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Encyclopedia > Vietnamese language
Vietnamese
Tiếng Việt 
Pronunciation:
tiɜŋ₃₅ vḭɜt₃₁ (Northern)
tiɜŋ₃₅ jḭɜk₃₁ (Southern)
Spoken in: Vietnam, USA, Canada, Cambodia, France, Australia, Laos and others 
Region: Southeast Asia
Total speakers: 70–73 million native
80 million+ total 
Ranking: 13–17 (native); in a near tie with Korean, Telugu, Marathi and Tamil
Language family: Austro-Asiatic[1]
 Mon-Khmer[1]
  Viet-Muong
   Vietnamese 
Writing system: Latin alphabet (quốc ngữ
Official status
Official language in: Vietnam
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: vi
ISO 639-2: vie
ISO 639-3: vie 

Major Vietnamese-speaking communities

Vietnamese (tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ[2]), formerly known under the French colonization as Annamese (see Annam), is the national and official language of Vietnam. It is the mother tongue of the Vietnamese people (người Việt or người Kinh), who constitute 86% of Vietnam's population, and of about three million overseas Vietnamese, most of whom live in the United States. It is also spoken as a second language by some ethnic minorities of Vietnam. It is part of the Austroasiatic language family, of which it has the most speakers by a significant margin (several times larger than the other Austroasiatic languages put together). Much vocabulary has been borrowed from Chinese, and it was originally written using the Chinese writing system. The Vietnamese writing system in use today is an adapted version of the Latin alphabet, with additional diacritics for tones and certain letters. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India (Maharashtrians). ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... The Mon-Khmer languages are the autochthonous languages of Indo-China. ... Viet-Muong languages is a language group which is part of the Mon-Khmer subfamily of the Austroasiatic family. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x625, 45 KB) en: Worldwide distribution of Vietnamese, based on blank world map by en:User:Vardion  Official  More than 1,000,000 speakers  More than 100,000 speakers vi: Phân bổ tiếng Việt trên thế gi... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Annam refers to two different areas of what is now the country of Vietnam. ... A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... Languages Vietnamese Religions Predominantly Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist (esp. ... Originating in what is now southern China and northern Vietnam, the Vietnamese people pushed southward over two millennia to occupy the entire eastern seacoast of the Indochinese Peninsula. ... Overseas Vietnamese (Vietnamese: Việt Kiều), refers to communities of Vietnamese living outside Vietnam in a diaspora. ... This article is about the concept of a minority. ... The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: A Chinese character or Han character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters, in collating order: Vietnamese also uses the 10 digraphs and 1 trigraph below. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...

Contents

Classification

Vietnamese was identified more than 150 years ago[3] to be part of the Viet-Muong (or Vietic) grouping of the Mon-Khmer branch of the Austroasiatic language family, a family that also includes Khmer, spoken in Cambodia, as well as various tribal and regional languages, such as the Munda languages, spoken in eastern India, and others in southern China. Even though this is supported by etymological comparison [4], some linguists still believe that Viet-Muong is a separate family, genealogically unrelated to other Mon-Khmer languages. Viet-Muong languages is a language group which is part of the Mon-Khmer subfamily of the Austroasiatic family. ... The Mon-Khmer languages are the autochthonous languages of Indo-China. ... Austro-Asiatic languages The Austro-Asiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia, and also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Munda Languages are spoken in north east India. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ...


History

It seems likely that in the distant past Vietnamese shared more characteristics common to other languages in the Austroasiatic family, such as an inflectional morphology and a richer set of consonant clusters, which have subsequently disappeared from the language. However, Vietnamese appears to have been heavily influenced by its location in the Southeast Asian sprachbund—with the result that it has acquired or converged toward characteristics such as isolating morphology and tonogenesis. These characteristics, which may or may not have been part of proto-Austroasiatic, nonetheless have become part of many of the phylogenetically unrelated languages of Southeast Asia—for example, Thai (one of the Tai-Kadai languages), Tsat (a member of the Malayo-Polynesian group within Austronesian), and Vietnamese each developed tones as a phonemic feature, although their respective ancestral languages were not originally tonal.[citation needed] The Vietnamese language has similarities with Cantonese in regard to the specific intonations and unreleased plosive consonant endings, a legacy of archaic Chinese. For other uses, see Morphology. ... A consonant cluster is a linguistic term, simply meaning a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ... East Asian languages or the East Asian sprachbund describe two notional groupings of languages in East and Southeast Asia, either (1) languages which have been greatly influenced by Classical Chinese, or the CJKV Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese) area or (2) a larger grouping including the CJKV area as well... Tonogenesis is the appearance of contrasting tone in a previously non-tonal language, generally as a result of regular phonological changes. ... The Tai-Kadai languages are a language family found in Southeast Asia and southern China. ... Tsat (also known as Utsat, Utset, Huihui, Hui, or Hainan Cham) is a language spoken on Hainan Island in China. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ...


