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Encyclopedia > Vietnam Veterans Memorial
Vietnam Veteran's Memorial
IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)
Location Washington, D.C., USA
Coordinates 38°53′28″N 77°2′52″W / 38.89111, -77.04778
Area 2.00 acres (8,100 m²)
Established November 13, 1982
Visitors 3,799,968 (in 2005)
Governing body National Park Service

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is a national war memorial located in Washington, D.C., that honors members of the U.S. armed forces who fought in the Vietnam War and who died in service or are still unaccounted for. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links US_Locator_Blank. ... ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... This memorial in England lists the names of soldiers who died in the First World War. ... ... The United States Armed Forces are the military services of the United States. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Its construction and related issues have been the source of numerous controversies, some of which have resulted in additions to the memorial complex. The memorial currently consists of three separate parts: the Three Soldiers statue, the Vietnam Women's Memorial, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall, which is the most recognized part of the memorial. The Three Soldiers Statue The Three Soldiers (also known as The Three Servicemen) is a bronze statue on the Washington, DC Mall commemorating the Vietnam War. ... The Vietnam Womens Memorial, as seen from the footpath The Vietnam Womens Memorial is a memorial dedicated to the women of the United States who served in the Vietnam War, most of whom were nurses. ...


The main part of the memorial was completed in 1982 and is located in Constitution Gardens adjacent to the National Mall, just northeast of the Lincoln Memorial. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is maintained by the U.S. National Park Service, and receives around 3 million visitors each year. The Memorial Wall was designed by U.S. architect Maya Lin. The typesetting was performed by Datalantic in Atlanta, Georgia. Constitution Gardens is part of the National Mall in Washington, DC. The 50 acre (200,000 m²) park is located in between the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument, bounded on the north by Constitution Avenue and on the south by the Reflecting Pool. ... Facing east across the Mall with ones back towards the Lincoln Memorial. ... The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Visitors at Vietnam Veterans Memorial Maya Ying Lin (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born October 5, 1959) is an American artist who has become known for her work in sculpture and landscape art. ... Atlanta redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Various items left at the wall.
Various items left at the wall.
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall is a place of deep personal reflection for many visitors.
  • April 27, 1979 - The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Inc. (VVMF), was incorporated as a non-profit organization to establish a memorial to veterans of the Vietnam War. Much of the impetus behind the formation of the Fund came from a wounded Vietnam veteran, Jan Scruggs, who was inspired by the film The Deer Hunter. Eventually, $8.4 million was raised by private donations.
  • December 29, 1980 - 2,573 register for design competition with a prize of $50,000.
  • March 31, 1981 - 1,421 designs submitted. The designs are displayed at an airport hangar at Andrews Air Force Base for the selection committee, in rows covering more than 35,000 square feet (3,300 m²) of floor space. Each entry was identified by number only, to preserve the anonymity of their authors. All entries were examined by each juror; the entries were narrowed down to 232, finally 39. The jury selected Entry Number 1026.
  • January 1982 - The Three Soldiers was added to the design as a result of controversy over Lin's design.
  • October 13, 1982 - U.S. Commission of Fine Arts approves erection of a flagpole to be grouped with sculptures.
  • 1994 - The Pentagon, instead of adding two unidentified bodies of Vietnam veterans to the Tomb of the Unknowns, recommended that a display of medals be added behind the tomb with a plaque reading: "Let all know that the United States of America pays tribute to the members of the Armed Forces who answered their country's call." A Veterans Affairs subcommittee later changed the statement to read: "Let all know that the United States of America pays tribute to the members of the Armed Forces who served honorably in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam Era." Later, in 1978, Congress, prodded by the Vietnam-Era Caucus (composed of veteran Congressmen), discussed creating a "Vietnam Veterans Week" to honor the survivors of the war.
