FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > View camera
Basic View Camera Terminology

The view camera is a type of camera with a very long history (some modern examples are often mistaken for antiques), but they are still used today by professional and amateur photographers who want full control of their images. The view camera is basically a light-tight assembly composed of a flexible mid-section, or bellows, attached to a device that holds a film sheet, photo plate or digital imager at one end (the rear standard) and a similar one that holds the lens at the other end (the front standard). The front and rear standards are not fixed relative to each other (unlike most cameras). Movement of the front and rear standards allows the photographer to move the lens and film plane independently for precise control of the image's focus, depth of field and perspective. Image File history File links View_camera. ... Large format camera lens. ... An image that is partially in focus, but mostly out of focus in varying degrees. ... In optics, particularly film and photography, the depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of and beyond the subject that appears to be in focus. ... Perspective when used in the context of vision and visual perception refers to the way in which objects appear to the eye based on their spatial attributes or dimension and the position of the eye relative to the objects. ...


View camera operation

To operate the view camera, the photographer opens the shutter on the lens to focus and compose the image on a ground glass plate on the rear standard. The ground glass is held in the same plane that the film will later occupy, so that an image that is well focused on the ground glass will be well focused on the film. The ground glass image is somewhat dim and can be difficult to view in bright light. The photographer will often use a focusing cloth or "dark cloth" over his or her head, and the rear of the camera. The darkcloth shrouds the viewing area and keeps environmental light from obscuring the image. In the dark space created by the dark cloth, the image appears as bright as it can and allows the image to be most easily viewed, assisting in focusing and composition. A sample ground glass showing the Academy 1. ...

Often a photographer will use a magnifying lens, usually a high quality loupe, to critically focus the image. An addition over the ground glass called a Fresnel lens can considerably brighten the ground glass image (albeit with a slight loss of focusing accuracy). The taking lens may be stopped down to help gauge depth of field effects and vignetting, but while the image is being composed the lens is generally opened to its widest setting to aid in focusing. A magnifying glass A magnifying glass is a single convex lens which is used to produce a magnified image of an object. ... Fresnel Lens displayed in the Musée national de la marine in Paris, France A Fresnel lens is a type of lens invented by Augustin-Jean Fresnel (pronounced fre-NELL in scientific and lighting applications, although often incorrectly pronounced FREZ-nell). ... An example of vignetting in a photograph Vignetting is a common feature of photographs produced by toy cameras such as this shot taken with a Holga In photography and optics, vignetting is a reduction in image brightness in the image periphery compared to the image center. ...

The ground glass and ground glass frame assembly, known as the spring back, is held in place by springs that pull and hold the ground glass firmly into the plane of focus during the focusing and composing process. Once the focusing process is complete, the same springs act as a flexible clamping mechanism to press the film holder into the same plane of focus the ground glass occupied.

To take the photograph the ground glass is pulled back and the film holder is slid into its place. The spring back keeps the film holder firmly in place.

The shutter is then closed and cocked, the shutter speed and aperture set, and the darkslide of the film holder removed, revealing the sheet of film. The shutter is then triggered, the exposure made, and the darkslide replaced into the film holder. The shutter speed dial of a Fujica STX-1. ... a big (1) and a small (2) aperture For other uses, see Aperture (disambiguation). ...

Sheet film holders are generally interchangeable between the various brands and models of view camera, in the most common formats, adhering to a set of standards. The largest cameras and more uncommon formats are less standardized. A film holder is a device which holds one or more pieces of photographic film, for insertion into a camera. ...

There are special film holders and accessories that fit in place of a standard film holder, such as Grafmatic, which could fit six sheets of film in the space of an ordinary two-sheet holder, and some light meters have an attachment that inserts into the film holder slot on the camera back that allows the photographer to measure light falling at a specific point on the film plane. The entire film holder/back assembly is often an industry standard Graflex back, removable so accessories like roll-film holders and digital imagers can be used without altering focus. A light meter is a device used to measure the amount of light. ... Graflex was a manufacturer, a brand name and several models of cameras. ...