The ancestor of the Vietnamese language was originally based in the area of the Red River in what is now northern Vietnam, and during the subsequent expansion of the Vietnamese language and people into what is now central and southern Vietnam (through conquest of the ancient nation of Champa and the Khmer people of the Mekong delta in the vicinity of present-day Ho Chi Minh City), Vietnamese was linguistically influenced primarily by Chinese, which came to predominate politically in the 2nd century B.C.E. Flowing from China through Vietnam to the South China Sea, the Red River (Vietnamese Sông Hồng, Chinese Hónghé) is also known as the Yuan Jiang (元江, pinyin yuan2jiang1), which means Primary River. ... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... The Khmer people are the predominant ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 13. ... View of the Mekong before the sunset The Mekong is one of the worlds major rivers. ... “Saigon” redirects here. ...


With the rise of Chinese political dominance came radical importation of Chinese vocabulary and grammatical influence. As Chinese was, for a prolonged period, the only medium of literature and government, as well as the primary written language of the ruling class in Vietnam, much of the Vietnamese lexicon in all realms consists of Hán Việt (Sino-Vietnamese) words. In fact, as the vernacular language of Vietnam gradually grew in prestige toward the beginning of the second millennium, the Vietnamese language was written using Chinese characters (using both the original Chinese characters, called Hán tự, as well as a system of newly created and modified characters called Chữ nôm) adapted to write Vietnamese, in a similar pattern as used in Japan (kanji), Korea (hanja), and other countries in the Sinosphere. The Nôm writing reached its zenith in the 18th century when many Vietnamese writers and poets composed their works in Chữ Nôm, most notably Nguyễn Du and Hồ Xuân Hương (dubbed "the Queen of Nôm poetry"). Sino-Vietnamese (Hán Việt) are the elements in the Vietnamese language derived from Chinese. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: A Chinese character or Han character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Hán tá»± (漢字, lit. ... Chữ nôm (𡦂喃 lit. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Greater China, Singapore, and countries culturally linked to Chinese culture. ... Nguyá»…n Du (阮攸, 1766–1820, pennames Tố NhÆ° and Thanh Hiên) is a celebrated Vietnamese poet who wrote in Chữ Nôm, the ancient writing script of Việt Nam. ... Hồ Xuân HÆ°Æ¡ng (1772-1822) (胡春香, read as Hú ChÅ«nxiāng in Mandarin) was a Vietnamese poet born at the end of the Later Lê Dynasty who wrote poetry in chữ nôm. ...


As contact with the West grew, the Quốc Ngữ system of Romanized writing was developed in the 17th century by Portuguese and other Europeans involved in proselytizing and trade in Vietnam. When France invaded Vietnam in the late 19th century, French gradually replaced Chinese as the official language in education and government. Vietnamese adopted many French terms, such as đầm (dame, from madame), ga (train station, from gare), sơ mi (shirt, from chemise), and búp bê (doll, from poupée). In addition, many Sino-Vietnamese terms were devised for Western ideas imported through the French. However, the Romanized script did not come to predominate until the beginning of the 20th century, when education became widespread and a simpler writing system was found more expedient for teaching and communication with the general population. The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters, in collating order: Vietnamese also uses the 10 digraphs and 1 trigraph below. ...


Geographic distribution

As the national language of the majority ethnic group, Vietnamese is spoken throughout Vietnam by the Vietnamese people as well as by ethnic minorities. It is also spoken in overseas Vietnamese communities, most notably in the United States, where it has more than one million speakers and is the seventh most-spoken language (it is 3rd in Texas, 4th in Arkansas and Louisiana, and 5th in California[5]). In Australia, it is the sixth most-spoken language. Languages Vietnamese Religions Predominantly Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist (esp. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


According to the Ethnologue, Vietnamese is also spoken by substantial numbers of people in Australia, Cambodia, Canada, China, Côte d'Ivoire, Finland, France, Germany, Laos, Martinique, Netherlands, New Caledonia, Norway, Philippines, Poland, Senegal, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States and Vanuatu. Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...


Official status

While spoken by the Vietnamese people for millennia, written Vietnamese did not become the official administrative language of Vietnam until the 20th century. For most of its history, the entity now known as Vietnam used written classical Chinese for governing purposes. Written Vietnamese in the form of chữ nôm was used for administrative purposes during the brief Ho and Tay Son Dynasties. During French colonialism, French superseded Chinese in administration. It was not until independence from France that Vietnamese was used officially. It is the language of instruction in schools and universities and is the language for official business. The Hồ Dynasty was a short-lived seven-year reign of two emperors, Hồ Quý Lý in 1400 who, after 9 months of reign, gave the throne to his second son, Hồ Han Thuong, who reigned from 1400 till 1407, a habit from the previous Tran Dynasty to bequest the... The name of Tây SÆ¡n is used in many ways referring back to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the eras of the Lê and Nguyá»…n dynasties in history of Vietnam. ...


