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Encyclopedia > Video news release
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Please see the discussion on the talk page.
Topics in Journalism
Professional Issues

Ethics & News Values
Objectivity & Attribution
News Source & Libel Law
News & Reporting & Writing
Education & Fourth Estate
Other Topics & Books
Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Journalism is a discipline of writing. ... Journalism ethics and standards include principles of ethics and of good practice to address the specific challenges faced by professional journalists. ... News values determine how much prominence a news story is given by a media outlet. ... Objectivity is frequently held to be essential to journalistic professionalism (particularly in the United States); however, there is some disagreement about what the concept consists of. ... It has been suggested that Attribution (journalism) be merged into this article or section. ... Source is a term used in journalism to refer to any individual from whom information about a story has been received. ... Libel redirects here. ... For the newspaper that gave News Corporation its name, see The News (Adelaide). ... A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. ... News style is the prose style of short, front-page newspaper stories and the news bulletins that air on radio and television. ... A reporter The term Fourth Estate refers to the press, both in its explicit capacity of advocacy and in its implicit ability to frame political issues. ... List of journalism topics A-D AP Stylebook Arizona Republic Associated Press Bar chart Canadian Association of Journalists Chart Citizen journalism Committee to Protect Journalists Conservative bias Copy editing Desktop publishing E-J Editor Freedom of the press Graphic design Hedcut Headline Headlinese Hostile media effect House style Information graphic... List of books related to journalism: The Art of Editing, by Floyd K. Baskette, Jack Z. Scissors, Brian S. Brooks Designing Infographics The Elements of Journalism What Newspeople Should Know and the Public Should Expect, by Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel Infographics, by James Glen Stovall Media Management in the...

Fields

Advocacy journalism
Alternative journalism
Arts journalism
Business journalism
Citizen journalism
Investigative journalism
Literary journalism
Science journalism
Sports journalism
Video game journalism
Advocacy journalism is a genre of journalism which is strongly fact-based, but may seek to support a point-of-view in some public or private sector issue. ... As long as there has been media there has been alternative media. ... Arts journalism is a branch of journalism concerned with the reporting and discussion monkeys giblets and squirrels rectums. ... Business journalism includes coverage of companies, the workplace, personal finance, and economics, including unemployment and other economic indicators. ... Citizen journalism, also known as participatory journalism, is the act of citizens playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and information according to the seminal report We Media: How Audiences are Shaping the Future of News and Information, by Shayne Bowman and Chris... Investigative journalism is a kind of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a topic of interest, often related to crime, scandals, government corruption, or white collar crime. ... Creative nonfiction is a genre of literature, also known as literary journalism, which uses literary skills in the writing of nonfiction. ... Science journalism is a relatively new branch of journalism, which uses the art of reporting to convey information about science topics to a public forum. ... Sports Journalism is a form of journalism that reports on sports topics and events. ... Video game journalism is a branch of journalism concerned with the reporting and discussion of video games. ...

Social Impact

Infotainment & Celebrity
'Infotainers' & Personalities
News Management
Distortion & VNRs
PR & Propaganda
'Yellow' Journalism
Press freedom
Infotainment refers to a general type of media broadcast program which provides a combination of current events news and feature news, or features stories. Infotainment also refers to the segments of programming in television news programs which overall consist of both hard news segments and interviews, along with celebrity interviews... Infotainers are entertainers in infotainment media, such as news anchors or news personalities who cross the line between journalism (quasi-journalism) and entertainment within the broader news trade. ... Infotainment or soft news, refers to a part of the wider news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers, as evident by attraction of a higher market demographic. ... Managing the news refers to acts which are intended to influence the presentation of information within the news media. ... Distorted news or planted news are terms in journalism for two deviated aspects of the wider news media wherein media outlets deliberately present false data, evidence, or sources as factual, in contradiction to the ethical practices in professional journalism. ... Public relations (PR) is the business, organizational, philanthropic, or social function of managing communication between an organization and its audiences. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Brochure of the Peoples Temple, portraying cult leader Jim Jones as the loving father of the... Nasty little printers devils spew forth from the Hoe press in this Puck cartoon of Nov. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ...

