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Encyclopedia > Vienna Circle
Moritz Schlick around 1930
Moritz Schlick around 1930

The Vienna Circle (in German: der Wiener Kreis) was a group of philosophers who gathered around Moritz Schlick when he was called to the Vienna University in 1922, organized in a philosophical association named Verein Ernst Mach (Ernst Mach Society). Among its members were Moritz Schlick, chairman of the Ernst Mach Society, Gustav Bergmann, Rudolf Carnap, Herbert Feigl, Philipp Frank, Kurt Gödel, Hans Hahn, Victor Kraft, Karl Menger, Marcel Natkin, Otto Neurath, Olga Hahn-Neurath, Theodor Radakovic, Friedrich Waismann. Members of the Vienna Circle had a common attitude towards philosophy, characterized by two main features: first, experience is the only source of knowledge; second, logical analysis performed with the help of symbolic logic is the preferred method for solving philosophical problems. Image File history File links About_1930. ... Image File history File links About_1930. ... Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Croatian and Serbian: Beč Romanian: Viena, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya;) Vienna is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Ernst Mach Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the Mach number and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. ... Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ... Gustav Bergmann (1906-1987) was a Jewish ontologist born in Vienna, Austria. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970, Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ... Herbert Feigl (December 14, 1902 - June 1, 1988) was an Austrian philosopher and a member of the Vienna Circle. ... Philipp Frank was an influential philosopher during the first half of the 20th century. ... Kurt Gödel Kurt Gödel [kurt gøːdl], (April 28, 1906 Brno, Czech Republic –January 14, 1978 Princeton, New Jersey) was a logician, mathematician, and philosopher of mathematics. ... Hans Hahn (1879 - 1934) was an Austrian mathematician who made many contributions to functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory. ... Karl Menger Karl Menger (born in Vienna, Austria, January 13, 1902 -- died in Highland Park, Illinois, USA, October 5, 1985) was a mathematician of great scope and depth. ... Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ... Friedrich Waismann (March 21, 1896 - November 4, 1959) was an Austrian mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. ...

Contents


History of the Vienna Circle

The prehistory of the Vienna Circle began with meetings on the philosophy of science and epistemology from 1907 on, promoted by Philipp Frank, Hans Hahn and Otto Neurath. The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, including the formal sciences, natural sciences, and social sciences. ... Epistemology is an analytic branch of philosophy which studies the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Philipp Frank was an influential philosopher during the first half of the 20th century. ... Hans Hahn (1879 - 1934) was an Austrian mathematician who made many contributions to functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory. ... Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ...


Hans Hahn, the older of the three (1879-1934), was a mathematician. He received his degree in mathematics in 1902. Afterwards he studied under the direction of Ludwig Boltzmann in Vienna and David Hilbert, Felix Klein and Hermann Minkowski in Göttingen. In 1905 he received the Habilitation in mathematics. He taught at Innsbruck (1905-1906) and Vienna (from 1909). Hans Hahn (1879 - 1934) was an Austrian mathematician who made many contributions to functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Euclid, detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ludwig Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for the invention of statistical mechanics. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Croatian and Serbian: Beč Romanian: Viena, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya;) Vienna is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... David Hilbert David Hilbert (January 23, 1862,Wehlau–February 14, 1943, Gottingen) was a German mathematician, recognized as one of the most influential mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Felix Christian Klein (April 25, 1849 – June 22, 1925) was a German mathematician. ... Hermann Minkowski. ... Landmark Gänseliesel fountain at the main market Göttingen ( (help· info)) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Habilitation is a term used within the university system in Germany, Austria, and some other European countries such as the German-speaking part of Switzerland, in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Russia, and other countries of former Soviet Union, such as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Kirgizstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, etc. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Croatian and Serbian: Beč Romanian: Viena, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya;) Vienna is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Otto Neurath (1882-1945) studied sociology, economics and philosophy in Vienna and Berlin. From 1907 to 1914 he taught in Vienna at the Neuen Wiener Handelsakademie (Viennese Commercial Academy). Neurath married Olga, Hahn’s sister, in 1911. Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Social interactions of people and their consequences are the subject of sociology studies. ... Economics (from the Greek οίκος [oikos], family, household, estate, and νομος [nomos], custom, law, hence household management and management of the state) is a social science that studies the production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services. ... The Philosopher (detail), by Rembrandt Philosophy is a study that includes various diverse subfields such as aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, logic, and metaphysics. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Croatian and Serbian: Beč Romanian: Viena, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya;) Vienna is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... (help· info), IPA: , is the capital city as well as a state of Germany, and also the countrys largest city. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Croatian and Serbian: Beč Romanian: Viena, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya;) Vienna is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ...


Philipp Frank, the younger of the group (1884-1966), studied physics at Göttingen and Vienna with Ludwig Boltzmann, David Hilbert and Felix Klein. From 1912, he held the chair of theoretical physics in the German University in Prague. Philipp Frank was an influential philosopher during the first half of the 20th century. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... A Superconductor demonstrating the Meissner Effect. ... Landmark Gänseliesel fountain at the main market Göttingen ( (help· info)) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Croatian and Serbian: Beč Romanian: Viena, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya;) Vienna is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Ludwig Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for the invention of statistical mechanics. ... David Hilbert David Hilbert (January 23, 1862,Wehlau–February 14, 1943, Gottingen) was a German mathematician, recognized as one of the most influential mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Felix Christian Klein (April 25, 1849 – June 22, 1925) was a German mathematician. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models in an attempt to understand Nature. ... Prague (Czech: Praha, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ...


