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Encyclopedia > Vidkun Quisling
Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling
 The image above is a candidate for speedy deletion. It will be deleted on 2007-04-05.


The image above is a candidate for speedy deletion. It will be deleted on 2007-04-05.
Date of birth July 18, 1887 (Telemark, Norway)
Date of death October 24, 1945) (Oslo, Norway)
Political Party Nasjonal Samling

Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling, (July 18, 1887October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian army officer and fascist politician. The copyright status of this old image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... The copyright status of this old image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Telemark is a county in Norway, bordering Vestfold, Buskerud, Hordaland, Rogaland and Aust-Agder. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... County Oslo NO-03 District Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... Nasjonal Samling (Norwegian for National Gathering or National Unification) was a fascist party in Norway before and during World War II, founded on May 17, 1933 by Vidkun Quisling and Johan Bernhard Hjort. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ...


He held the office of Minister President in occupied Norway from February 1942 to the end of World War II, while the elected social democratic cabinet of Johan Nygaardsvold was exiled in London. After the war he was tried for high treason and subsequently executed by firing squad. His surname has become an eponym for "traitor", especially a collaborationist.[1] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Campaign poster of Johan Nygaardsvold Johan Nygaardsvold (September 6, 1879 - March 13, 1952) was a Norwegian politician from the Labour Party. ... {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ... The Executions of the Third of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ... An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, which has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery or other item. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... Collaborationism, as a pejorative term, can describe the treason of cooperating with enemy forces occupying ones country. ...

Contents

Early life

Norway and World War II
Key events
Norwegian Campaign · Weserübung
Elverum Authorization

Midtskogen · Vinjesvingen
Occupation and Resistance
Camps · Telavåg
Festung Norwegen
Heavy water sabotage
Post-war purge Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign led to the first direct confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for Germany seeking the occupation of Norway was Germanys... Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... The Elverum Authorization (Elverumsfullmakten) was approved unanimously by the Norwegian Parliament on April 9, 1940 in the town of Elverum in Norway after the Norwegian royal family, executive branch, and parliament had evacuated Oslo to evade capture by German troops in the course of Operation Weserübung during World War... Combatants Norway Germany Commanders Oliver Møystad Eberhard Spiller Strength 100+ 100 Casualties 3 wounded 2 killed, ? wounded Midtskogen farm is situated approximately 5 kilometers west of the town Elverum at the mouth of the Østerdalen valley in southern Norway. ... The Battle of Vinjesvingen took place in May of 1940 in Telemark county, Norway. ... Starting with the invasion of April 9, 1940, Norway was under military occupation of German forces and civil rule of a German commissioner in collaboration with a Pro-German puppet government. ... Norwegian resistance to the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany from 1940 to 1945 took several forms: Asserting the legitimacy of the exiled Norwegian government, and by implication the lack of legitimacy of the Quisling regime and Terboven administration The initial defense in Southern Norway, which was largely disorganized, but... During the German occupation of Norway in World War II the civilian occupying authorities with the Quisling regime and the German Wehrmacht operated a number of camps in Norway. ... TelavÃ¥g is a small village in the municipality of Sund, located 39 km south west of Bergen, Norway, with a population of about 600. ... Festung Norwegen (Fortress Norway) was the German term for the heavy defense and fortification system of Norway during the occupation of Norway in World War II. By some, including Reichskommissar Josef Terboven, it was thought that these fortifications would serve effectively as a last perimeter of defense of the Third... The Vemork hydroelectric plant, site of ammonia production with a militarily important byproduct, heavy water. ... Following the general capitulation of Germany in Europe and in Norway on May 10, 1945, the legitimate Norwegian government moved quickly to prosecute individuals who were suspected of treason or war crimes during the German occupation. ...