News media

Newspapers & Magazines
News Agencies
Broadcast Journalism
Online & Blogging
Alternative Media News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ... Broadcast journalism refers to television news and radio news, as well as the online news outlets of broadcast affiliates. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alternative media are defined most broadly as those media practices falling outside the mainstreams of corporate communication. ...

Roles

Journalist, Reporter, Editor, News presenter, Photo Journalist, Columnist, Visual Journalist The terms news trade or news business refers to news-related organizations in the mass media (or information media) as a business entity —associated with but distinct from the profession of journalism. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A Female Reporter A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. ... Editing is the process of preparing language, images, or sound for presentation through correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications. ... ITV newscaster Mark Austin. ... Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a news story. ... A columnist is a journalist who produces a specific form of writing for publication called a column. Columns appear in newspapers, magazines and the Internet. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


 v  d  e 

A video news release' (VNR) is a video segment created by a PR firm, advertising agency, marketing firm, corporation, or government agency and provided to television news stations for the purpose of informing, shaping public opinion, or to promote and publicize individuals, commercial products and services, or other interests. Video (Latin for I see, first person singular present, indicative of videre, to see) is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. ... Public relations (PR) is the business, organizational, philanthropic, or social function of managing communication between an organization and its audiences. ... Corporate redirects here. ... An agency is a department of a local or national government responsible for the oversight and administration of a specific function, such as a customs agency or a space agency. ... Public Opinion is a book on media and democracy by Walter Lippmann. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Look up publicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


VNRs are frequently intentionally produced to appear as a legitimate news segment, but the creators are paid actors rather than journalists, and the production is unbounded by recognized standards of journalistic ethics. News programs may then incorporate the VNR into their broadcast for economic reasons. The VNR is often edited to appear to be a normal part of the broadcast. An investigation by the New York Times into VNRs has revealed that their use is widespread. Actors in period costume sharing a joke while waiting between takes during location filming An actor or actress is a person who acts, or plays a role, in a dramatic production. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Journalism ethics or journalistic ethics refers to a set of rules or morals adopted by news organizations or members of the news media. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Critics of VNRs have called the practice deceptive or a propaganda technique, particularly in cases in which the segment is not explicitly identified to the viewers as a VNR. Firms producing VNRs disagree and equate their use to a press release in video form. The United States Federal Communications Commission is currently investigating the practice of VNRs. An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Brochure of the Peoples Temple, portraying cult leader Jim Jones as the loving father of the... A news release or press release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... The FCCs official seal. ...

Contents

Details

The typical "news report" style VNR will feature a paid actor playing the role of news correspondent; interviews with experts (who often have legitimate, if biased, expertise); so called "man on the street" interviews with "average" people; and pictures of celebrities, products, service demonstrations, corporate logos and the like, where applicable. In some cases the "man on the street" segments feature persons randomly selected and interviewed spontaneously, and in other cases actors are hired and directed by VNR producers to deliver carefully scripted comments. In addition, regardless of whether real people or professional actors appear, VNR producers and directors, unlike journalists, have complete discretion to excerpt and edit these "interviews" into short, self-serving 'sound bites' which best fit the particular aim or point of view the VNR makers seek to advocate. Actors in period costume sharing a joke while waiting between takes during location filming An actor or actress is a person who acts, or plays a role, in a dramatic production. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up logos, λόγος in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A film producer creates the conditions for making movies. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... In film and broadcasting, a soundbite is a very short piece of footage taken from a longer speech or an interview in which someone with authority says something which is considered by those who edit the speech or interview to be a most important point. ...


Media broadcasting of VNRs

Commercial television stations and other media outlets often broadcast only portions of a VNR. Frequently the actor playing the part of news correspondent in the original VNR is removed, or "bumped" as it is known in VNR industry trade slang, and one of the media outlet's regular journalists, known to its audience, is substituted. For example, an interview with a leading executive or scientist from a pharmaceutical corporation -- an industry which was one of the early adopters of the VNR technique -- might be inter-cut with on-camera or spoken commentary from the media outlet's usual journalist. For the newspaper that gave News Corporation its name, see The News (Adelaide). ... A journalist is a person who practices journalism. ... Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ...


