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Encyclopedia > Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra

The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Its home base is the world-famous Musikverein. The members of the orchestra are chosen from the Orchestra of the Vienna State Opera. This process is a long one, with each musician having to prove their capability for a minimum of three years playing for the Opera and Ballet. Once this is achieved they can then ask the Board of the Wiener Philharmoniker to consider their application for a position in the Vienna Philharmonic. Musikverein, 2004 The Musikverein in Vienna, Austria was opened on January 6, 1870, and is famous for its acoustics. ... Vienna State Opera (German: Wiener Staatsoper), located in Vienna, Austria, is one of the most important opera companies in Europe. ...

Contents

History

The orchestra can trace its origins back to 1842, when Carl Otto Nicolai formed what he called a "Philharmonic Academy"; it was an orchestra which was fully independent, and which took all its decisions by a democratic vote of all its members. These are principles the orchestra still holds today. 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Carl Otto Nicolai (June 9, 1810 - May 11, 1849) was a German composer and conductor. ...


When Nicolai left Vienna in 1847, the orchestra almost folded, and it was not very active until 1860, when Carl Eckert joined as conductor. He gave a series of four subscription concerts, and since then, the orchestra has given concerts continuously. 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


The orchestra has attracted some very famous and acclaimed conductors.


From 1875 to 1882 Hans Richter was principal conductor, and the orchestra gave the premieres of Brahms' second and third symphonies. 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Hans Richter (1843–1916), Austrian conductor (born in what is now Hungary), studied at the Vienna Conservatory (showing a special interest in the horn) and developed his conducting career at several opera-houses in the Austro-Hungarian empire. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Gustav Mahler held the post from 1898 to 1901, and under him the orchestra played abroad for the first time (in Paris). Subsequent conductors were Felix Weingartner (190827), Wilhelm Furtwängler (1927–30) and Clemens Krauss (1930–33). This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Felix Weingartner, Edler von Münzberg (June 2, 1863 – May 7, 1942) was a conductor, composer and pianist. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Portrait by Emil Orlik, 1928 Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Clemens Krauss (born in Vienna, March 31, 1893 – buried at Mexico City, May 16, 1954) was an Austrian conductor famed for his interpretations of the music of Richard Strauss, Richard Wagner and other German composers. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Since 1933, the orchestra has had no single principal conductor, but instead has a number of guest conductors. These have included a great many of the world's best known conductors, including Richard Strauss, Arturo Toscanini, Hans Knappertsbusch, Wilhelm Furtwangler, Karl Böhm, John Barbirolli, Herbert von Karajan, Georg Solti, Erich Kleiber, James Levine, Zubin Mehta, Carlos Kleiber, Leonard Bernstein, Claudio Abbado, Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Pierre Boulez, Mariss Jansons and Valery Gergiev. Three conductors however were particularly associated with the post-war era: Karajan and Böhm, who were made honorary conductors, and Bernstein, who was made an honorary member of the orchestra. This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Arturo Toscanini listening to playbacks at RCA Victor (BMG Music) Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian musician. ... Hans Knappertsbusch (March 12, 1888 - October 25, 1965) German conductor born in Elberfeld (present-day Wuppertal), best known for his performances of the music of Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner and Richard Strauss. ... Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... Karl Böhm (August 28, 1894 - August 14, 1981) was a noted conductor. ... Sir John (Giovanni Battista) Barbirolli (December 2, 1899 - July 29, 1970), was a British conductor and cellist who led the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra, among many others. ... Herbert von Karajan (Salzburg April 5, 1908 Anif near Salzburg – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... Sir Georg Solti, KBE (pronounced ) (21 October 1912 - 5 September 1997) was a world-renowned Hungarian-British orchestral and operatic conductor. ... Erich Kleiber (August 5, 1890 – January 27, 1956) was an Austrian-born conductor. ... James Levine (born June 23, 1943 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American orchestral pianist and conductor and most well known as the music director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ... Zubin Mehta (born April 29, 1936) is an Indian conductor of Western classical music. ... Carlos Kleiber (July 3, 1930 - July 13, 2004) was an Austrian conductor. ... Leonard Bernstein (pronounced BERN-styne)[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Claudio Abbado (born June 26, 1933) is a noted Italian conductor. ... Nikolaus Harnoncourt (born December 6, 1929) is an Austrian conductor, known for his historically accurate performances of music from the classical era and earlier. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlÉ›z/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... Mariss Jansons (born 1943) is a prominent Latvian conductor. ... Valery Gergiev Valery Abisalovich Gergiev, Russian: Вале́рий Абиса́лович Ге́ргиев (born 1953) is a Russian conductor and opera company director. ...