Their meetings were held in Viennese coffeehouses from 1907 onward. Frank remembered:

After 1910 there began in Vienna a movement which regarded Mach’s positivist philosophy of science as having great importance for general intellectual life […] An attempt was made by a group of young men to retain the most essential points of Mach's positivism, especially his stand against the misuse of metaphysics in science. […] To this group belonged the mathematician H. Hahn, the political economist Otto Neurath, and the author of this book [i.e. Frank], at the time an instructor in theoretical physics in Vienna. […] We tried to supplement Mach’s ideas by those of the French philosophy of science of Henri Poincaré and Pierre Duhem, and also to connect them with the investigations in logic of such authors as Couturat, Schröder, Hilbert, etc. (cited from Uebel, Thomas, 2003, p.70). Ernst Mach Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the Mach number and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, including the formal sciences, natural sciences, and social sciences. ... Ernst Mach Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the Mach number and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. ... Positivism can have several meanings. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Hans Hahn (1879 - 1934) was an Austrian mathematician who made many contributions to functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory. ... Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models in an attempt to understand Nature. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Croatian and Serbian: Beč Romanian: Viena, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya;) Vienna is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Ernst Mach Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the Mach number and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. ... Henri Poincaré, photograph from the frontispiece of the 1913 edition of Last Thoughts Jules Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912), generally known as Henri Poincaré, was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ... Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem (10 June 1861 – 14 September 1916) French physicist and philosopher of science. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ...

Presumably the meetings stopped in 1912, when Frank went to Prague, where he held the chair of theoretical physics left vacant by Albert Einstein. Hahn left Vienna during the World War I and returned in 1921. The following year Hahn, with the collaboration of Frank, arranged to bring into the group Moritz Schlick, who held the chair of philosophy of the inductive sciences at the University of Vienna. Schlick had already published his two main works Raum und Zeit in die gegenwärtigen Physik (Space and Time in contemporary Physics) in 1917 and Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre (General Theory of Knowledge) in 1918. A central frame of reference for the newly founded discussion group was the Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung (Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus), published by Ludwig Wittgenstein in 1918. 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Prague (Czech: Praha, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models in an attempt to understand Nature. ... Albert Einstein photographed by Oren J. Turner in 1947. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Croatian and Serbian: Beč Romanian: Viena, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya;) Vienna is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Combatants Allies: • Serbia, • Russia, • France, • Romania, • Belgium, • British Empire and Dominions, • United States, • Italy, • ...and others Central Powers: • Germany, • Austria-Hungary, • Ottoman Empire, • Bulgaria Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total: 8 million Full list Military dead: 3 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total: 6 million Full... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ... The Philosopher (detail), by Rembrandt Philosophy is a study that includes various diverse subfields such as aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, logic, and metaphysics. ... University of Vienna, main building, seen from Beethovens apartment The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) in Austria was founded in 1365 by Rudolph IV and hence named Alma mater Rudolphina. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is the only book-length work published by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime. ... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 – April 29, 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking works to modern philosophy, primarily on the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Under the direction of Schlick, a new regular series of meetings began. In 1926 Schlick and Hahn arranged to bring in Rudolf Carnap at the University of Vienna. In 1928 the Verein Ernst Mach (Ernst Mach Society) was founded, with Schlick as chairman. In 1929 the Vienna Circle manifesto Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung. Der Wiener Kreis (The Scientific Conception of the World. The Vienna Circle) was published. The pamphlet is dedicated to Schlick, and its preface was signed by Hahn, Neurath and Carnap. In the appendix there is the list of the members of the Vienna Circle. 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970, Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Croatian and Serbian: Beč Romanian: Viena, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya;) Vienna is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Vienna Circle was dispersed when the Nazi party went into power in Germany; many of its members emigrated to USA, where they taught in several universities. Schlick remained in Austria, but in 1936 he was killed by a Nazi sympathizer student in the University of Vienna. The term National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ... Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The term National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Croatian and Serbian: Beč Romanian: Viena, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya;) Vienna is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ...


The Vienna Circle manifesto

It states the scientific world-conception of the Vienna Circle, which is characterized “essentially by two features. First it is empiricist and positivist: there is knowledge only from experience […] Second, the scientific world-conception is marked by the application of a certain method, namely logical analysis.” (The Scientific Conception of the World. The Vienna Circle in Sarkar, Sahotra, 1996, p. 331 – hereinafter VC). Empiricism is the philosophical doctrine of testing or experimentation, and has taken on the more specific meaning that all human knowledge ultimately comes from the senses and from experience. ... Positivism can have several meanings. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ...


Logical analysis is the method of clarification of philosophical problems; it makes an extensive use of the symbolic logic and distinguishes the Vienna Circle empiricism from earlier versions. The task of philosophy lies in the clarification - through the method of logical analisys - of problems and assertions. Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Empiricism is the philosophical doctrine of testing or experimentation, and has taken on the more specific meaning that all human knowledge ultimately comes from the senses and from experience. ... The Philosopher (detail), by Rembrandt Philosophy is a study that includes various diverse subfields such as aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, logic, and metaphysics. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ...