Dialects

There are various mutually intelligible spoken dialects, the main three being:

Main dialect Locality dialect Names under French colonization
Northern Vietnamese Hanoi dialect, Other Northern dialects: Haiphong, and various provincial forms Tonkinese
Central Vietnamese Huế dialect, Nghệ An dialect, Quang Nam dialect High Annamese
Southern Vietnamese Saigon dialect, Mekong (Far West) dialect Cochinchinese

These dialects differ slightly in tone, pronunciation, and sometimes vocabulary, although the Huế dialect is more markedly different from the others due to its local vocabulary. The hỏi and ngã tones are distinct in the north but have merged in the south. The ch and tr digraphs are pronounced distinctly in the Southern and Central dialect but are merged in the Northern dialect. Grammatical differences are negligible. Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... Haiphong (Vietnamese: Hải Phòng, Chinese 海防, HÇŽifáng) is the third most populous city in Vietnam. ... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... Huế (化 in Vietnamese Chữ nôm, 順化 in Chinese characters) is the former modern capital of Vietnam. ... Nghe An Province is a province in Vietnam. ... Quảng Nam is a province of Vietnam with a population estimated to be 1,402,700 and an area of 10,408 km². The capital city is Tam Ky. ... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... The Mekong is one of the worlds major rivers. ... Cochin China (also known as Cochinchina or in French, Cochinchine) was the southernmost part of Vietnam beside Cambodia. ...


Sounds

Main article: Vietnamese phonology

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

Vowels

Like other southeast Asian languages, Vietnamese has a comparatively large number of vowels (nguyên âm). Below is a vowel chart of the Hanoi variety (i.e., other regions of Vietnam may have different vowel inventories). Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

  Front Central Back
High i [i] ư [ɨ] u [u]
Upper Mid ê [e] ơ [ɘ] ô [o]
Lower Mid e [ɛ] â [ɜ] o [ɔ]
Low   a / ă [ä]  

All vowels are unrounded except for u, ô, and o. Vowels â and ă are pronounced very short, much shorter than the other vowels. Therefore, ơ and â are basically pronounced the same except that ơ is long while â is short — the same applies to the low vowels a (long) and ă (short). Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... A close-mid vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... The open-mid vowels make a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ...


Outside Hanoi, u, ô, o may be back rounded [u, o, ɔ], while ư, ơ, â, a are back unrounded [ɯ, ɤ, ʌ, ɑ], and i, ê, e, ă are front unrounded [i, e, ɛ, æ].


The correspondence between the orthography and pronunciation is rather complicated. For example, the vowel i is also often written as y; both may represent [j], in which case the difference is in the quality of the preceding vowel. For instance, tai "ear" is [tɑ̄j], while tay "hand/arm" is [tāj].


In addition to single vowels (or monophthongs), Vietnamese has diphthongs (âm đôi). A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...

  • Three diphthongs consist of a vowel plus a. These are: ia, ua, ưa. (When followed by a consonant, they become , and ươ, respectively.)
  • The other diphthongs consist of a vowel plus semivowel. There are two of these semivowels: y (written i or y) and w (written u). A majority of diphthongs in Vietnamese are formed this way.
  • Furthermore, these semivowels may also follow the first three diphthongs (ia, ua, ưa ) resulting in triphthongs.

Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ... In phonetics, a triphthong (Greek τρίφθογγος, triphthongos, literally with three sounds, or with three tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another that passes over a third one. ...

Tones

Vietnamese vowels are all pronounced with an inherent tone (thanh or thanh điệu). Tones differ in: It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ...

  • pitch
  • length
  • contour melody
  • intensity
  • glottality (with or without accompanying constricted vocal cords)

Tone is indicated by diacritics written above or below the vowel (most of the tone diacritics appear above the vowel; however, the nặng tone dot diacritic goes below the vowel). The six tones in the northern varieties (including Hanoi) are:

Name Description Diacritic Example Sample vowel
ngang   'level' high level (no mark) ma  'ghost' a 
huyền   'hanging' low falling ` (grave accent)  'but' à 
sắc   'sharp' high rising ´ (acute accent)  'cheek, mother (southern)' á 
hỏi   'asking' dipping-rising  ̉ (hook) mả  'tomb, grave'  
ngã   'tumbling' breaking-rising ˜ (tilde)  'horse (Sino-Vietnamese), code' ã 
nặng   'heavy' constricted  ̣ (dot below) mạ  'rice seedling'  

Image File history File links Vi_ngang_tone. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... Image File history File links Vi_huyen_tone. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... Image File history File links Vi_sac_tone. ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Vi_hoi_tone. ... For the baseball player known as the Big Tilde, see Magglio Ordóñez. ... Image File history File links Vi_nga_tone. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese. ... Image File history File links Vi_nang_tone. ...

Consonants

The consonants (phụ âm) of the Hanoi variety are listed below in the Vietnamese orthography, except for the bilabial approximant which is written here as "w" (in the writing system it is written the same as the vowels "o" and "u"). The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ...


Some consonant sounds are written with only one letter (like "p"), other consonant sounds are written with a two-letter digraph (like "ph"), and others are written with more than one letter or digraph (the velar stop is written variously as "c", "k", or "q"). Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

Northern Vietnamese (Hanoi)
  Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop voiceless p [p] t [t] ch [tɕ] c [k]  
aspirated   th [tʰ]      
voiced b [b] đ [d]      
Fricative voiceless ph [f] x/s [s]   kh [x] h [h]
voiced v [v] d [z]   g [ɣ]  
Nasal m [m] n [n] nh [ɲ] ng [ŋ]  
Approximant central w/u [w]   y [j]    
lateral   l [l]      

The consonants of Ho Chi Minh city (Saigon) variety are slightly different from Hanoi (and other northern regions). For instance, "tr" and "ch" represent the same sound in Hanoi (and northern regions), but in Ho Chi Minh city or in central regions "tr" and "ch" represent different consonant sounds. Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... Look up stop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages. ... The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...

