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Encyclopedia > Video games
Computer and video games Portal
This article is about computer and video games. For the magazine see Computer and Video Games (magazine).
Namco's Pac-Man was a hit, and became a cultural phenomenon. The game spawned merchandise, a cartoon series, pop songs and was one of the most heavily cloned video games of all-time.
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Namco's Pac-Man was a hit, and became a cultural phenomenon. The game spawned merchandise, a cartoon series, pop songs and was one of the most heavily cloned video games of all-time.

A computer game is a computer-controlled game. A video game is a computer game where a video display such as a monitor or television is the primary feedback device. The term "computer game" also includes games which display only text (and which can therefore theoretically be played on a teletypewriter) or which use other methods, such as sound or vibration, as their primary feedback device, but there are very few new games in these categories. There always must also be some sort of input device, usually in the form of button/joystick combinations (on arcade games), a keyboard & mouse/trackball combination (computer games), or a controller (console games), or a combination of any of the above. Also, more esoteric devices have been used for input (see also Game controller). Usually there are rules and goals, but in more open-ended games the player may be free to do whatever they like within the confines of the virtual universe. Image File history File links Portal. ... Cover of C&VG from 1991 Computer And Video Games (C&VG) was a video game magazine in the United Kingdom, published monthly between November 1981 and 2004. ... Image File history File links Pac-man. ... Image File history File links Pac-man. ... Namco is a company based in Japan, best known for developing video games. ... Pac-Man is an arcade game developed by Namco and licensed for distribution by Midway Games in 1979. ... An animated series or cartoon series is a television series produced by means of animation. ... Popular music is music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and mostly distributed commercially. ... A song is a relatively short musical composition for the human voice (possibly accompanied by other musical instruments), which features words (lyrics). ... A Lego RCX Computer is an example of an embedded computer used to control mechanical devices. ... Nineteen inch (48 cm) CRT computer monitor A computer display, monitor or screen is a computer peripheral device capable of showing characters and/or still or moving images generated by a computer and processed by a graphics card. ... A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... A Device can be taken to mean: an electrical device designed to carry power, but not use it. ... A number of devices, called input devices, are used for entering data into a machine, typically a computer. ... A button (control) is a simple physical mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine. ... A computer keyboard is a peripheral modeled after the typewriter keyboard. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... Logitech Marble Mouse Trackball A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse, but with the ball sticking out more. ... A game controller is an input device used to control a video game. ... A video game console is a dedicated electronic machine designed to play video games. ... A game controller is an input device used to control a video game. ...


The phrase interactive entertainment is the formal reference to computer and video games. To avoid ambiguity, this game software is referred to as "computer and video games" throughout this article, which explores properties common to both types of game.


In common usage, a "computer game" or a "PC game" refers to a game that is played on a personal computer. "Console game" refers to one that is played on a device specifically designed for the use of such, while interfacing with a standard television set. "Video game" (or "videogame") has evolved into a catchall phrase that encompasses the aforementioned along with any game made for any other device, including, but not limited to, mobile phones, PDAs, advanced calculators, etc. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A console game is a form of interactive multimedia used for entertainment. ... palmOne Tungsten T5 Hp Ipaq HX2495 Personal digital assistants (usually abbreviated to PDAs) are handheld devices that were originally designed as personal organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. ... A calculator is a device for performing numerical calculations. ...

Contents

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A console game is a form of interactive multimedia used for entertainment. ...


History

Main article: History of computer and video games

Although the history of computer and video games spans almost five decades, computer and video games themselves did not become part of the popular culture until the late 1970s. ...

Beginnings

The first primitive computer and video games were developed in the 1950s and 60's by Jon Snell and ran on platforms such as oscilloscopes, university mainframes and EDSAC computers. The earliest computer game, a missile simulation, was created in 1947 by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann. A patent application was filed on January 25th, 1947 and U.S. Patent #2,455,992 issued on Dec 14th, 1948. Later in 1952, was a version of tic-tac-toe named Noughts and Crosses, created by A. S. Douglas, as part of his doctoral dissertation at Cambridge University. The game ran on a large university computer called the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC). In 1958, William Higinbotham - who previously helped build the first atomic bomb - created Tennis for Two at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York to entertain visitors at the lab's annual open house. In 1962 MIT's Steve Russell created Spacewar! and John's Great Adventure. The game ran on a PDP-1 mini-computer. The game spread quickly to universities and research facilities around the country. In 1968 Ralph Baer, who would later be known as the "Father of Video Games", applied for a patent for an early version of a video game console named the "Television Gaming and Training Apparatus." In 1967, Baer created a ping-pong like game for the console that resembled Tennis for Two (and the future 1972 arcade game Pong). He worked with Magnavox to create and release the first console, named the Magnavox Odyssey, in 1972. A Tektronix model 475A portable analogue oscilloscope, a very typical instrument of the late 1970s. ... EDSAC EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) was an early British computer (one of the first computers to be created). ... A missile (CE pronunciation: ; AmE: ) is, in general, a projectile—that is, something thrown or otherwise propelled. ... Tic-tac-toe, also called noughts and crosses and many other names, is a paper and pencil game between two players, O and X, who alternate in marking the spaces in a 3×3 board. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... William (Willy) A. Higginbotham (October 25, 1910 - November 10, 1994), a physicist, is credited with creating one of the first video games, Tennis for Two, which is similar to PONG. He created it on an oscilloscope in 1958, while the Head of the Instrumentation Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory, to... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Tennis for Two was a game developed in 1958 on an oscilloscope which simulated a game of tennis or ping pong. ... Aerial view of Brookhaven National Laboratory. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Steve Russel created the first videogame, Spacewar at the Tech Model Railroad Club at the MIT. Categories: Substubs ... Spacewar! is one of the earliest video games for a digital computer. ... Ralph H. Baer (born 1922) is a German-born American inventor, noted for his many contributions to games and the video game industry. ... Pong helped bring computerized video games into everyday life. ... Magnavox (Latin for loud voice) is a consumer electronics company that is now part of Philips Consumer Electronics. ... The Magnavox Odyssey is the first home video game console, predating the Atari Pong home consoles by three years. ...