Logical analysis shows that there are two different kinds of statements; one kind includes statements reducible to simpler statements about the empirically given; the other kind includes statements which cannot be reduced to statements about experience and thus they are devoid of meaning. Metaphysical statements belong to this second kind and therefore they are meaningless. Hence many philosophical problems are rejected as pseudo-problems which arise from logical mistakes, while others are re-interpreted as empirical statements and thus becomes the subject of scientific inquiries. Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... The term statement can have several meanings: In programming, a statement is an instruction to execute something that will not return a value. ... The term statement can have several meanings: In programming, a statement is an instruction to execute something that will not return a value. ... The term statement can have several meanings: In programming, a statement is an instruction to execute something that will not return a value. ... The term statement can have several meanings: In programming, a statement is an instruction to execute something that will not return a value. ... The term statement can have several meanings: In programming, a statement is an instruction to execute something that will not return a value. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... Metaphysical may refer to: Metaphysics, a branch of philosophy dealing with the ultimate nature of reality; or The Metaphysical poets, a poetic school from seventeenth century England who correspond with baroque period in European literature. ... The term statement can have several meanings: In programming, a statement is an instruction to execute something that will not return a value. ... Meaningless is the debut solo album of singer and songwriter Jon Brion, who has previously made a name for himself producing records and playing multi-instruments for hit pop artists Aimee Mann, Fiona Apple and Rufus Wainwright, among others. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... The term statement can have several meanings: In programming, a statement is an instruction to execute something that will not return a value. ...


One source of the logical mistakes that are at the origins of metaphysics is the ambiguity of natural language. “Ordinary language for instance uses the same part of speech, the substantive, for things (‘apple’) as well as for qualities (‘hardness’), relations (‘friendship’), and processes (‘sleep’); therefore it misleads one into a thing-like conception of functional concepts” (VC p. 329). Another source of mistakes is “the notion that thinking can either lead to knowledge out of its own resources without using any empirical material, or at least arrive at new contents by an inference from given states of affair” (VC p. 330). The latter notion is typical in Kantian philosophy, according to which there are synthetic statements a priori that expand knowledge without using the experience. Synthetic knowledge a priori is rejected by the Vienna Circle. Mathematics, which at a first sight seems an example of necessarly valid synthetic knowledge derived from pure reason alone, has instead a tautological character, that is its statements are analytical statements, thus very different from Kantian synthetic statements. The only two kinds of statements accepted by the Vienna Circle are synthetic statements a posteriori (i.e. scientific statements) and analytic statements a priori (i.e. logical and mathematical statements). Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Look up thing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Quality refers to the inherent or distinctive characteristics or properties of a person, object, process or other thing. ... In mathematics, a relation is a generalization of arithmetic relations, such as = and <, which occur in statements, such as 5 < 6 or 2 + 2 = 4. See relation (mathematics), binary relation and relational algebra. ... A concept is an abstract, idea, notion, or entity that serves to designate a category or class of entities, events, phenomena or relations between them. ... ... It has been suggested that Kantianism be merged into this article or section. ... Generally, synthetic means pertaining to synthesis, i. ... A priori is a Latin phrase meaning from the former or less literally before experience. In much of the modern Western tradition, the term a priori is considered to mean propositional knowledge that can be had without, or prior to, experience. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... A synthetic proposition is a proposition that is capable of being true or untrue based on facts about the world - in contrast to an analytic proposition which is true by definition. ... A priori is a Latin phrase meaning from the former or less literally before experience. In much of the modern Western tradition, the term a priori is considered to mean propositional knowledge that can be had without, or prior to, experience. ... Euclid, detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ... A synthetic proposition is a proposition that is capable of being true or untrue based on facts about the world - in contrast to an analytic proposition which is true by definition. ... Reason is a term used in philosophy and other human sciences to refer to the higher cognitive faculties of the human mind. ... Tautology refers to a use of redundant language in speech or writing, or, put simply, saying the same thing twice. Within the study of logic, a tautology is a statement that is true by its own definition. ... In philosophy, an analytic statement, or analytic proposition, is one such that its truth can be determined (solely) through analysis of its meaning. ... It has been suggested that Kantianism be merged into this article or section. ... A synthetic proposition is a proposition that is capable of being true or untrue based on facts about the world - in contrast to an analytic proposition which is true by definition. ... A synthetic proposition is a proposition that is capable of being true or untrue based on facts about the world - in contrast to an analytic proposition which is true by definition. ... Empirical or a posteriori knowledge is propositional knowledge obtained by experience. ... In philosophy, an analytic statement, or analytic proposition, is one such that its truth can be determined (solely) through analysis of its meaning. ... A priori is a Latin phrase meaning from the former or less literally before experience. In much of the modern Western tradition, the term a priori is considered to mean propositional knowledge that can be had without, or prior to, experience. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Euclid, detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ...