Southern Vietnamese (Ho Chi Minh city)
  Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop voiceless p [p] t [t] tr [ʈ] ch [c] c [k]  
aspirated   th [tʰ]        
voiced b [b] đ [d]        
Fricative voiceless ph [f] x [s] s [ʂ]   kh [x] h [h]
voiced     r [ʐ]   g [ɣ]  
Nasal m [m] n [n]   nh [ɲ] ng [ŋ]  
Approximant central w/u [w]     y [j]    
lateral   l [l]        

Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Retroflex consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue curled up and back so the bottom of the tip touches the roof of the mouth. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... Look up stop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...

Simplified consonant pronunciation guide

At the beginning of syllables, sounds are pronounced as in English except for the following: Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

  • "ph" is like Japanese "f", or English "f" but using both lips.
  • Rural Southern "v" is like English "y". (Hanoi and standard Southern "v" is the same as English "v".)
  • "đ" is like French/English "d".
  • "t" is like French or Spanish "t" or like pinyin "d".
  • "th" is like Hindi "th" (थ) or like English "t" at the beginning of words.
  • "x" is like English "s".
  • Hanoi "d" is English "z". Saigon "d" is like English "y".
  • "ch" is like Pinyin "zh", similar to the "j" in English "jar". (but never aspirated, as in "chair")
  • "nh" is like Portuguese "nh", Spanish "ñ", or French "gn".
  • "c" is like English "k" (and never like English "c" in "cede" or "s" in "seed" but "c" in "code").
  • "kh" is like German or Scottish "ch" or Arabic or Persian "kh".
  • "g" is like Dutch "g" or modern Greek "gh" (Γ).
    • However, Vietnamese "gi" is like English "z" in Hanoi (the North) and like English "y" in Saigon (the South).
  • "ng" is like Hangul "ng" (ㅇ) or English "ng" (without a little hard "g" sound at the end)
  • Saigon "tr" is like Hindi "ṭ+ṣ" (ट+ष) or like English "tr" with the tongue tip curled backwards.
  • Saigon "s" is like English "sh". (Hanoi "s" is the same as English "s").
  • Saigon "qu" is like English "w". (Hanoi "qu" is the same as English "qu").
  • Hanoi "r" is the same as English "z"
  • Saigon "r" is variously like
    • a) English "r" (most common) or
    • b) French "g", in provincial south, or
    • c) Spanish "r", or
    • d) Spanish "rr".

Note that the guide above does not apply to Vietnamese consonants at the end of syllables, especially for the more southern varieties of Vietnamese. (See Vietnamese phonology: Regional consonant variation for further elaboration.) Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Grammar

Vietnamese, like many languages in Southeast Asia and Chinese, is an analytic (or isolating) language. As such its grammar highly relies on word order and sentence structure rather than morphology (in which word changes through inflection). Whereas European languages tend to use morphology to express tense, Vietnamese uses grammatical particles or syntactic constructions. An analytic language is any language where syntax and meaning are shaped more by use of particles and word order than by inflection. ... In linguistic typology, word order is the order in which words appear in sentences. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ...


Vietnamese is often erroneously considered to be a "monosyllabic" language. It is true that Vietnamese has many words that consist of only one syllable; however, most words are indeed disyllabic. This is largely because of the many reduplication words that appear in household vocabulary, or adjectives. More accurately, most free morphemes are monosyllabic. A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ... In linguistics, free morphemes are morphemes that can stand alone, unlike bound morphemes, which only occur as parts of words. ...


Vietnamese syntax conforms to the Subject Verb Object word order. In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... In linguistic typology, word order is the order in which words appear in sentences. ...


Tense

Although it is not usually required, past tense is indicated by adding the particle đã, present progressive tense by the particle đang, and future tense is indicated by the particle sẽ. Of course, "đã" and "đang" or "đang" and "sẽ" can be used together.


Topic-comment structure

The topic-comment structure is an important sentence type in Vietnamese. Therefore Vietnamese has often been claimed to be a topic-prominent language (Thompson 1991). As an example the sentence "Tôi đọc sách này rồi." ("I've already read this book.") can be transformed into the following topic prominent equivalent. A topic-prominent language is one that organizes its syntax so that sentences have a topic-comment (or theme-rheme) structure, where the topic is the thing being talked about (predicated) and the comment is what is said about the topic. ...

Sách này thì tôi đọc rồi.
This book (TOPICMARKER) I read already

Plural

Although it is not usually required, the plural may be indicated by particles like những and các for nouns, and chúng and occasionally các for personal pronouns. Personal pronouns are pronouns often used as substitutes for proper or common nouns. ...


Classifiers

Vietnamese extensively uses a system of classifiers to indicate word classes of nouns. English classifiers, for example, may be (highlighted in bold) one head of cattle ("head", always singular regardless of number, indicates large livestock), two sticks of dynamite ("stick" indicates something relatively rigid, long and comparatively thin), three strands of hair ("strand" indicates something flexible, long and quite thin), or four bars of gold (a "bar" being similar to a "stick", but comparatively less "thin"). Vietnamese's system and usage of classifiers are similar to Chinese and are more variable than English. They are used more frequently than articles are used in English. Among the most common classifiers are: A classifier, in linguistics, is a word or morpheme used in some languages in certain contexts to indicate the word class of a noun. ... An article is a word that is put next to a noun to indicate the type of reference being made to the noun. ...