  • November 10, 2004 - Dedication of memorial plaque honoring veterans who died after the war as a direct result of injuries suffered in Vietnam, but who fall outside Department of Defense guidelines.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata IMG_2717-vi. ... Image File history File linksMetadata IMG_2717-vi. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1110x1281, 277 KB) A visitor touching a name on The Wall at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1110x1281, 277 KB) A visitor touching a name on The Wall at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Commanders Van Tien Dung Tran Van Tra Hoang Cam Le Duc Anh Nguyen Van Toan Nguyen Hop Doan Strength 100,000 [1] 30,000 [1] Casualties and losses Unknown Unknown The Fall of Saigon... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund is dedicated to remembering those who served in Vietnam and to maintaining the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington D.C. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Inc. ... Jan Scruggs is best known for being the founder of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. ... For other uses, see Deer Hunter. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... National Mall and Memorial Parks (also known as National Capital Parks-Central) is an administrative unit of the National Park Service encompassing many national memorials and other areas in Washington, D.C. They include: African American Civil War Memorial Constitution Gardens East Potomac Park Fords Theatre National Historic Site... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Emblem of the AFDW Andrews Air Force Base (ICAO code KADW) is a United States Air Force base near Washington, DC and the home base of the U.S. presidential aircraft, Air Force One. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Harry Mohr Weese (June 30, 1915 - October 29, 1998) was an American architect, who was born in Evanston, Illinois [1] in the Chicago suburbs who had an important role in 20th Century modernism and historic preservation. ... Richard Hunt (August 16, 1951 - January 7, 1992) was an American puppeteer best known for his association with The Muppets. ... Garrett Eckbo (November 28, 1910 – May 14, 2000) was an American landscape architect notable for his seminal 1950 book Landscape for Living. ... Costantino Nivola, nicknamed Tino (Orani, Italy, 1911 - Long Island USA, 1988) was a Sardinian painter and sculptor. ... James Rosati was an American sculptor. ... Hideo Sasaki (1919 Reedley, CA - 2000) Influential Japanese American landscape architect // Biography Hideo Sasaki was born in Reedley, California on November 25th, 1919. ... Pietro Belluschi (August 18, 1899 - February 14, 1994) was an architect, a leader of the Modern Architecture movement, and responsible for the design of over one thousand buildings. ... Maya Ying Lin (林瓔, pinyin: Lín Yīng) (born October 10, 1959) is an Chinese American artist and architect. ... Yale redirects here. ... Athens is a historic college town in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Ohio, best known as the home of Ohio University. ... The Three Soldiers Statue The Three Soldiers (also known as The Three Servicemen) is a bronze statue on the Washington, DC Mall commemorating the Vietnam War. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... In the United States, National Memorial is a designation for a protected area that is commemorative of an historic person or episode. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... The Three Soldiers Statue The Three Soldiers (also known as The Three Servicemen) is a bronze statue on the Washington, DC Mall commemorating the Vietnam War. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Vietnam Womens Memorial, as seen from the footpath The Vietnam Womens Memorial is a memorial dedicated to the women of the United States who served in the Vietnam War, most of whom were nurses. ... , Sailor and woman at the Tomb of the Unknowns, May 1943 The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named) is a monument in Arlington National Cemetery in the United States dedicated to the American servicemen who have... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ...