Types of view camera

Generally, view cameras are built for sheet film, one exposure for each sheet. These can be quite large, and are typically standardized to the following large film formats (measurements in inches): 4x5, 5x7, 4x10, 5x12, 8x10, 11x14, 7x17, 8x20, 12x20, 20x24, and 30x40. In Europe and Asia, the long side is often listed first when discussing sheet film size and the associated view camera equipment, albeit in inches rather than a metric measurement, ie. a 5x4 camera is identical to a 4x5 camera. Sometimes the closest equivalent in centimeters is used as well, ie. 9x12 or 12x9 for 4x5. Sheet film is large format photographic film supplied on individual sheets of acetate or polyester film base rather than rolls. ... Large format describes photographic films, view cameras (including pinhole cameras) and processes that use a film or digital sensor the size of 4 x 5 inches or larger. ...

Far and away the most popular formats are 4x5 and 8x10, with the majority of cameras and lenses designed for one or the other.

There are several varieties of view camera, engineered for different purposes and allowing different degrees of movement and portability. They include:

  • Monorail Camera - This is the most common type of studio view camera, with the front and rear standards being mounted to a single rail that is fixed to a camera support. This design allows the greatest range of movements and flexibility, with both front and rear standards able to tilt, shift, rise, fall and swing in similar proportion. These are generally made of metal with leather or synthetic bellows, and are difficult to pack for travel. Sinar and Toyo are popular manufacturers of monorail view camera systems. ARCA-Swiss produces monorail cameras for field use in addition to models for the more conventional studio applications. Many manufacturers also offer monorail extensions, which permit the front or rear standards to move further away from each other, allowing for focus on very close objects (macrophotography).
  • Field Camera - These have the front and rear standard mounted to sliding rails on a flat bed that is fixed to a camera support. These cameras are designed to fold up into a small box for portability, and can be made of wood as well as composites like carbon fiber. The trade off is that the standards are not as mobile or as adjustable as with a monorail design, especially the rear standard, which may even be fixed and offer no movement. Their light weight and ease of packing and set-up are popular with landscape photographers. Extremely large cameras of this type, using 11x14 film and larger, or panoramic film sizes such as 4x10 or 8x20, are sometimes referred to as Banquet Cameras. Such cameras were once used to photograph large, posed groups of people to mark an occasion, such as those attending a banquet. Studio and Salon Cameras are similar in construction, but do not fold up for portability. Wisner and Tachihara are popular examples of modern Field Cameras at either end of the price spectrum.
  • Press and Technical Cameras - These are very portable, but often have the least amount of usable movement of the three main types of view camera. Originally made for news photographers before roll film became popular, they are designed to fold up, with the lensboard in place, in less than a second. Some are equipped with rangefinders and viewfinders for hand-held work. The most recent have a central shutter with flash synchronization, some antique models have only a focal plane shutters. Many have two shutters, allowing fast shutter speeds and the use of non-shuttered lenses with the focal plane shutter and electronic flash synchronization at any speed with in-lens the central shutter. These are typically made of machined and stamped metal, designed for daily use by working newsmen, so they are usually very robust, but also very heavy. The Speed Graphic in its many incarnations was the camera of choice for the American photojournalist in the Golden Age of Hollywood and in the Second World War, and used examples are still popular with photography students. Modern examples of Technical and Press View Cameras are still in production by Horseman, Wista and Linhof.

Monorail cameras are the studio workhorses that are still used today in the digital photography age to make many of the images used in catalogs, magazines and publicity around the world. ... Colony of lice on a stem. ... A field camera is a view camera that can be folded in a compact size. ... A press camera is a large format camera suited to the press photographer need. ... The roll film was invented by Eastman Kodak, and was the prime factor in making photography available for the common man. ... In camera design, a focal plane shutter is so-called because it is right in front of the focal (film) plane of the camera. ... Produced by Graflex in Rochester, the Speed Graphic is commonly called the most famous press camera. ... Sports photojournalists at Indianapolis Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (i. ... ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...

View camera movements

Photographers use view cameras to control focus and convergence of parallel lines. Image control is done by moving the front and/or rear standards. Movements are the ways the front and rear standards can be positioned to alter perspective and focus. The term can also refer to the mechanisms on the standards that allow the position to be achieved.

Not all cameras have all movements available to both the front and rear standards, and some cameras have more movements available than others. In addition, some cameras are designed with mechanisms that make intricate movement combinations easier for the photographer to accomplish.