  • cái : used for most inanimate objects
  • chiếc: almost similar to cái, usually more connotative (e.g. when referring to a cute object, chiếc might be more suitable than cái)
  • con: usually for animals and children, but can be used to describe some inanimate objects (con dao = knife, con đường = street, con vít = screw)
  • bài: used for compositions like songs, drawings, poems, essays, etc.
  • câu: sentential constructs (verses, lyrics, statements, quotes, etc.)
  • cây: used for stick-like objects (plants, guns, canes, etc.)
  • tòa: buildings of authority: courts, halls, "ivory towers".
  • quả/trái: used for globular objects (the Earth, fruits)
  • quyển/cuốn: used for book-like objects (books, journals, etc.)
  • tờ: sheets and other thin objects made of paper (newspapers, papers, calendars, etc.)
  • : smaller sheets of paper (letters, playing cards)
  • việc: an event or an ongoing process
  • chuyện: a general topic, matter, or business

The classifier cái has a special role in that it can extend all other classifiers, e.g. cái con, cái chiếc.


Pronouns

Main article: Vietnamese pronouns

Vietnamese pronouns are more accurately terms of reference. Its concept is different from that in European languages, so its forms of reference do not neatly fall into the grammatical person classifications created by European grammarians. The same word can be used as a first-, second-, or third-person pronoun, depending on the speaker and the audience. For example, to say I love you in Vietnamese, one can use one of many translations: Vietnamese pronouns are more accurately forms of address. ... Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to the participant role of a referent, such as the speaker, the addressee, and others. ...

  • Anh yêu em. (male to female lover)
  • Em yêu anh. (female to male lover)
  • Mẹ yêu con. (mother to child)
  • Con yêu mẹ. (child to mother)
  • ...

The most common terms of reference are kinship terms, which might differ slightly in different regions.


When addressing an audience, the speaker must carefully assess the social relationship between him/her and the audience, difference in age, and sex of the audience to choose an appropriate form of address. The following are some kinship terms of address that can be used in the second-person sense (you). They all can also be used in the first-person sense (I), but if they're not marked by (S) the usage is limited to the literal meaning:

  • Ông: grandfather, used as a term of respect for a man senior to the speaker and who is late middle age or older
  • : grandmother, used as a term of respect for a (usually married) woman senior to the speaker and who is late middle age or older
  • Bác: parent's older brother or sister, used to address a man/woman slightly older than one's parents or husband of father's older sister or husband of mother's older sister.
  • : father's younger sister, used to address a younger woman or a woman as old as one's father; also used to address a female teacher regardless of relative age
  • Cậu: mother's younger brother, used to address a younger man or a man as old as one's mother
  • : mother's sister, used to address a younger woman or a woman as old as one's mother; also used to address one's step-mother
  • Chú: father's younger brother, used to address a man slightly younger than one's father or husband of father's younger sister.
  • Thím: wife of father's younger brother.
  • Mợ: wife of mother's younger brother.
  • Dượng: husband of mother's sister; also used to address one's step-father
  • Anh: older brother, for a slightly older man, or for the man in a romantic relationship. (S)
  • Chị: older sister, for a slightly older woman. (S)
  • Em: younger sibling, for a slightly younger person, or for the woman in a romantic relationship. (S)
  • Bố/Ba/Cha: father
  • Mẹ/Má/Mợ: mother
  • Con: child; also used in some regions to address a person as old as one's child
  • Cháu: nephew/niece, grandson/granddaughter; used to address a young person of around such relative age

Other pronouns in use for the most part conform to the European idea of grammatical person. Some are even gender-neutral and relationship-neutral:

  • Tôi: I (neutral, can be used in all situations)
  • Tao: I (speaking to subordinates, or extremely informal)
  • Hắn, gã, y: (pejorative) he
  • Ả, thị: (pejorative) she
  • Ông ta/Ông ấy: he (see above)
  • Bà ta/Bà ấy: she (see above)
  • Cô ta/Cô ấy: she (see above)
  • Anh ta/Anh ấy: he (see above)
  • Con đó/Con ấy: (pejorative) she, it
  • Thằng đó/Thằng ấy: (prejorative) he
  • Họ: they
  • : it (also he or she, when referring to a subordinate; perhaps also pejorative)
  • Chúng ta: we (including audience)
  • Chúng tôi: formal I, we (excluding audience)
  • Chúng nó: they (pejorative/colloquial)
  • Bả: south, she
  • Ổng: south, he
  • Ảnh: south, he
  • Mày: you singular (to subordinates, or extremely informal)
  • Chúng mày: plural of mày
  • Quý vị: you (bigger audience--plural, formal)
  • Bạn: friend, you, neutral

Using a person's name to refer to oneself or to address another is considered more personal and informal than using pronouns. It can be found among close friends or children.


Reduplication

Reduplication (từ láy) is found abundantly in Vietnamese. They are formed by repeating a part of a word to form new words, altering the meaning of the original word. Its effect is to sometimes either increase or decrease the intensity of the adjective, and is often used as a literary device (like alliteration) in poetry and other compositions, as well as in everyday speech. Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ...