Structure

A satellite image of the Wall taken on April 26, 2002 by the United States Geological Survey. The dots visible along the length of the angled wall are visitors. For a satellite view of the Wall in relation to other monuments, see Constitution Gardens.
A satellite image of the Wall taken on April 26, 2002 by the United States Geological Survey. The dots visible along the length of the angled wall are visitors. For a satellite view of the Wall in relation to other monuments, see Constitution Gardens.

United States Geological Survey satellite image of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall. ... United States Geological Survey satellite image of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... Constitution Gardens is part of the National Mall in Washington, DC. The 50 acre (200,000 m²) park is located in between the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument, bounded on the north by Constitution Avenue and on the south by the Reflecting Pool. ...

Memorial Wall

The Memorial Wall, designed by Maya Ying Lin, is made up of two black granite walls 246 feetinches (75 meters) long. The walls are sunk into the ground, with the earth behind them. At the highest tip (the apex where they meet), they are 10.1 feet (3 m) high, and they taper to a height of eight inches (20cm) at their extremities. Granite for the wall came from Bangalore, Karnataka, India and was deliberately chosen because of its reflective quality. Stone cutting and fabrication was done in Barre, Vermont. Stones were then shipped to Memphis, Tennessee where the names were etched. The etching was completed using a photoemulsion and sandblasting process developed at GlassCraft by their research and development division (now known as Glassical, Inc.). The negatives used in the process are in storage at the Smithsonian Institution. When a visitor looks upon the wall, his or her reflection can be seen simultaneously with the engraved names, which is meant to symbolically bring the past and present together. One wall points toward the Washington Monument, the other in the direction of the Lincoln Memorial, meeting at an angle of 125° 12′. Each wall has 72 panels, 70 listing names (numbered 1E through 70E and 70W through 1W) and 2 very small blank panels at the extremities. There is a pathway along the base of the Wall, where visitors may walk, read the names, make a pencil rubbing of a particular name, or pray. Some people leave sentimental items there for their deceased loved ones, and non-perishable items are stored at the Museum and Archaeological Regional Storage Facility, with the exception of miniature American flags. Maya Ying Lin (林瓔, pinyin: Lín Yīng) (born October 10, 1959) is an Chinese American artist and architect. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... , For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Indian region. ... Barre Town, Vermont Barre is a town in Washington County, Vermont, United States. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Photo emulsion is a photosensitive substance used in screen printing that hardens when subjected to ultraviolet light. ... Man sandblasting a stone wall Device used for adding sand to the compressed air (top of which is a sieve for adding the sand) Diesel powered compressor used as an air supply for sandbasting Sandblasting or bead blasting[1] is a generic term for the process of smoothing, shaping and... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... This article is about the monument in Washington, D.C. For other monuments dedicated to George Washington, see Washington Monuments (world). ... The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ...


Inscribed on the walls with the Optima typeface are the names of servicemen who either KIA (Killed in Action) or remained classified as MIA (Missing in Action) when the walls were constructed in 1982. They are listed in chronological order, starting at the apex on panel 1E in 1959 (although it was later discovered that the first casualties were military advisers who were killed by artillery fire in 1957), moving day by day to the end of the eastern wall at panel 70E, which ends on May 25, 1968, starting again at panel 70W at the end of the western wall which completes the list for May 25, 1968, and returning to the apex at panel 1W in 1975. Symbolically, this is described as a "wound that is closed and healing." Information about rank, unit, and decorations are not given. The wall listed 58,159 names when it was completed in 1993; as of May 5, 2007, when another name was added, there are 58,256 names, including 8 women. Approximately 1,200 of these are listed as missing (MIAs, POWs, and others), denoted with a cross; the confirmed dead are marked with a diamond. If the missing return alive, the cross is circumscribed by a circle, (although this has never occurred as of January 2007); if their death is confirmed, a diamond is superimposed over the cross. According to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund "there is no definitive answer to exactly how many, but there could be as many as 38 names of personnel who survived, but through clerical errors, were added to the list of fatalities provided by the Department of Defense."[2] Visitors can use directories to locate specific names. Optima is the name of a typeface designed by Hermann Zapf between 1952-1955. ... “Font” redirects here. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to designate a combatant who is Missing In Action, and has not yet returned or otherwise been accounted for as either dead (KIA) or a prisoner of war (POW). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Beginning and ending timeline for those listed on the wall

A Marine at Vietnam Memorial on 4th July 2002
A Marine at Vietnam Memorial on 4th July 2002
Names of Vietnam veterans
Names of Vietnam veterans
  • September 26, 1945 - U.S. Army Office of Strategic Services (OSS) officer Major (posthumously promoted to Ltc. Colonel) A. Peter Dewey, working with the Viet Minh to repatriate captured Americans from the Japanese, was shot by Vietnamese working for the French Intelligence Service outside Saigon. He is not recognized on the memorial as American involvement officially begins in 1955.
  • November 1, 1955 - Dwight D. Eisenhower deploys Military Assistance Advisory Group to train the South Vietnamese military units and secret police. However, the U.S. Department of Defense does not recognize such date since the men were supposedly only training the Vietnamese. The officially recognized date is the formation of the Military Assistance Command Viet-Nam, better known as MACV. This marks the official beginning of American involvement in the war as recognized by the memorial.
  • June 8, 1956 - The first official death in Viet-Nam is U.S. Air Force Technical Sergeant Richard B. Fitzgibbon, Jr. of Stoneham, MA who was killed by another U.S. airman.
  • October 21, 1957 - U.S. Army Special Forces Captain Harry G. Cramer is killed during a training action. He is added to the wall after its dedication.
  • April 30, 1975 - Fall of Saigon. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs uses May, 7, 1975 as the official end date for the Viet-Nam era as defined by Title 38 U.S. Code Section 101.
  • May 15, 1975 - 18 soldiers are killed on the last day of a rescue operation known as the Mayagüez incident with troops from the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. They are the last soldiers listed on the timeline (Daniel A. Benedett, Lynn Blessing, Walter Boyd, Gregory S. Copenhaver, Andres Garcia, Bernard Gause, Jr., Gary L. Hall, Joseph N. Hargrove, James J. Jacques, Ashton N. Loney, Ronald J. Manning, Danny G. Marshall, James R. Maxwell, Richard W. Rivenburgh, Elwood E. Rumbaugh, Antonio Ramos Sandovall, Kelton R. Turner, Richard Vande Geer).

