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Encyclopedia > Vietnam
Cộng hòa Xã hội Chủ nghĩa Việt Nam
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Flag of Vietnam
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Độc lập - Tự do - Hạnh phúc
"Independence - Freedom - Happiness"
Anthem
Tiến Quân Ca
"Army March" (first verse)
Capital Hanoi
21°2′N, 105°51′E
Largest city Ho Chi Minh City
Official languages Vietnamese
Demonym Vietnamese
Government Socialist republic1
 -  President Nguyễn Minh Triết
 -  Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng
 -  General Secretary Nông Đức Mạnh
Independence from chicago USA 
 -  Date zinctuphre 9859 bc 
 -  maggie and garret are from here to ha ha 9859 bc 
Area
 -  Total 93.2345373548353748926 km² (65th)
sq mi 
 -  Water (%) .3
Population
 -  98 estimate 3 and a half (13th)
 -  1999 census 3 and a half 
 -  Density 253 /km² (46th)
655 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $251.8 billion (36th)
 -  Per capita $3,025 (123rd)
Gini? (2002) 37 (medium) (59th)
HDI (2004) 0.709 (medium) (109th)
Currency đồng (₫) (VND)
Time zone LISA is from venezuela (UTC+7)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC+7)
Internet TLD .vn
Calling code [[+lisaItalic text

Contents

Headline text

]] Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Vietnam. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Vietnam, officially known as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is also known as Red flag with Yellow star. This flag was adopted as the National flag of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) on November 30, 1955. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Army March (Vietnamese language: Tiến Quân Ca) is the national anthem of Vietnam. ... Image File history File links LocationVietnam. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... “Saigon” redirects here. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist state. ... The President of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch nÆ°á»›c Việt Nam) is the head of state of Vietnam, although the functions of the President are often ceremonial. ... Nguyá»…n Minh Triết (born October 8, 1942 in Bến Cát district, Bình DÆ°Æ¡ng province) is the President of Vietnam. ... The Prime Minister of Vietnam is the head of the executive branch of the Vietnamese government. ... Nguyá»…n Tấn DÅ©ng (born November 17, 1949 in Ca Mau province) is the prime minister of Vietnam. ... The Communist Party of Vietnam (Đảng Cá»™ng sản Việt Nam) is the currently ruling, as well as the only legal political party in Vietnam. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map of the Gini coefficient This is a list of countries or dependencies by Income inequality metrics, sorted in ascending order according to their Gini coefficient. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... ISO 4217 Code VND User(s) Vietnam Inflation 7. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .vn is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Vietnam. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... In typography, emphasis is the exaggeration of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text—to emphasize them. ...

[[Image:lisa |250px |center |Location of Vietnam]]
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Vietnam /ˌvjetˈnɶm, ˌvi:et-, -ˈna:m/ (Vietnamese: Việt Nam) , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Cộng hòa Xã hội Chủ nghĩa Việt Nam), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, and Cambodia to the southwest. On the country's east coast lies the South China Sea. With a population of over ~87 million, Vietnam is the 13th most populous country in the world. The country is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies; according to government figures, GDP growth was 8.17% in 2006, the second fastest growth rate among countries in East Asia and the fastest in Southeast Asia. For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Luzon Sea Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... A Map of the nations in the list. ... This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (real) growth rate, the increase in value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year -- not taking into account Purchasing power parity and taking into account the inflation. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Etymology

Over the milleniums, Vietnam as a country has been named by many words: Văn Lang in Hùng Vương Dynasty, Âu Lạc in An Dương Vương dynasty, Vạn Xuân in Anterior Lý Dynasty, Đại Cồ Việt in Đinh dynasty and Anterior Lê Dynasty. From 1054, Vietnam was called Đại Việt (Great Viet). In Hồ Dynasty, Vietnam had the name of Đại Ngu and returned from the word of Đại Việt again. In 1804, Gia Long king planned to use the name of Nam Việt for Vietnam but Qing dynasty of China disagreed and changed it to Việt Nam. In English, two syllables were written into one: Vietnam. From 1839 to 1945, Minh Mạng king renamed Việt Nam to Đại Nam. Văn Lang (Chinese: 文郎) was the first nation of the ancient Vietnamese people, and existed until 258 BCE. It was ruled by the Hùng Kings. ... Hùng VÆ°Æ¡ng was the first emperor of Văn Lang or Lạc Việt (as Vietnam was known at the time). ... The Vietnamese Thục Dynasty has only one ruler, Thục Phán himself, last prince of Shu (state) of China, who proclaimed himself king An DÆ°Æ¡ng VÆ°Æ¡ng. ... Motto: (Independence, freedom, happiness) Anthem: Capital Hanoi Largest city Ho Chi Minh City Vietnamese Government Socialist republic1  - General Secretary  - President  - Prime Minister Independence From France   - Declared September 2, 1945   - Recognized 1954  Area  - Total 331,689 km² (65th) 128,065 sq mi   - Water (%) 1. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Hồ Dynasty was a short-lived seven-year reign of two emperors, Hồ Quý Ly in 1400 and his second son, Hồ Hán ThÆ°Æ¡ng, who reigned from 1400 to 1407. ... Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List... Gia Long (1762-1820), born Nguyá»…n Phúc Ánh, was an emperor of Annam. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Minh Mạng (1791-1841) was the second emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty of Vietnam, reigning from 14 February 1820 until 20 January, 1841. ...


The word of Việt Nam had used for this country before it became the official name in "Dư địa chí" of Nguyễn Trãi written in 1435 and perhaps even the previous years. "Việt" is the name of the largest ethnic group in Vietnam: the Kinh (người Kinh) and "Nam" means the South affirming Vietnam's sovereignty from China (usually called "North country" to Vietnamese people). Nguyá»…n Trãi (Hán nôm 阮廌), also known under his pseudonym Ức Trai 抑齋 (1380 - 1442) was a Vietnamese Confucian Scholar, politician, strategist and poet. ...


History

Main article: History of Vietnam

This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Pre-Dynastic era

The area now known as Vietnam has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, and some archaeological sites in Thanh Hoa Province is reportedly date back several thousand years. Archaeologists link the beginnings of Vietnamese civilization to the late Neolithic, Early Bronze Age, Phung-nguyen culture, which was centered in Vinh Phu Province of contemporary Vietnam from about 2000 to 1400 BCE. By about 1200 BCE, the development of wet-rice cultivation and bronze casting in the Ma River and Red River plains led to the development of the Dong Son culture, notable for its elaborate bronze drums. The bronze weapons, tools, and drums of Dongsonian sites show a Southeast Asian influence that indicates an indigenous origin for the bronze-casting technology. Many small, ancient copper mine sites have been found in northern Vietnam. Some of the similarities between the Dong Sonian sites and other Southeast Asian sites include the presence of boat-shaped coffins and burial jars, stilt dwellings, and evidence of the customs of betel-nut-chewing and teeth-blackening. // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... The Ma River is a river in Asia, originating in northern Vietnam it travels 400 km through Vietnam, Laos and back through Vietnam, meeting the sea at the Gulf of Tonkin. ... Flowing from China through Vietnam to the South China Sea, the Red River (Vietnamese Sông Hồng, Chinese Hónghé) is also known as the Yuan Jiang (元江, pinyin yuan2jiang1), which means Primary River. ... Dong Son is a small village in Thanhhoa province Vietnam. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ...