People
Haakon VII · Nygaardsvold · CJ Hambro
CG Fleischer · Otto Ruge · Max Manus
Jens Chr. Hauge · Gunnar Sønsteby
Quisling · Jonas Lie · Henry Rinnan
Josef Terboven · Wilhelm Rediess
von Falkenhorst
Organizations
Milorg · XU · Linge · Nortraship
Nasjonal Samling

Quisling was the son of a Church of Norway pastor and genealogist Jon Lauritz Qvisling from Fyresdal, and both of his parents belonged to some of the oldest and most distinguished families of Telemark. King Haakon VII King Haakon VII of Norway, Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel (August 3, 1872 - September 21, 1957) was the first King of Norway after the dissolution of the personal union with Sweden in 1905. ... Campaign poster of Johan Nygaardsvold Johan Nygaardsvold (September 6, 1879 - March 13, 1952) was a Norwegian politician from the Labour Party. ... Carl Joachim Hambro (usually C.J. Hambro) (January 5, 1885 – 15 December 1964) was a leading politician from the Norwegian Conservative Party. ... Carl Gustav Fleischer (1883-1942) was a Norwegian general and the first allied general(actually not allied, as the allies and Norway never had any official cooperation, in writing) to win a major victory against the Germans in World War II. In 1940, as commander of the Norwegian 6th division... Otto Ruge (January 9, 1882 - 1961) was a Norwegian general. ... Max Manus was a famous Norwegian World War II resistance fighter. ... Jens Christian Hauge (born 1915) was the leader of the secret military organisation Milorg in WWII occupied Norway. ... Gunnar Sønsteby (born 11 January 1918) is known as a Norwegian resistance fighter during World War II. Known also as Kjakan and , he participated in the resistance effort from 1940. ... Jonas Lie (1899-1945) was a Norwegian councillor of state in the NS government of Vidkun Quisling in 1940, then acting councillor of state 1940-1941, and minister between 1941 and 1945. ... Born May 14, 1915 in Levanger, Norway Died Executed on February 1, 1947 by shooting. ... Josef Terboven Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (May 23, 1898 - May 8, 1945) was a Nazi leader most known for his brutal leadership during the Nazi occupation of Norway. ... Wilhelm Rediess (October 10, 1900 – May 8, 1945) was the German chief of secret police (General der Polizei) during the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War. ... Nikolaus von Falkenhorst, (January 17, 1885 - June 18, 1968), German General that planned the attack on Denmark and Norway in 1940, Weserübung. ... Milorg was a secret military organization under World War II in Norway. ... Xu can be a pinyin transliteration of one of several Chinese surnames: 徐 (pinyin Xú, also spelled Hsu or Tsui or Eu) 許 (traditional) or 许 (simplified), (pinyin XÇ”, also spelled Hui or Hii) In this context it is pronounced somewhat like Shoo or simply Shh. ... Norwegian Independent Company 1 (NOR.I.C.1, also Norisen) was a SOE group formed in March of 1941 for the purpose of perfoming commando raids in occupied Norway. ... The Norwegian Shipping and Trade Mission (Nortraship) was established in London in April 1940 to administrate the Norwegian merchant fleet outside German controlled areas. ... Nasjonal Samling (Norwegian for National Gathering or National Unification) was a fascist party in Norway before and during World War II, founded on May 17, 1933 by Vidkun Quisling and Johan Bernhard Hjort. ... Country church in Sogn, Norway The Church of Norway (Den norske kirke) also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway is the state church of Norway, to which 86% of Norwegians belong. ... County Telemark District Municipality NO-0831 Administrative centre Fyresdal Mayor ({{{governor_as_of}}}) Saamund Gjersund (Bygdelista) governor_as_of=2003 Official language form Nynorsk Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 71 1,281 km² 1,108 km² 0. ... Telemark is a county in Norway, bordering Vestfold, Buskerud, Hordaland, Rogaland and Aust-Agder. ...


His early life was mixed and successful; he became the country's best ever war academy cadet upon graduation in 1911, and achieved the rank of major in the Norwegian army. He worked with Fridtjof Nansen in the Soviet Union during the famine of the 1920s. For his services in looking after British interests after diplomatic relations were broken with the Bolshevik government, Great Britain awarded him the C.B.E.. He later served as defence minister in the Agrarian governments 1931-1933. Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Ranks Norwegian military ranks The Norwegian Army (Norwegian: Hæren) is Norways military land force. ... Fridtjof Nansen Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (born October 10, 1861 in Store Frøen, near Christiania - died May 13, 1930 in Lysaker, outside Oslo) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist and diplomat. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire (Military division) The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority... The Centre Party (Senterpartiet), is a Norwegian political party founded in 1920. ...