Image File history File links Vietnam-memorial-soldier. ... Image File history File links Vietnam-memorial-soldier. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A. Peter Dewey (1916-September 26, 1945) was gunned down by Viet Minh troops on September 26, 1945, was the first American casualty in the Vietnam War. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) is a designation for American military advisors sent to assist in the training of conventional armed forces of Third World countries. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chester Melvin Ovnand (September 8, 1914 - July 8, 1959) is listed on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial as the first person killed in the Vietnam War. ... Dale Richard Buis (August 29, 1921 - July 8, 1959) is the second name listed on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial as the first U.S. casualties of the Vietnam War. ... Bien Hoa is a city in Dong Nai Province, Vietnam, about 20 miles (30 kilometers) east of Ho Chi Minh City, to which Bien Hoa is linked by Vietnam Highway 1. ... Jeanne Crain Jeanne Elizabeth Crain (May 25, 1925 – December 14, 2003) was an American actress. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Commanders Van Tien Dung Tran Van Tra Hoang Cam Le Duc Anh Nguyen Van Toan Nguyen Hop Doan Strength 100,000 [1] 30,000 [1] Casualties and losses Unknown Unknown The Fall of Saigon... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States of America Democratic Kampuchea Commanders Lt. ... Some of the Khmer Rouge leaders during their period in power. ...

The Three Soldiers

Main article: The Three Soldiers
The Three Soldiers
The Three Soldiers

A short distance away from the wall is another part of the memorial, a bronze statue named The Three Soldiers (sometimes called The Three Servicemen). Negative reactions to Lin's design created a raging controversy; a compromise was reached by commissioning Frederick Hart (who had placed third in the original design competition) to produce a bronze figurative sculpture in the heroic tradition in order to complement the memorial wall. The statue was unveiled in 1984 and depicts three soldiers, purposefully identifiable as White American, Black American, and Hispanic American. The statue and the Wall appear to interact with each other, with the soldiers looking on in solemn tribute at the names of their dead comrades. The distance between the two allows them to interact while minimizing the impact of the addition on Lin's design. The Three Soldiers Statue The Three Soldiers (also known as The Three Servicemen) is a bronze statue on the Washington, DC Mall commemorating the Vietnam War. ... ImageMetadata File history File links The_Three_Soldiers. ... ImageMetadata File history File links The_Three_Soldiers. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... Frederick Hart Frederick Hart (1943 – 1999) was an American sculptor, best known for his public monuments and works of art in bronze, marble, and clear acrylic (a technique he coined as sculpting with light). // Hart was born in Atlanta in 1943 while his father was serving in World War II... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... The Hispanic world Hispanic (Spanish: Hispano) is a term denoting a derivation from Spain, its people and culture. ...


Women's Memorial

The Vietnam Women's memorial

Also part of the memorial is the Vietnam Women's memorial. It is located a short distance south of The Wall, north of the Reflecting Pool. It was designed by Glenna Goodacre and dedicated on November 11, 1993, to the women of the United States who served in the Vietnam War, most of whom were nurses. The Vietnam Womens Memorial, as seen from the footpath The Vietnam Womens Memorial is a memorial dedicated to the women of the United States who served in the Vietnam War, most of whom were nurses. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x1111, 264 KB) Beschreibung: Vietnam Womens Memorial on the Wall in Washington DC Fotograf: Raul654 first upload at en: wikipedia on 03:08, 25. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x1111, 264 KB) Beschreibung: Vietnam Womens Memorial on the Wall in Washington DC Fotograf: Raul654 first upload at en: wikipedia on 03:08, 25. ... The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall is the most identified feature of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. ... One famous reflecting pool lies between the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.. A reflecting pool is a structure often used in memorials. ... Glenna Goodacre is an artist best known for having designed the Sacagawea Dollar that entered circulation in the United States in 2000. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the occupation. ...