Since New Year's Day 1941, the orchestra has given a concert dedicated to the music of the Strauss family, and especially Johann Strauss II: the Vienna New Year's Concert. January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Johann Strauss II The Waltz King coming to life in the Stadtpark, Vienna Johann Strauss II (German: Johann Strauß (Sohn), Johann Strauss (son); in English also Johann Strauss the Younger, Johann Strauss Jr. ... The New Year Concert (in German: Das Neujahrskonzert der Wiener Philharmoniker) of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra is a concert that takes place each year in the morning of January 1 in Vienna, Austria. ...


Popularity

The Vienna Philharmonic was named as Europe's finest in a recent survey by seven leading trade publications, two radio stations and a daily newspaper[1]. Hearing the Vienna Philharmonic is a feat not to be undertaken lightly. While on international tour, tickets are typically, at the minimum, double what one would normally pay to hear the local orchestra. Tickets to hear the Vienna Philharmonic at their home in the Musikverein are listed on the orchestra's website as being completely sold out. The waiting list for weekday concert subscriptions is six years and thirteen years for weekend subscriptions. Musikverein, 2004 The Musikverein in Vienna, Austria was opened on January 6, 1870, and is famous for its acoustics. ...


Sound and Instruments

The characteristic sound of the Vienna Philharmonic can be attributed in part to the use of instruments and playing-styles that are fundamentally different from those used by other major orchestras:

  • The clarinet has a special fingering-system.
  • The bassoon has special fingering-combinations and reeds.
  • The trumpet has a rotary-valve system and a narrower measurements.
  • The trombone and the tuba have a different fingering and valve-system.
  • The timpani use natural goat hide instead of synthetic hide.
  • The double-bass retains the traditional theater-placement in a row behind the brass.
  • The Viennese oboe has a special bore, measurement, reed, and fingering-system. It is very different from the otherwise internationally used French oboe.
  • The Viennese (F-)horn is a variation of the natural horn with a valved crook in F inserted, so that the chromatic scale can be played. It has a narrower measurement, longer tubing, and a piston-valve system. These valves have the advantage of providing a tone which is not so sharply defined, as well as possibilities for smoother connections between notes. Moreover, the Viennese horn is made of stronger materials than, for example, the French Horn (Double Horn in both F and Bb).

These instruments and their characteristic tone-colors have been the subject of extensive scientific studies by the Associate Professor Magister Gregor Widholm of the Institute for Viennese Tone-Culture of the Academy for Music and Performing Arts. Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... A Fox Products bassoon. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the horn, trombone, euphonium and tuba. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The tuba is the largest of the low-brass instruments and is one of the most recent additions to the modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century, when it largely replaced the ophicleide. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... The double bass is the largest and lowest pitched bowed string instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra. ... The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... The horn is a brass instrument that consists of tubing wrapped into a coiled form, now with finger-operated valves to help control the pitch but originally without valves to control the pitch. ...


Sexism and Racism Controversy

Although the orchestra is widely acknowledged as one of the world's finest, in the 1990s it came in for some criticism by feminist groups because until 1997 it did not allow women to become full members of the orchestra (although some women performed with the orchestra, they were not full members). In 1997 the first woman, harpist Anna Lelkes, became a member after performing with the orchestra as a "non-member" for over twenty years: after Ms. Lelkes' retirement Charlotte Balzereit, another woman harpist, eventually replaced her as the orchestra's only woman member [2]. Meanwhile the orchestra claims to have several female members. Also, for a long time no woman had ever conducted the orchestra. In January 2005 Australian conductor Simone Young made history as she became the orchestra's first female conductor. 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Simone Young (born March 2, 1961) is an Australian conductor, particularly well known for opera. ...


In addition there were claims that the orchestra in the past had not accepted members who were visibly members of ethnic minorities. In 2001 a violinist who was half-Asian became a member [3]. 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some people associated with the organisation have been criticised for saying that it is important to maintain the ethnic uniformity of the orchestra (that is, white Europeans) in order to maintain high playing standards.