In a report released on April 6, 2006, the Center for Media and Democracy listed detailed information on 77 television stations that it said had broadcast VNRs in the prior 10 months, and which VNRs had been broadcast. CMD said that in each case the television station actively disguised the VNR content to make it appear to be its own reporting, and that more than one-third of the time, stations aired the pre-packaged VNR in its entirety. [1] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Business production of VNRs

VNRs have been used extensively in business since at least the early 1980s. Corporations such as Microsoft and Phillip Morris, and the pharmaceutical industry generally, have all made use of the technique. Microsoft is one of few companies engaging itself in the console wars Where they are up against sony, nintendo, and of course sharps new console which may cause a threat. ... Altria Group, Inc. ...


According to the trade-group Public Relations Society of America, a VNR is the video equivalent of a press release.[1] and presents a client's case in an attractive, informative format. The VNR placement agency seeks to garner media attention for the client's products, services, brands or other marketing goals. The VNR affords local TV stations free broadcast quality materials for use in reports offered by such stations. The Public Relations Society of America (PRSA), based in New York City, is the worlds largest organization for public relations professionals. ...


Public Relations agencies have their video tapes encoded allowing very accuate tracking of where such video is used. (see: SIGMA (verification service) for additional information). SIGMA is an electronic verification service offered by Nielsen Media Research and is generally used for commercials, infomercials, video news releases, public service announcements, satellite media tours, and electronic press kits. ...


One critic of the VNR technique, John Stauber, an observer and critic of the Public Relations business says, "These fellows are whistling past the graveyard, assuring themselves that this all is no big deal. There was no hint of shame, certainly no apologizing, just apparent disdain for having their business practices dissected on the front page of the New York Times. They are proud of their work."[2]

  • The New York Times reported in March 2005 that "In all, at least 20 federal agencies, including the Defense Department and the Census Bureau, have made and distributed hundreds of television news segments in the past four years, records and interviews show. Many were subsequently broadcast on local stations across the country without any acknowledgement of the government's role in their production."[3]
  • A VNR financed by the Department of Health and Human Services was aired on a number of local news programs around the country, as conventional journalism when in fact, it was produced to promote the new Medicare plan. The creation of the Karen Ryan video, named so because of the on-screen "reporter," was ruled in May 2004 to be in violation of federal law by the General Accounting Office, the investigative arm of the U.S. government.[4]
  • In September, 2005, the GAO concluded that the Department of Education had violated the law when it distributed a similar video news release using Karen Ryan as a "reporter" touting the No Child Left Behind program of the Bush administration. In May 2003 the Department had hired the Ketchum public relations firm; the contract specified, among other things, that the firm create "audio products, videos and some print materials that present clear, coherent, targeted messages regarding ED’s programs and that relate to the Department’s legislative initiatives". [5]
  • A website of the Census Bureau informs visitors: "U.S. Census Bureau Video News Feeds are available for creation of state-specific news reports. Targeted comments are provided by Census Bureau Redistricting Data Office Chief, Marshall Turner. Companion notification material includes references to websites for the newly released information. Please contact...Homefront Communications for hardcopies on Betacam SP and faxed/email notification copy."[6]

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ... President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... Karen Ryan is a public relations specialist, and former television news reporter, who became famous for producing controversial video news release created to promote the Medicare and education systems for the United States government. ... The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the audit, evaluation, and investigative agency of the United States Congress. ... Department of Education may refer to any of several government agencies: United Kingdom Department for Education and Skills (until 1996 named Department of Education) Scottish Education Department United States United States Department of Education United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Many U.S. states also have their own... Signing ceremony at Hamilton High School in Hamilton, Ohio. ... Ketchum, a leading global public relations firm, offers clients a unique breadth and depth of marketing and corporate communications expertise. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...

