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Encyclopedia > Viet Minh
The Viet Minh flag
The Viet Minh flag

The Việt Minh pronunciation  (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, English "League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a communist revolutionary national liberation movement formed by Hồ Chí Minh in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France as well as to oppose the Japanese occupation. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Viet_Minh. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Look up Occupation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

World War II

During World War II, Japan occupied French Indochina. As well as fighting the Vichy French, the Việt Minh started a campaign against the Japanese. Due to their opposition to the Japanese, the Việt Minh received funding from the Americans and the Chinese, though the Chinese would imprison Hồ Chí Minh for more than a year during the fight against the Japanese military dictatorship because Ho was a follower of the communist ideology. When Japan surrendered in August 1945, the Japanese handed over control of some public buildings in Hanoi to the Việt Minh, now led by Hồ Chí Minh (after turned in the Vietnamese Nationalist leaders of Việt Minh to the French colonist). After other Nationalist organizations proclaimed Independence for Việt Nam; Hồ proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on September 2, 1945. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


First Indochina War

However, within days the Chinese Kuomintang Army arrived in Vietnam to supervise the repatriation of the Japanese Imperial Army. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam therefore existed only in theory and effectively controlled no territory. A few months later, the Chinese, Vietnamese and French came to a three way understanding. The French gave up certain rights in China, the Viet Minh agreed to the return of the French in exchange for promises of independence within the French Union and the Chinese agreed to leave. Negotiations between the French and Việt Minh broke down quickly. What followed was nearly ten years of war against France. This was known as the French Indochina War, or to the Vietnamese, the French War. The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... The Imperial Japanese Army (大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was in existence from the Meiji Reformation to the end of World War II. It was created to replace the traditional Japanese samurai with a modern Western-style conscript army. ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4...


French General Jean-Etienne Valluy quickly pushed the Việt Minh out of Hanoi. His French infantry with armored units went through Hanoi, fighting small battles against isolated Việt Minh groups. The French encircled the Việt Minh base, Việt Bắc in 1947, but failed in defeating the Viet Minh's forces, and had to retreat back soon after that. The campaign is now widely considered as a Việt Minh victory over the well-equipped force of the French. Jean Etienne Valluy Jean-Etienne Valluy (May 15, 1899-January 4, 1970). ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Việt Minh continued fighting against the French, until 1949 when the border of China and Viet Minh was linked together as the result of the campaign called Chiến dịch Biên giới (Borderland Campaign). China gave the Việt Minh both sheltered bases and heavy weapons with which to fight the French. With the additional weapons the Việt Minh were able to take control over many rural areas of the country. Soon after that, they began to advance towards the French occupied areas. 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52...


North Vietnam

Following their defeat at the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ, the French began negotiations to leave Vietnam. As a result of peace accords worked out at the Geneva Conference in Geneva, Switzerland, Vietnam was divided into North Vietnam and South Vietnam at the 17th Parallel as a temporary measure until unifying elections would take place in 1956. Transfer of civil administration of North Vietnam to the Việt Minh was given on October 11, 1954. Hồ Chí Minh was appointed Prime Minister of North Vietnam, which would be run as a socialist state. Ngô Đình Diệm, who was previously appointed Prime Minister of South Vietnam by Emperor Bảo Đại, eventually assumed control of South Vietnam. In the words of U.S. President Eisenhower: Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Hmong mercenaries Viet Minh Commanders Christian de Castries # Pierre Langlais # René Cogny Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800[1] As of March 13: 48,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel[2] Casualties 2,293 dead, 5,195... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... Coat of arms of the Canton of Geneva Coat of arms of the City of Geneva Geneva (French: Genève, German: Genf, Italian: Ginevra, Romansh Genevra, Spanish: Ginebra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zurich), located where Lake Geneva (French: Lac de Genève or Lac L... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers state) can carry one of several different (but related) meanings: Strictly speaking, any real or hypothetical state organized along the principles of socialism may be called a socialist state. ...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...

It was generally conceded that had an election been held, Hồ Chí Minh would have been elected Premier. Unhappily, the situation was exacerbated by the almost total lack of leadership displayed by the Vietnamese Chief of State, Bảo Đại, who, while nominally the head of that nation, chose to spend the bulk of his time in the spas of Europe rather than in his own land leading his armies against those of Communism.[1]

South Vietnam and its chief supporter, the United States, were not signatories to the 1954 agreement but did agree to respect its conditions, though later South Vietnam, with the backing of the United States, refused to hold unifying elections, claiming that Hồ Chí Minh could not be trusted due to his affiliation with Communism. Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Note

Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội is not to be confused with the Việt Nam Cách Mạng Ðồng Minh Hội (League for the Vietnamese Revolution, abbr. Việt Cách) which was founded by Nguyễn Hai Than and Hồ Ngoc Lam, and which later joined the Vietnamese National Coalition in 1946. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... On August 19, 1945 Vietnamese Communist forces led by Hồ Chí Minh began the August Revolution (Vietnamese: Cách mạng tháng Tám). ... The Communist Party of Vietnam (Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam) is the currently ruling, as well as the only legal political party in Vietnam. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Eisenhower, Dwight (1963). Mandate for Change, 1953-1956. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 337-38. 

References

  • Collection of Official Documents on Vietnam History
  • Vietnamese Declaration of Independence

Further reading


  Results from FactBites:
 
Viet Minh - MSN Encarta (1165 words)
The Viet Minh was organized in 1941 by Ho Chi Minh, Pham Van Dong, Vo Nguyen Giap, Truong Chinh, and others, after Japan invaded Vietnam and subordinated the French in 1940 during World War II (1939-1945).
Outgunned, the Viet Minh were forced to accept an agreement that permitted French troops to disembark, with the condition that Vietnam would become an autonomous state in the French Union (to be modeled on the British Commonwealth), and that French troops would leave in 1952.
Viet Minh armed forces had numbered only 2000 when independence was declared, but once they issued the order for national resistance in December 1946 their numbers jumped to 60,000.
Advising the Viet Minh (2316 words)
For a week in September 1997, some of the surviving Viet Minh forces of Ho Chi Minh and veterans of the United States Office of Strategic Services (OSS), who collaborated in 1945 near the end of World War II, met for a second "reunion" in New York City.
In this document, some of these Viet Minh and their counterpart American OSS veterans are introduced.
The OSS men observed the Viet Minh, whom they were training, in combat, and men such as Frank Tan trained some of them in use of radio equipment.
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