Examples of reduplication increasing intensity:

  • đauđau điếng: hurt → hurt horribly
  • mạnhmạnh mẽ: strong → very strong
  • rựcrực rỡ: flaring → blazing

Examples of reduplication decreasing intensity:

  • nhẹnhè nhẹ: soft → soft (less)
  • xinhxinh xinh: pretty → cute
  • đỏđo đỏ: red → somewhat red
  • xanhxanh xanh: blue/green → somewhat blue/green

Reduplication of this type, indicating diminished intensity, is also present in Mandarin Chinese. This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ...


A type of assimilation known as tonal harmony is involved in Vietnamese reduplication. Assimilation is a regular and frequent sound change process by which a phoneme changes to match an adjacent phoneme in a word. ...


Ablaut

Vietnamese has the following tonal alternations (or tonal ablaut) which are used grammatically: In linguistics, the term ablaut (from German ab- in the sense down, reducing + Laut sound) designates a system of vowel gradations in Proto-Indo-European and its far-reaching consequences in all of the modern Indo-European languages. ...

  tone alternation
đây "here" đấy "there" (ngang tone-sắc tone)
bây giờ "now" bấy giờ "then" (ngang tone-sắc tone)
kia "the other" kìa "yonder" (ngang tone-huyền tone)
(Nguyễn 1997:42-44)

Vietnamese also has other instances of alternations, such as consonant mutations and vowel ablaut. Different regional varieties of Vietnamese may have different types of alternations. Consonant mutation is the phenomenon in which a consonant in a word is changed according to its morphological and/or syntactic environment. ...


Vocabulary

As a result of a thousand years of Chinese domination, much of Vietnamese vocabulary relating to science and politics are derived from Chinese. As much as 60% of the vocabulary have Chinese roots, although many compound words are Sino-Vietnamese, composed of native Vietnamese words combined with the Chinese borrowings. Reduplication is a regular part of the language that usually denotes intensity. One can usually distinguish between a native Vietnamese word and a Chinese borrowing if it can be reduplicated or its meaning doesn't change when the tone is shifted. As a result of French colonization, Vietnamese also has words borrowed from the French language. Recently many words are borrowed from English, for example TV (pronounced tivi), phông for font. Sometimes these borrowings are calques literally translated into Vietnamese (phần mềm for software, lit. soft part). Sino-Vietnamese (Hán Việt) are the elements in the Vietnamese language derived from Chinese. ... Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ...


Writing system

Main article: Vietnamese alphabet

Presently, the written language uses the Vietnamese alphabet (quốc ngữ or "national script", literally "national language"), based on the Latin alphabet. Originally a Romanization of Vietnamese, it was codified in the 17th century by a French Jesuit missionary named Alexandre de Rhodes (15911660), based on works of earlier Portuguese missionaries (Gaspar de Amaral and António de Barbosa). The use of the script was gradually extended from its initial domain in Christian writing to become more popular among the general public. The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters, in collating order: Vietnamese also uses the 10 digraphs and 1 trigraph below. ... The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters, in collating order: Vietnamese also uses the 10 digraphs and 1 trigraph below. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... Alexandre de Rhodes (March 15, 1591 - November 5, 1660) was a French Jesuit missionary. ... Year 1591 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ...


Under French colonial rule, the script became official and required for all public documents in 1910 by issue of a decree by the French Résident Supérieur of the protectorate of Tonkin. By the end of first half 20th century virtually all writings were done in quốc ngữ.


Changes in the script were made by French scholars and administrators and by conferences held after independence during 1954–1974. The script now reflects a so-called Middle Vietnamese dialect that has vowels and final consonants most similar to northern dialects and initial consonants most similar to southern dialects (Nguyễn 1996). This Middle Vietnamese is presumably close to the Hanoi variety as spoken sometime after 1600 but before the present.


Before French rule, the first two Vietnamese writing systems were based on Chinese script:

  • the standard Chinese character set called chữ nho (scholar's characters, 字儒): used to write Literary Chinese
  • a complicated variant form known as chữ nôm (southern/vernacular characters, 字喃) with characters not found in the Chinese character set; this system was better adapted to the unique phonetic aspects of Vietnamese which differed from Chinese

The authentic Chinese writing, chữ nho, was in more common usage, whereas chữ nôm was used by members of the educated elite (one needs to be able to read chữ nho in order to read chữ nôm). Both scripts have fallen out of common usage in modern Vietnam, and chữ nôm is nearly extinct. Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: A Chinese character or Han character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Chữ nho (字儒) is one of the Chinese based scripts used for writing the Vietnamese language. ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese (文言, pinyin: wényán, literal meaning: literary language or 古文, literal: ancient written language) is a traditional style of written Chinese prose using grammar and vocabulary very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Computer support

The Unicode character set contains all Vietnamese characters and Vietnamese currency symbol. On systems that do not support Unicode, many 8-bit Vietnamese code pages are available such as VISCII or CP1258. Where ASCII must be used, Vietnamese letters are often typed using the VIQR convention, though this is largely unnecessary nowadays, with the increasing ubiquity of Unicode. There are many software tools that help type true Vietnamese text on US keyboards such as WinVNKey, Unikey on Windows, or MacVNKey on Macintosh. The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Code page is the traditional IBM term used for a specific character encoding table: a mapping in which a sequence of bits, usually a single octet representing integer values 0 through 255, is associated with a specific character. ... VISCII stands for Vietnamese Standard Code for Information Interchange. ... Windows-1258 is a codepage used in Microsoft Windows to represent Vietnamese texts. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... VIetnamese Quoted-Readable, abbreviated VIQR, is a convention for writing in Vietnamese over the Internet. ...