In Memory memorial plaque

A memorial plaque, authorized by Pub.L. 106-214, was dedicated on November 10, 2004, at the northeast corner of the plaza surrounding the Three Soldiers statue to honor veterans who died after the war as a direct result of injuries suffered in Vietnam, but who fall outside Department of Defense guidelines. The plaque is a carved block of black granite, 3 feet (0.91 m) by 2 feet (0.61 m), inscribed "In memory of the men and women who served in the Vietnam War and later died as a result of their service. We honor and remember their sacrifice." is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ...


Ruth Coder Fitzgerald, founder of The Vietnam War In Memory Memorial Plaque Project, worked for years and struggled against opposition to have the In Memory Memorial Plaque completed. The organization was disbanded, but their web site is maintained by the Vietnam War Project at Texas Tech University.


Controversies

The Vietnam War was one of the longest and most controversial wars in United States history. A stated goal of the memorial fund was to avoid commentary on the war itself, serving solely as a memorial to those who served. Nevertheless, a large number of controversies have surrounded the memorial.


Despite this, or even perhaps partly due to it, the memorial seems to have been very successful in many ways. As noted above, it is visited by millions of people every year, and thousands of offerings and tokens are left by visitors.


Design

Original design submission by Maya Lin.
Original design submission by Maya Lin.

The initial design for the complex was that of the memorial wall. The other elements were added later and were not part of the initial plans. The design was chosen by a panel of eight professional artists and architects. It is abstract in form, and strikingly in contrast to the figurative memorials, usually in white stone or bronze, whose tradition goes back hundreds, if not thousands of years. Thus, it did not meet many people's ideas of what a monument should look like. Visitors at Vietnam Veterans Memorial Maya Ying Lin (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born October 5, 1959) is an American artist who has become known for her work in sculpture and landscape art. ... Kazimir Malevich, Black square 1915 Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses color and form in a non-representational way. ...


Veterans and others[attribution needed] complained that it looked too much like an ugly scar in the ground, reflecting the attitude and stigma the American government and public had towards the war and its veterans. In particular, the fact that the wall sloped down below ground level caused some to claim that the monument attempted to hide the war. Some say[attribution needed] that the downward slope, changing to a rise, serves as a powerful metaphor for the American experience during the war for visitors who walk its length. The simple, elegant listing of the names of the fallen starts slowly and grows in magnitude on descent. They believe that it is not possible to visit without gaining an understanding of the cultural trauma that gripped the nation during these years. Others claimed the dark stone made it look like a gravestone rather than glorifying the dead. On exiting, the view opens with a view toward the Washington Monument, giving those who lived through the era an uneasy sense of relief that the war is in the past and the nation was able to rise above it. Headstones in the Japanese Cemetry in Broome, Western Australia A cemetery in rural Spain A typical late 20th century headstone in the United States A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a marker, normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the site of a burial. ...


Maya Lin

As depicted in a documentary about Maya Lin (Maya Lin: A Strong Clear Vision), reactions to the chosen memorial design were intensely mixed. At the time of the contest, Lin was a young student at Yale University. The wall was designed as a class project for a funerary design class. Maya Lin's Asian heritage was a sensitive issue, though she is of Nationalist Chinese ancestry, and she was not even named in the memorial's 1982 dedication ceremony.[citation needed] Visitors at Vietnam Veterans Memorial Maya Ying Lin (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born October 5, 1959) is an American artist who has become known for her work in sculpture and landscape art. ... Yale redirects here. ...


Dedication

Another controversy related to the political leaders who did not appear at the 1982 dedication of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Neither Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter or Ronald Reagan attended the ceremony. Senators Warner and Mathias did appear, however.[citation needed] Nixon redirects here. ... Order: 39th President Term of Office: January 20, 1977–January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic Vice President: Walter Mondale James Earl... Reagan redirects here. ...


The Three Soldiers

The creation of this element of the memorial is directly related to the design controversy mentioned above. There is also another controversy related to this part of the memorial; see the article on the sculpture for details. The Three Soldiers Statue The Three Soldiers (also known as The Three Servicemen) is a bronze statue on the Washington, DC Mall commemorating the Vietnam War. ...


