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Encyclopedia > Vietnam war protest
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Anti-War topics Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ...

Opposition to...

War against Iran
Iraq War
War in Afghanistan
War on Terrorism
Landmines
Vietnam War
Nuclear armament
World War II
World War I
Second Boer War
American Civil War
War of 1812
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Image File history File links Peace_Sign. ... Opposition to a perceived risk of a military attack on Iran by the United States is known to have started during 2005-2006. ... This article is about opposition to the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the Iraq War from outside Iraq. ... It has been suggested that Post-September 11 anti-war movement be merged into this article or section. ... Criticism of the War on Terrorism addresses the issues, morals, ethics, efficiency, and other questions surrounding the War on Terrorism. ...  State Parties to the Ottawa Treaty The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of non-governmental organizations whose goal is to abolish the production and use of anti-personnel mines. ... Despite lack of reporting on this, some military personnel and civilians staunchly opposed fighting the Nazis and Fascists during World War II. One key objector who would later write a novel on this was the author of Catch-22 who did not want to lose his life even if it... The First World War was mainly opposed by left-wing groups, there was also opposition by Christain groups baised on pacifism The trade union and socialist movements had declared before the war their determined opposition to a war which they said could only mean workers killing each other in the... Opposition to the Second Boer War began slowly but grew due in part to organisations like the Stop the War Committee. ... Link titleAnti-war Popular opposition to the American Civil War, which lasted from 1861 to 1865, was widespread. ... Opposition to the War of 1812 was widespread in the United States, especially in New England. ... It is widely stated that before American Revolutionary War, 1/3 of the people in the colonies favored independence, 1/3 wanted to be part of Britain, and 1/3 didnt care. ...

Agents of opposition

Anti-war organizations
Conscientious objectors
Draft dodgers
Peace movement
Peace churches
In order to facilitate organized opposition to war, anti-war activists have often founded anti-war organizations. ... John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ... Their actions were criminal offences and once they had left the country draft dodgers could not return or they would be arrested. ... A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ...

Related ideologies

Anti-imperialism
Antimilitarism
Appeasement
Nonviolence
Pacifism This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the anarchist and socialist movement, which may be both characterized as internationalist movements. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) can be both a political strategy or moral philosophy that rejects the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political change. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ...

Media

Books • Films • Songs An anti-war book is a book that is perceived as having an anti-war theme. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... An anti-war song is a musical composition perceived (by the public or critics) as having an anti-war theme on its lyrics. ...

Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States. This happened during a time of unprecedented student activism reinforced in numbers by the demographically significant baby boomers, but grew to include a wide and varied cross-section of Americans from all walks of life. The growing opposition to the Vietnam War was also partly attributed to greater access to uncensored information compared with previous wars and extensive television media coverage of what, ultimately, became America's longest combat war. Likewise, a system of conscription that provided exemptions and deferments more easily claimed by middle and upper class registrants - and thus inducted disproportionate numbers of poor, working-class, and minority registrants - drove much of the protest. By the end of 1967, as the war ground on with no end in sight, public opinion polls showed a majority of Americans opposed the war and wanted it to end. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... SDS Button Logo The Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was, historically, a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main iconic representations of the countrys New Left. ... A baby boom is defined as a period of increased birth rates relative to surrounding generations. ...

Contents

Polarization and protest

Anti-Vietnam war demonstration
Anti-Vietnam war demonstration

The U.S. became polarized over the war. Many supporters of U.S. involvement argued for what was known as the domino theory, which held that if the South fell to communist guerillas, other nations, primarily in Southeast Asia, would succumb in short succession, much like falling dominoes, and much like the nations of eastern Europe had fallen under Soviet control between 1945 and 1948. Military critics of the war pointed out that the conflict was political and that the military mission lacked any clear idea of how to achieve its objectives. Civilian critics of the war argued that the government of South Vietnam lacked political legitimacy, or that support for the war was immoral. President Johnson's undersecretary of state, George Ball, was one of the lone voices in his administration advising against war in Vietnam. Anti-Vietnam demonstrator offers a flower to a military policeman. ... Anti-Vietnam demonstrator offers a flower to a military policeman. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... George Wildman Ball (1909 - 1994) was born in Des Moines, Iowa. ...


Gruesome images of two anti-war activists who set themselves on fire in November 1965 provided iconic images of how strongly some people felt that the war was immoral. On November 2 32-year-old Quaker member Norman Morrison set himself on fire in front of The Pentagon and, on November 9, 22-year old Catholic Worker Movement member Roger Allen LaPorte did the same thing in front of the United Nations building. Both protests were conscious imitations of earlier (and ongoing) Buddhist protests in South Vietnam itself. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... A Vietnamese tribute to Morrissons sacrifice Norman Morrison (born December 29, 1933, Erie, Pennsylvania, died November 2, 1965) was a Quaker best known for committing suicide by self-immolation at age 32 to protest the United States involvement in the Vietnam War. ... This article is about the U.S. military building. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... The Catholic Worker Movement was founded by Servant of God Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin in 1933 with the aim to live in accordance with the justice and charity of Jesus Christ. ... Roger Allen LaPorte (? - 1965) is best known as a protester of the Vietnam War who set himself on fire (self-immolation) in front of the United Nations building in New York City on November 9, 1965 to protest the United States involvement in the war. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Protests against the Vietnam War took place in the 1960s and 1970s. The protests were part of a movement in opposition to the Vietnam War and took place mainly in the U.S. (See also Students for a Democratic Society, Free Speech Movement, Jerry Rubin, Abbie Hoffman, Youth International Party, Chicago Seven.) Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... SDS Button Logo The Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was, historically, a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main iconic representations of the countrys New Left. ... The Free Speech Movement was a student protest which began in 1964 - 1965 on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley under the informal leadership of student Mario Savio and others. ... Jerry Rubin (July 14, 1938 – November 28, 1994) was a high-profile American social activist during the 1960s and 1970s. ... Abbott Howard Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a social and political activist in the United States, co-founder of the Youth International Party (Yippies), and later, a fugitive from the law, who lived under an alias following a conviction for dealing cocaine. ... The Youth International Party (whose adherents were known as Yippies, a variant on Hippies) was a highly theatrical political party established in the United States in 1967. ... The Chicago Seven were seven (originally eight, at which point they were known as the Chicago Eight) defendants charged with conspiracy, inciting to riot, and other charges related to violent protests that took place in Chicago, Illinois on the occasion of the 1968 Democratic National Convention. ...