However, the persistence of metaphysics is connected not only with logical mistakes but also with “social and economical struggles” (VC p. 339). Metaphysics and theology are allied to traditional social forms, while the group of people who “faces modern times, rejects these views and takes its stand on the ground of empirical sciences” (VC p. 339). Thus the struggle between metaphysics and scientific world-conception is not only a struggle between different kinds of philosophies, but it is also – and perhaps primarily – a struggle between different political, social and economical attitudes. Of course, as the manifesto itself acknowledged, “not every adherent of the scientific world-conception will be a fighter” (VC p. 339). Many historians of the Vienna Circle see in the latter sentence an implicit reference to a contrast between the so called ‘left wing’ of the Vienna Circle, mainly represented by Neurath and Carnap, and Moritz Schlick. The aim of the left wing was to facilitate the penetration of the scientific world-conception in “the forms of personal and public life, in education, upbringing, architecture, and the shaping of economic and social life” (VC p. 339-340). On the contrary, Schlick was primarily interested in the theoretical study of science and philosophy. Perhaps the sentence “Some, glad of solitude, will lead a withdrawn existence on the icy slopes of logic” (VC p. 339) is an ironic reference to Schlick. Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... The Philosopher (detail), by Rembrandt Philosophy is a study that includes various diverse subfields such as aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, logic, and metaphysics. ... Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970, Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ... Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... The Philosopher (detail), by Rembrandt Philosophy is a study that includes various diverse subfields such as aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, logic, and metaphysics. ... Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ...


Unified Science

The final goal pursued by the Vienna Circle was unified science, that is the construction of a "constitutive system" in which every legitimate statement is reduced to the concepts of lower level which refer directly to the given experience. "The endeavour is to link and harmonise the achievements of individual investigators in their various fields of science" (VC p. 328). From this aim follows the search for clarity, neatness, intersubjectivity, and for a neutral symbolic language that eliminates the problems arising from the ambiguity of natural language. The Vienna Circle published a collection, called Einheitswissenschaft (Unified science), edit by Rudolf Carnap, Philipp Frank, Hans Hahn, Otto Neurath, Joergen Joergensen (after Hahn's death) and Charles Morris (from 1938), whose aim was to present an unified vision of science. After the publication in Europe of seven monographs from 1933 to 1939, the collection was dismissed, because of the problems arising from the World War II. In 1938 a new series of publications started in USA. It was the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, an ambitious project never completed devoted to unified science. Only the first section Foundations of the Unity of Sciences was published; it contains two volumes for a total of twenty monographs published from 1938 to 1969. As remembered by Rudolf Carnap and Charles Morris in the Preface to the 1969 edition of the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science: The Unified Science is an integral system of knowledge developed by Edward Haskell, Harold Cassidy, Willard V. Quine, Arthur Jensen, and Jere Clark. ... The term statement can have several meanings: In programming, a statement is an instruction to execute something that will not return a value. ... A concept is an abstract, idea, notion, or entity that serves to designate a category or class of entities, events, phenomena or relations between them. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970, Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ... Philipp Frank was an influential philosopher during the first half of the 20th century. ... Hans Hahn (1879 - 1934) was an Austrian mathematician who made many contributions to functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory. ... Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ... Hans Hahn (1879 - 1934) was an Austrian mathematician who made many contributions to functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory. ... Charles Morris may refer to: Charles Morris (naval officer) (1784 - 1856) Charles Morris (boxer) Olympic medallist 1908 Charles Morris (photographer) Charles Morris (politician) former MP for Manchester, Openshaw Charles W. Morris (1901-1979) semioticist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Allies: • Poland, • UK & Commonwealth, • France/Free France, • Soviet Union, • USA, • China, ...and others Axis: • Germany, • Italy, • Japan, ...and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total: 50 million Full list Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total: 12 million Full list World War II... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Unified Science is an integral system of knowledge developed by Edward Haskell, Harold Cassidy, Willard V. Quine, Arthur Jensen, and Jere Clark. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970, Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ... Charles Morris may refer to: Charles Morris (naval officer) (1784 - 1856) Charles Morris (boxer) Olympic medallist 1908 Charles Morris (photographer) Charles Morris (politician) former MP for Manchester, Openshaw Charles W. Morris (1901-1979) semioticist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share...

The Encyclopedia was in origin the idea of Otto Neurath. It was meant as a manifestation of the unity of science movement […] Original plans for the Encyclopedia were ambitious. In addition to the two introductory volumes, there was to be a section on the methodology of the sciences, one on the existing state of the unification of sciences, and possibly a section on the application of the sciences. It was planned that the work in its entirety would comprise about twenty-six volumes (260 monographs) (Foundations of the Unity of Sciences, vol. 1, The University of Chicago Press, 1969, p. vii). Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ...

The well known Thomas Kuhn’s work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, was published in this Encyclopedia in 1962, as the number two in the second volume. Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American intellectual who wrote extensively on the history of science and developed several important notions in the philosophy of science. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The elimination of metaphysics

The attitude of Vienna Circle towards metaphysics is well expressed by Carnap in the article 'Überwindung der Metaphysik durch Logische Analyse der Sprache' in Erkenntnis, vol. 2, 1932 (English translation 'The Elimination of Metaphysics Through Logical Analysis of Language' in Sarkar, Sahotra, ed., Logical empiricism at its peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath, New York : Garland Pub., 1996, pp. 10-31). A language – says Carnap – consists of a vocabulary, i.e. a set of meaningful words, and a syntax, i.e. a set of rules governing the formation of sentences from the words of the vocabulary. Pseudo-statements, i.e. sequences of words that at first sight resemble statements but in reality have no meaning, are formed in two ways: either meaningless words occur in them, or they are formed in an invalid syntactical way. According to Carnap, pseudo-statements of both kinds occur in metaphysics. Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 - September 14, 1970) was a German philosopher. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 - September 14, 1970) was a German philosopher. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... Syntax, originating from the Greek words συν (syn, meaning co- or together) and τάξις (táxis, meaning sequence, order, arrangement), can in linguistics be described as the study of the rules, or patterned relations that govern the way the words in a sentence come together. ... The term statement can have several meanings: In programming, a statement is an instruction to execute something that will not return a value. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 - September 14, 1970) was a German philosopher. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ...