Examples

The following text is an extract of the first six lines of Truyện Kiều, an epic narrative poem by the celebrated poet Nguyễn Du, 阮攸 ), which is often considered the most significant work of Vietnamese literature. It was originally written in Nôm (titled Đoạn Trường Tân Thanh 斷腸新聲), and is widely taught in Vietnam today. Kim Vân Kiều (金雲翹 in Chữ Nôm) or Truyện Kiều or Đoạn Trường Tân Thanh is an epic poem in Vietnamese written by the 18th century writer Nguyễn Du. ... Nguyễn Du, 阮攸 (1766–1820), penname Tố Như and Thanh Hi n is a celebrated Vietnamese poet who wrote in Chữ N m, the ancient writing script of Vietnam. ... Vietnamese literature is literature, both oral and written, created by Vietnamese-speaking people. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...

Trăm năm trong cõi người ta,
Chữ tài chữ mệnh khéo là ghét nhau.
Trải qua một cuộc bể dâu,
Những điều trông thấy mà đau đớn lòng.
Lạ gì bỉ sắc tư phong,
Trời xanh quen thói má hồng đánh ghen.

Original Chữ Nôm version

On the left is Unicode (using extended CJK), on the right is an image for those who don't have the required fonts.

𤾓𢆥𥪝𡎝𠊛嗟
𡦂才𡦂命窖羅恄饒
𣦆戈沒局𣷭橷
仍調𥉩𧡊罵忉疸𢚸
邏之彼嗇私豐
𡗶青慣退𦟐紅打慳 Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


English translation

A hundred years of human existence,
Prodigy and fate intertwined in conflicts,
Mulberry fields turned into open sea,
Enough's been seen to melt the heart.
Little wonder that beauty begets misery,
For Blue Heaven's jealous of exquisite glamour!


See also

The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters, in collating order: Vietnamese also uses the 10 digraphs and 1 trigraph below. ... Chữ nôm (𡦂喃 lit. ... Chữ Nho (字儒) is the Vietnamese term for classical Chinese writing produced in Vietnam. ... Sino-Vietnamese (Hán Việt) are the elements in the Vietnamese language derived from Chinese. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Vietic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic language family. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Debated, but still generally accepted.
  2. ^ Another variant, tiếng Việt Nam, is rarely used by native speakers and is likely a neologism from translating literally from a foreign language. It is most often used by non-native speakers and mostly found in documents translated from another language.
  3. ^ Mon-Khmer languages: The Vietic branch. SEAlang Projects. Retrieved on November 8, {{{accessyear}}}.
  4. ^ See e.g. Shorto et al 2006. The Mon-Khmer comparative dictionary has more than 2000 MK etyma and lists other MK languages' cognates to many Vietnamese esp. basic vocabulary.
  5. ^ Detailed List of Languages Spoken at Home for the Population 5 Years and Over by State: 2000 (PDF). 2000 United States Census. United States Census Bureau (2003). Retrieved on April 11, 2006.