Some limited view camera-type movements are possible with SLR cameras using various perspective control lenses.
The single-lens reflex (SLR) is a type of camera that uses a movable mirror placed between the lens and the film to project the image seen through the lens to a matte focusing screen. ... PC lens for a 35mm single-lens reflex camera. ...

Rise and fall

Front Standard Rise

Rise and fall are the movements of either the front or rear standard vertically along a line in a plane parallel to the film plane. Rise is a very important movement especially in architectural photography. Generally, the lens is moved vertically—either up or down—along the lens plane in order to change the portion of the image that will be captured on the film. Image File history File links Rise. ...

In the 35mm format, special shift lenses emulate the rise or fall of view cameras. PC lens for a 35mm single-lens reflex camera. ...

The main effect of rise is to eliminate the optical illusion that tall buildings are “falling over backwards.” One way to get the image of a tall building to appear on the film is to point the camera upwards. This causes the top of the building to be optically further away than the bottom of the building. Objects further away tend to appear smaller than do objects that are near by. This phenomenon is called convergence. If we assume the two sides of the building are parallel to each other, then, like railroad tracks, the sides of the building will converge at the top. This effect is captured on film to give the appearance that the top of the building is smaller than the bottom of the building. The building will appear on film as though it were tipping over backwards.

To correct the convergence of parallel lines, the film plane must be kept parallel to the face of the building. This usually means the film plane is vertical. Unless the camera has a wide angle lens attached, some of the building will not be captured on film. Of course, the use of a wide angle lens is one way to keep the film plane vertical and still capture the entire height of the building but a lot of foreground will also be captured. Another method, the one available on large format cameras, is to raise the lens. Generally, the lens produces a larger image circle than the film can record. This is especially true of most large format lenses. By moving the lens up, the image is effectively moved down such that the top of the building can be captured on the film. In Figure a) below, the lens is in the “normal” position. Notice how much of the image is wasted. In Figure b), the lens has been shifted up. The top of the building, at the sacrifice of the green ground, is now inside the area captured on film.

Figure a) No Rise
Figure a) No Rise
Figure b) After Rise
Figure b) After Rise

Image File history File links Tower1. ... Image File history File links Tower1. ... Image File history File links Tower2. ... Image File history File links Tower2. ...


Front Standard Shift

Moving the standard left or right in relation to the film plane is called lens shift or simply shift. This movement is similar to the rise and fall movements but affects the image in the horizontal axis instead of the vertical axis. A possible use for shift is to remove the image of the camera from the final image when photographing directly into a mirrored surface.
Image File history File links Shift. ...


Front Standard Tilt

Altering the angle of the lens in relation to the film plane by tilting the lens standard back and forth is called lens tilt or just tilt. Tilt is another important movement and is especially useful in landscape photography. By using the Scheimpflug principle, the “plane of sharp focus” can be changed so that any plane can be brought into sharp focus. When the film plane and lens plane are parallel as is the case for most 35mm cameras, the plane of sharp focus will also be parallel to these two planes. If, however, the lens plane is tilted with respect to the film plane, the plane of sharp focus will also be tilted according to geometrical and optical properties. The three planes will intersect in a line below the camera for downward lens tilt. The tilted plane of sharp focus is very useful in that this plane can be made to coincide with a near and far object. Thus, both near and far objects on the plane will be in focus. Image File history File links Front_Standard_Tilt. ... The Tetons - Snake River (1942) by Ansel Adams Wildlife photography, such as this midflight shot of a male mallard duck, can be very challenging and require a high power telephoto lens Nature photography refers to a particular form of photography taken outdoors and devoted to displaying natural elements such as... The Scheimpflug principle is named after Austrian Captain Theodor Scheimpflug and deals with the change of the focus plane when tilting the front standard of a view camera. ...