The legendary Hồng Bàng Dynasty of the Hùng kings is considered by many Vietnamese as the first Vietnamese state, known as Văn Lang. In 257 BCE, the last Hùng king gives up Thục Phán and he consolidated the Lạc Việt tribes with his Âu Việt tribes, forming Âu Lạc and proclaiming himself An Dương Vương. In 207 BCE, a Chinese general named Zhao Tuo defeated An Dương Vương and consolidated Âu Lạc into Nanyue. In 111 BCE, the Chinese Han Dynasty consolidated Nanyue into their empire. Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List of Vietnamese monarchs The H... Hùng VÆ°Æ¡ng was the first emperor of Văn Lang or Lạc Việt (as Vietnam was known at the time). ... (Redirected from 257 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 262 BC 261 BC 260 BC 259 BC 258 BC - 257 BC... The Vietnamese Thục Dynasty has only one ruler, Thục Phán himself, last prince of Shu (state) of China, who proclaimed himself king An DÆ°Æ¡ng VÆ°Æ¡ng. ... (Redirected from 207 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC 209 BC 208 BC - 207 BC... Zhao Tuo (Traditional Chinese: 趙佗; pinyin: Zhào Tuō) or Triệu Đà in Vietnamese, was a Chinese commanding general of the Qin dynasty who later founded the kingdom of Nanyue, or Nam Việt (南越). He was also the founder of the Zhao Dynasty (Trieu Dynasty) of Nanyue. ... Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) Union of Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976... (Redirected from 111 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 116 BC 115 BC 114 BC 113 BC 112 BC - 111 BC... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220...


For the next thousand years, Vietnam was mostly under Chinese rule. Early independence movements such as those of the Trưng Sisters and of Lady Triệu were only briefly successful. It was independent as Vạn Xuân under the Anterior Ly Dynasty between 544 and 602. By the early 10th century, Vietnam had gained autonomy, but not independence, under the Khúc family. Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List... Image:Trieuau3. ... Events Belisarius is sent back to Italy to once more fight the Ostrogoths who have been making reconquests in the area. ... Events Phocas kills Byzantine Emperor Maurice I and makes himself emperor Beginning of a series of wars between the Byzantine Empire and the Sassanids Births Muawiyah, founder of the Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs (approximate date) Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ...


Dynastic era

Battle of Bach Dang river. Silk painting by Năng Hiển.

In 938 CE, a Vietnamese lord named Ngô Quyền defeated Chinese forces at the Bạch Đằng River and gained independence after 10 centuries under Chinese control. Renamed as Đại Việt, the nation went through a golden era during the Lý and Trần Dynasties. During the rule of the Trần Dynasty, Đại Việt repelled three Mongol invasions of Vietnam. Following the brief Hồ Dynasty, Vietnamese independence was momentarily interrupted by the Chinese Ming Dynasty, but was restored by Lê Lợi, the founder of the Lê Dynasty. Feudalism in Vietnam reached its zenith in the Lê Dynasty of the 15th century, especially during the reign of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông. Between the 11th and 18th centuries, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion). They eventually conquered the kingdom of Champa and part of the Khmer Empire. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (968x464, 82 KB) Silk painting. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (968x464, 82 KB) Silk painting. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... Ngo Quyen (897?- 944), was prefect, under Chinese domination, of Giao Chau province in the valley of the Red River in what is now northern Vietnam. ... At the Battle of Bach Dang river in 938 the Vietnamese forces, led by Ngo Quyen, defeated the Chinese invaders and put an end to Chinese imperial domination of the Vietnamese. ... The Lý Dynasty (Vietnamese: nhà Lý, pronounced like Lee), sometimes known as the Posterior Lý Dynasty (nhà Hậu Lý), was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Anterior Lê Dynasty (nhà Tiền Lê) and ended in 1225 when the queen L... The Trần Dynasty (陳朝 Trần Triều; or vernacularly Nhà Trần, meaning the Trần Family) was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (at that time known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Hồ Dynasty was a short-lived seven-year reign of two emperors, Hồ Quý Ly in 1400 and his second son, Hồ Hán ThÆ°Æ¡ng, who reigned from 1400 to 1407. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Lê Lợi (1384? - 1433). ... The Later Lê Dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Hậu Lê, Sino-Vietnamese: 後黎朝), sometimes referred to as the Lê Dynasty (the earlier Lê Dynasty ruled only for a brief period) was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief interruption. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Le Thanh Tong (1442–1497) was king of Vietnam from 1460 till his death from old age. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... Map of Asia and Europe circa 1200 C.E. and the golden age of Khmer Empire. ...


Towards the end of the Lê Dynasty, civil strife engulfed much of Vietnam. First, the Chinese-supported Mạc Dynasty challenged the Lê Dynasty's power. After the Mạc Dynasty was defeated, the Lê Dynasty was reinstalled, but with no actual power. Power was divided between the Trịnh Lords in the North and the Nguyễn Lords in the South, who engaged in a civil war for more than a hundred years. During this time, the Nguyễn expanded southern Vietnam into the Mekong Delta, annexing the Champa in the central highlands and the Khmer land in the Mekong. The civil war ended when the Tây Sơn brothers defeated both and established their new dynasty. However, their rule did not last long and they were defeated by the remnants of the Nguyễn Lords led by Nguyen Anh with the help of the French. Nguyen Anh unified Vietnam, and established the Nguyễn Dynasty, ruling under the name Gia Long. The Mạc Dynasty. ... Trịnh Lords (1553-1789) A series of rulers of Vietnam who controlled the powers of government while leaving a figurehead as king. ... The Nguyá»…n Lords (1558 - 1775) were a series of rulers of Southern Vietnam. ... Trịnh-Nguyen War (1627 - 1673) - A long war waged between the two ruling families in Vietnam. ... Mekong River Delta from space, February 1996 Mekong Delta, February 2005. ... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... Tay Son Dynasty Origin of the Tay Son The name of Tay Son is used in many ways referring back to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasty established between the eras of the Le and Nguyen dynasties. ... Gia Long (1762-1820), born Nguyá»…n Phúc Ánh, was an emperor of Annam. ... Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List...


Western Colonial era

Main articles: Sino-French War, Union of Indochina, and Empire of Vietnam

Vietnam's independence ended in the mid-1800s, when the country was colonized by the French. The French administration imposed significant political and cultural changes on Vietnamese society. A Western-style system of modern education was developed, and Christianity was introduced into Vietnamese society. Developing a plantation economy to promote the exports of tobacco, indigo, tea and coffee, the French largely ignored increasing calls for self-government and civil rights. A nationalist political movement soon emerged, with leaders such as Phan Boi Chau, Phan Chu Trinh, Emperor Ham Nghi and Ho Chi Minh calling for independence. However, the French maintained control of their colonies until World War II, when the Japanese war in the Pacific triggered the invasion of French Indochina in 1941. This event was preceded by the establishment of the Vichy French administration, a puppet state of Nazi Germany then ally of the Japanese Empire. The natural resources of Vietnam were exploited for the purposes of the Japanese Empire's military campaigns into the British Indochinese colonies of Burma, the Malay Peninsula and India. Combatants France Qing Dynasty Black Flag Army Annam Strength 15,000 to 20,000 soldiers (including Spanish and Filipino volunteers) 25,000 to 35,000 soldiers (from the provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang and Yunnan) Casualties 2,100 killed or wounded 10,000 killed or wounded The 1884 Battle... French Indochina was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in Southeast Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... A plantation economy is an economy which is based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few staple products grown on large farms called plantations. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Indigo dye indigo molecule Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... For the several U.S. counties named Coffee, see Coffee County. ... Phan Bá»™i Châu (Chữ nôm 潘佩珠 1867-1940) was a pioneer of Vietnamese twentieth century nationalism. ... Phan Chu Trinh (His name has no tones, this is a correct spelling) also known as Phan Châu Trinh (1872 - 1926) was a famous early 20th century Vietnamese nationalist. ... Emperor Hàm Nghi Emperor Hàm Nghi (咸宜帝) was the 8th Emperor of the Vietnamese Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ...


First Indochina War

In 1941, Viet Minh - a communist and nationalist liberation movement emerged under Ho Chi Minh, to seek independence for Vietnam from France as well as to oppose the Japanese occupation. Following the military defeat of Japan and the fall of its Vietnamese colony in August 1945, Viet Minh occupied Hanoi and proclaimed a provisional government, which asserted independence on September 2.[1] In the same year the Provisional French Republic sent the French Far East Expeditionary Corps, which was originally created to fight the Japanese occupation forces, in order to pacify the liberation movement and to restore French rule. On November 20 1946, triggered by the Haiphong Incident the First Indochina War between Viet Minh and the French forces ensued, lasting until July 20 1954. Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ... Motto: None Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon First Chief Emperor Bao Dai Last Chief Ngo Dinh Diem Rule Area South Vietnam (1954-) Independence  - Provisional  - Declared  - Recognised  - Dissolved From Franch rule May 27, 1948 June 14, 1949 1954 October 26, 1955 Currency Piastre National anthem Call to the Citizens Caution: The... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Political structure Provisional government Chairman  - 1944-1946 Charles de Gaulle  - 1946 Félix Gouin (SFIO)  - 1946 Georges Bidault (MRP)  - 1946-1947 Léon Blum (SFIO) Legislature National Assembly Historical era Cold War  - Established August, 1944  - Disestablished October 14, 1946 Currency French... The French Far East Expeditionary Corps (French: ) was an expeditionary force of the French Army that fought in the First Indochina War. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4...