A word W has a meaning if two conditions are satisfied. First, the mode of the occurrence of W in its elementary sentence form (i.e. the simplest sentence form in which W is capable of occurring) must be fixed. Secondly, if W occurs is an elementary sentence S, it is necessary to give an answer to the following questions (that are – according to Carnap – equivalent formulation of the same question): Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 - September 14, 1970) was a German philosopher. ...

  • (1.) What sentences is S deducible from, and what sentences are deducible from S?
  • (2.) Under what conditions is S supposed to be true, and under what conditions false?
  • (3.) How S is to verified?
  • (4.) What is the meaning of S?

(Carnap, 'The Elimination of Metaphysics Through Logical Analysis of Language' in Sarkar, Sahotra, cit., pp. 12) Sentence, derived from Latin sententia (perception, in the subjective sense of how one feels reality is), has three common meanings: Sentence (linguistics) Sentence (mathematical logic) Open sentence (a term that mathematics teachers attempted to introduce, but not used by mathematicians) Sentence (law) Sentence (music) This is a disambiguation page — a... Sentence, derived from Latin sententia (perception, in the subjective sense of how one feels reality is), has three common meanings: Sentence (linguistics) Sentence (mathematical logic) Open sentence (a term that mathematics teachers attempted to introduce, but not used by mathematicians) Sentence (law) Sentence (music) This is a disambiguation page — a... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 - September 14, 1970) was a German philosopher. ...


An example offered by Carnap concerns the word 'arthropode'. The sentence form "the thing x is an arthropode" is an elementary sentence form that is derivable from "x is an animal", "x has a segmented body" and "x has jointed legs". Conversely, these sentences are derivable from "the thing x is an arthropode". Thus the meaning of the words 'arthropode' is determined. Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 - September 14, 1970) was a German philosopher. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


According to Carnap, many words of metaphysics do not fulfil these requirements and thus they are meaningless. As an example, [[Carnap considers the word 'principle'. This word has a definite meaning, if the sentence "x is the principle of y" is supposed to be equivalent to the sentence "y exists by virtue of x" or "y arises out of x". The latter sentence is perfectly clear: y arises out of x when x is invariably followed by y, and the invariable association between x and y is empirically verifiable. But – says Carnap – metaphysicians are not satisfied with this interpretation of the meaning of 'principle'. They assert that no empirical relation between x and y can completely explain the meaning of "x is the principle of y", because there is something that cannot be grasped by means of the experience, something for which no empirical criterion can be specified. It is the lacking of any empirical criterion – says Carnap - that deprives of meaning the word 'principle' when it occurs in metaphysics. Therefore, metaphysical pseudo-statements such as "water is the principle of the word" o "the spirit is the principle of the world" are void of meaning because a meaningless word occurs in them. Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 - September 14, 1970) was a German philosopher. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 - September 14, 1970) was a German philosopher. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 - September 14, 1970) was a German philosopher. ...


However, there are pseudo-statements in which occur only meaningful words; these pseudo-statements are formed in a counter-syntactical way. An example is the word sequence "Caesar is a prime number"; every word has a definite meaning, but the sequence has no meaning. The problem is that "prime number" is a predicate of numbers, not a predicate of human beings. In the example the nonsense is evident; however, in natural language the rules of grammar do not prohibited the formation of analogous meaningless word sequences that are not so easily detectable. In the grammar of natural languages, every sequence of the kind "x is y", where x is a noun and y is a predicate, is acceptable. In fact, in the grammar there is no distinction between predicate which can be affirmed of human beings and predicate which can be affirmed of numbers. So "Caesar is a general" and "Caesar is a prime number" are both well-formed, in contrast for example with "Caesar is and", which is ill-formed. In a logically constructed language – says Carnap – a distinction between the various kinds of predicate is specified, and pseudo-statements as "Caesar is a prime number" are ill-formed. Now, and this is the main point of Carnap's argument, metaphysical statements in which do not occur meaningless words, are indeed meaningless because they are formed in a way which is admissible in natural languages, but not in logically constructed languages. Carnap attempts to indicate the most frequent sources of errors from which metaphysical pseudo-statements can arise. One source of mistakes is the ambiguity of the verb 'to be', which is sometimes used as a copula ("I am hungry") and sometimes to designate existence ("I am"). The latter statement incorrectly suggests a predicative form, and thus it suggests that existence is a predicate. Only modern logic, with the introduction of an explicit sign to designate existence (the sign ), which occurs only in statements such as , never as a predicate, has showed that existence is not a predicate, and thus has revealed the logical error from which pseudo-statements such as "cogito, ergo sum" has aroused. Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 - September 14, 1970) was a German philosopher. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 - September 14, 1970) was a German philosopher. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ...