 Iconic photo of South Vietnamese Police Chief General Nguyen Ngoc Loan executing Viet Cong Captain Nguyen Van Lem. Photo © Eddie Adams.
Iconic photo of South Vietnamese Police Chief General Nguyen Ngoc Loan executing Viet Cong Captain Nguyen Van Lem. Photo © Eddie Adams.

The growing anti-war movement alarmed many in the US government. On August 16, 1966 the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) began investigations of Americans who were suspected of aiding the NLF, with the intent to introduce legislation making these activities illegal. Anti-war demonstrators disrupted the meeting and 50 were arrested. Image File history File links Nguyen. ... Image File history File links Nguyen. ... General Nguyen Ngoc Loan General Nguyen Ngoc Loan (December 11 1930 [1] â€“ July 14, 1998) was the Republic of Vietnams Chief of National Police. ... Gen. ... General Nguyen Ngoc Loan executing Viet Cong Captain Nguyen Van Lem: Eddie Adams Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph Eddie Adams (June 12, 1933 – September 19, 2004) was an American photographer noted for portraits of celebrities and politicians and as a photojournalist having covered 13 wars. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... HUAC hearings House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA) (1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Viet Cong (NLF) flag The Viet Cong, also known as the National Front for the Liberation of Southern Vietnam (Vietnamese Mặt Trận Dân Tá»™c Giải Phóng Miền Nam), VC, or the National Liberation Front (NLF), was an insurgent (partisan) organization fighting the Republic...


In February 1967 The New York Review of Books published an essay by Noam Chomsky who with the philosopher Bertrand Russell was one of the leading intellectual opponents of the war. In The Responsibility of Intellectuals Chomsky argued that much responsibility for the war lay with liberal intellectuals and technical experts who were providing what he saw as pseudo-scientific justification for the policies of the US government. The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a biweekly magazine on literature, culture, and current affairs published in New York which takes, as its point of departure that the discussion of important books is itself an indispensable literary activity. ... Avram Noam Chomsky, Ph. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician and advocate for social reform. ... The Responsibility of Intellectuals [1] is an essay by the US academic Noam Chomsky which was published as a special supplement by the The New York Review of Books on the 23rd of February 1967. ...


On 1 February 1968, a suspected NLF officer was summarily executed by General Nguyen Ngoc Loan, a South Vietnamese National Police Chief. Loan shot the suspect in the head on a public street in front of journalists. The suspect was captured near the site of a ditch holding as many as thirty-four bound and shot bodies of police and their relatives, some of whom were the families of General Loan's deputy and close friend. The execution was filmed and photographed and provided another iconic image that helped sway public opinion in the United States against the war. The media did not release the image context with the image so it was famously seen as a picture of American supported injustice. February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... General Nguyen Ngoc Loan General Nguyen Ngoc Loan (December 11 1930 [1] â€“ July 14, 1998) was the Republic of Vietnams Chief of National Police. ...


On 15 October 1969, hundreds of thousands of people took part in National Moratorium anti-war demonstrations across the United States; the demonstrations prompted many workers to call in sick from their jobs and adolescents nationwide engaged in truancy from school. However, the proportion of individuals doing either who actually participated in the demonstrations is uncertain. A second round of "Moratorium" demonstrations was held on November 15, but was less well-attended. October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam was a large demonstration against United States involvement in the Vietnam War that took place across the United States on October 15, 1969. ... Truancy is a term used to describe an intentional unauthorized absence from compulsory schooling. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ...

Children run down a road near Trang Bang after an ARVN napalm attack on villages suspected of harboring National Liberation Front fighters in this June 1972 photo by Huynh Cong Ut, which became another iconic photo of the international movement against U.S. involvement in Vietnam. (Nick Ut / The Associated Press)
Children run down a road near Trang Bang after an ARVN napalm attack on villages suspected of harboring National Liberation Front fighters in this June 1972 photo by Huynh Cong Ut, which became another iconic photo of the international movement against U.S. involvement in Vietnam. (Nick Ut / The Associated Press)

The U.S. realized that the South Vietnamese government needed a solid base of popular support if it was to survive the insurgency. In order to pursue this goal of winning the "Hearts and Minds" of the Vietnamese people, units of the United States Army, referred to as "Civil Affairs" units, were extensively utilized for the first time for this purpose since World War II. Image File history File links TrangBang. ... Image File history File links TrangBang. ... Taken June 8, 1972, this photograph earned Ut the Pulitzer prize, and Thi, center, a great deal of attention throughout her life. ... Hearts and Minds was a euphemism for a campaign by the United States military during the Vietnam War, intended to win the popular support of the Vietnamese people. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Civil Affairs, known commonly as CA, is the official name for special operations units which conduct civil-military operations. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Civil Affairs units, while remaining armed and under direct military control, engaged in what came to be known as "nation building": constructing (or reconstructing) schools, public buildings, roads and other physical infrastructure; conducting medical programs for civilians who had no access to medical facilities; facilitating cooperation among local civilian leaders; conducting hygiene and other training for civilians; and similar activities. Nation-building refers to the process of constructing or structuring a nation using the power of the state, especially a foreign one. ...


This policy of attempting to win the hearts and minds of the Vietnamese people, however, often was at odds with other aspects of the war which served to antagonize many Vietnamese civilians. These policies included the emphasis on "body count" as a way of measuring military success on the battlefield, the bombing of villages (symbolized by journalist Peter Arnett's famous quote, "it was necessary to destroy the village in order to save it"), and the killing of civilians in such incidents as the My Lai massacre. In 1974 the documentary Hearts and Minds sought to portray the devastation the war was causing to the South Vietnamese people, and won an Academy Award for best documentary amid considerable controversy. The South Vietnamese government also antagonized many of its citizens with its suppression of political opposition, through such measures as holding large numbers of political prisoners, torturing political opponents, and holding a one-man election for President in 1971. At a concert in Prague, 2006 Body Count is a North American heavy metal and crossover thrash band headed by rapper Ice-T, who always refers to it as being a metal band. ... Peter Arnett (born November 13, 1934 in Riverton, New Zealand) is a New Zealand-American journalist. ... Photographs of the My Lai massacre provoked world outrage and made it an international scandal. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ...