In 1970 Otto Strasser, the former chairman of the Vienna Philharmonic, wrote in his memoirs:

"I hold it for incorrect that today the applicants play behind a screen; an arrangement that was brought in after the Second World War in order to assure objective judgments. I continuously fought against it, especially after I became Chairman of the Philharmonic, because I am convinced that to the artist also belongs the person, that one must not only hear, but also see, in order to judge him in his entire personality. [...] Even a grotesque situation that played itself out after my retirement was not able to change the situation. An applicant qualified himself as the best, and as the screen was raised, there stood a Japanese before the stunned jury. He was, however, not engaged, because his face did not fit with the ‘Pizzicato-Polka’ of the New Year’s Concert." [4]

The first flautist in the Vienna Philharmonic said in a radio interview broadcast in 1996:

"From the beginning we have spoken of the special Viennese qualities, of the way music is made here. The way we make music here is not only a technical ability, but also something that has a lot to do with the soul. The soul does not let itself be separated from the cultural roots that we have here in central Europe. And it also doesn't allow itself to be separated from gender. So if one thinks that the world should function by quota regulations, then it is naturally irritating that we are a group of white skinned male musicians, that perform exclusively the music of white skinned male composers. It is a racist and sexist irritation. I believe one must put it that way. If one establishes superficial egalitarianism, one will lose something very significant. Therefore, I am convinced that it is worthwhile to accept this racist and sexist irritation, because something produced by a superficial understanding of human rights would not have the same standards." [5]

In 2003, an orchestra member said in a magazine interview: 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

“Three women are already too many. By the time we have twenty percent, the orchestra will be ruined. We have made a big mistake, and will bitterly regret it.”[6]

Conductors

Subscription Conductors (1842-1933)

The Vienna Philharmonic does not have principal conductors. Each year they chose an artist to conduct all concerts of the respective season at Vienna's Musikverein. These conductors were called Abonnementdirigenten (Subscription Conductors) as they were to conduct all the concerts included in the Philharmonic's subscription at the Musikverein. Some of these annual hirings were renewed for many years, others lasted only for a few years. At the same time the Vienna Philharmonic also worked with other conductors, e. g. at the Salzburg Festival, for recordings or special occasions. With the widening of the Philharmonic's activities the orchestra decided to abandon this system in 1933. From then on there were only guest conductors hired for each concert, both in Vienna and elsewhere. Categories: Buildings and structures stubs ...

Carl Otto Nicolai (June 9, 1810 - May 11, 1849) was a German composer and conductor. ... Felix Otto Dessoff (January 14, 1835–October 28, 1892) was a German conductor and composer. ... Wilhelm Jahn (1834–1900) was director of the Vienna Court Opera from 1880 to 1897 and principal conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra from 1882 to 1883. ... Hans Richter (1843–1916), Austrian conductor (born in what is now Hungary), studied at the Vienna Conservatory (showing a special interest in the horn) and developed his conducting career at several opera-houses in the Austro-Hungarian empire. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a worlds fair held in Paris, France, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Joseph Hellmesberger junior (9 April 1855–26 April 1907) was an Austrian composer, violinist and principal conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic orchestra from 1901 to 1903. ... Felix Weingartner, Edler von Münzberg (June 2, 1863 – May 7, 1942) was a conductor, composer and pianist. ... Portrait by Emil Orlik, 1928 Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... Clemens Krauss (born in Vienna, March 31, 1893 – buried at Mexico City, May 16, 1954) was an Austrian conductor famed for his interpretations of the music of Richard Strauss, Richard Wagner and other German composers. ...

Guest Conductors (since 1933)