Another source of mistakes is type confusions, in which a predicate of a kind is used as a predicate of another kind. For example the pseudo-statements "we know the Nothing" is analogous to "we know the rain", but while the latter is well-formed, the former is ill-formed, at least in a logically constructed language, because 'Nothing' is incorrectly used as a noun. In a formal language, 'Nothing' only means , such as "there is nothing which is outside", i.e. , and thus 'Nothing' never occurs as a noun or as a predicate. A noun, or noun substantive, is a part of speech (a word or phrase) which can co-occur with (in)definite articles and attributive adjectives, and function as the head of a noun phrase. ... A noun, or noun substantive, is a part of speech (a word or phrase) which can co-occur with (in)definite articles and attributive adjectives, and function as the head of a noun phrase. ...


What is the role of metaphysics? According to Carnap, although metaphysics has not theoretical content, it has content indeed: metaphysical pseudo-statements express the attitude of a person towards life. Metaphysics is an art like lyrical poetry. The metaphysician, instead of using the medium of art, works with the medium of the theoretical; he confuses art with science, attitude towards life with knowledge, and thus produces an unsatisfactory and inadequate work. "Metaphysicians are musicians without musical ability" (Carnap, 'The Elimination of Metaphysics', in Sarkar, Sahotra, cit.,p. 30). Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 - September 14, 1970) was a German philosopher. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 - September 14, 1970) was a German philosopher. ...


Congresses and publications

Vienna Circle was very active in advertising the new philosophical ideas. Several congresses on epistemology and philosophy of science were organized, with the help of the Berlin Circle. There were some preparatory congresses: Prague (1929), Königsberg (1930), Prague (1934) and then the first congress on scientific philosophy held in Paris (1935), followed by congresses in Copenhagen (1936), Paris (1937), Cambridge, UK (1938), Cambridge, Mass. (1939). The Königsberg congress (1930) was very important, for Kurt Gödel announced that he has proved the completeness of first order logic and the incompleteness of formal arithmetic. Another very interesting congress was the one held in Copenhagen (1936), which was dedicated to quantum physics and causality. Epistemology is an analytic branch of philosophy which studies the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge. ... The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, including the formal sciences, natural sciences, and social sciences. ... Berlin Circle can mean the following: A group of philosophers; see Berlin Circle (philosophy) A traffic circle in New Jersey; see Berlin Circle (traffic circle) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Prague (Czech: Praha, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Prague (Czech: Praha, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Eiffel Tower, the tallest structure in Paris, has become the international symbol of the city. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Copenhagen (Danish: København) is the capital of Denmark, and the name of the municipality (Danish, kommune) in which it resides. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Eiffel Tower, the tallest structure in Paris, has become the international symbol of the city. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is about Cambridge, England; see also other places called Cambridge. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Cambridge City Hall Cambridge is a city in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Kurt Gödel Kurt Gödel [kurt gøːdl], (April 28, 1906 Brno, Czech Republic –January 14, 1978 Princeton, New Jersey) was a logician, mathematician, and philosopher of mathematics. ... In mathematics and related technical fields, a mathematical object is complete if nothing needs to be added to it. ... First-order predicate calculus or first-order logic (FOL) is a theory in symbolic logic that permits the formulation of quantified statements such as there is at least one X such that. ... In mathematical logic, Gödels incompleteness theorems are two celebrated theorems proven by Kurt Gödel in 1931. ... Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) in common usage is a branch of (or the forerunner of) mathematics which records elementary properties of certain operations on numerals, though professional mathematicians often treat arithmetic as a synonym for number theory. ... Copenhagen (Danish: København) is the capital of Denmark, and the name of the municipality (Danish, kommune) in which it resides. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Fig. ... It has been suggested that Causalism be merged into this article or section. ...


Between 1928 and 1937, the Vienna Circle published ten books in a collection named Schriften zur wissenschaftlichen Weltauffassung (Monographs on the Scientific World-Conception), edited by Schlick and Frank. Karl Raimund Popper’s book Logik der Forschung was published in this collection. Seven works were published in another collection, called Einheitswissenschaft (Unified Science). In 1930 Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach undertook the editorship of the journal Erkenntnis, which was published between 1930 and 1940 (from 1939 the editors were Otto Neurath, Rudolf Carnap and Charles Morris). 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ... Philipp Frank was an influential philosopher during the first half of the 20th century. ... Karl Popper Sir Karl Raimund Popper (July 28, 1902 - September 17, 1994), was an Austrian-born, British philosopher of science. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970, Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ... Hans Reichenbach (September 26, 1891, Hamburg, – April 9, 1953, Los Angeles) was a leading philosopher of science, educator and proponent of logical positivism. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970, Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ... Charles Morris may refer to: Charles Morris (naval officer) (1784 - 1856) Charles Morris (boxer) Olympic medallist 1908 Charles Morris (photographer) Charles Morris (politician) former MP for Manchester, Openshaw Charles W. Morris (1901-1979) semioticist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share...


The following is the list of works published in the two collections edit by the Vienna Circle.