Despite fewer losses—Expeditionary Corps suffered 1/3 the casualties of the China and Soviet-backed Viet Minh—during the course of the war, the U.S.-backed French and Vietnamese loyalists eventually suffered a major strategic setback at the Siege of Dien Bien Phu, which allowed Ho Chi Minh to negotiate a ceasefire with a favorable position at the ongoing Geneva conference of 1954. Colonial administration ended as French Indochina was dissolved, and the contested State of Vietnam ceased to exist. According to the Geneva Agreements the country was divided at the 17th parallel into Ho Chi Minh's North Vietnam and Ngo Dinh Diem's South Vietnam after the example of Korea. This was intended to be temporary, pending an election in 1956, which never took place. The Vietnamese National Army or Vietnam National Army (Vietnamese: Quân Ä‘á»™i Quốc gia Việt Nam, National Army of Vietnam) was the State of Vietnams military force created in 1950 at the instigation of French General de Lattre. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Hmong mercenaries Viet Minh Commanders Christian de Castries # Pierre Langlais # René Cogny Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800[1] As of March 13: 48,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel[2] Casualties 2,293 dead, 5,195... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... Motto: None Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon First Chief Emperor Bao Dai Last Chief Ngo Dinh Diem Rule Area South Vietnam (1954-) Independence  - Provisional  - Declared  - Recognised  - Dissolved From Franch rule May 27, 1948 June 14, 1949 1954 October 26, 1955 Currency Piastre National anthem Call to the Citizens Caution: The... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... The Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone was established as a dividing line between North and South Vietnam as a result of the First Indochina War. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ...


Vietnam War

The Communist-held Democratic Republic of Vietnam was opposed by the US-supported Republic of Vietnam. Disagreements soon emerged over the organizing of elections and reunification, and the U.S. began increasing its contribution of military advisers. U.S. forces were soon embroiled in a guerrilla war with the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF), the insurgents who were indigenous to South Vietnam. North Vietnamese forces unsuccessfully attempted to overrun the South during the 1968 Tet Offensive and the war soon spread into neighboring Laos and Cambodia, in both of which the United States bombed Communist forces supplying the North Vietnamese Army. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Australia National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders William C. Westmoreland Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength 1. ...


With its own casualties mounting, the U.S. began transferring combat roles to the South Vietnamese military in a process the U.S. called Vietnamization. The effort had mixed results. The Paris Peace Accords of January 27, 1973, formally recognized the sovereignty of both sides. Under the terms of the accords all American combat troops were withdrawn by March 29, 1973. Limited fighting continued, but all major fighting ended until the North once again sent troops to the South on April 30, 1975, following the collapse of the South Vietnamese government. South Vietnam briefly became the Republic of South Vietnam, under military occupation by North Vietnam, before being officially integrated with the North under communist rule as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on July 2, 1976. The Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973 by the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the Republic of South Vietnam. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Postwar

Upon taking control, the Vietnamese communists banned all other political parties, arrested public servants and military personnel of the Republic of Vietnam and sent them to reeducation camps. The government also embarked on a mass campaign of collectivization of farms and factories. Reconstruction of the war-ravaged country was slow, and serious humanitarian and economic problems confronted the communist regime. Millions of people fled the country in crudely-built boats, creating an international humanitarian crisis.[2][3] In 1978, the Vietnamese Army invaded Cambodia (sparking the Cambodian-Vietnamese War) to remove the Khmer Rouge from power. This action worsened relations with China, which launched a brief incursion into northern Vietnam (the Sino-Vietnamese War) in 1979. This conflict caused Vietnam to rely even more heavily on Soviet economic and military aid. Reeducation camp (trại học tập cải tạo) is the official name given to the prison camps operated by the government of Vietnam following the end of the Vietnam War. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... This article is about asylum seekers travelling by boat, and also about films concerning them. ... Combatants Socialist Republic of Vietnam Democratic Kampuchea Commanders Văn Tiến Dũng Pol Pot Strength 150,000+ Vietnamese troops, supported by around 20,000 KNUFNS 70,000+ Casualties 30,000? 30,000? The Cambodian-Vietnamese War, also known as Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia (Vietnamese: Chiến dịch... Flag of Democratic Kampuchea Photos of genocide victims on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was the ruling political party of Cambodia -- which it renamed to Democratic Kampuchea -- from 1975 to 1979. ... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến Dũng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ...


Đổi Mới (New Age)

In a historic shift in 1986, the Communist Party of Vietnam implemented free-market reforms known as Đổi Mới (New Age). With the authority of the state remaining unchallenged, private ownership of farms and companies, deregulation and foreign investment were encouraged. The economy of Vietnam has achieved rapid growth in agricultural and industrial production, construction and housing, exports, and foreign investment. It is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world. See Economy section for more detail. Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... A free market is a market where the prices of goods and services is arranged completely by the mutual non-coerced consent of sellers and buyers, determined generally by the supply and demand law with no government interference in the regulation of costs, supply and demand. ... Doi moi is the name given to the economic reforms initiated by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the mid-1980s. ... This article only contains information on the economy of Vietnam after the year 1986; contributions dealing with the pre-1986 period are welcome. ...


Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Vietnam

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a single-party state. A new state constitution was approved in April 1992, replacing the 1975 version. The central role of the Communist Party was reasserted in all organs of government, politics and society. Only political organizations affiliated with or endorsed by the Communist Party are permitted to contest elections. These include the Vietnamese Fatherland Front, workers and trade unionist parties. Although the state remains officially committed to socialism as its defining creed, the ideology's importance has substantially diminished since the 1990s. The President of Vietnam is the titular head of state and the nominal commander in chief of the military of Vietnam, chairing the Council on National Defense and Security. The Prime Minister of Vietnam Nguyen Tan Dung is the head of government, presiding over a council of ministers composed of 3 deputy prime ministers and the heads of 26 ministries and commissions. Politics of Vietnam takes place in a framework of a single-party socialist republic. ... States in which the constitution mandates power to a sole party are colored brown. ... The Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is the current constitution of Vietnam, adopted in 1992. ... 1992 was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The Vietnamese Fatherland Front (Vietnamese: Mặt Trận Tổ Quốc Việt Nam) is an umbrella group of pro-government mass movements in Vietnam, and has close links to the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Vietnamese government. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... The President of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch nÆ°á»›c Việt Nam) is the head of state of Vietnam, although the functions of the President are often ceremonial. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A Commander-in-Chief is the commander of a nations military forces or significant element of those forces. ... knulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din... The Prime Minister of Vietnam is the head of the executive branch of the Vietnamese government. ... Nguyen Tan Dung (Nguyá»…n Tấn DÅ©ng) was First Deputy Prime Minister of Vietnam from 29 September 1997 to May 2006 . ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ...


The National Assembly of Vietnam is the unicameral legislature of the government, composed of 498 members. It is superior to both the executive and judicial branches. All members of the council of ministers are derived from the National Assembly. The Supreme People's Court of Vietnam, which is the highest court of appeal in the nation, is also answerable to the National Assembly. Beneath the Supreme People's Court stand the provincial municipal courts and the local courts. Military courts are also a powerful branch of the judiciary with special jurisdiction in matters of national security. All organs of Vietnam's government are controlled by the Communist Party. Most government appointees are members of the party. The General Secretary of the Communist Party is perhaps one of the most important political leaders in the nation, controlling the party's national organization and state appointments, as well as setting policy. The constitution recognizes the National Assembly of Vietnam as “the highest organ of state power. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Supreme Peoples Court of Vietnam is the highest court and the Court of Appeal in Vietnam. ... Court of Appeals is the title of certain appellate courts in various jurisdictions. ... Provincial Municipal Courts of Vietnam are lower level courts in Vietnams judicial system. ... Local Courts of Vietnam or Peoples Courts deal with legal issues at the district precinct levels. ... Military Courts of Vietnam deals with criminal matters within the military of Vietnam. ...