Despite the increasingly depressing news on the war, many Americans continued to support President Johnson's endeavors. Aside from the domino theory mentioned above, there was a feeling that the goal of preventing a communist takeover of a pro-Western government in South Vietnam was a noble objective. Many Americans were also concerned about saving face in the event of disengaging from the war or, as President Richard M. Nixon later put it, "achieving Peace with Honor". In addition, instances of Viet Cong atrocities were widely reported, most notably in an article that appeared in Reader's Digest in 1968 entitled The Blood-Red Hands of Ho Chi Minh. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


However, anti-war feelings also began to rise. Many Americans opposed the war on moral grounds, seeing it as a destructive war against Vietnamese independence, or as intervention in a foreign civil war; others opposed it because they felt it lacked clear objectives and appeared to be unwinnable. Many anti-war activists were themselves Vietnam Veterans, as evidenced by the organization Vietnam Veterans Against the War. Some of the Americans opposed to the Vietnam War, as for instance Jane Fonda, stressed their support for ordinary Vietnamese civilians struck by a war beyond their influence. The anti-war sentiments gave reason to those that believed returning soldiers were "spat on" or otherwise abused. In April 1971, Thousands of Vietnam Veterans against the war converged on the White House on Washington D.C. and threw their medals on the Capitol steps. Vietnam veteran is a phrase used to describe someone who served in the armed forces of participating countries during the Vietnam War. ... Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) is a tax-exempt Non-profit organization and corporation, originally created to oppose the Vietnam War. ... Jane Fonda (born December 21, 1937) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress, writer, political activist, former fashion model, and fitness guru. ... The United States Capitol The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ...


In 1968, President Lyndon Johnson began his re-election campaign. A member of his own party, Eugene McCarthy, ran against him for the nomination on an anti-war platform. McCarthy did not win the first primary election in New Hampshire, but he did surprisingly well against an incumbent. The resulting blow to the Johnson campaign, taken together with other factors, led the President to make a surprise announcement in a March 31 televised speech that he was pulling out of the race. He also announced the initiation of the Paris Peace Negotiations with Vietnam in that speech. Then, on August 4, 1969, US representative Henry Kissinger and North Vietnamese representative Xuan Thuy began secret peace negotiations at the apartment of French intermediary Jean Sainteny in Paris. Seizing the opportunity caused by Johnson's departure from the race, Robert Kennedy then joined in and ran for the nomination on an anti-war platform. Johnson's vice president, Hubert Humphrey, also ran for the nomination, promising to continue to support the South Vietnamese government. President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Eugene Joseph Gene McCarthy (March 29, 1916 – December 10, 2005) was an American politician and a longtime member of the U.S. Congress. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,359 sq mi (24,239 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 3. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Signing the peace accords. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923 in Fürth) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... During the Vietnam War, Xuan Thuy was a representative of the North Vietnamese government to the peace talks with the United States in Paris. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. ...


Conscription, student deferments and draft resistance

See also: Kent State shootings

"The draft" initiated protests when on May 5, 1965, student activists at the University of California, Berkeley marched on the Berkely Draft board and forty students staged the first public burning of a draft card in the United States. Another 19 cards were burnt May 22 at a demonstration following the Berkeley teach-in [1]. John Filos Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph of Mary Ann Vecchio, a fourteen-year-old runaway, kneeling over the dead or dying body of Jeffrey Miller, shot in the mouth by an unknown Ohio National Guardsman. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Colloquial name for a registration document completed by a citizen of a country which enforces conscription. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... A Teach-in is a method of non violent protest. ...


At that time, only a fraction of all men of draft age were actually conscripted, but the Selective Service System office ("Draft Board") in each locality had broad discretion on whom to draft and whom to exempt where there was no clear guideline for exemption. In late July 1965, Johnson doubled the number of young men to be drafted per month from 17,000 to 35,000, and on August 31, signed a law making it a crime to burn a draft card. The Selective Service System is the means by which the United States administers military conscription. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ...


On October 15, 1965 the student-run National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam in New York staged the first draft card burning to result in an arrest under the new law. October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam was a group that became an umbrella anti-Vietnam war group. ...


In 1967, the continued operation of a seemingly unfair draft system then calling as many as 40,000 men for induction each month fueled a burgeoning draft resistance movement. On October 16, 1967, draft card turn-ins were held across the country, yielding more than 1,000 draft cards, later returned to the Justice Department as an act of civil disobedience. Resisters expected to be prosecuted immediately, but Attorney General Ramsey Clark instead prosecuted a group of ringleaders including Dr. Benjamin Spock and Yale chaplain William Sloane Coffin, Jr. in Boston in 1968. October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Dr. Spock (l) with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Rev. ...


The charges of unfairness led to the institution of a draft lottery for the year 1970 in which a young man's birthday determined his relative risk of being drafted (September 14 was the birthday at the top of the draft list for 1970; the following year July 9 held this distinction). September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 175 days remaining. ...