Schriften zur wissenschaftlichen Weltauffassung (Monographs on the Scientific World-Conception), edit by Schlick and Frank:

  • Richard von Mises, Wahrscheinlichkeit, Statistik und Wahrheit, 1928 (Probability, Statistics, and Truth, New York : Macmillan company, 1939)
  • Rudolf Carnap, Abriss der Logistik, 1929
  • Moritz Schlick, Fragen der Ethik, 1930 (Problems of Ethics, New York : Prentice-Hall, 1939)
  • Otto Neurath, Empirische Soziologie, 1931
  • Philipp Frank, Das Kausalgesetz und seine Grenzen, 1932 (The Law of Causality and its Limits, Dordrecth ; Boston : Kluwer, 1997)
  • Otto Kant, Zur Biologie der Ethik, 1932
  • Rudolf Carnap, Logische Syntax der Sprache, 1934 (The Logical Syntax of Language, New York : Humanities, 1937)
  • Karl Raimund Popper, Logik der Forschung, 1934 (The Logic of Scientific Discovery, New York : Basic Books, 1959)
  • Josef Schächeter, Prolegomena zu einer kritischen Grammatik, 1935 (Prolegomena to a Critical Grammar, Dordrecth ; Boston : D. Reidel Pub. Co., 1973)
  • Victor Kraft, Die Grundlagen einer wissenschaftliche Wertlehre, 1937 (Foundations for a Scientific Analysis of Value, Dordrecth ; Boston : D. Reidel Pub. Co., 1981)

Einheitswissenschaft (Unified Science), edit by Carnap, Frank, Hahn, Neurath, Joergensen (after Hahn's death), Morris (from 1938): Richard von Mises. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970, Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ... Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ... Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ... Philipp Frank was an influential philosopher during the first half of the 20th century. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970, Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ... Karl Popper Sir Karl Raimund Popper (July 28, 1902 - September 17, 1994), was an Austrian-born, British philosopher of science. ...

  • Hans Hahn, Logik, Mathematik und Naturerkennen, 1933
  • Otto Neurath, Einheitswissenschaft und Psychologie, 1933
  • Rudolf Carnap, Die Aufgabe der Wissenschaftlogik, 1934
  • Philipp Frank, Das Ende der mechanistischen Physik, 1935
  • Otto Neurath, Was bedeutet rationale Wirtschaftsbetrachtung, 1935
  • Otto Neurath, E. Brunswik, C. Hull, G. Mannoury, J. Woodger, Zur Enzyklopädie der Einheitswissenschaft. Vorträge, 1938
  • Richard von Mises, Ernst Mach und die empiristische Wissenschaftauffassung, 1939

These works are translated in Unified Science: The Vienna Circle Monograph Series Originally Edited by Otto Neurath, Kluwer, 1987. Hans Hahn (1879 - 1934) was an Austrian mathematician who made many contributions to functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory. ... Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970, Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ... Philipp Frank was an influential philosopher during the first half of the 20th century. ... Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ... Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ... Richard von Mises. ...


Monographs, arranged in chronological order, published in the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science:

  • Otto Neurath, Nils Bohr, John Dewey, Bertrand Russell, Rudolf Carnap, Charles Morris, Encyclopedia and unified science, 1938, vol.1 n.1
  • Charles Morris, Foundations of the theory of signs, 1938, vol.1 n.2
  • Victor Lenzen, Procedures of empirical sciences, 1938, vol.1 n.5
  • Rudolf Carnap, Foundations of logic and mathematics, 1939, vol.1 n.3
  • Leonard Bloomfield, Linguistic aspects of science, 1939, vol.1 n.4
  • Ernest Nagel, Principles of the theory of probability, 1939, vol.1 n.6
  • John Dewey, Theory of valuation, 1939, vol.2 n.4
  • Giorgio De Santillana and Egdard Zilsel, The development of rationalism and empiricism, 1941, vol.2 n.8
  • Otto Neurath, Foundations of social sciences, 1944, vol.2 n.1
  • Joseph Henri Woodger, The technique of theory construction, 1949, vol.2 n.5
  • Philipp Frank, Foundations of physics, 1946, vol.1 n.7
  • Erwin Frinlay-Freundlich, Cosmology, 1951, vol.1 n.8
  • Joergen Joergensen, The development of logical empiricism, 1951, vol.2 n.9
  • Egon Brunswik, The conceptual framework of psychology, 1952, vol.1 n.10
  • Carl Hempel, Fundamentals of concept formation in empirical science, 1952, vol.2 n.7
  • Felix Mainx, Foundations of biology, 1955, vol.1 n.9
  • Abraham Edel, Science and the structure of ethics, 1961, vol.2 n.3
  • Thomas Kuhn, The structure of scientific revolutions, 1962, vol.2 n.2
  • Gherard Tintner, Methodology of mathematical economics and econometrics, 1968, vol.2 n.6
  • Herbert Feigl and Charles Morris, Bibliography and index, 1969, vol.2 n.10

Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ... Niels Bohr Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Jewish-Danish physicist who made essential contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thought has been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was an influential British logician, philosopher, and mathematician, working mostly in the 20th century. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970, Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ... Charles Morris may refer to: Charles Morris (naval officer) (1784 - 1856) Charles Morris (boxer) Olympic medallist 1908 Charles Morris (photographer) Charles Morris (politician) former MP for Manchester, Openshaw Charles W. Morris (1901-1979) semioticist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Charles Morris may refer to: Charles Morris (naval officer) (1784 - 1856) Charles Morris (boxer) Olympic medallist 1908 Charles Morris (photographer) Charles Morris (politician) former MP for Manchester, Openshaw Charles W. Morris (1901-1979) semioticist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970, Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ... One or more images would improve this articles quality. ... ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thought has been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882-December 22, 1945) was an Austrian sociologist, political economist, and an unorthodox Marxist. ... Philipp Frank was an influential philosopher during the first half of the 20th century. ... Carl Gustav Hempel (* January 8th, 1905 in Oranienburg, Germany † November 9th, 1997 in Princeton, New Jersey) was a philosopher of science and a student of logical positivism. ... Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American intellectual who wrote extensively on the history of science and developed several important notions in the philosophy of science. ... Herbert Feigl (December 14, 1902 - June 1, 1988) was an Austrian philosopher and a member of the Vienna Circle. ... Charles Morris may refer to: Charles Morris (naval officer) (1784 - 1856) Charles Morris (boxer) Olympic medallist 1908 Charles Morris (photographer) Charles Morris (politician) former MP for Manchester, Openshaw Charles W. Morris (1901-1979) semioticist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share...