This effect is often incorrectly thought of as increasing the depth of field. Depth of field is a function of the focal length, aperture, and image distance. As long as the photographer wants sharpness in a plane that is parallel to the film, tilt is of no use. However, tilt has a strong effect on the depth of field by drastically altering its shape, making it asymmetrical. Without tilt, the limits of near and far acceptable focus are parallel to the plane of sharp focus as well as parallel to the film. With forward tilt, the plane of sharp focus tilts even more and the near and far limits of acceptable focus form a wedge shape (viewed from the side). Thus, the lens still sees a cone shaped portion of whatever is in front of it while the wedge of acceptable focus is now more closely aligned with this cone. Therefore, depending on the shape of the subject, a wider aperture can be used, lessening concerns about camera stability due to slow shutter speed and diffraction due to too-small aperture.

Group f/64, the loose association of “West Coast” photographers such as Ansel Adams and Imogen Cunningham, must have selected their name with a certain amount of hyperbole in mind. They were not specifying that aperture as a silver bullet. Group f/64 was created in 1932 by a circle of photographers espousing a common philosophy. ... The Tetons - Snake River (1942) by Ansel Adams Ansel Easton Adams (February 20, 1902 – April 22, 1984) was an American photographer, best known for his black and white photographs of Californias Yosemite Valley. ... Imogen Cunningham (April 12, 1883 - June 24, 1976) was one of the best-known American female photographers. ...

The purpose of tilting is to achieve the desired depth of field using the optimal possible aperture. Using a needlessly small aperture risks losing to diffraction and camera or subject motion what one gains from depth of field. Only testing a given scene, or experience, will show whether tilting is better than leaving the standards neutral and relying on the aperture alone to achieve the desired depth of field. If the scene is sharp enough at f/32 with 2 degrees of tilt but would need f/64 with zero tilt, then tilt is the solution. If another scene would need f/45 with or without tilt, then nothing is gained.

With a forward tilt, the shape of the portion of a scene in acceptable focus is a wedge. Thus, the scene most likely to benefit from tilting is short in the front and expands to a greater height or thickness toward the horizon. A scene consisting of tall trees in the near, middle and far distance may not lend itself to tilting unless the photographer is willing to sacrifice either the top of the near trees and/or the bottom of the far trees.

Assuming lens axis front tilt, here are the trade offs in choosing between a small degree of tilt (say less than 3) and a larger tilt: A small tilt causes a wider or fatter wedge but one that is far off axis from the cone of light seen by the lens. Conversely, a large tilt (say 10 degrees) causes the wedge to be more aligned with the view of the lens but with a narrower wedge. Thus, a modest tilt is often, or even usually, the best starting point. See Focusing the View Camera by Harold Merklinger.

Small and medium format cameras have fixed bodies that do not allow for misalignment of the film and lens planes, intentionally or not. Tilt and shift lenses can be purchased from a number of lens makers that allow these cameras to have a small amount of adjustment, mostly rise and fall. High quality tilt/shift lenses are quite expensive. For the price of a new Nikon tilt/shift lens, one can purchase a good quality used large format camera that offers much more range of adjustment.


Front Standard Swing

Altering the angle of the lens standard in relation to the film plane by swiveling it from side to side is called swing. Swing is similar to Tilt but in the horizontal axis. Swing may be used to achieve sharp focus along the entire length of a picket fence, for example.
Image File history File links Swing. ...

Back Tilt/Swing

Angular movements of the rear standard change the angle between the lens plane and the film plane just as front standard angular movements do. Although rear standard tilt will change the plane of sharp focus in the same manner as front standard tilt does, this is not usually the reason rear tilt/swing is used. When a lens is a certain distance (its focal length) away from the film, distant objects such as faraway mountains are in focus. Moving the lens farther from the film brings closer objects into focus. Tilting or swinging the film plane puts one side of the film farther from the lens than the center is and the opposite point of the film is therefore closer to the lens.

One reason to swing or tilt the rear standard is to keep the film plane parallel to the face of the object being photographed. Another reason to swing or tilt the rear standard is to control apparent convergence of lines when subjects are shot at an angle.

It is often stated that rear movements can be used to change perspective. This is a gross conceptual misunderstanding. The only thing that truly controls perspective is the location of the camera in relation to the objects in the frame. Rear movements can allow a photographer to shoot a subject from a perspective that places him or her at an angle to the subject, yet still achieve parallel lines. Thus, rear movements allow a change of perspective by allowing a different camera location, yet no view camera movement will actually alter perspective.

