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Encyclopedia > Video on Demand

Video on demand (VOD) systems allow users to select and watch video and clip content over a network as part of an interactive television system. VOD systems either "stream" content, allowing viewing in real time, or "download" it in which the program is brought in its entirety to a set-top box before viewing starts. The latter is more appropriately termed "store and forward". The majority of cable and telco based VOD systems use the streaming approach, whereby a user buys or selects a movie or television program and it begins to play on the television set almost instantaneously. For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... Video clips are short clips in video format and predominantly found on the internet where the massive influx of new video clips during 2006 was dubbed as a new phenomenon having a profound impact on both the internet and other forms of media. ... Digital TV set-top box Interactive television describes a number of techniques which allow viewers to interact with television content as they view it. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... This article is about the computer terms. ... A set-top box (STB) or set-top unit (STU) is a device that connects to a television and an external source of signal, turning the signal into content which is then displayed on the television screen. ... Store and forward is a communications technique in which messages are sent to a intermediate station where they are kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... A telephone company (or telco) provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... A television program (US), television programme (UK) or simply television show is a segment of programming in television broadcasting. ...


Often, nowadays, the term encompasses a broader spectrum of delivery devices, referring not only to set-top-boxes but also computers, mobile phones and indeed any system that can receive on-demand audio-visual content over a network.

Contents

Functionality

Download and streaming video on demand systems provide the user with a large subset of VCR functionality including pause, fast forward, fast rewind, slow forward, slow rewind, jump to previous/future frame etc. These functions are usually referred to as "trick modes". For disk-based streaming systems which store and stream programs from hard disk drive, trick modes require additional processing and storage on the part of the server, because separate files for fast forward and rewind must be stored. Memory-based VOD streaming systems have the advantage of being able to perform trick modes directly from RAM, which requires no additional storage or CPU cycles on the part of the processor. The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... A pause is a rest, break, or temporary stop. ... Fast Forward was an Australian commercial television sketch comedy show that ran for 95 episodes from 12 April 1989 to 26 November 1992. ... Look up rewind in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... Look up RAM, Ram, ram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ...


It is possible to put video servers on LANs, in which case they can provide very rapid response to users. Streaming video servers can also serve a wider community via a WAN, in which case the responsiveness may be reduced. Download VOD services are practical to homes equipped with cable modems or DSL connections. Servers for traditional cable and telco VOD services are usually placed at the cable head-end serving a particular market as well as cable hubs in larger markets. In the telco world, they are placed in either the central office, or a newly created location called a VHO or "Video Head-End Office". “LAN” redirects here. ... Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i. ... A cable modem is a special type of modem that is designed to modulate a data signal over cable television infrastructure. ... DSL may refer to: Damn Small Linux Dark and Shattered Lands, a MUD based loosely on Forgotten Realms and Dragonlance books. ...


History

The first commercial VOD service was launched in Hong Kong around 1990. The technology was not mature, Video CDs were much cheaper, and pay TV was not common in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Telecom lost a large amount of money and the service was acquired by Pacific Century Cyberworks in 2000, who subsequently discontinued it. Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... VCD redirects here. ... PCCW Limited (PCCW, 電訊盈科) (NYSE: PCW) is the largest telecommunication enterprise in Hong Kong. ... PCCW logo PCCW Limited (PCCW, 電訊盈科) is the largest telecommunication enterprise in Hong Kong. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


VOD services were first offered in Hawaii by Oceanic Cable, January 2000, but are now available in all parts of the United States. Streaming VOD systems are available from cable providers (in tandem with cable modem technology) who use the large downstream bandwidth present on cable systems to deliver movies and television shows to end users, who can typically pause, fast-forward, and rewind VOD movies due to the low latency and random-access nature of cable technology. The large distribution of a single signal makes streaming VOD impractical for most satellite TV systems; however, EchoStar recently announced a plan to offer video on demand programming to PVR-owning subscribers of its Dish Network satellite TV service. After the programs are automatically recorded on a user's PVR, he or she can watch, play, pause, and seek at their convenience. VOD is also quite common in more expensive hotels. VOD systems that store and provide a user interface for content downloaded directly from the Internet are widely available. Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... An outdated model of the Motorola Surfboard cable modem A cable modem is a type of modem that provides access to a data signal sent over the cable television infrastructure. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of orbiting communications satellites located 37,000 km (22,300 miles) above the earths surface. ... EchoStar Communications Corporation (NASDAQ: DISH) is the parent company of DISH Network and the maintainer of the satellite fleet that provides the signal that DISH Network markets. ... Foxtel IQ, a digital video recorder and a satellite cable set-top box. ... DISH Network is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that provides satellite television and audio programming to households and businesses in the United States, owned by parent company EchoStar Communications Corporation. ... A hotel is an establishment that provides lodging, usually on a short-term basis. ...