The Golden Age of Arcade Games

Pong helped bring computerized video games into everyday life.
Pong helped bring computerized video games into everyday life.

Arcade games were developed in the 1970s and led to the so-called "Golden Age of Arcade Games". The first coin-operated arcade game was Computer Space, created in 1971 by Nolan Bushnell. In these pre-arcade days, the game was placed in bars and taverns. The game required players to read a set of instructions before playing, and never became a hit in the bar scene. In the spring of 1972, Bushnell attended a demonstration of the Magnavox Odyssey system in Burlingame, California, and played Baer's ping-pong game for the first time. Soon afterwards Bushnell and a friend formed a new company, Atari (the friend was the same one who came up with the idea for the Chuck E. Cheese restaurants). Nolan envisioned creating a driving game for arcades. He hired an electronic engineer named Al Alcorn and directed him to build a ping-pong game. The game Alcorn created was so much fun that Nolan decided to go ahead and market it. Since the name Ping-Pong was already trademarked, they settled on simply calling it PONG. The intuitive interface led the game to be wildly successful in the bar scene and ushered in the era of arcades. This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... In Space Invaders, the player controls the firing and horizontal position of the green cannon at the bottom, fending off constant attack by echelons of eponymous enemies. ... Computer Space is a computer arcade game released in 1971 by Nutting Associates. ... Nolan K. Bushnell (born February 5, 1943 in Clearfield, Utah) is an electrical engineer and entrepreneur from the United States who founded both Atari, Inc. ... Burlingame Library Burlingame is a city located in San Mateo County, California. ... For the concept Atari (当たり) in the board game of Go, see Atari (go term). ... The current logo for Chuck E. Cheese Pizza. ... Al Alcorn grew up in San Francisco, went to Berkeley, and later was at the video pioneering company, Ampex. ... Regional competition level table tennis, showing table, net, and player getting ready to return the ball with a winning backhand topspin stroke. ... A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by a business to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the business and its products or services from those of other businesses. ... Pong helped bring computerized video games into everyday life. ...


Consoles and beyond

The 1970s saw the release of the first home video game consoles. The patent for Ralph Baer's Magnavox Odyssey was granted in 1972, and paved the way for the next wave of home consoles. The late 1970s to early 1980s brought about the improvement of home consoles and the release of the Atari 2600, Intellivision and Colecovision. They enjoyed a successful number of years on the market, especially the Atari 2600. However that soon came to an end. A video game console is a dedicated electronic machine designed to play video games. ... The Magnavox Odyssey is the first home video game console, predating the Atari Pong home consoles by three years. ... The Atari 2600, released in 1977, is the first successful video game console to use plug-in cartridges instead of having one or more games built in. ... The Intellivision is a video game console released by Mattel in 1980; development of the console began in 1978 (less than a year after the introduction of its main competitor, the legendary Atari 2600). ... A CBS ColecoVision unit The ColecoVision was Coleco Industries third-generation home video game console, released in August of 1982. ...


The video game crash of 1983, which was brought forth due to the oversaturation of the video game market by 3rd party support of these systems, specifically the Atari systems, produced a dark age in the market. Another factor that led to the demise of the home gaming market was the fact that many of these games that were being produced were just ill produced games with no play value whatsoever, all in order to take advantage of the game craze. E.T. for the Atari 2600. ...


Nintendo's Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) reached North America in 1985 single handedly brought back the home gaming market. Sega released its Master System, but it never reached the level of popularity as the NES did, at least not in America. Nintendo went on to create some of America's most well known characters, with games such as Mario Bros. and other Nintendo franchises, many of which are still popular today. One of the main factors that Nintendo regulated, to prevent another crash, was the limiting of 3rd party supporters for the NES by limiting the number of games they could produce for their system, which was 5 a year. Subsequently gaming houses such as Konami and others created subsidiary companies to go around the regulations. Nintendo also created its Seal of Approval to games to help gamers make decisions on games that met the standards of Nintendo. Nintendo Company, Limited (Japanese: 任天堂, ニンテンドー Nintendō; NASDAQ: NTDOY.pk, TYO: 7974 ) is a multinational corporation founded on November 6,[citation needed] 1889 in Kyoto, Japan by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards, for use in a Japanese playing card game of the same name. ... NES redirects here. ... Sega Corporation ) is an international video game software and hardware developing company, and a former home computer and console manufacturer. ... The Sega Master System (SMS for short) is an 8-bit cartridge-based gaming console that was manufactured by Sega. ... Mario Bros. ...


The last two decades of game history have been marked by separate markets for games on video game consoles, home computers and handhelds. See the article on Console wars for additional information on that facet of game history. The Nintendo GameCube is an example of a popular video game console. ... The home computer is a consumer-friendly word for the second generation of microcomputers (the technical term that was previously used), entering the market in 1977 and becoming common during the 1980s. ... A handheld is most often used to refer to: A personal digital assistant (PDA). ... Console wars is a term used to refer to periods of intense competition for market share between video game console manufacturers, with particular emphasis on television advertising. ...


In 1989, Nintendo released the Game Boy, the first popular handheld console. Included with the system was Tetris, which became a popular puzzle game. Several rival handhelds also made their debut around that time, including the Sega Game Gear and Atari Lynx. While some of the other systems remained in production until the mid-90s, the Game Boy remained at the top spot in sales throughout its lifespan. The original Game Boys design set the standard for handheld gaming consoles. ... A handheld game console is a lightweight, portable electronic machine for playing video games. ... Tetris is a popular computer puzzle game. ... The Sega Game Gear was Segas first portable gaming system. ... The Atari Lynx is Ataris only handheld game console, and the first such machine with a color display. ...