The first draft lottery since World War II in the United States was held on 1 December 1969 and was met with large protests and a great deal of controversy; statistical analysis indicated that the methodology of the lotteries unintentionally disadvantaged men with late year birthdays.[1] This issue was treated at length in a 4 January 1970 New York Times article titled "Statisticians Charge Draft Lottery Was Not Random". The December 1, 1969 draft lottery was held to determine the order of induction into the US Army during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Thousands of young American men chose exile in Canada or Sweden rather than risk conscription. The Japanese anti-war group Beheiren helped some American soldiers to desert and hide from the military in Japan.[2] In order to gain an exemption or deferment many men obtained student deferments by attending college, though they would have to remain in college until their 26th birthday to be certain of avoiding the draft. Some got married, which remained an exemption throughout the war. Some men found sympathetic doctors who would claim a medical basis for applying for a 4F (medically unfit) exemption, though Army doctors could and did make their own judgments. Still others joined the National Guard or entered the Peace Corps as a way of avoiding Vietnam. All of these issues raised concerns about the fairness of who got selected for involuntary service, since it was often the poor or those without connections who were drafted. Ironically, in light of modern political issues, a certain exemption was a convincing claim of homosexuality, but very few men attempted this because of the stigma involved. Also, conviction for certain crimes would earn an exclusion, the topic of the anti-war song 'Alice's Restaurant' by Arlo Guthrie. Beheiren (Betonamu ni Heiwa o Shimin Rengo — Citizens League for Peace in Vietnam) was a Japanese activist group active from 1965 to 1974. ... The term 4F or 4-F, was commonly used in the United States to refer to someone with a Selective Service classification of 4F, meaning that they are ineligible for conscription (forced induction into military service or the draft) due to a disability or physical incapacity to serve in the... The United States National Guard is a component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... Peace Corps volunteers usually serve for two years. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... The former church where Alice and Ray lived and where the story begins; the restaurant itself is roughly six miles north in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. ... A press photo of Arlo Guthrie. ...


Even many of those who never received a deferment or exemption never served, simply because the pool of eligible men was so huge compared to the number required for service, that the draft boards never got around to drafting them when a new crop of men became available (until 1969) or because they had high lottery numbers (1970 and later).


Of those soldiers who served during the war, there was increasing opposition to the conflict amongst GIs[3], which resulted in fragging and many other activities which hampered the US's ability to wage war effectively. Frag is a term from the Vietnam war, most commonly meaning to assassinate an unpopular member of ones own fighting unit by dropping a fragmentation grenade into the victims tent at night. ...


Most of those subjected to the draft were too young to vote or drink in most states, and the image of young people being forced to risk their lives in the military without the privileges of enfranchisement or the ability to drink alcohol legally also successfully pressured legislators to lower the voting age nationally and the drinking age in many states.


Student opposition groups on many college and university campuses seized campus administration offices, and in several instances forced the expulsion of ROTC programs from the campus. The Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) is a training program of the United States armed forces present on college campuses to recruit and educate commissioned officers. ...


Some Americans who were not subject to the draft protested the conscription of their tax dollars for the war effort. War tax resistance, once mostly isolated to solitary anarchists like Henry David Thoreau and religious pacifists like the Quakers, became a more mainstream protest tactic. As of 1972, an estimated 200,000-500,000 people were refusing to pay the excise taxes on their telephone bills, and another 20,000 were resisting part or all of their income tax bills. Among the tax resisters were Joan Baez and Noam Chomsky.[4] A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax, or to some of that institution’s policies. ... Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, and philosopher who is best known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to... Pacifism is opposition to the practice of war. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income of persons, corporations, or other legal entities. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... Avram Noam Chomsky, Ph. ...


Congressional hearings

Dellums war crimes hearings

Congressional opposition to
U.S. wars and interventions
1812 North America
House Federalists’ Address
1935-1939 (General)
Neutrality Acts
1935-40 (General)
Ludlow Amendment
1970 Vietnam
McGovern-Hatfield Amendment
1970 Southeast Asia
Cooper-Church Amendment
1971 Vietnam
Repeal of Tonkin Gulf Resolution
1973 Southeast Asia
Case-Church Amendment
1973 (General)
War Powers Resolution
1974 Covert Ops (General)
Hughes-Ryan Amendment
1976 Angola
Clark Amendment
1982 Nicaragua
Boland Amendment
2007 Iraq
House Concurrent Resolution 63
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In January, 1971, just weeks into his first term, Congressman Ron Dellums set up a Vietnam war crimes exhibit in an annex to his Congressional office. The exhibit featured four large posters depicting supposed atrocities committed by American soldiers embellished with red paint. This was followed shortly thereafter by a series of hearings on "war crimes" in Vietnam, which began April 25. Dellums had called for formal investigations into the allegations, but Congress chose not to endorse these proceedings. As such, the hearings were ad hoc and only informational in nature. As a condition of room use, press and camera presence were not permitted, but the proceedings were transcribed. A small number of other anti-Vietnam War congresspeople also took part in the hearings. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Opposition to the War of 1812 was widespread in the United States, especially in New England. ... The Neutrality Acts were a series of laws passed in the United States in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that was to lead to World War II. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism in the US following its costly involvement in... Louis Ludlow was a Washington correspondent for a large number of newspapers, and then served as a Democrat in the U.S. House of Representatives for the Indianapolis, Indiana district for twenty years. ... The McGovern-Hatfield amendment (alternately, Hatfield-McGovern amendment) was a proposed amendment in 1970 during the Vietnam War that, if passed, would have required the end of United States military operations in the Republic of Vietnam by December 31, 1970 and a complete withdrawal of American forces halfway through the... The Cooper-Church amendment was introduced in the United States Senate during the Vietnam War and is known as the first amendment to limit presidential powers during war time. ... The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed in August 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. ... The Case-Church Amendment was a piece of legislation that sought to rein in President Richard Nixons conduct of the Vietnam War. ... The War Powers Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-148) limits the power of the President of the United States to wage war without the approval of Congress. ... The Hughes-Ryan Act was an amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, that forces the President of the United States to report all covert Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operations to a Congressional committee within a set time limit. ... The Clark amendment was an amendment to the U.S. Arms Export Control Act of 1976, named for its sponsor, Senator Dick Clark (D-Idaho). ... The Boland Amendment was an amendment to the House Appropriations Bill of 1982, which was attached as something known as a Barnacle Bill, or provision that would not be expected to pass on its own merit, to the Defense Appropriations Act of 1983. ... The New Way Forward redirects here. ... Ronald Vernie Dellums (born November 24, 1935), U.S. Democratic Party politician, is the mayor-elect of the City of Oakland, California. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ...


The transcripts describe alleged details of U.S. military's conduct in Vietnam. Some tactics were described as “gruesome”, such as the severing of ears from corpses to verify body count. Others involved the indiscriminate killing of civilians. Soldiers claimed to have ordered artillery strikes on villages which did not appear to have any military presence. Soldiers were claimed to use racist terms such as "gooks", "dinks" and "slant eyes" when referring to the Vietnamese. Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ...