In 1998, Kingston Communications became the first UK company to launch a fully commercial VOD service and the first to integrate broadcast TV and Internet access through a single set-top box using IP delivery over ADSL. By 2001, Kingston Interactive TV had attracted 15,000 subscribers. After a number of trials, HomeChoice followed in 1999, but were restricted to London. After attracting 40,000 customers, they were bought by Tiscali in 2006. Cable TV providers Telewest and NTL (now Virgin Media) launched their VOD services in the United Kingdom in 2005 in attempt to snatch subscribers from the country's leading pay TV distributor BSkyB whose satellite-based network is unable to offer such a service. BSkyB responded by launching Sky by broadband, which was later renamed Sky Anytime on PC. The service went live on 2 January 2006. The Sky Anytime on PC uses a legal peer-to-peer approach, based on Kontiki technology, to provide very high capacity multi-point downloads of the video content. Instead of the video content all being downloaded from Sky's servers, the content comes from multiple users of the system who have already downloaded the same content. Other UK TV broadcasters have implemented their own versions of the same technology, such as the BBC's iPlayer, which has been in the trial stage since 2005, and Channel 4's 4OD (4 On Demand) which launched in late 2006. Kingston Communications PLC is a telecommunications provider based in Kingston upon Hull serving primarily the East Yorkshire area. ... HomeChoice is a UK-based consumer Video on Demand service, provided by Video Networks Limited (VNL), based in Shepherds Bush in West London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Archaeological village of Nuragici people, in Sardinia, Italy. ... Telewest (formerly Telewest Broadband and Telewest Communications) is a trading name of NTL Incorporated, the dominant cable operator in the United Kingdom with more than 90% of the market. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Virgin Media, Telewest and Virgin. ... Virgin Media Inc. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB - formerly two companies, Sky Television and British Satellite Broadcasting, which merged) is a company that operates the most popular subscription television service in the Ireland. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... The Kon-Tiki raft is shown on the cover of the DVD of the documentary. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... iPlayer - formerly iMP (Integrated Media Player; also referred to as Interactive Media Player) is a computer program being developed by the BBC to replace and extend its existing RealPlayer-based Radio Player and other streamed content. ... This article is about the British television station. ...


According to the European Audiovisual Observatory, 142 paying VoD services were operational in Europe at the end of 2006. Set up in December 1992, the European Audiovisual Observatory is the only centre of its kind to gather and circulate information on the audiovisual industry in Europe. ...


Usage

VOD services are available in many other parts of the world as well. The ANYTIME service provides VOD to cable providers in Taiwan and to TransACT Communications in Australia. TransACT also operates its own VOD services including sports and adult content. Two different VOD companies on opposite sides of the globe use the same name, ReelTime. In the U.S.A. ReelTime.com operates a streaming VOD service, using P2P technology, available worldwide. The Reeltime.tv service in Australia provides both VOD (Download to Rent) and Download to Own (burn to own DVD, PC and Portable device) services nationally throughout Australia, and offers full feature length Hollywood and independent movies and TV episodes. TransACT is an Australian telecommunications company based in Canberra which provides broadband internet access, fixed and mobile telephony, and cable television services in Canberra and a subset of these services in Queanbeyan and throughout South-east NSW. The company is part-owned by ActewAGL (the main energy and water utility... ReelTime. ... ReelTime Media Ltd or ReelTime. ...


It is possible to implement VOD using methods such as bandwidth skimming, which can deliver O(log n) scaling as the number of users increase. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Recently, VOD has been utilized in advertising, as Comcast Spotlight has begun offering on-demand commercials. These are up to 10 minute features on a particular business or event, available to consumers whenever they are looking for more information instead of the business or event trying to generalize information for the entire viewing public[1]. Advert redirects here. ... Comcast Spotlight Logo Comcast Spotlight is the advertising sales division of Comcast Cable. ...


One company making headway into the Video On Demand classified advertising business is Liquidus. For example, a TV viewer looking for specific information on a house or car, in their area, can access that information on demand.


Five major vendors supply server systems for cable and telco VOD, including Motorola On-Demand Solutions (formerly Broadbus Technologies, Inc.), TANDBERG Television (Part of the Ericsson Group), SeaChange International, Concurrent Computer Corporation and C-COR. Collectively, these vendors represent more than 80% of the world-wide cable and telco server deplyoments. Motorola Inc. ... Tandberg Television is a manufacturer of digital television broadcast systems, located in Oslo, Norway. ... SeaChange International is a world leader in digital video solutions headquartered in Acton, Massachusetts. ...