VNRs and U.S. law

  • In January 1948, the U.S. Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948, also known as the Smith-Mundt Act, was passed by Congress and signed into law by U.S. President Harry Truman, placing international overseas information activities, including VOA, under an Office of International Information at the Department of State.[7]
  • In February 2005, the "Stop Government Propaganda Act" was introduced in the U.S. Senate. It was referred to the Judiciary Committee and no further action occurred. [2]
  • In April 2005, the Federal Communications Commission warned television stations that they could be fined for airing news stories provided by the government and by companies without disclosing who made them.[citation needed]
  • In August 2006, the FCC mailed letters to the owners of 77 television stations, asking for information regarding agreements between the stations and the creators of VNRs. The letters also asked whether there was any "consideration" given to the stations in return for airing the material. Stations have been given 60 days to respond.[9]

Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The Smith-Mundt Act of 1948 was a piece of federal legislation in the United States. ... For the victim of Mt. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The FCCs official seal. ... Kevin Martin may refer to: Kevin Martin (basketball player), Sacramento Kings shooting guard Kevin Martin (curling), Canadian curler Kevin Martin (FCC), US politician and FCC commissioner Kevin Martin (musician), former musician of Seattle, Washington band, Candlebox This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

US commercial producers of VNRs

A number of public relations firms employ the VNR technique on behalf of their clients; there are a number of commercial production companies who specialize VNR production. Public relations (PR) is the business, organizational, philanthropic, or social function of managing communication between an organization and its audiences. ...

PR Newswire Logo PR Newswire provides electronic distribution of news releases to media outlets and web portals. ... Karen Ryan is a public relations specialist, and former television news reporter, who became famous for producing controversial video news release created to promote the Medicare and education systems for the United States government. ...

References

  1. ^ Statement of the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) on Video News Releases (VNRs). Public Relations Society of America. Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  2. ^ Stauber, John. "PR Execs Undeterred by Fake News "Flap"", Center for Media and Democracy, 2005-03-16. Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  3. ^ Barstow, David and Stein, Robin. "THE MESSAGE MACHINE: How the Government Makes News; Under Bush, a New Age of Prepackaged News", New York Times, 2005-03-13. Retrieved on 2006-08-17. (subscription required)
  4. ^ GAO decision - Matter of: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services—Video News Releases (pdf) File: B-302710, May 19, 2004
  5. ^ GAO decision B-304228, "Department of Education--No Child Left Behind Act Video News Release and Media Analysis", September 30, 2005
  6. ^ Video News Feed Information for Redistricting (P.L. 94-171). United States Census Bureau (2001-05-30). Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  7. ^ Historical Highlights. Voice of America. Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  8. ^ Roland, Neil. "FCC's Martin Orders Probe of TV Stations That Air Ads as News", Bloomberg L.P., 2006-05-26. Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  9. ^ "TV Stations' 'Fake News' Scrutinized", Associated Press, 2006-08-16. Retrieved on 2006-08-17.

The Public Relations Society of America (PRSA), based in New York City, is the worlds largest organization for public relations professionals. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... John Stauber is an American writer and political activist who co-authored five books about propaganda by governments, private interests and the PR industry. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Voice of America (VOA) is the official international broadcasting service of the Government of the United States. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Bloomberg L.P. is a financial news service founded by Michael Bloomberg in 1981. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

External links

Video and audio links

Democracy Now! logo. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
U.S. GAO - B-303495, Office of National Drug Control Policy--Video News Release, January 4, 2005 (5815 words)
There, as here, the prepackaged news stories were narrated by a person who purported to be a private news "reporter" but was actually hired by the agency's contractor to read scripts prepared for and approved by the agency.
We agree with ONDCP that news media outreach is an authorized activity under the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, and we agree that section 1802(a)(1)(H) evinces congressional intent that ONDCP influence the attitudes of the public and the news media with respect to drug abuse.
Clearly, "news media" refers both to the process used to broadcast news to the public, and to the private sector organizations that broadcast the news.
Free Press : Under Bush, a new age of prepackaged TV news (5241 words)
Some news organizations, for example, simply identify the government’s “reporter”; as one of their own and then edit out any phrase suggesting the segment was not of their making.
In essence, video news releases seek to exploit a growing vulnerability of television news: Even as news staffs at the major networks are shrinking, many local stations are expanding their hours of news coverage without adding reporters.
In the end, she said, the jump to video news releases from journalism was not as far as one might expect.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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