The Vietnam People's Army is the official name for the three military services of Vietnam, which is organized along the lines of China's People's Liberation Army. The VPA is further subdivided into the Vietnamese People's Ground Forces (including Strategic Rear Forces and Border Defense Forces), the Vietnam People's Navy, the Vietnam People's Air Force and the coast guard. Through Vietnam's recent history, the VPA has actively been involved in Vietnam's workforce to develop the economy of Vietnam, in order to coordinate national defense and the economy. The VPA is involved in such areas as industry, agriculture, forestry, fishery and telecommunications. The total strength of the VPA is close to 500,000 soldiers. The government also organizes and maintains provincial militias and police forces. The role of the military in public life has steadily weakened since the 1980s. 40th anniversary of Vietnam Peoples Army, commemorated on 1984 Vietnam postage stamp block The Vietnam Peoples Army (VPA) (Vietnamese: ) is official name for the armed forces of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. ... For other uses, see Peoples Liberation Army (disambiguation) The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the military of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Vietnam Peoples Navy (or, commonly, Vietnamese Navy) is part of the Vietnam Peoples Armed Forces and is responsible for the protection of national waters, islands, and interests of the maritime economy, as well as for the coordination of maritime police, customs service and the border defense force. ... Vietnamese Air force or Không Quân Nhân Dân Việt Nam is the air force of Vietnam. ... A coast guard is a national organization responsible for various services at sea. ...


Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of Vietnam

Vietnam extends approximately 331,688 km² (128,066 sq mi) in area(not included Hoang Sa and Truong Sa islands). The area of the country running along its international boundaries is 4,639 km (2,883 mi). The topography consists of hills and densely forested mountains, with level land covering no more than 20%. Mountains account for 40% of the area, with smaller hills accounting for 40% and tropical forests 42%. The northern part of the country consists mostly of highlands and the Red River Delta. Phan Xi Păng, located in Lào Cai province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam at 3,143 m (10,312 ft). The south is divided into coastal lowlands, Annamite Chain peaks, extensive forests, and poor soil. Comprising five relatively flat plateaus of basalt soil, the highlands account for 16% of the country's arable land and 22% of its total forested land. Vietnams cities and towns regions Topograhic map of Vietnam. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Flowing from China through Vietnam to the South China Sea, the Red River (Vietnamese Sông Hồng, Chinese Hónghé) is also known as the Yuan Jiang (元江, pinyin yuan2jiang1), which means Primary River. ... Fan Si Pan (3143 m) is the highest mountain in Vietnam. ... Lao Cai (in Vietnamese, Lào Cai, in Chinese 老街, literally means Old Streets) is a province of Vietnam. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Annamite Range or Phou Luang is a range of mountains along the border between Laos and Vietnam. ...

The delta of the Red River (also known as the Sông Hồng), a flat, triangular region of 3,000 square kilometers, is smaller but more intensely developed and more densely populated than the Mekong River Delta. Once an inlet of the Gulf of Tonkin, it has been filled in by the enormous alluvial deposits of the rivers over a period of millennia, and it advances one hundred meters into the Gulf annually. The Mekong delta, covering about 40,000 square kilometers, is a low-level plain not more than three meters above sea level at any point and criss-crossed by a maze of canals and rivers. So much sediment is carried by the Mekong's various branches and tributaries that the delta advances sixty to eighty meters into the sea every year. Image File history File linksMetadata Ha_Long_Bay_with_boats. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ha_Long_Bay_with_boats. ... Halong Bay is a body of water of approximately 1,500 square kilometres in north Vietnam with a 120 kilometre coastline, in the Gulf of Tonkin near the border with China, and 170 kilometres east of Hanoi. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Vietnam has a tropical monsoon climate, with humidity averaging 84% throughout the year. However, because of differences in latitude and the marked variety of topographical relief, the climate tends to vary considerably from place to place. During the winter or dry season, extending roughly from November to April, the monsoon winds usually blow from the northeast along the China coast and across the Gulf of Tonkin, picking up considerable moisture; consequently the winter season in most parts of the country is dry only by comparison with the rainy or summer season. The average annual temperature is generally higher in the plains than in the mountains and plateaus.


Nature

Vietnam has two World's Natural Heritage sites: Halong Bay and Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park and 6 World's biosphere reserves including: Can Gio Mangrove Forest, Cat Tien, Cat Ba, Kien Giang, Red River Delta, Western Nghe An. Halong Bay (Vietnamese: Vịnh Hạ Long) is a bay located in the Gulf of Tonkin, 170 kilometres east of Hanoi, in northern Vietnam near the border with China. ... Phong Nha - Ke Bang is a national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site in the center of Quang Binh province in north-central Vietnam. ... A biosphere reserve is an international conservation designation given by UNESCO under its Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB). ... Can Gio Biosphere Reserve is a wetland located 40 km South-east of Ho Chi Minh City. ... Cat Tien National Park is an important national park found in the south of Vietnam, around 150 km north of Ho Chi Minh City. ... Catba National Park is an important national park in Northern Vietnam. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Biodiversity

Vietnam is in Indomalaya ecozone. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Pseudoryx nghetinhensis Dung, Giao, Chinh, Tuoc, Arctander, MacKinnon, 1993 The Saola or Vu Quang ox, also, infrequently, Vu Quang bovid (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), one of the worlds rarest mammals, is a forest-dwelling bovine found only in Vietnam (Vu Quang Nature Reserve) and in Laos, near the Vietnam... The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ...


According to chapter 1 in National Environmental Present Condition Report 2005- Biodiversity Subject of Vietnam Environment Protection Agency,[4] in species diversity, Vietnam is one of 25 countries having high level in biodiversity all over the world, is ranked 16th of biologically diverse level (having 16% world's species) (page 9). 15,986 flora was identified of which 10% was endemic (p9). Statistic says that there are 307 nematoda, 200 oligochaeta, 145 acarina, 113 collembola, 7750 insecta, 260 reptilia, 120 amphibia, 840 aves and 310 mammalia of which 100 aves and 78 mammalia are endemic (p9,10). Vietnam also have 1438 fresh water microalgae (9,6% species in the world) (Table 1.2, p9). It is defined that there are 794 aquatic invertebrate and 2458 sea fish (p10,11). In recent years, there have been 13 genus, 222 species, 30 taxon of flora newly described and 6 mammalia have been discovered such as pseudoryx nghetinhensis, muntiacus vuquangensis, lophura edwardsi, rhinopithecus avunculus, livistona halongensis, geothelphusa vietnamica, etc (frame 1.4, p11,12). In agricultural genetic diversity, Vietnam is one of 12 world's original cultivar centers (p13). Vietnam National Cultivar Gene Bank is preserving 12,300 cultivars of 115 species (p14). Species diversity refers to the number and distribution of species in one location. ... Classes Adenophora    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms (Phylum Nematoda) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 20,000 different described species. ... This Tree of Life article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Suborders Acariformes Parasitiformes Opilioacariformes Acarina or acari is an order of arachnids that consists of mites and ticks. ... Families Suborder Arthropleona   Superfamily Entomobryoidea    Entomobryidae - slender springtails    Isotomidae - smooth springtails    Oncopoduridae    Paronellidae    Tomoceridae   Superfamily Poduroidea    Brachystomellidae    Hypogastruridae - elongate-bodied springtails    Neanuridae    Odontellidae    Onychiuridae - blind springtails    Poduridae - water springtails Suborder Symphypleona    Dicyrtomidae    Katiannidae    Sminthuridae - globular springtails    Sminthurididae    Bourletiellidae    Arrhopalitidae Springtails (Order Collembola) form the largest of the three orders of... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Microalgae are the most primitive form of plants. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Binomial name Pseudoryx nghetinhensis Dung, Giao, Chinh, Tuoc, Arctander, MacKinnon, 1993 The Saola or Vu Quang ox, also, infrequently, Vu Quang bovid (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), one of the worlds rarest mammals, is a forest-dwelling bovine found only in Vietnam (Vu Quang Nature Reserve) and in Laos, near the Vietnam... Binomial name Muntiacus vuquangensis Wemmer et al. ... Binomial name Lophura edwardsi (Oustalet, 1896) The Edwardss Pheasant, Lophura edwardsi, is a bird from the pheasant family Phasianidae that is endemic to the rainforests of Vietnam. ... Binomial name Rhinopithecus avunculus (Dollman, 1912) The Tonkin Snub-nosed Langur or Dollmans Snub-nosed Langur (Rhinopithecus avunculus) is a species of langur endemic to Vietnam. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ...


