
  4. ^ Mullen, Kevin. Malachi Fallon First Chief of Police.
  5. ^ Hine, Kelly D. (1998). VIGILANTISM REVISITED: AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE LAW OF EXTRA-JUDICIAL SELF-HELP OR WHY CAN’T DICK SHOOT HENRY FOR STEALING JANE’S TRUCK?.
  6. ^ Gutiérrez, Raúl (2007-09-04). RIGHTS-EL SALVADOR: Death Squads Still Operating. Inter Press Service.
  7. ^ About Us. corrupted-justice.com.
  8. ^ Viligante Minutemen. Warriors For Truth.
  9. ^ Koritz, Richard A. (October 2006). Hurricane Katrina Revisited: Twenty-first Century Lynching and Land-stealing. Greensboro Times.
  10. ^ a b c Gates, Philippa. A Brief History of the Detective Film.
  11. ^ Gates, Philippa. Cop Action Films.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Inter Press Service (abbreviated: IPS) is a global news agency. ...

External links

  • Lyrics to Vigilante Man by Woody Guthrie.
  • Historical Deadwood Newspaper accounts of George Keating and O. B. Davis hung by vigilantes for stealing horses 1878
  • Comfort Ero, “Vigilantes, Civil Defence Forces and Militia Groups: The other side of the privatization of security in Africa,” Conflict Trends (June 2000): 25-29.
  • Martha K. Huggins, editor, Vigilantism and the State in Modern Latin America: Essays on Extralegal Violence, Praeger/Greenwood, 1991.
  • Bill Ong Hing, “Vigilante Racism: The De-Americanization of Immigrant America”, Donkeyphant, Vol. 9 (Summer 2002).
  • Tom O’Connor, “Vigilantism, Vigilante Justice, and Victim Self-help”
  • Stephen Faris, “Nigeria’s Vigilante Justice,” Mother Jones (April 25, 2002)
  • EyeWitness to History, “Vigilante Justice, 1851”.
  • Steven F. Messner, Eric P. Baumer, and Richard Rosenfeld, “Distrust of Government, the Vigilante Tradition, and Support for Capital Punishment,” Law & Society Review (September 2006)
  • Vincent Moss, “The Paedo Vigilante”, Sunday Mirror (June 25 2006)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vigilante - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (728 words)
Although in most contexts the term vigilante is pejorative, in many instances throughout history when criminals either owned or intimidated the law, where officials were corrupt or where there was no established law it became necessary for private citizens to step in and fill the gap.
Sombra Negra or "Black Shadow," a group of vigilantes, mostly retired police officers and military personnel in El Salvador, whose sole duty is to cleanse the country of "impure" social elements.
Vigilantism is the basic concept from which many contemporary fictions are derived, including stories published in dime novels and comic books.
Vigilante (comics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1586 words)
Vigilante continued to appear in the DCU until recently, having been established as running a dude ranch in Mesa City (the former home of Western hero Johnny Thunder).
Earth-1's Vigilante was revealed to exist in the pages (and cover) of the JLA issue where the superteam moved to their classic headquarters on an orbiting satellite.
Vigilante was voiced by Nathan Fillion in the episodes "Hunter's Moon" and "Patriot Act".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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