Witnesses described that legal, by-the-book instruction was augmented by more questionable training by non-commissioned officers as to how soldiers should conduct themselves. One witness testified about "free-fire zones", areas as large as 80 square miles in which soldiers were free to shoot any Vietnamese they encountered after curfew without first making sure they were hostile. Allegations of exaggeration of body count, torture, murder and general abuse of civilians and the psychology and motivations of soldiers and officers were discussed at length. A battle area or combat zone in which anyone unidentified is considered an enemy combatant. ...


Fulbright Hearings of 1971

Famous anti-war protesters: John Kerry with ex-Beatle John Lennon during a protest rally at New York City's Bryant Park in the summer of 1971.
Famous anti-war protesters: John Kerry with ex-Beatle John Lennon during a protest rally at New York City's Bryant Park in the summer of 1971.
Main article: Fulbright Hearing

In April and May 1971, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, chaired by Senator J. William Fulbright, held a series of 22 hearings (referred to as the Fulbright Hearings) on proposals relating to ending the war. On the third day of the hearings, April 22, 1971, future Senator and 2004 presidential candidate John Kerry became the first Vietnam veteran to testify before Congress in opposition to the war. Speaking on behalf of Vietnam Veterans Against the War, he argued for the immediate, unilateral withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam. During nearly two hours of discussions with committee members, Kerry related in some detail the findings of the Winter Soldier Investigation, in which veterans had described personally committing or witnessing atrocities and war crimes. Image File history File links Kerry_Lennon. ... Image File history File links Kerry_Lennon. ... Al Gore (born December 11, 1943) is a Vietnam Veteran and the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. ... The Beatles were an English rock band from Liverpool whose members were John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area... Bryant Park, August 2003 Bryant Park is a 9. ... The Fulbright Hearings were U.S. Senate hearings in 1971 relating to the Vietnam War. ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... James William Fulbright (April 9, 1905–February 9, 1995) was a well-known member of the United States Senate representing Arkansas. ... The Fulbright Hearings were U.S. Senate hearings in 1971 relating to the Vietnam War. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... Presidential election results map. ... Al Gore (born December 11, 1943) is a Vietnam Veteran and the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. ... Vietnam veteran is a phrase used to describe someone who served in the armed forces of participating countries during the Vietnam War. ... Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) is a tax-exempt Non-profit organization and corporation, originally created to oppose the Vietnam War. ... The Winter Soldier Investigation was a media event intended to publicize war crimes and atrocities by the United States Armed Forces and their allies in the Vietnam War, while showing their direct relationship to military leadership and the foreign and anti-Communist policies of the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon Presidential... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


Protests timeline

The very first protests against U.S. involvement in Vietnam were in 1945, when United States Merchant Marine sailors condemned the U.S. government for the use of U.S. merchant ships to transport French troops to "subjugate the native population" of Vietnam; these protesters opposed the "recolonization" of Vietnam. [2] Flag of the United States Merchant Marine The U.S. Merchant Marine flag flown at the American Merchant Marine Veterans Memorial in Point Park in Ashtabula, Ohio The United States Merchant Marine comprise the merchant ships that are used to transport both imports and exports during peace time and serves...


1963

In August 1963, the first organized Vietnam War protests took place in New York and Philadelphia held by American pacifists during the annual commemorations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings


1964

May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Times Square Times Square is the name given to a principal intersection at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue and stretching from West 42nd to West 47th Streets in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Chart showing the US Navy’s interpretation of the events of the first part of the Gulf of Tonkin incident The Gulf of Tonkin Incident was an alleged pair of attacks by naval forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (commonly referred to as North Vietnam) against two American destroyers... The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed in August 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. ...

1965

  • On March 24, the anti-war Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) attended the first teach-in, organized by some teachers, against the war at the University of Michigan, attended by 2,500 participants. This was to be repeated at 35 campuses across the country.
  • On April 17, the SDS and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), a civil rights activist group, led the first of several anti-war marches in Washington DC, with about 25,000 protesters.
  • The first draft card burnings took place at University of California, Berkeley at student demonstrations in May organised by a new anti-war group, the VDC (Vietnam Day Committee), where a coffin was marched to the local Draft board office, a teach-in was attended by 30,000, and president Lyndon Johnson was burned in effigy.
  • Gallup poll in May showed 48% of US respondents felt the Government was handling the conflict effectively; 28% felt the situation was being handled badly; the rest, no opinion.
  • Protests were held in June on the steps of the Pentagon, and in August, attempts were made by activists at Berkeley to stop trains carrying troops from moving.
  • Polls in late August show that 24% of Americans view sending troops to Vietnam as a mistake versus 60% who do not. [3]
  • In mid-October, the anti-war movement had significantly expanded to become a national and even global phenomenon, as anti-war protests drawing 100,000 were held simultaneously in as many as 80 major cities around the US, London, Paris and Rome.
  • On November 27, some 25,000 protesters led by several student activist groups surrounded the White House, calling for an end to the war, then marched to the Washington Monument. On that same day, President Johnson announced a significant escalation of US involvement in Indochina, from 120,000 to 400,000 troops.

March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (84th in leap years). ... SDS Button Logo The Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was, historically, a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main iconic representations of the countrys New Left. ... A Teach-in is a method of non violent protest. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM or U of M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the primary institutions of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... VDC is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, the most common is volts (V) of continous current (direct current (DC)), in contrast to VAC. Care must be taken not to connect DC devices (such as DC electrical motors) to alternating current (AC) sources, as DC devices can be seriously... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... This article is about the U.S. military building. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Monument at dusk For other Washington Monuments, see Washington Monuments (world). ...