View camera lenses

A view camera lens typically consists of: Photographic lens One of Canons most popular wide angle lenses - 17-40 f/4 L The zoom lens of the Canon Elph A photographic lens (or more correctly, objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images...

  • A front lens element, sometimes referred to as a cell.
  • A shutter, which consists of an electronic or spring-actuated iris which controls exposure duration. (On early lenses, air-actuated shutters were sometimes used, and others had no moving shutter at all, a simple lens cap was used instead.)
  • The aperture diaphragm
  • A lensboard
  • A rear lens element (or cell).

Almost any lens of the appropriate coverage area may be used with almost any view camera. All that is required is that the lens be mounted on a lensboard compatible with the camera. A lensboard is simply a flat board, typically square in shape and made of either metal or wood, designed to lock securely into the front standard of a particular view camera, typically engineered for quick removal and replacement for swapping lenses in the field. Not all lensboards work with all models of view camera, though some cameras may be designed to work with a common lensboard type. Lensboards usually come with a hole sized according to the shutter size, often called the Copal Number. Copal is the most popular maker of leaf shutters for view camera lenses. The following is a list of the Copal Number and the corresponding diameter required in the lensboard to mount the shutter: In photography, a shutter is a device that administers the exposure by admitting light to the film for a specific period of time. ... a big (1) and a small (2) aperture For other uses, see Aperture (disambiguation). ... The Nidec Copal Corporation ) (TYO: 7756 ), or Copal, is a Japanese manufacturer of optical, electronic and mechanical equipment, primarily for the photographic industry. ... In photography, a leaf shutter is a type of camera shutter consisting of a pivoting metal leaf and spring which briefly uncovers the camera aperture to make the exposure. ...

  • Copal #0 - 34.6 mm
  • Copal #1 - 41.6 mm
  • Copal #3 - 65 mm
  • Copal #3s - 64.5 mm

The lens is designed to split into two pieces, the front and rear elements mounting to the shutter and lensboard. This is usually done by a trained technician, but mechanically inclined photographers often do this themselves.

View camera lenses are designed with both focal length and coverage in mind - a 300mm lens may give a different angle of view (either over 31° or over 57°) depending on whether it was designed to cover a 4x5 or 8x10 image area. Most lenses are designed to cover more than just the image area to allow for "movement" - positioning the front or rear standards out of linear alignment for perspective and focusing closer than infinity without vignetting. The focal point F and focal length f of a positive (convex) lens, a negative (concave) lens, a concave mirror, and a convex mirror. ...

Focusing involves moving the front standard closer to or further away from the rear standard, the lens itself does not have nor need any internal helical focusing device. The lens elements do not need to move in relation to one another.

Very long focus lenses or very short wide-angle lenses may require the camera be fitted with special bellows to bring the subject into proper focus, as the regular bellows will be either unable to extend far enough to accommodate long lenses, or collapse tight enough for extremely short ones. "Bag bellows" are common wide-angle photography accessories, replacing the accordion-folded bellows with a simple light-tight leather or synthetic bag. Recessed lensboards are also sometimes used to get the rear element of a wide angle lens close enough to the film plane to achieve focus. Some cameras offer extra-long rails and bellows to mount the standards to for long lens work.

Zoom lenses are unheard of in view camera photography, but there are "convertible" lenses that allow the photographer to add and remove lens elements in the field to alter the optical formula, resulting in a new focal length. These are popular with field photographers who would prefer to save weight by carrying one convertible lens rather than two or three regular lenses. The trade off is a smaller maximum aperture than is usual with regular lenses, and sometimes convertible lenses are not corrected for chromatic aberration, making them useless with color film. A Canon Inc. ... Chromatic aberration is caused by the dispersion of the lens material, the variation of its refractive index n with the wavelength of light. ...

Soft focus lenses introduce spherical aberration deliberately into the optical formula for a pleasing ethereal effect. The amount of soft-focus effect is determined by either aperture size or special disks that fit into the lens to modify the aperture shape. Some antique lenses have a lever which controls the softening effect by altering the optical formula on the fly, similar to modern SLR soft focus lenses. Soft focus is a term used in photography and optics to describe a lens flaw. ... Focal plane Longitudinal sections In optics, spherical aberration is an image imperfection that occurs due to the increased refraction of light rays that occurs when rays strike a lens or mirror near its edge, in comparison with those that strike nearer the center. ... { Ethereal could refer to: Ethereal oils, concentrated, hydrophobic liquids containing volatile aromatic compounds extracted from plants Ethereal (software), a network traffic analyzer, or its Wireshark spinoff Ethereal, a horse that won Australias Caulfield and Melbourne Cups in 2001 An Ethereal Division, found in some large pipe organs The Ethereal... a big (1) and a small (2) aperture For other uses, see Aperture (disambiguation). ...