Bruno Walter (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... Fritz Busch (born 13 March 1890 in Siegen, died 14 September 1951 in London) was a German conductor. ... Arturo Toscanini listening to playbacks at RCA Victor (BMG Music) Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian musician. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Josef Alois Krips (born 8 April 1902 in Vienna, died 13 October 1974 in Geneva) was an Austrian conductor and violinist. ... Portrait by Emil Orlik, 1928 Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... Hans Knappertsbusch (March 12, 1888 - October 25, 1965) German conductor born in Elberfeld (present-day Wuppertal), best known for his performances of the music of Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner and Richard Strauss. ... Sir John (Giovanni Battista) Barbirolli (December 2, 1899 - July 29, 1970), was a British conductor and cellist who led the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra, among many others. ... Erich Kleiber (August 5, 1890 – January 27, 1956) was an Austrian-born conductor. ... Karl Böhm (August 28, 1894 - August 14, 1981) was a noted conductor. ... Herbert von Karajan (Salzburg April 5, 1908 Anif near Salzburg – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... Rafael Jeroným Kubelík (June 29, 1914 – August 11, 1996) was a Czech conductor and composer. ... George Szell, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1954 György Széll, best known by his Anglicised name George Szell (June 7, 1897 – July 30, 1970) was a conductor and composer. ... Carl Adolph Schuricht (July 3, 1880 - January 7, 1967) was an orchestra conductor born in Danzig (now Gdansk). ... Carlos Kleiber (July 3, 1930 - July 13, 2004) was an Austrian conductor. ... Wolfgang Sawallisch (born August 26, 1923) is a German conductor and pianist. ... Carlo Maria Giulini (May 9, 1914 – June 14, 2005) was an Italian conductor. ... Leonard Bernstein (pronounced BERN-styne)[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Seiji Ozawa , born September 1, 1935) is a Japanese conductor. ... Claudio Abbado (born June 26, 1933) is a noted Italian conductor. ... James Levine (born June 23, 1943 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American orchestral pianist and conductor and most well known as the music director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ... Zubin Mehta (born April 29, 1936) is an Indian conductor of Western classical music. ... Lorin Varencove Maazel (born March 6, 1930) is a conductor, violinist and composer. ... Simon Rattle recording Porgy and Bess with the London Symphony Orchestra at Abbey Road in 1988 Sir Simon Denis Rattle, CBE OL (born January 19, 1955) is an English conductor. ... Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich (Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич) (born March 27, 1927) is a Russian cellist and conductor, considered to be... André Previn (born April 6, 1929)¹ is a prominent pianist, orchestral conductor, and composer. ... Giuseppe Sinopoli (November 2, 1946 - April 20, 2001) was a conductor and composer. ... Václav Neumann (October 29, 1920 - September 2, 1995) was a Czech conductor, violinist and viola player. ... Riccardo Muti (born July 28, 1941, in Naples) is an Italian conductor best known for being the Music Director of Milans La Scala opera house, a position he held from 1986 to 2005, and of The Philadelphia Orchestra from 1980 to 1992. ... Georges Prêtre (born August 14, 1924) is a French conductor. ... Valery Gergiev Valery Abisalovich Gergiev, Russian: Вале́рий Абиса́лович Ге́ргиев (born 1953) is a Russian conductor and opera company director. ... Nikolaus Harnoncourt (born December 6, 1929) is an Austrian conductor, known for his historically accurate performances of music from the classical era and earlier. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlÉ›z/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... Gardiner conducting Sir John Eliot Gardiner CBE (born April 20, 1943, Fontmell, Dorset, England) is an English conductor. ... Sir Roger Arthur Carver Norrington (born March 16, 1934) is a British conductor best known for performances of Baroque, Classical and Romantic music using period instruments and period style. ... Marcello Viotti (born June 29, 1954, died February 16, 2005) was a Swiss classical music conductor, best known for opera. ... Christian Thielemann (born 1959 in Berlin) is a German conductor. ... Franz Welser-Möst, Photo by: Roger Mastroianni courtesy of IMG Artists Franz Welser-Möst (16 August 1960), born Franz Möst, is the seventh and current Music Director of The Cleveland Orchestra. ... Daniele Gatti (born Milan) is an Italian conductor. ... Gilbert Kaplan is a businessman and amateur conductor. ... Mariss Jansons (born 1943) is a prominent Latvian conductor. ... Simone Young (born March 2, 1961) is an Australian conductor, particularly well known for opera. ...