Near video on demand

Near video on demand (NVOD) is a pay-per-view consumer video technique used by multi-channel broadcasters using high-bandwidth distribution mechanisms such as satellite and cable television. Multiple copies of a program are broadcast at short time intervals (typically 10–20 minutes) providing convenience for viewers, who can watch the program without needing to tune in at a scheduled point in time. This form is bandwidth intensive and is generally provided only by large operators with a great deal of redundant capacity. Pay-per-view is the name given to a system by which television viewers can call and order events to be seen on TV and pay for the private telecast of that event to their homes later. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum, and is typically measured in hertz. ...


Push video on demand

Push video on demand is a technique used by a number of broadcaster on systems that lack the interactivity to provide true video on demand, to simulate a true video on demand system. A push video-on-demand system features a Personal Video Recorder that automatically records a selection of programming, often transmitted in spare capacity over-night, for the user. The user can then watch the downloaded programming at a time of their choosing. As content occupies space on the PVR hard-drive, downloaded content is usually deleted after a week to make way for new programmes. The limited space on a typical PVR hard-drive means that the flexibility and selection of programmes available on such systems is much more restricted than true video on demand systems. A digital video recorder (DVR) is a device that records video to a digital storage medium in digital form. ...


Examples of push Video on demand services include the UK based Top Up TV Anytime and the forthcoming Sky Anytime TV service for BSkyB's digital satellite service Sky Digital. Foxtel have successfully launched a Push video on demand service, however it is only available on its iQ PDR It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Top Up TV. (Discuss) Top Up TV Anytime is a video on demand service broadcast in the United Kingdom on digital terrestrial television. ... British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB - formerly two companies, Sky Television and British Satellite Broadcasting, which merged) is a company that operates the most popular subscription television service in the Ireland. ... Sky Digital is the brand name for British Sky Broadcastings digital satellite television service, transmitted from SES Astra satellites located at 28. ... Foxtel is a subscription television company in Australia, formed through a joint venture between Telstra and News Corporation. ...