The North American market was dominated by the Sega Genesis early on after its debut in 1989, with the Super Nintendo Entertainment System proving a strong, roughly equal rival in 1991. The NEC TurboGrafx 16 was the first 16-bit system to be marketed in the region, but did not achieve a large following, partly due to a limited library of English games and effective marketing from Sega. In Japan, the PC Engine's (Turbografx 16) 1987 success against the Famicom (SNES) and CD drive peripheral allowed it to fend off the Mega Drive (Genesis) in 1988, which never really caught on to the same degree as outside Japan. The PC Engine eventually lost out to the Super Famicom, but retained enough of a user base to support new games well into the late 1990s. CD-ROM drives were first seen in this generation, as add-ons for the PC Engine in 1988 and the Megadrive in 1991. Basic 3D graphics entered the mainstream with flat-shaded polygons enabled by additional processors in game cartridges like Virtua Racing and Starfox. Sega Corporation ) is an international video game software and hardware developing company, and a former home computer and console manufacturer. ... The Sega Mega Drive was a 16-bit video game console released by Sega in Japan (1988), Europe (1990) and most of the rest of the world. ... The Super Nintendo Entertainment System, also known as Super Nintendo, Super NES or SNES, is a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Brazil, Europe, and Australia. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... For information on the Japanese version of this console, see PC Engine The TurboGrafx-16 was a video game console released by NEC in 1989, for the North American market. ... The PC Engine was a video game console released by NEC, a Japanese company, in 1987. ... The Nintendo Entertainment System (U.S., Europe, and Australia) NES redirects here. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... The Sega Mega Drive was a 16-bit video game console released by Sega in Japan (1988), Europe (1990) and most of the rest of the world. ... This article should be merged with Super Nintendo Entertainment System The Super Famicom design differed from that of the American SNES, though the controllers are almost the same. ... The rewrite of this article is being devised at Talk:3D computer graphics/Temp. ... Virtua Racing is a Formula 1 racing arcade game developed by Sega-AM2 released in August 1992 headed by Yu Suzuki. ... Star Fox (called Starwing in Europe, due to copyright issues) was the first game in the Star Fox series of video games. ...

Super Mario 64 became a defining title for 3D platformers
Super Mario 64 became a defining title for 3D platformers

In 1994-1995, Sega released Sega Saturn and Sony made its debut to the video gaming scene with the PlayStation. Both consoles used 32-bit technology; the door was open for 3D games. After many delays, Nintendo released its 64-bit console, the Nintendo 64 in 1996, selling more than 1.5 million units in only three months. The flagship title, Super Mario 64, became a defining title for 3D platform games. Nintendo's choice to use cartridges instead of CD-ROMs for the Nintendo 64, unique among the consoles of this period, proved to have negative consequences. In particular, SquareSoft, which had released all previous games in its Final Fantasy series for Nintendo consoles, now turned to the PlayStation; Final Fantasy VII (1997) was a huge success, establishing the popularity of role-playing games in the west and making the PlayStation the primary console for the genre. By the end of this period, Sony had dethroned Nintendo, the PlayStation outselling the Nintendo 64. The Saturn was moderately successful in Japan but a failure in North America, leaving Sega outside of the main competition. Image File history File links N64_Super_Mario_64_shifting_sand_land. ... Image File history File links N64_Super_Mario_64_shifting_sand_land. ... For the Nintendo DS enhanced remake, see Super Mario 64 DS. Super Mario 64 is a video game for the Nintendo 64. ... The Sega Saturn (Japanese: セガサターン, Sega Saturn) is a 32-bit video game console, first released on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 1995 in North America and July 8, 1995 in Europe. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources. ... For other versions of PlayStation, please see PlayStation (disambiguation) The PlayStation is a video game console of the 32/64-bit era, first produced by Sony Computer Entertainment in the mid-1990s. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... The Nintendo 64, commonly called the N64, is Nintendos third home video game console for the international market. ... For the Nintendo DS enhanced remake, see Super Mario 64 DS. Super Mario 64 is a video game for the Nintendo 64. ... In a variety of electronic equipments, a cartridge (in video game terms, cart, game pack, or Game Pak) can be one method of programming different functionality, providing variable content, or a method by which consumables may be replenished. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Square Co. ... Final Fantasy ) is a series of computer and console role-playing games produced by Square Enix (originally Square Co. ... Final Fantasy VII ) is a console and computer role-playing game released by Square Co. ...


1998 saw the releases of the Sega Dreamcast in Japan (1999 in the US) and the Game Boy Color from Nintendo. In 2000 Sony released the widely anticipated PlayStation 2. In 2001 Microsoft entered the videogame console industry by releasing its new home console, the Xbox. Its flagship game, Halo: Combat Evolved, was available at the system's launch. Nintendo released their successor to the Nintendo 64, the GameCube, and the first all-new Game Boy since the console's inception, the Game Boy Advance. Sega realized they could no longer compete especially with Sony's new PS2, and announced they would discontinue the Dreamcast and no longer manufacture hardware, becoming a third-party developer in 2002. Sega Dreamcast The Sega Dreamcast (Japanese: ドリームキャスト; code-named Katana during development) was Segas last video game console. ... The Game Boy Color came in a myriad of different colors, as did earlier incarnations of the Game Boy. ... The PlayStation 2 (PS2) (Japanese: プレイステーション2) is Sonys second video game console, the successor to the PlayStation and the predecessor to the PlayStation 3 (which is not to be released until November 2006). ... The Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with 2005 global annual sales of US$39. ... The Microsoft Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console first released on November 15, 2001 in North America, then released on February 22, 2002 in Japan, and on March 14, 2002 in Europe. ... Halo: Combat Evolved, or simply Halo, is a video game in the first-person shooter (FPS) genre, created by the Microsoft-owned Bungie Studios. ... The Nintendo GameCube (Japanese: ゲームキューブ; originally code-named Dolphin during development; abbreviated as GCN) is Nintendos fourth home video game console, belonging to the 128-bit era; the same generation as Segas Dreamcast, Sonys PlayStation 2, and Microsofts Xbox. ... GBA redirects here. ... In the video game industry, a third-party developer is a developer that is not only a separate entity from a console manufacturer, but also not affiliated or held by any contractual agreement to make exclusive games for any specific console. ...