Women's memorial

The original winning entry of the Women's Memorial design contest was deemed unsuitable. Glenda Goodacre's entry received an honorable mention in the contest and she was asked to submit a modified maquette (design model). Goodacre's original design for the Women's Memorial statue included a standing figure of a nurse holding a Vietnamese baby, which although not intended as such was deemed a political statement, and it was asked that this be removed. She replaced them with a figure of a kneeling woman holding an empty helmet. Adobe Ceramic maquette model of a tower. ...


The Moving Wall

Vietnam veteran John Devitt of Stockton, California, attended the 1982 dedication ceremonies of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Recognizing what he saw as the healing nature of the Wall, he vowed to make a transportable version of the Wall, a "Traveling Wall" so those who were not able to travel to Washington, D.C. would be able to see and touch the names of friends or loved ones in their own home town.


Using personal finances, John founded Vietnam Combat Veterans, Ltd. With the help of friends, the half-size replica of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, named The Moving Wall,[3] was built and first put on display to the public in Tyler, Texas, in 1984. Tyler is the county seat of Smith County in East Texas, United States. ...


The Moving Wall visits hundreds of small towns and cities throughout the USA, staying five or six days at each site. Local arrangements for each visit are made months in advance by veterans organizations and other civic groups. Thousands of people all over the US volunteered their time and money to help honor the fallen.


Desire for a hometown visit of The Moving Wall was so high the waiting list became long. In 1987, Vietnam Combat Veterans built a second structure of The Moving Wall. A third structure was added in 1989. In 2001, one of the structures was retired due to wear.


By 2006, there had been more than 1000 hometown visits of The Moving Wall. The count of people who visited The Moving Wall at each display ranges from 5,000 to more than 50,000; the total estimate of visitors is in the tens of millions.


As the Wall moves from town to town on interstates, it is often escorted by state troopers and up to thousands of local citizens on motorcycles. Many of these are Patriot Guard Riders, who consider escorting the Moving Wall to be a "Special Mission," which is thus coordinated on their website. As it passes towns, even when it is not planning a stop in those towns, local veterans organizations sometimes plan for local citizens to gather by the highway and across overpasses to wave flags and salute the Wall.[3] For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... The Patriot Guard Riders is a group of veterans, motorcyclists, and others, based in Kansas, who make it a practice to attend funerals of members of the U.S. armed forces killed in Iraq, if receiving invitations from the families. ...


Traditions

  • All nonperishable items left at the memorial—with the exception of miniature American flags—are collected daily and stored at the Museum and Archaeological Regional Storage Facility of the National Park Service.
  • A selection of items left at the memorial are on display at the nearby American History section of the Smithsonian Institution.

The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...

See also

The Moving Wall is a half-size replica of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. It was deviced by John Devitt after he attended the annual commemoration celebrated in Washington for Vietnam veterans. ... The Australian Vietnam Forces National Memorial is on ANZAC Parade, the principal ceremonial and memorial avenue in Canberra, the capital city of Australia. ... The Three Soldiers by Frederick Hart The Vietnam Veterans Memorial (The Wall-USA) is an on-line Memorial. ... Vietnam Veterans of America Inc. ... Vietnam Veterans Memorial The Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC, USA, has the names of more than 58,000 American military men and women who died in the Vietnam War carved into its black granite surfaces. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://alum.mit.edu/ne/whatmatters/200209/index.html Vietnam Veterans Memorial lessons for September 11
  2. ^ Vietnam Memorial Fund - FAQs.
  3. ^ a b "Local AMVETS to Salute Wall", Greenville Advocate, July 17, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-30. 

is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Wreaths placed around the Three Soldiers Statue
Wreaths placed around the Three Soldiers Statue
  • Vietnam Veterans Memorial, National Park Service leaflet, GPO:2004—304-377/00203
  • The National Parks: Index 2001–2003. Washington: U.S. Department of the Interior.

The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally owned land. ...