List of notable video on demand providers

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... Adult Swim Video logo Adult Swim Video is a free Video on demand service on the Adult Swim website that operates every hour of every day, and shows premiere episodes on Fridays at 6pm Eastern Time, and last all week until the next Friday when more premieres come along. ... The Akimbo Logo Akimbo is a video on demand system that allows subscribers to download television shows, movies, and other video to a set-top box on demand. ... Amazon Unbox is an Internet video on demand service offered by Amazon. ... The Anime Network, a subsidiary of A.D. Vision, Inc. ... Arts Alliance Media is a digital distribution company based in London, United Kingdom , with outposts in Paris, Amsterdam, Kristiansand, Norway and New York. ... Astound Broadband is a corporation providing broadband internet, telephone, and cable TV service in Walnut Creek, California and Concord, California. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Bright House Networks logo. ... Broadbus Technologies Inc. ... BT Vision is a service provided in the United Kingdom supplied by BT Group. ... For other uses, see Cablevision (disambiguation). ... C-COR (NASDAQ: CCBL) is a communication services company incorporated in 1953 and based in State College, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the British television station. ... Charter Communications NASDAQ: CHTR is an American company providing cable television, high-speed Internet, and telephone services to more than 5. ... CinemaNow is a World Wide Web-based digital video distribution company. ... Cogeco Cable Inc. ... Comcast Corporation (NASDAQ: CMCSA) is the largest[1] cable television (CATV) company and the second largest Internet service provider in the United States. ... Concurrent Computer Corporation (http://www. ... Cox Communications is a wholly-privately owned subsidiary of Cox Enterprises providing digital cable television and telecommunications services in the United States. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... See also East-Link (Ireland) and Bragg Communications d/b/a EastLink in Canada. ... EchoStar Communications Corporation (NASDAQ: DISH) is the parent company of DISH Network and the maintainer of the satellite fleet that provides the signal that DISH Network markets. ... Elion Enterprises Limited, or Elion for short, is an Internet service provider in Estonia. ... EZTakes is a DVD movie download service that competes with offerings like as Cinemanow, Movielink and iTunes. ... Foxtel is a subscription television company in Australia, formed through a joint venture between Telstra and News Corporation. ... Filmklik is the second Hungarian video on demand website. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... glowria, operated by venture capital-backed Glow Entertainment Group SA is Continental Europe’s leading independent personalized on demand entertainment provider. ... Tiscali TV is a UK-based consumer Video on Demand service, operated by the European telephony company, Tiscali SpA. The service, originally known as Homechoice, was provided by Video Networks Limited (VNL), based in Shepherds Bush in West London, until it was purchased by Tiscali UK in August 2006... Imagenio is the comercial name of the IPTV , Television over ADSL , service of Spains Telefonica company. ... In Demand (capitalized as a trademark as iN DEMAND) is a provider of pay-per-view and subscription video-on-demand services, jointly owned by Comcast, Cox Communications, and Time Warner Entertainment. ... Insight Commuications in a cable provider in the United States. ... Jaman is an internet download service and online community for independent and world cinema, created by Gaurav Dhillon. ... Liberty Global Europe (formerly UGC Europe, and previously United Pan-Europe Communications or UPC, and still usually primarily trading under that brand) is Europes biggest cable TV provider, also providing internet access, telephony and other related services. ... Mediacom Communications (NASDAQ: MCCC; usually called just Mediacom) is a cable television and communications provider in the United States. ... Movielink is a web-based video on demand (VOD) service offering movies, TV shows and other material for rental or purchase. ... For Music Choice in United Kingdom, see Music Choice Extra Music Choice is a name used by two different companies, one in the US and one in Europe. ... The Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited is the government owned telephone service provider in the cities of Bombay, New Delhi and New Bombay in India. ... The correct title of this article is . ... RCN Corporation, (NASDAQ: RCNI), founded in 1997 and based in Herndon, Virginia, is the first and largest American facilities-based competitive provider of bundled telephone, cable television and high speed Internet service delivered over its own fiber-optic local network to consumers in the Boston, New York, Eastern Pennsylvania, Washington... Rogers Communications Inc. ... ReelTime. ... ReelTime Media Ltd or ReelTime. ... Saskatchewan Telecommunications (SaskTel) is a provincial Crown Corporation operating under the authority of The Saskatchewan Telecommunications Act. ... SeaChange International is a world leader in digital video solutions headquartered in Acton, Massachusetts. ... Shaw Communications Inc. ... Síminns logo Síminn (Síminn hf. ... Suddenlink Communications, formerly Cebridge Connections, is an American national cable television company that operates in more than 20 states in primarily suburban, small-town, and rural communities. ... British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB - formerly two companies, Sky Television and British Satellite Broadcasting, which merged) is a company that operates the most popular subscription television service in the Ireland. ... TELE-TV was a media and technology company formed by Bell Atlantic, NYNEX, Pacific Telesis, and Creative Artists Agency in February 1995. ... TELUS (TSX: T, NYSE: TU) is a Canadian telecommunications firm, the countrys second-largest telecommunications carrier after Bell Canada, with C$8. ... TF1 is a private French TV channel, controlled by TF1 Group, whose major share-holder is Bouygues. ... Time Warner Cable (NYSE: TWC) is an American national cable television company that operates in 27 states and has 31 operating divisions. ... TransACT is an Australian telecommunications company based in Canberra which provides broadband internet access, fixed and mobile telephony, and cable television services in Canberra and a subset of these services in Queanbeyan and throughout South-east NSW. The company is part-owned by ActewAGL (the main energy and water utility... TVN is a US based Pay Per View service provider. ... FiOS (Fiber Optic Service) is a fiber to the premises (FTTP) telecommunications service, originally piloted in Keller, Texas, and now offered in many areas of the United States by Verizon. ... Vidéotron Limited is an integrated communications company active in cable television, interactive multimedia development, video on demand, wireless communication and Internet access services, serving Quebec, Canada. ... // VideoPlay. ... Virgin Media Inc. ... Vongo is a video on demand service, owned by Liberty Medias Starz Entertainment, parent company of the Starz! network, that allows the user to download and view movies for a fixed price per month. ... WeShow is an online video aggregator that delivers tailored video content to viewers around the world. ... WWE 24/7 is a video on demand television service provided by World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... Hot is a telecommunications and cable television company in Israel founded on August 18, 2003. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the Canadian television network. ...

See also

In telecommunications, the Triple Play service is a marketing term for the provisioning of the three services: high-speed Internet, television (Video on Demand or regular broadcasts) and telephone service over a single broadband connection. ... Vodcast (a portmanteau of video podcast or video on demand-cast), VODcast or video podcast is an emerging term used for the online delivery of video on demand video clip content via Atom or RSS enclosures. ... Pay-per-view is the name given to a system by which television viewers can call and order events to be seen on TV and pay for the private telecast of that event to their homes later. ... The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of video hosts. ... Push video on demand is a technique used by a number of broadcaster on systems that lack the interactivity to provide true video on demand,for example on most Satellite television systems and some Digital terrestrial television to simulate a true video on demand system that cable and ip tv... NPVR is an acronym for Network Personal Video Recoder. ...

Further reading

  • Nothing to Watch on TV? Streaming Video Appeals to Niche Audiences (NY Times, August 6, 2007) (Requires registration)
  • Google entering video-on-demand business (CNet News.com, January 6, 2006)

Notes

  1. ^ "Interactive - VOD" Comcast Spotlight website, retrieved October 05, 2006

October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


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