Nokia entered the handheld market with its N-Gage game-phone hybrid in 2003. It was criticised for being poorly designed, and flopped. In 2004 Nokia released a re-designed N-Gage, called the N-Gage QD, which didn't fare much better. The other two more technically advanced handhelds to be released in 2004, the Nintendo DS and the PlayStation Portable (PSP) (2005 in the US), didn't help the N-Gage. The Nintendo DS is a highly innovative handheld, the PSP is much more powerful and also includes limited media capabilities. In Western countries the consoles have had similar levels of success but in Japan the DS has been a huge hit, vastly outselling the PSP. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Nokia Nokia Corporation (NYSE: NOK) is the worlds largest manufacturer of mobile telephones (as of June 2006), with a global market share of approximately 33% in 2006. ... In biology, hybrid has three meanings. ... Nokia N-Gage phone (original version) The Nokia N-Gage is a mobile telephone and handheld game system designed using the Nokia 3650 as a base. ... The Nintendo DS (sometimes abbreviated NDS or DS) is a handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo, released in 2004. ... The PlayStation Portable (most commonly abbreviated PSP) is a handheld game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment. ...


The end of 2005 saw the release of the Xbox 360 - the first of the seventh generation of video game consoles. The Xbox 360 (three-sixty), known during development as the Xenon, Xbox 2, Xbox Next or Nextbox, is the successor to Microsofts Xbox video game console. ...


The future of gaming

Consoles

2006 will see the continuation of the next generation of console gaming in the form of two new consoles. Sony with the PlayStation 3 and Nintendo's Wii (aka 'Revolution') will join Microsoft with the already released Xbox 360 in this year's "console war". The Xbox 360 is powered by a multi-core CPU, the PlayStation 3 will be powered by Cell processor technology and will have a motion sensing controller rather than the dualshock controller, and Wii will allow the gamer to interact with the game via a wireless motion sensing controller (such as using the controller in driving game by moving it left or right, or using it as a light saber in a Star Wars game) and promises more innovations, although full technical specifications are yet to be revealed; but it has been rumored that its graphics processor is similar to an ATI X1800 or a Geforce 7800GT graphics chip, one of the most effective of its kind on the market. All the next-generation consoles are starting the transition from traditional media-based games (e.g. on a cartridge or DVD-ROM) to be able to utilize streamed content that is downloaded. This innovation is possible due to the increasing ubiquity of broadband internet access and availabilty of large storage mediums on the consoles. This article or section needs additional references or sources. ... The PlayStation 3 , abbreviated PS3) is Sonys seventh generation era video game console in the PlayStation series. ... Nintendo Company, Limited (Japanese: 任天堂, ニンテンドー Nintendō; NASDAQ: NTDOY.pk, TYO: 7974 ) is a multinational corporation founded on November 6,[citation needed] 1889 in Kyoto, Japan by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards, for use in a Japanese playing card game of the same name. ... Wii (pronounced we, IPA: ) is Nintendos seventh-generation video game console; their fifth home console. ... The Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with 2005 global annual sales of US$39. ... The Xbox 360 (three-sixty), known during development as the Xenon, Xbox 2, Xbox Next or Nextbox, is the successor to Microsofts Xbox video game console. ... CPU redirects here. ... The Cell microprocessor has been jointly developed by Sony, Toshiba, and IBM. The Cell architecture is intended to be scalable through the use of vector processing. ... DualShock 2 The DualShock (also DUALSHOCK and Dual Shock) is the standard game controller available for the PlayStation and PlayStation 2 video game consoles. ... Wii (pronounced we, IPA: ) is Nintendos seventh-generation video game console; their fifth home console. ...


Hardware

As computers get faster in the future, games will have better graphics, more realistic details, shorter load times, and fewer glitches. Games on consoles will not require installation nor licence agreement (like PC games), as the game can be played straight from the disc. Future discs will hold more memory for bigger, deeper game worlds. Wider age groups will play games, as new types of games in other fields appear that appeal to those ages. Games will be used to teach kids and adults (for job training) in school and at home making learning fun and 'hands on', a process that has already begun. Battle simulation games are expanding into driving and car repair simulation, electronics repair simulation, war training, surgery simulation, etc. Virtual Reality visors and touch suits, that create an illusion of fuller game immersion, may eventually come into common use when their tech problems are solved and their prices lowered. Virtual reality (VR) is a technology which allows a user to intereact with a computer-simulated environment. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

Gamers are becoming more demanding when it comes to graphics and physics, as demonstrated by Half-Life 2.
Gamers are becoming more demanding when it comes to graphics and physics, as demonstrated by Half-Life 2.

Download high resolution version (1024x768, 166 KB)Screenshot of Ravenholm from the computer game Half-Life 2. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 166 KB)Screenshot of Ravenholm from the computer game Half-Life 2. ... Half-Life 2 is a science fiction first-person shooter computer game and the sequel to Half-Life, developed by Valve Corporation. ...

Gameplay Trends

Yet another distinct form of evolution in video gaming are the trends of popular gameplay. Natural progression of and consumer demand for increased complexity has gradually forced game software companies to be more creative and expansive in their design of new games. Video games have moved not only forward in the visual dimension, but also in the very concept of restrictive goals and objectives of the game. Patterns in contemporary gameplay continue to show less distinction between "levels" or "areas" [1]. Furthermore, the linear aspect of video games has shown a popular and somewhat constant push towards non-linear or explorative gameplay. Gameplay includes all player experiences during the interaction with game systems, especially formal games. ... Consumers are individuals or households that consume goods and services generated within the economy. ... The term software company could be applied to; a) a company that produces software or b) a company that distributes software from a third party or c) a company that provides services for software. ...