The Nasjonal Samling party

On May 17, 1933, Norwegian Constitution Day, Quisling and lawyer Johan Bernhard Hjort formed Nasjonal Samling ("National Unity"), the Norwegian fascist political party. Nasjonal Samling had an anti-democratic, Führerprinzip-based political structure, and Quisling was to be the party's Fører (Norwegian: "leader", equivalent of the German "Führer"). He was sometimes referred to as "the Hitler of Norway". The party went on to have modest successes; in the election of 1933, four months after the party was formed, it garnered 27,850 votes (approximately 2%), following support from the Norwegian Farmers' Aid Association, with which Quisling had connections from his time as a member of the Agrarian government. However, as the party line changed from a religiously rooted one to a more pro-Nazi and anti-Semitic policy from 1935, the support from the Church waned, and in the 1936 elections the party received fewer votes than in 1933. The party became increasingly extremist, and party membership dwindled to an estimated 2,000 members before the German invasion, but under the German occupation by 1945 some 45,000 Norwegians had been members of the party. May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Norwegian Constitution Day is the National Day of Norway and is an official national holiday each year. ... Johan Bernhard Hjort (1895 - 1969) founded the Norwegian Nasjonal Samling party together with Vidkun Quisling on May 17 1933. ... Nasjonal Samling (Norwegian for National Gathering or National Unification) was a fascist party in Norway before and during World War II, founded on May 17, 1933 by Vidkun Quisling and Johan Bernhard Hjort. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Adolf Hitler made believe he was the incarnation of the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


German invasion and coup d'etat

When Germany invaded Norway on April 9, 1940, Quisling became the first person in history to announce a coup d'etat during a news broadcast, declaring an ad-hoc government during the confusion of the invasion, hoping that Hitler would support it. The background for this action was the flight northwards of the king and government, resulting in a temporary power vacuum. Quisling had visited Adolf Hitler in Germany the year before, but Hitler thought Quisling was of "no use" to him. Quisling had low popular support, and the Quisling government lasted only five days, after which Josef Terboven was installed as Reichskommissar, the highest official in Norway, reporting directly to Hitler. The relationship between Quisling and Terboven was tense, although Terboven, presumably seeing an advantage in having a Norwegian in an apparent position of power to reduce resentment in the population, named Quisling to the post of Minister President in 1942, a position the self-appointed Fører assumed on February 1, 1942. Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... A power vacuum is an expression for a political situation that can occur when a government has no identifiable central authority. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Josef Terboven Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (May 23, 1898 - May 8, 1945) was a Nazi leader most known for his brutal leadership during the Nazi occupation of Norway. ... Reichskommissar (Commissionary of the Empire) was an official title of authorized representative of the Deutsches Reich (after 1871) who was appointed to a special task, e. ... A minister-president is the head of government in a number of European countries, and is alternative for prime minister or first minister. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...


Arrest and trial

 The image above is a candidate for speedy deletion. It will be deleted on 2007-04-05.


The image above is a candidate for speedy deletion. It will be deleted on 2007-04-05.

Quisling stayed in power until he was arrested on May 9, 1945, in a mansion on Bygdøy in Oslo that he called "Gimle" after the place in Norse mythology where the survivors of Ragnarok were to live. The house, now called Villa Grande, is today a Holocaust museum. Vidkun Quisling The copyright status of this old image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... Vidkun Quisling The copyright status of this old image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Bygdøy or Bygdø is a peninsula on the western side of Oslo, Norway. ... County Oslo NO-03 District Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... Gimle, in Norse mythology, was where the survivors of Ragnarok were to live. ... Norse or Scandinavian mythology comprises the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Look up Ragnarok in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ...


In the course of the treason trials following the war, Quisling, along with two other Nasjonal Samling leaders, Albert Viljam Hagelin and Ragnar Skancke, was convicted of high treason and executed by firing squad at Akershus Fortress. The charge was mainly based on his actions during the war: his coup d'etat in April 1940, his revocation of the mobilisation order, his many encouragements to Norwegians to serve as volunteers in the Norwegian SS division, his collaboration in the deportation of Jews, his responsibility for the execution of Norwegian patriots and a number of other charges. Following the general capitulation of Germany in Europe and in Norway on May 10, 1945, the legitimate Norwegian government moved quickly to prosecute individuals who were suspected of treason or war crimes during the German occupation. ... Albert Viljam Hagelin (1881 - 1946) was a businessman and opera singer. ... Ragnar Sigvald Skancke (1890 - August 28, 1948) was the Norwegian Minister of Labour and Minister for Church and Educational Affairs in Vidkun Quislings government of the Nasjonal Samling party during World War II. Before the war Skancke was a highly respected professor of electrical engineering at the Norwegian Institute... The Executions of the Third of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ... Akershus Castle Akershus Fortress (Norwegian: Akershus Festning) is the old castle built to protect Oslo, the capital of Norway. ...