In chapter 4 of that report, it is said that Vietnam government spent 49.07 million USD for biodiversity in 2004 (p71) and have established 126 conservation areas including 28 national parks (p73).


Economy

Main article: Economy of Vietnam
Vietnamese cash: 500 000 VND
Vietnamese cash: 500 000 VND

The Vietnam War destroyed much of the economy of Vietnam. Upon taking power, the Government created a planned economy for the nation. Collectivization of farms, factories and economic capital was implemented, and millions of people were put to work in government programs. For many decades, Vietnam's economy was plagued with inefficiency and corruption in state programs, poor quality and underproduction and restrictions on economic activities and trade. It also suffered from the trade embargo from the United States and most of Europe after the Vietnam War. Subsequently, the trade partners of the Communist blocs began to erode. In 1986, the Sixth Party Congress introduced significant economic reforms with market economy elements as part of a broad economic reform package called "đổi mới" (Renovation). Private ownership was encouraged in industries, commerce and agriculture. Vietnam achieved around 8% annual GDP growth from 1990 to 1997 and continued at around 7% from 2000 to 2005, making it the world's second-fastest growing economy. Simultaneously, foreign investment grew threefold and domestic savings quintupled. Manufacturing, information technology and high-tech industries form a large and fast-growing part of the national economy. Vietnam is a relative new-comer to the oil business, but today it is the third-largest oil producer in Southeast Asia with output of 400,000 barrels per day. Vietnam is one of Asia's most open economies: two-way trade is around 160% of GDP, more than twice the ratio for China and over four times India's.[5] This article only contains information on the economy of Vietnam after the year 1986; contributions dealing with the pre-1986 period are welcome. ... Download high resolution version (2202x944, 529 KB)The front of a 500,000₫ bill. ... Download high resolution version (2202x944, 529 KB)The front of a 500,000₫ bill. ... The front of a 500,000â‚« bill. ... This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ... Doi moi is the name given to the economic reforms initiated by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the mid-1980s. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In common usage, saving generally means putting money aside, for example, by putting money in the bank or investing in a pension plan. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ...


Vietnam is still a relatively poor country with GDP of US$280.2 billion at purchasing power parity (est., 2006, source: Economist Intelligence unit). This translates to ~US$3,300 per capita (US$726 at market exchange rate). Inflation rate was estimated at 7.5% per year in 2006. The spending power of the public has noticeably increased. Deep poverty, defined as a percent of the population living under $1 per day, has declined significantly and is now smaller than that of China, India, and the Philippines. As a result of several land reform measures, Vietnam is now the largest producer of cashew nuts with a one-third global share and second largest rice exporter in the world after Thailand. Vietnam has the highest percent of land use for permanent crops, 6.93%, of any nation in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Besides rice, key exports are coffee, tea, rubber, and fishery products. However, agriculture's share of economic output has declined, falling as a share of GDP from 42% in 1989 to 20% in 2006, as production in other sectors of the economy has risen. According to the CIA World Fact Book, the unemployment rate in Vietnam is one of the lowest in the world at 2%, trailing behind only Azerbaijan, Cuba, Iceland, Andorra and Liechtenstein. Among other steps taken in the process of transitioning to a market economy, Vietnam in July 2006 updated its intellectual property legislation to comply with TRIPS. Vietnam was accepted into the WTO on November 7, 2006. Vietnam's chief trading partners include Japan, Australia, ASEAN countries, the U.S. and Western European countries. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... Binomial name L. The Cashew (Anacardium occidentale; syn. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... For the several U.S. counties named Coffee, see Coffee County. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) is an international agreement on the subject of intellectual property. It covers copyright, patents, trademarks, trade secrets, industrial designs, geographical indicia and integrated circuit layouts. ... “WTO” redirects here. ...


Military

Main article: Military of Vietnam

Military of Vietnam consists of Vietnam People's Army and the Vietnam People's Air Force. It also has coast guard. knulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din... 40th anniversary of Vietnam Peoples Army, commemorated on 1984 Vietnam postage stamp block The Vietnam Peoples Army (VPA) (Vietnamese: ) is official name for the armed forces of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. ... Vietnamese Air force or Không Quân Nhân Dân Việt Nam is the air force of Vietnam. ... A coast guard is a national organization responsible for various services at sea. ...


Transport

Hai Van Pass.
Hai Van Pass.

The modern transport network of Vietnam was originally developed under French rule for the purpose of raw materials harvesting, and reconstructed and extensively modernized following the Vietnam War. The road system is the most popular form of transportation in the country. Vietnam’s road system includes national roads administered by the central level; provincial roads managed by the provincial level; district roads managed by the district level; urban roads managed by cities and towns; and commune roads managed by the commune level. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1387x1040, 225 KB) [edit] Beschreibung [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vietnam Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1387x1040, 225 KB) [edit] Beschreibung [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vietnam Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Railways total: 2,652 km standard gauge: 166 km 1. ...


Bicycles, motor scooters and motorcycles remain the most popular forms of road transport in Vietnam's cities, towns, and villages. Public bus operated by private companies is the main long distance travel means by many people. Traffic congestion is a serious problem in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City as the cities' roads struggle to cope with the booming numbers of automobiles. There are also more than 17,000 kilometers of navigable waterways, which play a significant role in rural life owing to the extensive network of rivers in Vietnam. For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ...


The nation have seven developed ports and harbors at Cam Ranh, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Gai, Qui Nhon, and Nha Trang. Cam Ranh is a city in southern Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam, the second-largest in the province, after Nha Trang. ... This article is about the city of Da Nang. ... Haiphong (Vietnamese: Hải Phòng, Chinese 海防) is the third most populous city in Vietnam. ... “Saigon” redirects here. ... Ha Long (also known as Hong Gai) is a capital city of Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam. ... Qui Nhon is a coastal city in the centre of Vietnam. ... The fishing harbour in Nha Trang. ...


Demography

Main article: Demography of Vietnam

Vietnamese girl wearing ao dai Originating in what is now southern China and northern Vietnam, the Vietnamese people pushed southward over two millennia to occupy the entire eastern seacoast of the Indochinese Peninsula. ...

Population

Recent census estimates the population of Vietnam at beyond 84 million. Vietnamese people, also called "Viet" or "Kinh", account for 86.2 percent of the population. Their population is concentrated in the alluvial deltas and coastal plains of the country. A homogeneous social and ethnic majority group, the Kinh exert political and economic control. There are more than 54 ethnic minorities throughout the country, but the Kinh are purveyors of the dominant culture. Most ethnic minorities, such as the Muong, a closely related ethnic of the Kinh, are found mostly in the highlands covering two-thirds of the territory . The Hoa (ethnic Chinese) and Khmer Krom are mainly lowlanders. The largest ethnic minority groups include the Hmong, Dao, Tay, Thai, Nung. Vietnam is a multi-ethnic country with over fifty distinct groups. ... Languages Vietnamese Religions Predominantly Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist (esp. ... An alluvial fan is a fan-shaped deposit where a fast flowing stream flattens, slows, and spreads, typically at the exit of a canyon onto a flatter plain. ... The Muong are one of the ethnic groups inhabiting the mountainous region of Northern Vietname (also known as Montagnards). ... The Khmer Krom (Khmer: ) are the indigenous ethnic Khmer minority living in southern Vietnam, especially in the Mekong River delta. ...