The acceptance of less restrictive and more wide-open gaming can be seen in the growing popularity of massively multiplayer online gaming (which, since the founding days of MUDs, has been a pioneer platform of never-ending objectives) as well as the Grand Theft Auto series, among numerous other examples. Such "sandbox" games lead to games where the main plot can be ignored completely for hundreds of hours, as in The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind, and MUSH-inspired non-games like Second Life. A Massively Multiplayer Online Game (MMOG or MMO) is a computer game which is capable of supporting hundreds or thousands of players simultaneously, and is played on the Internet. ... This article is about a type of online computer game. ... Grand Theft Auto may refer to: Grand Theft Auto (series), a series of free-roam video games Grand Theft Auto (video game), the first game in the series Grand Theft Auto (film), a 1977 film by Ron Howard Motor vehicle theft, a felony in the United States This is a... Look up sandbox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind, also known simply as Morrowind, is a first-person (also playable in third person) computer role-playing game in Bethesda Softworks The Elder Scrolls series. ... The login screen from M*U*S*H, the centre of development for PennMUSH. A MUSH (sometimes said to be an abbreviation for Multi-User Shared Hack, Habitat, Holodeck, or Hallucination, though these are backronyms) is a text-based online social medium to which multiple users are connected at the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Gameplay

Main article: Gameplay

In computer and video gaming, gameplay (sometimes called "Game mechanics") is a general term that describes player interaction with a game. It includes direct interaction, such as controls and interface, but also design aspects of the game, such as levels and graphics. Gameplay includes all player experiences during the interaction with game systems, especially formal games. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... Game design is the process of designing the content, background and rules of a game. ... In computer and video games, a level (sometimes called a stage, course, episode, round, world, map, wave, board, phase, or landscape) is a separate area in a games virtual world, in modern games typically representing a specific location such as a building or a city. ...


Although the use of this term is often disputed, as it is considered too vague for the range of concepts it describes, it is currently the most commonly used and accepted term for this purpose when describing video games.


Genres

Games, like most other forms of media, may be categorized into genres based on gameplay, atmosphere, and various other factors. In fact, games are often much easier to classify by genre than films, music, or books. Due to gaming's relatively short history, technical limitations, and the commercial pressures currently affecting the North American and Japanese markets, electronic games are ensconced in a period of extreme formalism. Recently, video games have begun to explode in popularity, a rise which coincides with an increase in production value, and thus, development cost. As gamers come to expect talented voice acting, enormous, meticulously-constructed worlds and Hollywood-quality sound effects, production costs rise, and owing to the tremendous investment required by publishers (who want to maximize profits), most choose to make games based upon "tried-and-true" ideas, borrowing heavily from previous games and concepts. This is a listing of computer and video game genres with brief descriptions and examples from each genre. ... This is a listing of computer and video game genres with brief descriptions and examples from each genre. ... The word formalism has several meanings: A certain school in the philosophy of mathematics, stressing axiomatic proofs through theorems specifically associated with David Hilbert. ...


This is most evident in the fact that publishers' tend to establish "franchises", which often recycle the same characters, situations, conflicts, gameplay mechanics, and themes for any number of sequels. Therefore, though many games may combine genres, very few exist outside the paradigm of previously established genres, with notable exceptions.


The most common genres in use today include:

Most games nowadays are a combination of two or more genres (e.g action/RPG). There are also number of genres, which are mostly unpopular today, that were hybrid forms of other media, such as books or movies; the most familiar being interactive fiction and interactive movies. Platform game, or platformer, is a video game genre characterized by the character having to climb up and down, or jump from and to, platforms and ledges, while fighting enemies and collecting objects required to complete the game. ... Adventure is a genre of video game typified by exploration, puzzle-solving, interaction with game characters, and a focus on narrative rather than reflex-based challenges. ... Computer role-playing games (CRPGs), often shortened to simply (RPGs), are a type of computer and video games that use traditional gameplay elements found in pen-and-paper role-playing games. ... A first-person shooter (FPS) is a computer or video game where the players on-screen view of the game world simulates that of the character, and there is some element of shooting involved. ... A third-person shooter is a computer game in 3-D where the camera view is outside and usually behind the main player character. ... A racing game is any [game or games] that involve(s) competing in races through a surrogate playing piece or vehicle, either getting it from one point to another or completing a number of circuits in the shortest time. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Screenshot of Kung Fu Master (1984, Irem). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A puzzle is a problem or enigma presented as entertainment; that is written down, acted out, etc. ... A simulation game, or sim game, (also known as a game of status or mixed game) is a game that contains a mixture of skill, a chance and strategy to simulate an aspect of reality, such as a stock exchange. ... The Battle for Wesnoth turn-based strategy, released under the GPL. A turn-based game, also known as turn-based strategy, is a game where the game flow is partitioned in well-defined and visible parts, called turns or rounds. ... Dune 2 (1992), an early RTS A real-time strategy (RTS) game is a type of computer strategy game which does not have turns like conventional turn-based strategy video or board games. ... Solid Snake hides behind a crate in Metal Gear Solid. ... Tactical shooters include games of the first-person shooter (FPS) and third-person shooter genre of video games that generally simulate non-fictional, squad-based combat. ... Action-adventure games are video games that combine elements of the adventure game genre with various action elements. ... Zork, an early work of interactive fiction, running on a modern interpreter Interactive fiction, often abbreviated IF, describes software containing simulated environments in which players use text commands to control characters. ... The first ever laserdisc game, Dragons Lair, was developed during the Golden Age of Arcade Games An interactive movie is a video game genre featuring full motion video of either pre_filmed animated or live_action footage. ...


The increase in the popularity of online gaming has also resulted in sub-genres being formed, such as massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG). Internet games (also known as online games) are games that are played online via the Internet. ... Players interacting in Ultima Online. ...


Popularity

The popularity of computer and video games, as a whole, has been increasing steadily ever since the 1984-1987 drop-off caused by the video game crash of 1983, and the popularity appears to be continuing to increase. The average age of the video game player is now 30 [2], belying the myth that video games are largely a diversion for teenagers. E.T. for the Atari 2600. ... A separate article is about the punk band called The Adolescents. ...