1966

  • In February, a group of about 100 veterans attempted to return their decorations to the White House in protest of the war, but were turned back.
  • Anti-war demonstrations were again held around the country and the world March 26 with 20,000 taking part in New York City.
  • On May 16, another large demonstration calling for an end to the war took place outside the White House and the Washington Monument.
  • June 4 - a three page anti-war ad appeared in The New York Times bearing the signatures of 6,400 teachers and professors.
  • June - The Gallup poll respondents supporting the US handling of the war slipped to 41%; 37% expressed disapproval; the rest, no opinion.
  • A crowd of 4,000 demonstrated against the US war in London on July 3 and scuffled with police outside the US Embassy; 33 protesters were arrested.
  • Protests, strikes and sit-ins continued at Berkeley and across other campuses throughout the year, and also, three army privates known as the 'Fort Hood Three" refused to deploy in Vietnam, calling the war "illegal and immoral", and were sentenced to prison terms.
  • Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay) refused to go to war, famously stating that he had "got nothing against no Viet Cong" and that "no Viet Cong ever called me nigger." According to a writer for Sports Illustrated, the governor of Illinois called Ali "disgusting" and the governor of Maine said that Ali "should be held in utter contempt by every patriotic American." [4] In 1967 he was sentenced to 5 years in prison, but was later released on appeal.

March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (86th in leap years). ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... For other persons named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation). ... The first issue of Sports Illustrated, August 16, 1954, showing Milwaukee Braves star Eddie Mathews at bat in Milwaukee County Stadium. ...

1967

  • January 14 - 20,000-30,000 people staged a "Human Be-In" anti-war event in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, near the Haight Ashbury neighborhood that had become the center of hippie activity.
  • February 8 - Christian groups opposed to the war staged a nationwide "Fast for Peace".
  • February 23 - The New York Review of Books published The Responsibility of Intellectuals by Noam Chomsky as a special supplement.
  • March 17 - a group of antiwar citizens marched to the Pentagon to protest American involvement in Vietnam
  • March 25 - Civil rights leader Martin Luther King led a march of 5,000 against the war in Chicago, Illinois.
  • On April 15, 400,000 people marched to the UN building in New York City to protest the war, where they were addressed by critics of the war such as Benjamin Spock, Martin Luther King, and Jan Barry Crumb, a veteran of the conflict. On the same date 100,000 marched in San Francisco.
  • On April 24, Abbie Hoffman led a small group of protesters against both the war and capitalism who interrupted the New York Stock Exchange, causing chaos by throwing fistfuls of both real and fake dollars down from the gallery.
  • Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay) was among those who refused to go to war, famously stating April 28 that he had "got nothing against no Viet Cong." According to a writer for Sports Illustrated, the governor of Illinois called Ali "disgusting" and the governor of Maine said that Ali "should be held in utter contempt by every patriotic American."[5] He was sentenced to 5 years in prison, but was released on appeal.
  • May 2 - British philosopher Bertrand Russell presided over the "Russell Tribunal" in Stockholm, a mock war crimes tribunal, which ruled that the US and its allies had committed war crimes in Vietnam. The proceedings were criticized as being a "show trial".
  • On May 30 Crumb and ten like-minded men attended a peace demonstration in Washington, D.C., and on June 1 Vietnam Veterans Against the War was born.
  • In the summer of 1967, Neil Armstrong and various other NASA officials began a tour of South America to raise awareness for space travel. According to First Man, a biography of Armstrong's life, during the tour, several college students protested the astronaut, and shouted such phrases as "Murderers get out of Vietnam!" and other anti-Vietnam War messages.
  • July 30: Gallup poll reported 52% of Americans disapproved of Johnson's handling of the war; 41% thought the US made a mistake in sending troops; over 56% thought US was losing the war or at an impasse.
  • In October 1967, Stop the Draft Week resulted in major clashes at the Oakland, California induction center, and saw more than a thousand registrants return their draft cards in events across the country. The cards were delivered to the Justice Department on October 20.
  • The next day, a large demonstration took place at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington. As many as 100,000 demonstrators attended the event, and at least 30,000 later marched to the Pentagon for another rally and an all night vigil. A few, including Abbie Hoffmann and Jerry Rubin, attempted to "exorcise" and "levitate" the building, while others engaged in civil disobedience on the steps of the Pentagon, interrupted by clashes with soldiers and police. In all, 647 arrests were made. When a plot to airdrop 10,000 flowers on the Pentagon was foiled by undercover agents, these flowers ended up being placed in the barrels of MP's rifles, as seen in some famous photographs.[6] Norman Mailer documents the events surrounding the march on the pentagon in his novel "The Armies of the Night."
By this time, it had also become commonplace for the most radical or outspoken elements among the anti-war marchers to prominently display the flag of the Viet Cong 'enemy', which only served to alienate many who were otherwise morally opposed to the conflict.

January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Human Be-In was a happening in San Franciscos Golden Gate Park, the afternoon and evening of January 14, 1967. ... An aerial view of the Golden Gate Park The Golden Gate Park is the largest urban park in San Francisco, California, USA. At 1017 acres (4. ... The corner of Haight and Ashbury in 2001 The Haight-Ashbury is a district of San Francisco, California, named after the intersection of Haight Street and Ashbury Street, commonly known as The Haight or, in recent years, The Upper Haight. ... Singer at a modern Hippie movement in Russia Hippie or Hippy refers to a subgroup of the 1960s and early 1970s counterculture, that began in the United States and influenced Europe, becoming an established social group by 1965 before declining during the mid-1970s. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a biweekly magazine on literature, culture, and current affairs published in New York which takes, as its point of departure that the discussion of important books is itself an indispensable literary activity. ... The Responsibility of Intellectuals [1] is an essay by the US academic Noam Chomsky which was published as a special supplement by the The New York Review of Books on the 23rd of February 1967. ... Avram Noam Chomsky, Ph. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... This article is about the U.S. military building. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr, Ph. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area... Dr. Spock (l) with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... Abbott Howard Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a social and political activist in the United States, co-founder of the Youth International Party (Yippies), and later, a fugitive from the law, who lived under an alias following a conviction for dealing cocaine. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange publicly held and listed under the symbol NYX on its own exchange. ... For other persons named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation). ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... The first issue of Sports Illustrated, August 16, 1954, showing Milwaukee Braves star Eddie Mathews at bat in Milwaukee County Stadium. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician and advocate for social reform. ... The Russell Tribunal was a public international body organized by British philosopher and pacifist Bertrand Russell, along with Ken Coates and several others. ...   (IPA: ; UN/LOCODE: SE STO) is the capital of Sweden, and consequently the site of its Government and Parliament as well as the residence of the Swedish head of state, King Carl XVI Gustaf. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... A tribunal is a generic term for any body acting judicially, whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. ... The term show trial serves most commonly to label a type of public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the accused: the actual trial has as its only goal to present the accusation and the verdict to the public as an impressive example and... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) is a tax-exempt Non-profit organization and corporation, originally created to oppose the Vietnam War. ... Neil Alden Armstrong born August 5, 1930 (age 76) is a former American astronaut, test pilot, university professor, and Naval Aviator, and was the first human to set foot on the Moon. ... July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... Oakland, founded in 1852, is the eighth-largest city in California[1] and the county seat of Alameda County. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... The Lincoln Memorial, on the extended axis of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial built to honor President Abraham Lincoln. ... Abbott Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936_April 12, 1989) was a social and political activist in the United States, co-founder of the Youth International Party (Yippies) and, later, a fugitive from the law who lived under an alias following a conviction for allegedly dealing cocaine. ... Jerry Rubin (July 14, 1938 – November 28, 1994) was a high-profile American social activist during the 1960s and 1970s. ... An anti-war activist is arrested for civil disobedience on the steps of the Supreme Court of the United States on February 9, 2005. ... Norman Mailer, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1948 Norman Kingsley Mailer (born January 31, 1923) is an American novelist, journalist, playwright, screenwriter and film director. ... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ...