Languages

Main article: Vietnamese language

The people of Vietnam speak Vietnamese as a native language. In its early history, Vietnamese writing used Chinese characters. In the 13th century, the Vietnamese developed their own set of characters called Chữ nôm. The celebrated epic Đoạn trường tân thanh (Truyện Kiều or The Tale of Kieu) by Nguyễn Du was written in Chữ nôm. During the French colonial period, Quốc ngữ, the romanized Vietnamese alphabet used for spoken Vietnamese, which was developed in 17th century by Jesuit Alexandre De Rhodes and several other Catholic missionaries, became popular and brought literacy to the masses. Vietnamese (tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ[2]), formerly known under the French colonization as Annamese (see Annam), is the national and official language of Vietnam. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The first six lines of the poem written in Chữ Nôm The Tale of Kiều is an epic poem in Vietnamese written by the 18th century writer Nguyá»…n Du (1766-1820), widely regarded as the most significant work of Vietnamese literature. ... Nguyễn Du, 阮攸 (1766–1820), penname Tố Như and Thanh Hi n is a celebrated Vietnamese poet who wrote in Chữ N m, the ancient writing script of Vietnam. ... The Vietnamese alphabet (quốc ngữ or national script) is the current writing system for the national language of Vietnam. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Alexandre de Rhodes (March 15, 1591 - November 5, 1660) was a French Jesuit missionary. ... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ...


Various other languages are spoken by several minority groups in Vietnam. The most common of these are Tày, Mường, Khmer, Chinese, Nùng, and H'Mông. The French language, a legacy of colonial rule, is still spoken by some older Vietnamese as a second language, but is losing its popularity. There are however some French-language newspapers in the country as Le courrier du Vietnam[1] and several French-language immersion programmes and French schools as the école française Colette[2] in Ho Chi Minh City. Vietnam is also a full member of the Francophonie. Russian — and to a much lesser extent German, Czech, or Polish — is sometimes known among those whose families had ties with the Soviet bloc. In recent years, English is becoming more popular as a second language. English study is obligatory in most schools. Chinese and Japanese have also become more popular. The Tai languages are a subgroup of the Tai Kadai language family. ... The Muong language is spoken by the Muong people of Vietnam. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Nung are an ethnic minority in Vietnam. ... |familycolor=Hmong-Mien |states=Sichuan, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and USA. |speakers=over 4 million[1] |fam1=Hmong-Mien |iso2=hmn| |lc1=hmn|ld1=Hmong (generic)|ll1=none |lc2=mww|ld2=Hmong Daw (Laos, China)|ll2=none |lc3=hmv|ld3=Hmong Do (Vietnam)|ll3=none |lc4=hmf|ld4=Hmong Don (Vietnam... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Religions

Main article: Religion in Vietnam
"One pillar" pagoda, Hà Nội capital.
"One pillar" pagoda, Hà Nội capital.

For much of Vietnamese history, Mahayana Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism have strongly influenced the religious and cultural life of the people. About 85% of Vietnamese identify with Buddhism even though they do not practice on a regular basis.[6][7] About 7% of the population are Roman Catholic. Christianity was introduced by French colonists, and to a lesser extent during the presence of American forces. There is a substantial following of Roman Catholicism and Protestantism among the Cao Đài, and Hòa Hảo communities. The largest Protestant churches are the Evangelical Church of Vietnam and the Montagnard Evangelical Church. Historically, the earliest established religions in Vietnam are Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism (called the triple religion or tam giáo). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i)  , estimated population 3,058,000(2004), is the capital of Vietnam. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Cao Dais Holy See, called the Tay Ninh Holy See, is located in Tay Ninh, Viet Nam Caodaism (Vietnamese:  ) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... Hòa Hảo (Chu Nom: 和好) is a Buddhist religious tradition founded in 1939 by Huynh Phu So, a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam. ...


Vietnam has great reservation towards Roman Catholicism. This mistrust originated during the French colonial time when some Catholics collaborated with the French colonists as espionage agents to suppress the Vietnamese independence movement. Furthermore, the Church's teaching regarding communism made it an unwelcome counterforce to communist rule. Membership of Sunni and Bashi Islam is usually accredited to the ethnic Cham minority, but there are also a few ethnic Vietnamese adherents of Islam in the southwest. The communist government has been criticized for its religious violations. The vast majority of Vietnamese people, regardless of their religious background (including Catholic or Buddhist), practice Ancestor Worship, although this may not be strictly considered a religion. Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the Cham people of Asia. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ...


From the articles of Religion by country, Religion in Vietnam and Demographics of Vietnam; 85% is nominal/secular Buddhists including predominant 83% East Asian Buddhist or "Triple religion" (80% of people are worship the mixture of Mahayana Buddhism mainly, Taoism, Confucianism with Ancestor Worship;with 2% Hòa Hảo and other Vietnamese-Buddhist sects as Tứ Ân Hiếu Nghĩa,etc...1%) and 2% Theravada Buddhism of Khmer people but the census of Government showed that only 16% have taken refuge in the Three Jewels; 8% Christians (7% Catholics and 1% Protestants); 3% Cao Đài; 2.5% Tribal animism; less than 70 thousand Muslims; small Hindu communities (over 50 thousand people) and a small numbers of Baha'is. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Historically, the earliest established religions in Vietnam are Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism (called the triple religion or tam giáo). ... Originating in what is now southern China and northern Vietnam, the Vietnamese people pushed southward over two millennia to occupy the entire eastern seacoast of the Indochinese Peninsula. ... East Asian Buddhism is a collective term for the schools of Buddhism that developed in the East Asian region, most of which are part of the Mahayana transmission. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... Hòa Hảo (Chu Nom: 和好) is a Buddhist religious tradition founded in 1939 by Huynh Phu So, a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... The Khmer people are the predominant ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 13. ... Taking Refuge makes the difference between Buddhists and non-Buddhists. ...


Education

Main article: Education in Vietnam

Vietnam has an extensive state-controlled network of schools, colleges and universities. General education in Vietnam is imparted in 5 categories: Kindergarten, elementary schools, middle schools, high schools, and college / university. Courses are taught mainly in Vietnamese. A large number of public schools have been organized across cities, towns and villages with the purpose of raising the national literacy rate. There are a large number of specialist colleges, established to develop a diverse and skilled national workforce. A large number of Vietnam's most acclaimed universities are based in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Facing serious crises, Vietnam's education system is under a holistic reform launched by the government. In Vietnam, education from age 6 to 11 is free and mandatory. Education above these ages is costly, therefore many families can't afford to send their children to school. Vietnams education system can be divided into 5 categories: pre-primary, primary, intermediate, secondary, and higher education. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary/elementary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... College (Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an educational institution. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...


Science

In the past, Vietnam did not have "science" in its generally accepted meaning, but many fields were well developed, especially social science and humanities. It has at least ten centuries of commentary and analytic writings. Among the best known works are those of "Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư" of Ngô Sĩ Liên. Writings that deal with geography, nature, customs and people were written by "Dư địa chí" of Nguyễn Trãi. In mathematics, operations (including power and extract the root) of primary arithmetics and surveying, measurement (length, area, volume...) of primary geometry were taught in schools using the famous textbook: "Đại thành toán pháp" of Lương Thế Vinh. Lương Thế Vinh had notion of zero and Mạc Hiển Tích used the term "số ẩn" (unknown/secret/hidden number) to refer to negative numbers. Much knowledge was collected into encyclopedia: "Vân đài loại ngữ" of Lê Quý Đôn and "Lịch triều hiến chương loại chí" of Phan Huy Chú. Đại Việt sá»­ ký toàn thÆ° (Hán tá»±: 大越史記全書 A Complete History of Great Viet) is a 15th-century Vietnamese work of history, written in classical Chinese. ... Nguyá»…n Trãi (Hán nôm 阮廌), also known under his pseudonym Ức Trai 抑齋 (1380 - 1442) was a Vietnamese Confucian Scholar, politician, strategist and poet. ... For other senses of this word, see zero or 0. ... “Cyclopedia” redirects here. ... Le Quy Don (Lê Quý Đôn 黎貴悙, 1726–1784) was an 18th-century Vietnamese philosopher, poet, encyclopedist, and government official. ...