Subsequently, these sentences have been controversial, since capital punishment was reintroduced to the Norwegian legal system by the exiled government at the end of the war, in anticipation of the post-war trials.


Maria Vasilijevna, Quisling's Russian widow, lived in Oslo until her death in 1980. They had no children.


'Quisling'

In some European languages, the term "quisling" has become a synonym for traitor, particularly one who collaborates with invaders. The term was coined by the British newspaper The Times in its leader of April 15, 1940, which was entitled "Quislings everywhere" The article asserted: "There are Quislings in every country in Europe." Quisling, after Norwegian fascist politician Vidkun Quisling, is a term used to describe traitors and collaborationists. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...


Order of the British Empire

Quisling was appointed Commander of the British Empire for his services in maintaining the interests of the British government in the Soviet Union in 1929. The appointment was revoked in 1940 as this transcript from proceedings in the House of Commons, reported in The Times on 13 June 1940, the following day, shows: Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire (Military division) The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...

Mr Mander (Wolverhampton E., L.) asked the Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs the reasons for and the date on which Major Quisling was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire, and whether he still remained a member.
Mr Butler (Saffron Walden, U.)— Captain Vidkun Quisling was appointed to be an honorary Commander of the Order of the British Empire — (laughter) — on November 22, 1929 in recognition of services rendered to his Majesty's government in connection with the protection of British interests in the Soviet Union while serving on the staff of the Norwegian Legation in Moscow. He is no longer a member of the Order. (Cheers)
Mr Mander — When was this notorious traitor to his own country and the Allied cause removed from the Order?
Mr Butler — Very recently. (Laughter)

Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, KG, CH, PC, DL (9 December 1902 – 8 March 1982), who invariably signed his name R. A. Butler and was familiarly known as Rab, was a British Conservative politician. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ 'Quisling,' in its form as a noun meaning traitor, was Dictionary.com's Word of the Day on July 9, 2006.

Dictionary. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Further reading

In Norwegian:

  • Dahl, Hans Fredrik (1991). "Quisling - En fører blir til." Oslo: Aschehoug. (BIBSYS)
  • Dahl, Hans Fredrik (1992). "Quisling - En fører for fall." Oslo: Aschehoug. (BIBSYS)
  • Borgen, Per Otto (1999). "Norges statsministre." Oslo: Aschehoug. (BIBSYS)

In English:

  • QUISLING - A Study in Treason, 1989, Norwegian University Press (Universitetsforlaget) by Oddvar K. Høidal, ISBN 82-00-18400-5

1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign led to the first direct confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for Germany seeking the occupation of Norway was Germanys... The Allied campaign in Norway took place from April 1940 until early June 1940. ... Norwegian resistance to the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany from 1940 to 1945 took several forms: Asserting the legitimacy of the exiled Norwegian government, and by implication the lack of legitimacy of the Quisling regime and Terboven administration The initial defense in Southern Norway, which was largely disorganized, but... Benedict Arnold Benedict Arnold (January 14, 1741 – June 14, 1801) was a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. ...

External links

  • "The World According to Quisling" by Gisle Tangenes, BitsofNews.com, 19 September 2006

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vidkun Quisling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (846 words)
Quisling was the son of a Church of Norway priest and genealogist Jon Lauritz Qvisling from Fyresdal, and both of his parents belonged to some of the oldest and most distinguished families of Telemark.
The relationship between Quisling and Terboven was tense, although Terboven, presumably seeing an advantage in having a Norwegian in an apparent position of power to reduce resentment in the population, named Quisling to the post of Minister President in 1942, a position the self-appointed Fører assumed in 1943, on February 1.
Vidkun Quisling stayed in power until he was arrested May 9, 1945, in a mansion on Bygdøy in Oslo that he called Gimle after the place in Norse mythology where the survivors of Ragnarok were to live.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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