Current large format lens manufacturers:

  • Schneider Kreuznach - Price-no-object high quality lenses.
  • Nikon - Noted for its high quality telephoto designs. As of January 2006, Nikon announced it would discontinue manufacturing its LF lenses.
  • Rodenstock - Extremely high quality, reasonably priced.
  • Fujinon - Has a strong presence in Asia.
  • Cooke - Interesting and expensive soft focus and color-corrected convertible lenses.
  • Congo - Budget lenses, but offering interesting soft focus and telephoto designs.
  • Seagull/Shen-Hao/Sinotar - Budget lenses.
  • Wisner - Offer a modern convertible Plasmat set.
  • Sinar - Rebranded Rodenstock lenses.
  • Caltar - Rebranded Rodenstock lenses.
  • Linhof - Rebranded Rodenstock and Schneider lenses.

Schneider Kreuznach is the abbreviated name of the company Jos. ... Nikon Corporation )   (TYO: 7731 ), also known as Nikon or Nikon Corp. ... Rodenstock GmbH is a eyeglass manufacturer based in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. ... Fujinon is a division of Fujifilm that specialises in the production of optical lenses for medical, film, and photographic use. ... Cooke is the surname of several notable people: Alan Cooke, English table tennis player, 2006 world champion 40+ at the World Veterans Table Tennis Championships in Bremen, Germany Alistair Cooke KBE (1908-2004), journalist and broadcaster Anthony Cooke (1505-1576), British scholar Barrie Cooke (1931-), Irish painter Brennen Pierce Cooke... The Swiss photographer Carl Hans Koch invented the Sinar camera in 1947. ...

View Camera Film

View cameras use sheet film but can use roll film (generally 120 size) by using special roll film holders. Popular image formats for the 4x5 camera are 6x6, 6x7, 6x9, 6x12, and 6x17cm. 6x12 and 6x17cm are suited to panoramic photography. Sheet film is large format photographic film supplied on individual sheets of acetate or polyester film base rather than rolls. ... The roll film was invented by Eastman Kodak, and was the prime factor in making photography available for the common man. ... Panoramic photography is a style of photography that aims to create images with exceptionally wide fields of view, but has also come to refer to any photograph that is cropped to a relatively wide aspect ratio (see Panoramic format) While there is no formal definition for the point at which...

Without modifying the camera (but with an inexpensive modification of the darkslide), a photographer can expose a half sheet of film at a time. While this could be useful for saving money, it's almost always instead a means of changing the format so that, for example, a 4x5 camera can take two 2x5 panoramic photos, an 8x10 can take two 4x10s etc. This is popular for landscape imagery, and in the past was common at banquets and similar functions.