1968

  • February: Gallup poll showed 35% approved of Johnson's handling of the war; 50% disapproved; the rest, no opinion. [NYT, 2/14/68] In another poll that month, 23% of Americans defined themselves as "doves" and 61% "hawks".[5]
  • March 12: anti-war candidate Eugene McCarthy received more votes than expected in the New Hampshire Primary, leading to more expressions of opposition against the war. McCarthy urged his supporters to exchange the 'unkempt look' that was rapidly becoming fashionable among war opponents, for a more clean-cut style, in order to petition middle-class and 'soccer mom' votes; these were known as "Clean Genes".
  • In March, Gallup poll reported that 49% of respondents felt involvement in the war was an error.
  • During the 1968 Democratic National Convention, held August 26August 29 in Chicago, anti-war protesters assembled throughout the city. Tensions between police and protesters quickly escalated, resulting in a "police riot".

March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (72nd in leap years). ... Eugene Joseph Gene McCarthy (March 29, 1916 – December 10, 2005) was an American politician and a longtime member of the U.S. Congress. ... The New Hampshire primary marks the opening of the quadrennial U.S. presidential election. ... The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election. ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, City of the Big Shoulders, The 312, The City that Works, Second City (reference to when Chicago was second in population and prestige to New York). ... Police riot is a pejorative term that became increasingly more common through the late 20th century, implying the wrongful, disproportionate, unlawful and illegitimate use of force by a group of police against a group of civilians. ...

1969

  • March polls indicate that 19% of Americans want the war to end as soon as possible, 26% want South Vietnam to take over responsibility for the war from the U.S., 19% favor the current policy and 33% want all-out military victory. [6]
  • July 1969: A Gallup poll indicates that 53% of the respondents approve of Nixon's handling of the war; 30% disapprove; the balance have no opinion. [New York Times, 7/31/69]
  • The Moratorium demonstrations took place on October 15, 1969. Millions of Americans took the day off from work and school to participate in local demonstrations against the war. These were the first major demonstrations against the Nixon administration's handling of the war. On November 15, 1969 crowds estimated up to half a million people participated in an anti-war demonstration in Washington, D.C. with a similar demonstration being held in San Francisco, these protests being organized by the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam (New Mobe) and the Student Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam (SMC).
  • In October, 58% of Gallup respondents said US entry into the war was a mistake.

October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ...

1970

  • Kent State/Cambodia Incursion Protest, Washington, D.C. A week after the Kent State Shootings, on 4 May, 100,000 anti-war demonstrators converged on Washington, D.C. to protest the shooting of the students in Ohio and the Nixon administration's incursion into Cambodia. Even though the demonstration was quickly put together, protesters were still able to bring out thousands to march in the Capital. It was an almost spontaneous response to the events of the previous week. Police ringed the White House with buses to block the demonstrators from getting too close to the executive mansion. Early in the morning before the march, Nixon met with protesters briefly at the Lincoln Memorial but nothing was resolved and the protest went on as planned.
  • On August 24, 1970, near 3:40 a.m., a van filled with ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixture was detonated on the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the Sterling Hall bombing.

John Filos Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph of Mary Ann Vecchio, a fourteen-year-old runaway, kneeling over the dead or dying body of Jeffrey Miller, shot in the mouth by an unknown Ohio National Guardsman. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... The Lincoln Memorial, on the extended axis of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial built to honor President Abraham Lincoln. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Once home to the physics department at UW-Madison, it also housed the Army Mathematics Research Center which made it the target of student protests. ... The Chicano Moratorium, formally known as the National Chicano Moratorium Committee, was a movement of Chicano anti-war activists that built a broad-based but fragile coalition of Mexican-American groups to organize opposition to the Vietnam War. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Ruben Salazar or Rubén Salazar (March 3, 1928 - August 29, 1970) was a Mexican-American news reporter killed by the police during the National Chicano Moratorium March against the Vietnam War on August 29, 1970 in Los Angeles, California. ... KMEX (Channel 34) is a Univision television station affiliate in the Los Angeles area. ... The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ...

1971 and beyond

Avoiding service in the Vietnam War would later become an issue in American politics. Politicians criticized for avoiding service include Vice-President Dan Quayle, President Bill Clinton, President George W. Bush and Vice-President Dick Cheney. James Danforth Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ...


Opposition to the Vietnam War in Australia followed along similar lines to the United States, particularly with opposition to conscription. While Australian disengagement began in August 1971 under Prime Minister John Gorton, it was not until the election of Gough Whitlam in 1972 that conscription ended. Sir John Grey Gorton GCMG AC CH (9 September 1911 – 19 May 2002), Australian politician, was the 19th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Edward Gough Whitlam AC QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), Australian politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ...