Selection of recordings

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... Karl Böhm (August 28, 1894 - August 14, 1981) was a noted conductor. ... Le nozze di Figaro ossia la folle giornata (Trans: ), K. 492, is an opera buffa (comic opera) composed in 1786 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, based on a stage comedy by Pierre Beaumarchais, Le mariage de Figaro (1784). ... Erich Kleiber (August 5, 1890 – January 27, 1956) was an Austrian-born conductor. ... Don Giovanni (K.527) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte. ... Josef Alois Krips (born 8 April 1902 in Vienna, died 13 October 1974 in Geneva) was an Austrian conductor and violinist. ... 1820 portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler Beethoven redirects here. ... Eroica Symphony Title Page The Symphony No. ... Felix Weingartner, Edler von Münzberg (June 2, 1863 – May 7, 1942) was a conductor, composer and pianist. ... The coversheet to Beethovens 5th Symphony. ... Ludwig van Beethoven began concentrated work on his Symphony No. ... Carlos Kleiber (July 3, 1930 - July 13, 2004) was an Austrian conductor. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony Number 2 in D Major, (Op. ... The coversheet to Beethovens 5th Symphony. ... The Symphony No. ... Simon Rattle recording Porgy and Bess with the London Symphony Orchestra at Abbey Road in 1988 Sir Simon Denis Rattle, CBE OL (born January 19, 1955) is an English conductor. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Symphony No. ... Portrait by Emil Orlik, 1928 Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... The Symphony No. ... Carlos Kleiber (July 3, 1930 - July 13, 2004) was an Austrian conductor. ... Aram Ilich Khachaturian (Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան, Aram Xačatryan; Russian: Аpaм Ильич Xaчaтypян, Aram Ilič Hačaturjan) (June 6, 1903 – May 1, 1978) was a composer of classical music. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Gayane (sometimes written Gayaneh) is a ballet composed by Aram Khachaturian in 1942. ... Aram Ilich Khachaturian (Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան, Aram Xačatryan; Russian: Аpaм Ильич Xaчaтypян, Aram Ilič Hačaturjan) (June 6, 1903 – May 1, 1978) was a composer of classical music. ... Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ... Franz Schuberts Symphony No. ... Carl Adolph Schuricht (July 3, 1880 - January 7, 1967) was an orchestra conductor born in Danzig (now Gdansk). ... In 1838 Robert Schumann, on a visit to Vienna, found the dusty manuscript of Franz Schuberts C major symphony (the Great, D.944) and took it back to Leipzig, where it was performed by Felix Mendelssohn and celebrated in the Neue Zeitschrift. ... Josef Alois Krips (born 8 April 1902 in Vienna, died 13 October 1974 in Geneva) was an Austrian conductor and violinist. ... Wilhelm Richard Wagner (Leipzig, May 22, 1813 – Venice, February 13, 1883) was an influential German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... Bruno Walter (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... Portrait by Emil Orlik, 1928 Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... Sir Georg Solti, KBE (pronounced ) (21 October 1912 - 5 September 1997) was a world-renowned Hungarian-British orchestral and operatic conductor. ... The Gramophone is a glossy publication devoted to classical music and particularly recordings of classical music. ... Bruckner redirects here. ... Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ... Karl Böhm (August 28, 1894 - August 14, 1981) was a noted conductor. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth) is particularly interesting among Gustav Mahlers symphonic works. ... Kathleen Ferrier Kathleen Mary Ferrier CBE (22 April 1912 – 8 October 1953) was an English contralto born in Blackburn, and later moved with her family to Higher Walton, Lancashire. ... In music, an alto is a singer with a vocal range somewhere between a tenor and a soprano. ... Bruno Walter (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... James King may refer to: James King (soldier) (1589-1652), a Scottish commander in the Battle of Wittstock James King, 17th cent. ... The German baritone Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (born May 28, 1925) is regarded by many as the finest Lieder singer of his generation, if not of the last century. ... Leonard Bernstein (pronounced BERN-styne)[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... The Symphony No. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlɛz/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( ; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk-music of his native Bohemia in symphonic and chamber music. ... The Symphony No. ... Herbert von Karajan (Salzburg April 5, 1908 Anif near Salzburg – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... Johann Strauss II The Waltz King coming to life in the Stadtpark, Vienna Johann Strauss II (German: Johann Strauß (Sohn), Johann Strauss (son); in English also Johann Strauss the Younger, Johann Strauss Jr. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Herbert von Karajan (Salzburg April 5, 1908 Anif near Salzburg – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... Claudio Abbado (born June 26, 1933) is a noted Italian conductor. ... Carlos Kleiber (July 3, 1930 - July 13, 2004) was an Austrian conductor. ... Nikolaus Harnoncourt (born December 6, 1929) is an Austrian conductor, known for his historically accurate performances of music from the classical era and earlier. ... Riccardo Muti (born July 28, 1941, in Naples) is an Italian conductor best known for being the Music Director of Milans La Scala opera house, a position he held from 1986 to 2005, and of The Philadelphia Orchestra from 1980 to 1992. ... The New Year Concert (in German: Das Neujahrskonzert der Wiener Philharmoniker) of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra is a concert that takes place each year in the morning of January 1 in Vienna, Austria. ...

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