Sales

A typical retail display (in Geneva, Switzerland) with a large selection of games for several major consoles
A typical retail display (in Geneva, Switzerland) with a large selection of games for several major consoles

The two largest markets for computer and video games are the United States and Japan. Other significant markets include Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, Spain, Germany, South Korea, Mexico, France and Italy. Both India and China are considered emerging markets in the video game industry and sales are expected to rise significantly in the coming years. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x750, 336 KB)A retail display of video games at a Manor department store in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x750, 336 KB)A retail display of video games at a Manor department store in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German: //, Italian: Ginevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland, and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...


Sales of different types of games vary widely between these markets due to local preferences. Japanese consumers avoid computer games and instead buy video games, with a strong preference for games catering to Japanese tastes. In South Korea, computer games are preferred, especially MMORPG games and real-time strategy games; there are over 20,000 PC bang Internet cafes where computer games can be played for an hourly charge. Players interacting in Ultima Online. ... Age of Empires (1997), Invasion of an enemy Real-time strategy (RTS) is a genre of computer games characterised by being wargames (strategic) played in real-time in which resource gathering, base building, technology development and the player exerting direct control over individual units are key components. ... A PC bang is an Internet cafe in South Korea. ...


The NPD Group tracks computer and video game sales in the United States. It reported that as of 2004: When NPD began in 1953, the letters stood for National Purchase Diary because most of the companys research was recorded, in written form, in diaries. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Console and portable software sales: $6.2 billion, up 8% from 2003 [3]
  • Console and portable hardware and accessory sales: $3.7 billion, down 35% from 2003 [3]
  • PC game sales: $1.1 billion, down 2% from 2003 [4]

These figures are sales in dollars, not units; unit shipments for each category were higher than the dollar sales numbers indicate, as more software and hardware was sold at reduced prices compared to 2003.


Retail PC game sales have been declining slightly each year since about 1998, but this fact should be taken with a grain of salt: the retail sales numbers from NPD do not include sales from online downloads, nor subscription revenue for games like MMORPGs. Players interacting in Ultima Online. ...


The game and film industries are also becoming increasingly intertwined, with companies like Sony having significant stakes in both. A large number of summer blockbuster films spawn a companion game, often launching at the same time in order to share the marketing costs. This article or section needs additional references or sources. ...


What the player gains

Perhaps the most visible values of computer and video gaming are simply its artistic and entertainment values. As a form of multimedia entertainment, modern video games contain a highly unique fusion of 3D art, CG effects, architecture, artificial intelligence, sound effects, dramatic performances, music, storytelling, and, most importantly, interactivity. This interactivity enables to the player to explore what amounts to a stylized, artistic depiction and simulation of some three-dimensional environment (something no other form of entertainment can allow) with the actions of the player operating as a single, irreducable variable. In this respect, every game scenario will play out a slightly different way every time, since the player is a constant variable. Even if the game is highly scripted, this can still feel like a large amount of freedom to the person who is playing the game. Consider, for example, a game such as Brothers in Arms: Earned in Blood, where your objective is often to eliminate German squads by commanding a group of soldiers from a first-person perpective. Many aspects of the game are highly controlled-- the number of Germans and the places they originate from does not vary, nor does the strength and armament of friendly or enemy troops. The maps are meticulously designed in such a way as to provide clear paths and cover at key locations. And still, the overall strategy, the tactics, and the execution will vary every time. Within the rather broad boundaries of the game, the player is able to exercise far more freedom and control than in traditional forms of entertainment or art. Multimedia is the use of several media (e. ...


A related property is that of emergent behavior. While many games including card games and sports rely on emergent principals, games are able to create simulated story worlds where emergent behavior occurs within the context of this world. This also is very appealing to players. In discussing the issue, game designer Warren Spector has used the term "emergent narrative" to describe how, in a simulated environment, storyline can be created simply by "what happens to the player." [1] A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature. ... Warren Spector is one of the more respected game designers, having worked to merge elements of RPGs and first-person shooters. ...


In Steven Johnson's book, "Everything Bad Is Good For You," he argues that video games in fact demand far more from a player than traditional games like Monopoly. In order to experience the game, the player must first determine the objectives, as well as how to complete them. They must then learn the game controls and how the human-machine interface works, including menus and HUDs. Beyond such skills, which after some time become quite fundamental and are taken for granted by many gamers, video games are based upon the player navigating (and eventually mastering) a highly complex system with many variables. This requires a strong analytical ability, as well as flexibility and adaptability. To emphasize the point, Johnson notes that that the strategy guide for Grand Theft Auto III is 53,000 words long. He argues that the process of learning the boundaries, goals, and controls of a given game is often a highly demanding one that calls on many different areas of cognitive function. Indeed, most games require a great deal of patience and focus from the player, and, contrary to the popular perception that games provide instant gratification, games actually delay gratification far longer than other forms of entertainment such as film or even many books. [2] Some research[5] suggests videogames may even increase player's attention capacities. Steven Berlin Johnson is an American popular science author. ... Everything Bad is Good for You: How Todays Popular Culture Is Actually Making Us Smarter is a book by Steven Berlin Johnson in which he claims that popular culture in general and tv shows and computer games in particular have grown more complex and demanding over the time and... Screenshot of Grand Theft Auto: Vice City. ... Grand Theft Auto III (GTA III) is an action computer and video game developed by DMA Design, published by Rockstar Games in October 2001 for the PlayStation 2 video game console, May 2002 for Windows-based personal computers (PCs), and in November 2003 for the Xbox video game console. ...


Multiplayer games, which take advantage of the fact that computer games can use the internet, provide players with the opportunity to compete with other players from across the globe, something that is also unique to electronic gaming. MMORPG's take the concept much further with the establishment of vast, online communities existing in persistent, virtual worlds. Millions of players around the globe are attracted to video gaming simply because it offers such unprecedented ability to interact with large numbers of people engaged simultaneously in a structured environment where they are all involved in the same activity (playing the game). Players interacting in Ultima Online. ...