The bombing of Hanoi on December 24, 1972 resulted in harsh reactions from the prime-minister of Sweden Olof Palme. During his famous speech that same day to the media (Nowadays referred to as "The Christmas speech"), he expressed harsh criticism for the war, comparing it with several of Nazi Germany's worst deeds. This froze the diplomatic climate between the United States and Sweden, which lasted until March 1974. December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ) (January 30, 1927 – February 28, 1986) was a Swedish politician. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Common slogans and chants

  • "Hey, hey LBJ, how many kids have you killed today?"
  • The slogan "One, two, three, four! We don't want your fucking war!" was chanted repeatedly at demonstrations throughout the U.S. in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
  • "Draft Beer, not boys", "Hell no, we won't go", "Make love, not war" and "Eighteen today, dead tomorrow" were a few of the anti war slogans.
  • "Fight the VD, Not the VC!" displayed sentiments to concentrate more on the familiar problem of venereal diseases than the foreign group, the Vietcong.
  • "Love our country", "America, love it or leave it" and "No glory like old glory" are examples of pro-war slogans.

There are many other pro- and anti-war slogans, however the mere informational use of those are very small. The group that mostly used the anti-war slogans were called "doves"; those that supported the war were known as "hawks." A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ...


Anti-war songs of the Vietnam Era

See also: List of protest songs

Blowin in the Wind is a song written by Bob Dylan in April 1962, and released on his 1963 album The Freewheelin Bob Dylan. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941), is an American singer-songwriter, author, musician, and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ... Masters Of War is a song by Bob Dylan, written in 1963 and released on the album The Freewheelin Bob Dylan. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941), is an American singer-songwriter, author, musician, and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ... With God On Our Side is a song by Bob Dylan, released as the third track on his 1964 album The Times They Are A-Changin. Dylan first performed the song during his debut appearance at The Town Hall in New York City on April 12, 1963. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941), is an American singer-songwriter, author, musician, and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ... I Aint Marching Anymore was Phil Ochs second long player, released on Elektra Records in 1965. ... Philip David Ochs (December 19, 1940 – April 9, 1976) was a U.S. protest singer (or, as he preferred, a topical singer), songwriter, musician and recording artist who was known for his sharp wit, sardonic humor, earnest humanism, political activism, insightful and alliterative lyrics, and haunting voice. ... The former church where Alice and Ray lived and where the story begins; the restaurant itself is roughly six miles north in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. ... A press photo of Arlo Guthrie. ... Country Joe and the Fish, from the cover of Feel Like Im Fixin to Die Country Joe and the Fish was a rock music/folk music band known for musical protests against the Vietnam War, from 1965 to 1970. ... The Doors were an American rock band formed in 1965 in Los Angeles by keyboardist Ray Manzarek, vocalist Jim Morrison, drummer John Densmore, and guitarist Robby Krieger. ... Fortunate Son is an episode of Star Trek: Enterprise Fortunate Son is a song originally performed by Creedence Clearwater Revival on their Album Willy and the Poor Boys Fortunate Son was a Pulitzer Prize-winning autobiography by Lewis Puller Fortunate Son was a controversial biography of George W. Bush by... Creedence Clearwater Revival, commonly referred to by their initials CCR or simply Creedence, was an American rock band, fronted by John Fogerty. ... It has been suggested that The Sparrows be merged into this article or section. ... Give Peace a Chance was a hit song written by John Lennon and originally credited to Lennon-McCartney. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... One Tin Soldier is a ‘60s era anti-war song written by Dennis Lambert and Brian Potter. ... Coven is a pop/rock band, composed of vocalist Jinx Dawson, bassist Oz Osborne (not to be confused with) and drummer Steve Ross. ... Ohio is a protest song performed by Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, and written by Neil Young in reaction to the Kent State shootings of May 4, 1970. ... Crosby, Stills & Nash, also Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young when including occasional fourth member Neil Young, are a folk rock/rock supergroup. ... War Pigs is an anti-war song by British heavy metal rockers Black Sabbath from their 1970 album, Paranoid. ... It has been suggested that Polka Tulk be merged into this article or section. ... War is a soul song written by Norman Whitfield and Barrett Strong for the Motown label in 1969. ... Edwin Starr (January 21, 1942 – April 3, 2003) was a soul music singer. ... Whats Going On is a 1971 hit single by Marvin Gaye for the Motown label, and the title track from his groundbreaking 1971 LP Whats Going On. ... Marvin Gaye (born Marvin Pentz Gay, Jr. ... For information about protest songs in general, see Protest song. ...

See also

An anti-war activist is arrested for civil disobedience on the steps of the Supreme Court of the United States on February 9, 2005. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) can be both a political strategy or moral philosophy that rejects the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political change. ... This article is about opposition to the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the Iraq War from outside Iraq. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... The following is a list of protest marches on Washington, DC: April 30, 1894 - Coxeys Army. ... On Monday, May 3rd, 1971 one of the most disruptive actions of the Vietnam War era occurred in Washington, DC, when thousands of anti-war activists tried to shut down the Federal government in protest of the Vietnam War. ... Once home to the physics department at UW-Madison, it also housed the Army Mathematics Research Center which made it the target of student protests. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Vietnam War protests (1650 words)
The Vietnam war protests,or Anti-war movement, initiated by college students, was instrumental in questioning the policies surrounding America's involvement in Indochina's affairs.
The Vietnam conflict was a war whose origins many did not understand, that seemed an exercise in futility, and that left a nation questioning the policies of a government they’d always trusted.
Vietnam became a country of the rich and the poor, of corruption, of subjugated peasants, of bandits and frequent uprisings and revolts.
The Anti-War Movement in the United States (3055 words)
Hayden cited the uncertainty of life in Cold War America and the degradation of African Americans in the South as examples of the failure of liberal ideology and called for a reevaluation of academic acquiescence in what he claimed was a dangerous conspiracy to maintain a sense of apathy among American youth.
By 1968, faced with widespread public opposition to the war and troubling prospects in Vietnam, the Johnson administration halted the bombing of North Vietnam and stabilized the ground war.
During the Johnson administration, it played a significant role in constraining the war and was a major factor in the administration's policy reversal in 1968.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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