(Redirected from 2000 United States census) The United States 2000 census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Alves, Mark. (1999). "What's so Chinese about Vietnamese?", in Papers from the Ninth Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. University of California, Berkeley. PDF
  • Dương, Quảng-Hàm. (1941). Việt-nam văn-học sử-yếu [Outline history of Vietnamese literature]. Saigon: Bộ Quốc gia Giáo dục.
  • Emeneau, M. B. (1947). Homonyms and puns in Annamese. Language, 23 (3), 239-244.
  • Emeneau, M. B. (1951). Studies in Vietnamese (Annamese) grammar. University of California publications in linguistics (Vol. 8). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Gregerson, Kenneth J. (1969). A study of Middle Vietnamese phonology. Bulletin de la Société des Etudes Indochinoises, 44, 135-193.
  • Han, Mieko S. (1966). Vietnamese vowels. Studies in the phonology of Asian languages IV. Los Angeles: Acoustic Phonetics Research Laboratory, University of Southern California.
  • Hashimoto, Mantaro. (1978). The current state of Sino-Vietnamese studies. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 6, 1-26.
  • Haudricourt, André-Georges. (1949). Origine des particularités de l'alphabet vietnamien. Dân Việt-Nam, 3, 61-68.
  • Michaud, Alexis. (2004). Final consonants and glottalization: New perspectives from Hanoi Vietnamese. Phonetica 61) pp. 119-146. Preprint version
  • Nguyễn, Đang Liêm. (1970). Vietnamese pronunciation. PALI language texts: Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN -X
  • Nguyễn, Đình-Hoà. (1955). Quốc-ngữ: The modern writing system in Vietnam. Washington, D. C.: Author.
  • Nguyễn, Đình-Hoà. (1986). Alexandre de Rhodes' dictionary. Papers in Linguistics, 19, 1-18.
  • Nguyễn, Đình-Hoà. (1990). Graphemic borrowing from Chinese: The case of chữ nôm, Vietnam's demotic script. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, 61, 383-432.
  • Nguyễn, Đình-Hoà. (1995). NTC's Vietnamese-English dictionary (updated ed.). NTC language dictionaries. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Pub. Press. ISBN ; ISBN
  • Nguyễn, Đình-Hoà. (1996). Vietnamese. In P. T. Daniels, & W. Bright (Eds.), The world's writing systems, (pp. 691-699). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN .
  • Nguyễn, Đình-Hoà. (1997). Vietnamese: Tiếng Việt không son phấn. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN .
  • Pham, Hoa. (2002). Gender in addressing and self-reference in Vietnamese: Variation and change. In M. Hellinger & H. Bußmann (Eds.), Gender across languages: The linguistic representation of women and men (Vol. 2, pp. 281-312). IMPACT: Studies in language society (No. 10). John Benjamins.
  • Rhodes, Alexandre de. (1991). Từ điển Annam-Lusitan-Latinh [original: Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum]. (L. Thanh, X. V. Hoàng, & Q. C. Đỗ, Trans.). Hanoi: Khoa học Xã hội. (Original work published 1651).
  • Shorto, Harry L. edited by Sidwell, Paul, Cooper, Doug and Bauer, Christian (2006). A Mon-Khmer comparative dictionary. Canberra: Australian National University. Pacific Linguistics. ISBN
  • Thompson, Laurence E. (1959). Saigon phonemics. Language, 35 (3), 454-476.
  • Thompson, Laurence E. (1991). A Vietnamese reference grammar. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN . (Original work published 1965).
  • Thompson, Laurence E. (1965). Nuclear models in Vietnamese immediate-constituent analysis. Language, 41 (4), 610-618.
  • Thompson, Laurence E. (1967). The history of Vietnamese finals. Language, 43 (1), 362-371.
  • Uỷ ban Khoa học Xã hội Việt Nam. (1983). Ngữ-pháp tiếng Việt [Vietnamese grammar]. Hanoi: Khoa học Xã hội.

Further reading

  • Healy, Dana. (2004). Teach yourself Vietnamese. Teach yourself. Chicago: McGraw-Hill. ISBN
  • Hoang, Thinh; Nguyen, Xuan Thu; Trinh, Quynh-Tram; (2000). Vietnamese phrasebook, (3rd ed.). Hawthorn, Vic.: Lonely Planet. ISBN
  • Moore, John. (1994). Colloquial Vietnamese: A complete language course. London: Routledge. ISBN ; ISBN (w/ CD); ISBN (w/ cassettes);
  • Nguyễn, Đình-Hoà. (1967). Read Vietnamese: A graded course in written Vietnamese. Rutland, VT: C.E. Tuttle.
  • Thomas, D. D. (1966). Papers on four Vietnamese languages. Aukland: Linguistic Society of New Zealand.
  • Emeneau, M. B. (1951). Studies in Vietnamese (Annamese) grammar. University of California publications in linguistics, (Vol. 8). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Lâm, Lý-duc; Emeneau, M. B.; & Steinen, Diether von den. (1944). An Annamese reader. Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley.

Murray Barnson Emeneau (February 28, 1904 - August 29, 2005) was an emeritus professor of linguistics at the Department of Linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley, which he also founded. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Vietnamese language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Vietnamese language - definition of Vietnamese language in Encyclopedia (1955 words)
Vietnamese is part of the Viet-Muong grouping of the Mon-Khmer branch of the Austroasiatic language family, a family that also includes Khmer, spoken in Cambodia, as well as various tribal and regional languages, such as the Munda languages, spoken in northeastern India, and others in southern China.
In fact, as the vernacular language of Vietnam gradually grew in prestige toward the beginning of the second millenium, the Vietnamese language was written using Chinese characters (see Chu nom) adapted to write Vietnamese, in a similar pattern as used in Japan (see kanji), Korea and other countries in the Chinese cultural sphere.
Vietnamese, having developed an isolating morphology characteristic of monosyllabic languages, as evidenced by its rich tonal system and syllabic diphthongs and triphthongs meant to differentiate one-syllable words, nonetheless retains many features of a polysyllabic language, as evidenced by the fact that more than half of its vocabulary consists of multi-syllabic and compound words.
Vietnamese language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3476 words)
Vietnamese is generally said to be part of the Viet-Muong (or Vietic) grouping of the Mon-Khmer branch of the Austroasiatic language family, a family that also includes Khmer, spoken in Cambodia, as well as various tribal and regional languages, such as the Munda languages, spoken in northeastern India, and others in southern China.
In fact, as the vernacular language of Vietnam gradually grew in prestige toward the beginning of the second millennium, the Vietnamese language was written using Chinese characters (see Chữ nôm) adapted to write Vietnamese, in a similar pattern as used in Japan (see kanji), Korea and other countries in the Chinese cultural sphere.
Vietnamese in the form of chữ nôm was used for administrative purposes during the brief Ho and Tay Son Dynasties.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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