Even simple games offer potential benefits to the player. Games like Tetris and Pac-man are well-designed games that are easy to pick up but difficult to master, in ways not unlike chess or even poker. Despite their simplicity, simple games may also feature online capabilities or powerful AI. Depending on the game, players can develop and test their techniques against an advanced computer player or online against other human players. Tetris is a popular computer puzzle game. ... Pac-Man is an arcade game developed by Namco and licensed for distribution by Midway Games in 1979. ... Chess is an abstract strategy board game for two players. ... Poker Room at the Trump Taj Mahal, Atlantic City, New Jersey Poker is a card game, the most popular of a class of games called vying games, in which players with fully or partially concealed cards make wagers into a central pot, which is awarded to the player or players...


More obvious benefits to the player can come in the form education on the game's subject matter. For example, an RTS set during the Civil War may feature the use of period armies engaging in historical battles, and outwitting an opponent such as Robert E. Lee. Dune 2 (1992), an early RTS A real-time strategy (RTS) game is a type of computer strategy game which does not have turns like conventional turn-based strategy video or board games. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederate) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties Killed in action: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 Killed in action: 93,000 Total dead: 258... For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ...


Controversy

The scene from Night Trap which sparked controversy in 1992
The scene from Night Trap which sparked controversy in 1992

Like related forms of media, computer and video games have been the subject of frequent controversy and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes, advertising, consumption of illegal drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, propaganda, or profanity in some games. Among others, critics of video games sometimes include parents' groups, politicians, organized religion groups, and other special interest groups, even though all these can be found in all forms of entertainment and media. Various games have been accused of causing addiction to such and even violent behavior. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Night_trap. ... Image File history File links Night_trap. ... Night Trap is a video game released on October 15, 1992. ... The Rhodesia Herald of September 21, 1966. ... Violence refers to acts of aggression and abuse which causes or intends to cause criminal injury or harm to persons, and (to a lesser extent) animals and property. ... Look up Sex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Advertising, generally speaking, is the promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas, usually performed by an identified sponsor. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... U.S. propaganda poster from WWII depicting a Nazi stabbing a Bible. ... Look up Profanity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... A special interest is a person or political organization established to influence governmental policy or legislators in a specific area of policy. ... Addiction is chronic disorder proposed to be precipitated by a combination of genetic, biological/pharmacological and social factors. ... Violence refers to acts of aggression and abuse which causes or intends to cause criminal injury or harm to persons, and (to a lesser extent) animals and property. ...


Video game censorship is defined as the use of state or group power to control the playing, distribution, purchase, or sale of video games or computer games. Video game controversy comes in many forms, and censorship is a controversial subject, as well as a popular topic of debate. Proponents and opponents of censorship are often very passionate about their individual views.


Historically, this type of controversy and criticism is not unique to video games. The same situation has been applied to Comic books, music, and motion pictures. Moreover, it appears to be a question of age. Since these art forms have been around longer, the backlash against them occurred farther in the past, beyond the remembrance of today's youth. In both cases, the attempts at censorship in the United States were struck down as a violation of First Amendment rights, and they have gone on to become fully integrated facets of society. A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... The Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) was a committee formed in 1985 by the wives of several congressmen. ... The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ...


Games that have sparked notable national controversy in the United States include Mortal Kombat, Night Trap, Doom, the Grand Theft Auto series and, most notably, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas' infamous Hot Coffee mod fiasco which boosted the game's M (Mature) rating to an AO (Adults Only) See also ESRB. Mortal Kombat has multiple meanings. ... Night Trap is a video game released on October 15, 1992. ... Doom (or DOOM)[1] is a 1993 computer game by id Software that is among the landmark titles in the first-person shooter genre. ... Post-GTA2 design of the Grand Theft Auto logo Grand Theft Auto (GTA) is a computer and video game series created and primarily developed by Scottish developer Rockstar North (formerly DMA Design), published by Rockstar Games and debuted in 1998. ... Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is the fifth video game in the Grand Theft Auto series. ... Wikinews has news related to: Video games secret sex scenes spark outrage The Hot Coffee mod is a mod created for the personal computer port of the video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (GTA:SA, 2004/2005, Rockstar North). ... The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that applies and enforces ratings, advertising guidelines, and online privacy principles for computer and video games in the United States. ...


Development

Main article: Game development

Video games are made by developers, who used to do this as individuals or small teams in the 80's. Now, development commonly requires a large team consisting of designers, graphic designers and other artists, programmers, sound designers, musicians, and other technicians; all of which are managed by producers. The visionary for any game may come from any of the roles outlined. Development by committee rarely works. Neverwinter Nights, a popular modern computer role-playing game, features a powerful 3D graphics engine. ... A video game developer is a software developer (a business or an individual) that creates computer or video games. ... A game designer is a person who designs games. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Look up artist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... John Carmack is one of the most widely recognized and influential game programmers. ... Sound design is a technical/conceptually creative field. ... A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ... A game producer is the person in charge of overseeing development of a video or computer game. ...


With the start of the 21st century we can see a major boom in the numbers of game developing teams and studios. This business, although tough and risky, proves to be a goldmine for the determined groups. Previous industry giants like EA Games, Valve, and Rockstar are slowly being displaced by newer studios with smaller budgets yet more determined and younger members who have developed a passion for video gaming throughout their whole lives. Most of these studios are modding existing engines and games until they get enough media attention and sponsors to start a new project from scratch. Prime examples of such teams are Dimension Studios and Turtle Rock Studios. Both of these provide content for already existing games and are making a fortune out of it. An older team, Gearbox Software, started out in a similar fashion by modding the original Half-Life engine; now it is one of the major video game developers.