Quoted works

  • Foundations of the Unity of Sciences, vol. 1, Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, 1969
  • Uebel, Thomas, "On the Austrian Roots of Logical Empiricism" in Logical Empiricism - Historical and contemporary Perspectives, ed. Paolo Parrini, Wesley C. Salmon, Merrilee H. Salmon, Pittsburgh : University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003, pp. 76-93
  • Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung. Der Wiener Kreis, 1929. English translation The Scientific Conception of the World. The Vienna Circle in Sarkar, Sahotra, ed., The Emergence of Logical Empiricism: from 1900 to the Vienna Circle, New York : Garland Publishing, 1996, pp. 321-340
  • Rudolf Carnap, "Überwindung der Metaphysik durch Logische Analyse der Sprache" in Erkenntnis, vol. 2, 1932 (English translation "The Elimination of Metaphysics Through Logical Analysis of Language" in Sarkar, Sahotra, ed., Logical empiricism at its peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath, New York : Garland Pub., 1996, pp. 10-31)

Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970, Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ...

References

  • Ayer, Alfred Jules. Logical Positivism. Glencoe, Ill: Free Press, 1959.
  • Barone, Francesco. Il neopositivismo logico. Roma Bari: Laterza, 1986.
  • Bergmann, Gustav. The Metaphysics of Logical Positivism. New York: Longmans Green, 1954.
  • Cirera, Ramon. Carnap and the Vienna Circle: Empiricism and Logical Syntax. Atlanta, GA: Rodopi, 1994.
  • Friedman, Michael, Reconsidering Logical Positivism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  • Gadol, Eugene T. Rationality and Science: A Memorial Volume for Moritz Schlick in Celebration of the Centennial of his Birth. Wien: Springer, 1982.
  • Geymonat, Ludovico. La nuova filosofia della natura in Germania. Torino, 1934.
  • Giere, Ronald N. and Richardson, Alan W. Origins of Logical Empiricism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.
  • Kraft, Victor. The Vienna Circle: The Origin of Neo-positivism, a Chapter in the History of Recent Philosophy. New York: Greenwood Press, 1953.
  • McGuinness, Brian. Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle: Conversations Recorded by Friedrich Waismann. Trans. by Joachim Schulte and Brian McGuinness. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1979.
  • Parrini, Paolo; Salmon, Wesley C.; Salmon, Merrilee H. (ed.) Logical Empiricism - Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003.
  • Salmon, Wesley and Wolters, Gereon (ed.), Logic, Language, and the Structure of Scientific Theories: Proceedings of the Carnap-Reichenbach Centennial, University of Konstanz, 21-24 May 1991, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1994.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra. The Emergence of Logical Empiricism: From 1900 to the Vienna Circle. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra. Logical Empiricism at its Peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath. New York: Garland Pub., 1996.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra. Logical Empiricism and the Special Sciences: Reichenbach, Feigl, and Nagel. New York: Garland Pub., 1996.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra. Decline and Obsolescence of Logical Empiricism: Carnap vs. Quine and the Critics. New York: Garland Pub., 1996.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra. The Legacy of the Vienna Circle: Modern Reappraisals. New York: Garland Pub., 1996.
  • Spohn, Wolfgang (ed.), Erkenntnis Orientated: A Centennial Volume for Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991.

See also

Logical positivism Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism, rational empiricism, and also neo-positivism) is a philosophy that originated in the Vienna Circle in the 1920s. ...


External link

  • Friends of the Vienna Circle
  • The Philosophy of Logical Positivism
  • Institute Vienna Circle

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vienna Circle (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (17484 words)
The Vienna Circle was a group of early twentieth-century philosophers who sought to reconceptualize empiricism by means of their interpretation of then recent advances in the physical and formal sciences.
The Vienna Circle was a group of scientifically trained philosophers and philosophically interested scientists who met under the (nominal) leadership of Moritz Schlick for often weekly discussions of problems in the philosophy of science during academic terms in the years from 1924 to 1936.
While it cannot be denied that various reductionist projects were at one time or another undertaken by members of the Vienna Circle and that not all of its members were epistemological anti-foundationalists either from the start or at the end, it is clearly false to paint all of them with reductivist and/or foundationalist brushes.
Vienna Circle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3634 words)
Members of the Vienna Circle had a common attitude towards philosophy, characterized by two main features: first, experience is the only source of knowledge; second, logical analysis performed with the help of symbolic logic is the preferred method for solving philosophical problems.
In 1929 the Vienna Circle manifesto Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung.
The final goal pursued by the Vienna Circle was unified science, that is the construction of a "constitutive system" in which every legitimate statement is reduced to the concepts of lower level which refer directly to the given experience.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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