Presently, Vietnamese scientists have been devoting themselves to contribute to human's knowledge sush as Hoàng Tụy based the foundation of global optimization by finding out "Tụy's cut". Hoàng Jefferson Tụy (born December 17, 1927) is a prominent Vietnamese applied mathematician. ... Global optimization is a branch of applied mathematics and numerical analysis that deals with the optimization of a function or a set of functions to some criteria. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Vietnam
The Văn Miếu (Temple of Literature).

The spoken and written language is Vietnamese. The tomb of Emperor Minh Mạng in Huế. The Culture of Vietnam is one of the oldest of such in the Southeast Asia region. ... Image File history File links Van_mieu_1. ... Image File history File links Van_mieu_1. ... Khuê Văn pavilion Văn Miếu (文廟) or Temple of Literature is a historic site situated in Hanoi, Vietnam. ...


The culture of Vietnam has been influenced by neighboring China. Due to Vietnam's long association with the south of China, one characteristic of Vietnamese culture is financial duty. Education and self-betterment are highly valued. Historically, passing the imperial Mandarin exams was the only means for Vietnamese people to socially advance themselves. A Mandarin was a bureaucrat in imperial China. ...


In the socialist era, the cultural life of Vietnam has been deeply influenced by government-controlled media and the cultural influences of socialist programs. For many decades, foreign cultural influences were shunned and emphasis placed on appreciating and sharing the culture of communist nations such as the Soviet Union, China, Cuba and others. Since the 1990s, Vietnam has seen a greater exposure to Southeast Asian, European and American culture and media. For the band, see 1990s (band). ...

The Hanoi Opera House is an example of French Colonial architecture in Vietnam.
The Hanoi Opera House is an example of French Colonial architecture in Vietnam.

One of the most popular Vietnamese traditional garments is the "Áo Dài", worn often for special occasions such as weddings or festivals. White Áo dài is the required uniform for girls in many high schools across Vietnam. Áo Dài was once worn by both genders but today it is worn mainly by females, except for certain important traditional culture-related occasions where some men do wear it. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1984x1312, 249 KB) Hà Nôi: Nhà hát Thanh phó Hanoi, Vietnam: Municipal Theatre Photographed by Andre Lettau, 13 Dec 2003 Uploaded to de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1984x1312, 249 KB) Hà Nôi: Nhà hát Thanh phó Hanoi, Vietnam: Municipal Theatre Photographed by Andre Lettau, 13 Dec 2003 Uploaded to de. ... Hanoi Opera House Opéra Garnier de Paris, seen as the model for Hanoi Opera House Hanoi Opera House is an opera house in downtown Hanoi. ... World Leaders attending the APEC 2006 Summit in Hanoi dressed in áo dài. ...


Vietnamese cuisine uses very little oil and many vegetables. The main dishes are often based on rice, soy sauce, and fish sauce. Its characteristic flavors are sweet (sugar), spicy (serrano peppers), sour (lime), nuoc mam (fish sauce), and flavored by a variety of mint and basil. Vietnamese cuisine (cuisine translates to ẩm thá»±c in Vietnamese: ẩm: drink and thá»±c: food) is known for its common use of fish sauce, soy sauce and hoisin sauce. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... Fish sauce is a condiment derived from fish that have been allowed to ferment. ... A serrano pepper is a type of chile pepper that originated in the mountainous regions of Puebla and Hidalgo, Mexico. ...


Vietnamese music varies slightly in the three regions: Bắc or North, Trung or Central, and Nam or South. Northern classical music is Vietnam's oldest and is traditionally more formal. Vietnamese classical music can be traced to the Mongol invasions, when the Vietnamese captured a Chinese opera troupe. Central classical music shows the influences of Champa culture with its melancholic melodies. Southern music exudes a lively laissez-faire attitude. Vietnamese culture is highly syncretist, combining native, Western, Indian and Chinese influences. ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ...


See also Vietnamese art, theatre, dance, and literature Typical hallway decoration on a building in the Imperial citadel. ... 1800s Tuồng theatre actors. ... Vietnamese court dancers at a festival. ... Vietnamese literature is literature, both oral and written, created by Vietnamese-speaking people. ...


Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Vietnam. Sports and games such as badminton, tennis, ping pong, and chess are also popular with large segments of the population. Volleyball, especially women's volleyball, is watched by a fairly large number of Vietnamese. The (expatriate Vietnamese) community forms a prominent part of Vietnamese cultural life, introducing Western sports, films, music and other cultural activities in the nation. A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Regional competition level table tennis, showing table, net, and player getting ready to return the ball with a winning backhand topspin stroke. ... For other uses, see Chess (disambiguation). ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ...


See also List of Vietnamese traditional games. // Banh đũa game - Ô ăn quan - Tổ tôm - Cờ ngũ hành - Cờ lúa ngô - Cờ hùm tôm - Tứ sắc - Cờ tu hú - Đánh tam cúc - Thả diều - Đánh quay - Chơi chuyền - Mèo đuổi chuột - Rồng rắn...


Vietnam is home to a small film industry.


Among countless other traditional Vietnamese occasions, the traditional Vietnamese wedding is one of the most important. Regardless of westernization, many of the age-old customs in a Vietnamese wedding continue to be celebrated by both Vietnamese in Vietnam and overseas, often combining both western and eastern elements. The traditional Vietnamese wedding is one of the most important ceremonies in Vietnamese culture, with influence from Confucian and Buddhist ideologies. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


See also List of festivals in Vietnam // - The last day of the previous year to 3rd day of 1st lunar month: Tết festival. ...


Media

Vietnam's media sector is controlled by the government to follow the official communist party line. The Voice of Vietnam is the official state-run radio broadcasting service that covers the nation. It also broadcasts internationally via shortwave, renting transmitters in other countries and provides broadcasts from its website. Vietnam Television is the national television broadcasting company. As Vietnam moved toward a free-market economy with its doi moi measures, the government has relied on the print media to keep the public informed about its policies. The measure has had the effect of almost doubling the numbers of newspapers and magazines since 1996 . Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system, but its performance continues to lag behind that of its more modern neighbors. The media of Vietnam are tightly regulated by the government, which views the media as the voice of the party and of the masses and sees its main function as being to propagate the partys lines and policies. First and foremost, the media are a tool for government information... Vietnamese television is television found predominantly in Vietnam. ... Doi moi is the name given to the economic reforms initiated by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the mid-1980s. ...


Tourism

Vietnam's number of visitors for tourism and vacation has increased steadily over the past ten years. About 3.56 million international guests visited Vietnam in 2006, an increase of 3.7% from 2005. The country is investing capital into the coastal regions that are already popular for their beaches and boat tours. Hotel staff and tourism guides in these regions speak a good amount of English.


International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom 142 out of 157
The Economist Worldwide Quality-of-life Index, 2005 61 out of 111
Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index 155 out of 167
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 111 out of 163
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 109 out of 177
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 77 out of 125

The Heritage Foundation is a public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... World map of the 2006-2007 Global Competitiveness Index. ...