Further reading

  • Ashabranner, Brent K., Always to Remember: The Story of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Putnam, New York 1989.
  • Ashabranner, Brent K., Their Names to Live: What the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Means to America, Twenty-first Century Press, Brookfield CT, 1998.
  • Berdahl, Daphne, "Voices at the Wall: Discourses of Self, History and National Identity at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial," History & Memory: Studies in Representation of the Past 6 (Fall/Winter 1994), 88-124.
  • Blair, Carole, Jeppeson, Marsha S., and Pucci, Enrico Jr., "Public Memorializing in Postmodernity: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial as Prototype," Quarterly Journal of Speech 77 (August 1991), 263-288.
  • Capasso, Nicholas, The National Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Context: Commemorative Public Art in America, 1960–1997, Ph.D. Thesis, Rutgers University, 1998.
  • Carlson, A. Cheree, and Hocking, John E., "Strategies of Redemption at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial," Western Journal of Speech Communication 52 (September 1988), 203-215.
  • Carney, Lora S., "Not Telling Us What to Think: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial," Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 8 (1993), 211-219.
  • Danto, Arthur, "The Vietnam Veterans Memorial," The Nation, 31 August 1985, 152-155.
  • Ellis, Caron S., "So Old Soldiers Don't Fade Away: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial," Journal of American Culture 15 (Summer 1992), 25-28.
  • Ehrenhaus, Peter, "Silence and Symbolic Expression," Communication Monographs 55 (March 1988), 41-57.
  • Foss, Sonja K, "Ambiguity as Persuasion: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial," Communication Quarterly 34 (Summer 1986), 326-340.
  • Friedman, Daniel S., "Public Things in the Modern City: Belated Notes on Tilted Arc and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial," JAE: Journal of Architectural Education 49 (November 1995), 62-78.
  • Griswold, Charles L., "The Vietnam Veterans Memorial and the Washington Mall: Philosophical Thoughts on Political Iconography," Critical Inquiry 12 (Summer 1986), 688-719.
  • Haines, Harry, "'What Kind of War?': An Analysis of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial," Critical Studies in Mass Communucation 3 (1986), 1-20.
  • Hess, Elizabeth, "Vietnam: Memorials of Misfortune," in Unwinding the Vietnam War: From War into Peace (Reese Williams, ed.), Real Comet Press, Seattle 1987, 261-270.
  • Hubbard, William, "A Meaning for Monuments," The Public Interest 74 (Winter 1984), 17-30.
  • Katakis, Michael, The Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Crown, New York 1988.
  • Lopes, Sal, The Wall: Images and Offerings from the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Collins, New York 1987.
  • McLeod, Mary, "The Battle for the Monument: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial," in The Experimental Tradition (Helene Lipstadt, ed.), Rizzoli, New York 1989, 115-137.
  • Morrissey, Thomas F., Between the Lines: Photographs from the National Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse 2000.
  • Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, “A Space of Loss: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial.” JAE: Journal of Architectural Education 50 (February 1997), 156-171.
  • Palmer, Laura, Shrapnel in the Heart: Letters and Remembrances from the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Random House, New York 1987.
  • Scott, Grant F., "Meditations in Black: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial," Journal of American Culture 13 (Fall 1990), 37-40.
  • Scruggs, Jan C., and Swerdlow, Joel L., To Heal a Nation: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Harper & Row, New York 1985.
  • Sturken, Marita, "The Wall, the Screen, and the Image: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial," Representations 35 (Summer 1991), 118-142.
  • Wagner-Pacific, Robin, & Schwartz, Barry, "The Vietnam Veterans Memorial: Commemorating a Difficult Past." The American Journal of Sociology, 97 (1991), 376-420.

Daphne Berdahl is the author of Where the World Ended, a factual account of her time spend in Kella, an eastern German border village between 1990 and 1992 ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Vietnam Veterans Memorial Home Page (184 words)
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial recognizes and honors the men and women who served in one of America's most divisive wars.
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is a place where everyone, regardless of opinion, can come together and remember and honor those who served.
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial accomplishes these goals through the three components that comprise the memorial: the Wall of names, the Three Servicemen Statue and Flagpole, and the Vietnam Women's Memorial.
Vietnam Veterans Memorial Summary (2496 words)
The Memorial consists of three separate parts — the Three Soldiers statue, the Vietnam Women's Memorial, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall, which is the most recognized part of the memorial.
April 27, 1979 - The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Inc., was incorporated as a non-profit organization to establish a memorial to veterans of the Vietnam War.
A memorial plaque was dedicated on November 10, 2004 at the northeast corner of the plaza surrounding the Three Soldiers statue to honor veterans who died after the war as a direct result of injuries suffered in Vietnam, but who fall outside Department of Defense guidelines.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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