Advantages and Disadvantages


  • The ability to skew the plane of critical focus. In a camera without movements, the lens plane and the film plane are always parallel. By using a camera with movements, one is able to skew the plane of focus forward, rearward, and/or to either side, allowing near-to-far focus without the need to stop down excessively in order to bring the desired elements into focus. (The Scheimpflug principle and the Hinge rule provide the detailed technical basis for this phenomenon.) Both standards can be "tilted" through the horizontal or "swung" through the vertical axes to achieve this effect. Tilts and swings of the front standard alone will not alter or distort shapes or converging lines in the image. However, tilts and swings of the rear standard affect these things, as well as the plane of focus. Therefore, if it is desired for the plane of focus to be skewed without altering shapes in the image, front movements alone must be used.
  • The ability to distort the shape of the image by means of skewing the film plane; most often to minimize or eliminate converging lines (or to increase such). As an example, if one takes a camera and places it at a 45 degree angle to a wall, the parallel lines of the wall appear to become closer to each other the farther away they are from the camera, and would eventually meet at an imaginary point. By swinging the rear standard of a view camera toward the wall, the convergence can be reduced on the ground glass, or even eliminated entirely if ample camera movements are available to bring the rear standard parallel to the wall. When this is done, however, the plane of focus will also be skewed, but may be corrected with a front swing in the same direction of the rear swing.
  • The larger a piece of film is, the less loss of resolution there is at a given print size, due to the fact that the larger film is enlarged less than the smaller film to attain the same size print. This also allows for large-sized prints that retain good resolution. Additionally, the larger a piece of film is, the more subtle and various the tonal pallette and gradations are ata given print size. A large piece of film also allows for contact printing.
  • The camera operator is forced to think more than is required with a hand-held camera with a built in meter. The weight of the camera (and associated equipment such as lenses, tripod, film holders etc) does not lead to simple 'snap' shots. However, a great deal of the journalistic photographs of the first half of the 20th century were produced with hand-held 2x3, 3x4, and 4x5 inch cameras. These shots were acheived, despite the technical difficulties involved, through the use of accessory coupled rangefinders, the use of wide-angle lenses for loose framing and therefore more depth of field, and more often than not through the use of powerful flashbulbs to allow the use of small apertures, which provided more depth of field as well.
  • Lenses generally have leaf shutters that will synchronize with flash at all speeds, although most lenses have a maximum shutter speed of 1/500 second. Some models of press cameras, most notably the Graflex Speed Graphic, had the feature of a built-in vertical-travel focal plane shutter, which allowed a top shutter speed of 1/1000 second, and the use of lenses without shutters, known as barrel lenses.
  • Low resale value allows for great values for buyers. A top-of-the-line 8x10 camera that was once $8,000 new can often be bought in excellent condition, with additional accessories, for $1,500.

The Scheimpflug principle is named after Austrian Captain Theodor Scheimpflug and deals with the change of the focus plane when tilting the front standard of a view camera. ... Contact printing is a method of producing a photographic print from a negative. ...


  • Lack of automation: most view cameras are fully manual. Consequently, novice users and even veterans are prone to making numerous mistakes throughout the process. Sinar cameras go some way to making the process less time-consuming, with self-cocking shutters and film-plane metering.
  • Size and weight: the old adage "View camera photographers have strong backs and weak minds" may raise a smile from some practitioners.
  • Time to set up and compose: not exactly optimal for that image that isn't going to hang around, though Paul Caponigro did get very lucky with his "Running White Deer".
  • Cost: view cameras are often hand-built and made with limited production runs which tends to push up the cost when compared to other, mass-produced, camera types. Sheet film is also quite expensive compared to roll film.
  • The long focal length lenses required for view cameras, especially for large format film sizes, are slow and have shallow depth of field compared to smaller format cameras.
  • Decreased use of the format among professionals and amateurs alike has resulted in the discontinuance of many large format products, and increased prices of new large format equipment. This can sometimes make it a challenge, or impossible, to obtain the ideal materials for the project at hand.

Some of these disadvantages can be turned into advantages. For example, set-up and composure time can tend to cause the photographer to slow down, thus, forcing him to visualize the image beforehand. Because view cameras are rather difficult to set up and focus, the photographer must scout the location for the best vantage point, perspective, etc. before snapping the shutter. One of the most important tips often given to beginning 35mm photographers is for them to use a tripod for the specific reason that a tripod will slow down the process. This is especially true for the view camera user. Also, the lack of use means that excellent used large format equipment can often be found at very reasonable prices. The Swiss photographer Carl Hans Koch invented the Sinar camera in 1947. ... Paul Caponigro (born 1932) is a Boston-born photographer who studied with Minor White. ... 135 Film Size, Kodak Tri-X 400 speed 135 (ISO 1007) is a film format for still photography. ... A tripod, in the context of photography, is a three-legged stand for a camera, used to stabilize and elevate the camera. ...

External links - camera brands

  Results from FactBites:
What Camera Should I Buy? (2796 words)
View cameras are the most flexible cameras, usually made from a basic design that has not changed for over 100 years.
A view camera is fundamentally a light-tight box with a slot at one end for a lens and a slot at the other for the film.
Another advantage of having used a view camera is that it gives you an understanding of perspective.
  More results at FactBites »



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m