See also

Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Politics of Vietnam takes place in a framework of a single-party socialist republic. ... Political parties in Vietnam lists political parties in Vietnam. ... The Communist Party of Vietnam (Đảng Cá»™ng sản Việt Nam) is the currently ruling, as well as the only legal political party in Vietnam. ... Elections in Vietnam gives information on election and election results in Vietnam. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The President of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch nÆ°á»›c Việt Nam) is the head of state of Vietnam, although the functions of the President are often ceremonial. ... The Prime Minister of Vietnam is the head of the executive branch of the Vietnamese government. ... The constitution recognizes the National Assembly of Vietnam as “the highest organ of state power. ... The Supreme Peoples Court of Vietnam is the highest court and the Court of Appeal in Vietnam. ... Provincial Municipal Courts of Vietnam are lower level courts in Vietnams judicial system. ... Local Courts of Vietnam or Peoples Courts deal with legal issues at the district precinct levels. ... Military Courts of Vietnam deals with criminal matters within the military of Vietnam. ... For the band, see The Police. ... Peoples Police of Vietnam is one of Armed Forces of Vietnam. ... During the Second Indochina War (1954-75), North Vietnam balanced relations with its two major allies, the Soviet Union and the Peoples Republic of China. ... knulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din... 40th anniversary of Vietnam Peoples Army, commemorated on 1984 Vietnam postage stamp block The Vietnam Peoples Army (VPA) is official name for the armed forces of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. ... The Vietnam Peoples Navy (or, commonly, Vietnamese Navy) is part of the Vietnam Peoples Armed Forces and is responsible for the protection of national waters, islands, and interests of the maritime economy, as well as for the coordination of maritime police, customs service and the border defense force. ... Vietnamese Air force or Không Quân Nhân Dân Việt Nam is the air force of Vietnam. ... Vietname Peoples Coast Guard (Vietnamese: Bá»™ Ä‘á»™i Biên phòng Việt Nam) is a part of Vietnam Peoples Army The Coast Guard is responsible for protecting the security of Vietnams coast line. ... Doi moi is the name given to the economic reforms initiated by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the mid-1980s. ... ISO 4217 Code VND User(s) Vietnam Inflation 7. ... An airline is an organization providing aviation services to passengers and/or cargo. ... Vietnam Airlines is the national flag carrier of Vietnam, and was established as a state enterprise in April 1989. ... Pacific Airlines is a low-cost airline based in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. ... See Tan Son Nhut Air Base for a description of the airfield while operated as a military airfield by the USAF and VNAF. Tân SÆ¡n Nhất International Airport (IATA: SGN, ICAO: VVTS), Vietnams largest international airport, serves Ho Chi Minh City in southern Vietnam. ... Ná»™i Bài International Airport (IATA: HAN, ICAO: VVNB), the biggest airport in northern Vietnam, serves the capital city of Hanoi. ... Đà Nẵng International Airport (IATA: DAD, ICAO: VVDN) is located in Da Nang of central Vietnam. ... The railway system in in Vietnam is operated by the state-owned Vietnam Railways (Đường sắt Việt Nam). ... Tây Bắc (English Northeast) is one of the regions of Vietnam. ... Dong Bac is a regional subdivision of Vietnam. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The tomb of Emperor Minh Mạng in Huế. The Culture of Vietnam is one of the oldest of such in the Southeast Asia region. ... Originating in what is now southern China and northern Vietnam, the Vietnamese people pushed southward over two millennia to occupy the entire eastern seacoast of the Indochinese Peninsula. ... The tomb of Emperor Minh Mạng in Huế. The Culture of Vietnam is one of the oldest of such in the Southeast Asia region. ... Holidays in Vietnam Categories: Public holidays by country | Vietnam ... Typical hallway decoration on a building in the Imperial citadel. ... Typical hallway decoration on a building in the Imperial citadel. ... Traditional Vietnamese music is highly diverse and syncretist, combining native and foreign influences. ... Vietnamese cuisine (cuisine translates to ẩm thá»±c in Vietnamese: ẩm: drink and thá»±c: food) is known for its common use of fish sauce, soy sauce and hoisin sauce. ... This article concentrates on the martial arts aspect of vietnam. ... Vietnamese court dancers at a festival. ... 1800s Tuồng theatre actors. ... Vietnamese literature is literature, both oral and written, created by Vietnamese-speaking people. ... Communications in Vietnam include the use of telephones, radio, television and Internet. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Vietnam, officially known as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is also known as Red flag with Yellow star. This flag was adopted as the National flag of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) on November 30, 1955. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Administrative Divisions of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Vietnam is divided into 59 provinces (known in Vietnamese as tỉnh, from the Chinese 省, shÄ›ng). ... In its 2004 report on Human Rights Practices, the U.S. Department of State characterized Vietnam’s human rights record as “poor” and cited the continuation of “serious abuses. ...

Sources and notes

  1. ^ http://coombs.anu.edu.au/%7Evern/van_kien/declar.html Declaration of Independence, Democratic Republic of Vietnam] - Vietnam Ducuments
  2. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The State of The World's Refugees 2000 - Chapter 4: Flight from Indochina. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.: Three million fled Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos combined; close to a million Vietnamese were helped by the UNHCR.
  3. ^ Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Boat people: A Refugee Crisis. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  4. ^ Báo cáo Hiện trạng môi trường quốc gia 2005 - (Vietnamese)
  5. ^ Vietnam Vrooooom: Asia's second-fastest-growing economy takes the global stage. - CNN Money
  6. ^ US Department of State: Background Note: Vietnam
  7. ^ The Largest Buddhist Communities - adherents.com. This quotes a much lower figure than the 85% quoted by the US Department of State

Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...

References

  • Herring, George C. America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975 (4th ed 2001), most widely used short history.
  • Jahn GC. 2006. The Dream is not yet over. In: P. Fredenburg P, Hill B, editors. Sharing rice for peace and prosperity in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Victoria, (Australia): Sid Harta Publishers. p 237-240
  • Karrnow, Stanley. Vietnam: A History. Penguin (Non-Classics); 2nd edition (June 1, 1997). ISBN 0-14-026547-3
  • McMahon, Robert J. Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays (1995) textbook
  • Tucker, Spencer. ed. Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War (1998) 3 vol. reference set; also one-volume abridgment (2001)
  • Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, 7th edition, Oxford University Press.

is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...

External links

Find more information on Vietnam by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
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Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Government

  • Official website of Gorvernment of Vietnam
  • Portal of the Government of Vietnam
  • Communist Party of Vietnam
  • National Assembly: the Vietnamese legislative body
  • General Statistics Office
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Media

State-run

  • Voice of Vietnam: State radio broadcaster
  • Vietnam Television: State television broadcaster
  • Vietnam News Agency: Official state news agency
  • Nhân Dân (The People): Official Communist Party newspaper
  • Quân đội Nhân Dân: Newspaper of the People's Army
  • Vietnam Net: Largest Vietnamese portal, run by the government-owned Vietnam Post and Telecommunication Corporation
  • Hà Nội Mới (New Hanoi): run by the Hanoi Communist Party (Vietnamese)
  • Sài Gòn Giải Phóng (Liberated Saigon): run by the Ho Chi Minh City Communist Party

Nhân Dân (The People) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of Vietnam. ...

Non state-run

While all media in Vietnam must be sponsored by a Communist Party organization and be registered with the government, the following media sources have less government control than others.

  • VnExpress: Popular online newspaper (Vietnamese)
  • Tuổi Trẻ (Youth): Daily newspaper with highest circulation, affiliated with the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Organization of Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese)
  • Thanh Niên (Youth): Major daily newspaper, affiliated with the Vietnam National Youth Federation
  • Lao Động (Labour): Major daily newspaper, affiliated with the Vietnam General Confederation of Labour (the sole labour union in Vietnam) (Vietnamese)
  • Tiền Phong (Vanguard): Major daily newspaper, affiliated with the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth organization (Vietnamese)
  • Vietnam Economic Times - for foreign investors.

Overviews

  • BBC - Country profile: Vietnam
  • CIA World Factbook - Vietnam
  • Freedom House "Countries at the Crossroads" report - Vietnam: information on government accountability, civil liberties, rule of law, and anticorruption efforts
  • VietNam Map
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica - Vietnam
  • Open Directory Project - Vietnam directory category
  • US State Department - Vietnam includes Background Notes, Country Study and major reports
  • US Library of Congress - Country Study: Vietnam
  • Information about Vietnam: from the Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affair
  • Le Viêt Nam, aujourd'hui: News concerning Vietnam (English & French)
  • Business Anti-Corruption Portal Vietnam Country Profile
  • Nghe An - Ha Tinh Forum
Geographic locale
International membership

Of the emerging democracies in central and eastern Europe, Czechia has one of the most developed industrialized economies. ... Tourism, petroleum transhipment, and offshore finance are the mainstays of the Netherlands Antillean economy, which is closely tied to the outside world. ... The United Kingdom has the fifth largest gross domestic product in the world in terms of market exchange rates and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... A Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the Peoples Republic of China is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


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