Video games are developing fast in all areas, but the problem is of cost, and how developers intend to keep the costs low enough to attract publisher investment. Most video game console development teams number anywhere from 20 to 50 people, with some teams exceeding 100. The average team size as well as the average development time of a game have grown along with the size of the industry and the technology involved in creating games. This has led to regular occurrences of missed deadlines and unfinished products; Duke Nukem Forever is the quintessential example of these problems. See also: video game industry practices. Duke Nukem Forever (DNF) is a yet-to-be-released first-person shooter video game being developed by 3D Realms, and is the next game in the popular Duke Nukem series. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Computer and video game industry. ...


Game modifications

Main article: Mod (computer gaming)

Games running on a PC are often designed with end-user modifications in mind, and this consequently allows modern computer games to be modified by gamers without much difficulty. These mods can add an extra dimension of replayability and interest. The Internet provides an inexpensive medium to promote and distribute mods, and they have become an increasingly important factor in the commercial success of some games. Developers such as id, Valve, and Epic ship their games with the very development tools used to make the game in the first place, along with documentation to assist mod developers, which allows for the kind of success seen by popular mods such as Counter-Strike. 2004 Banshee car modification for Grand Theft Auto: Vice City - replacement of original Banshee by Suction Testicle Man Mod or modification is a term generally applied to computer games, especially first-person shooters and real-time strategy games. ... 2004 Banshee car modification for Grand Theft Auto: Vice City - replacement of original Banshee by Suction Testicle Man Mod or modification is a term generally applied to computer games, especially first-person shooters and real-time strategy games. ... id Software (IPA: /ɪd sɔft. ... Valve Software is a Bellevue, Washington-based video game developer made famous by its first product, Half-Life, which was released in November 1998. ... Epic Games, formerly known as Epic MegaGames and also known as Epic, is a computer game development company based in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States. ... Counter-Strike (CS) is a popular team-based mod of Valves first-person shooter (FPS) Half-Life. ...


Popular mods are very occasionally bought by the developers of the game. This was the case with Valve's Half-Life. Valve bought a number of popular mods including Counter-Strike and Day of Defeat. After the release of Half-Life 2 Valve developed these mods for the sequel and sold them through their Internet digital distribution software, Steam. Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Counter-Strike (CS) is a popular team-based mod of Valves first-person shooter (FPS) Half-Life. ... Day of Defeat (DoD) is a popular team-based multiplayer World War II first-person shooter computer game that immerses players into a 3D simulated virtual reality of the European Theatre of World War II. The games graphics and sounds have been influenced by the movie Saving Private Ryan... Half-Life 2 is a science fiction first-person shooter computer game and the sequel to Half-Life, developed by Valve Corporation. ... Digital distribution (Also known as digital delivery) is the principle of providing digital information or content over the Internet, either in the form of products or services. ... Steam is a content delivery, digital rights management and multiplayer system developed by the Valve Corporation. ...


Recently, computer games have also been used as a digital art . See artistic computer game modification and Machinima medium. One of the most well known games that have awakened people to the digital art is the game Half-Life 2. Computer-generated image created by Gilles Tran using POV-Ray 3. ... Artistic computer game modification involves the use of a computer game for the creation of a digital artwork. ... A scene from the popular machinima series Red vs Blue. ... Half-Life 2 is a science fiction first-person shooter computer game and the sequel to Half-Life, developed by Valve Corporation. ...


Naming

Non-gamers use several umbrella terms for console, PC, arcade, handheld, and similar games since they do not agree on the best name. For many, either "computer game" or "video game" describes these games as a whole. Other commonly used terms include "entertainment software," "interactive entertainment media," "electronic interactive entertainment," "electronic game," "software game," and "videogame" (as one word). Gamers are quite happy to use the vague term "games", or "videogame/video game" to distinguish them from board games and card games when necessary. In the past, it was common for parents and/or elderly people, who were unfamiliar with video games, to refer to all of them as "Nintendo games" due to Nintendo's overwhelming popularity in the late 80's and 90's (this is comparable to the public referring to all brands of facial tissue as Kleenex). Computer and video games are a subset of interactive media, which includes virtual reality, flight and engineering simulation, multimedia and the World Wide Web. The expression umbrella term means a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts. ... Nintendo Company, Limited (Japanese: 任天堂, ニンテンドー Nintendō; NASDAQ: NTDOY.pk, TYO: 7974 ) is a multinational corporation founded on November 6,[citation needed] 1889 in Kyoto, Japan by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards, for use in a Japanese playing card game of the same name. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For information about the musical band of the same name, see Kleenex (band). ... New media usually refers to a group of relatively recent mass media based on new information technology. ... Virtual reality (VR) is a technology which allows a user to intereact with a computer-simulated environment. ... A flight simulator is a system that tries to replicate, or simulate, the experience of flying an airplane as closely and realistically as possible. ... Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. ... Multimedia is the use of several media (e. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a global, read-write information space. ...


See also

Find more information on Computer and video games by searching Wikipedia's sister projects:

 Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
 Textbooks from Wikibooks
 Quotations from Wikiquote
 Source texts from Wikisource
 Images and media from Commons
 News stories from Wikinews Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...

This is a hierarchical list linking to all articles related to computer and video games. ... This is a list of computer games and video games. ... Pac-Man is one of the most recognizable video games ever created. ... This is a list of cancelled video games, organized by system. ... This page is an incomplete list of known example of vaporware, in alphabetical order by product name: Action Gamemaster - a handheld device designed by Active Enterprises The Analytical engine - a computer designed by Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace Cairo - an operating system developed by Microsoft Cobalt (pda OS) - The much... The computer and video game industry has seen several commercial failures since its birth in the late 1970s, some of which have drastically changed the video game market. ... Artistic computer game modification involves the use of a computer game for the creation of a digital artwork. ...

References

  1. ^ Lee, Jon. Obsolescing the horse. Warbucket. Retrieved on 16 May 2006.
  2. ^ Top 10 Industry Facts. Entertainment Software Association (ESA): (2006). Retrieved on February 12, 2006.
  3. ^ a b U.S. video game industry sales dip in 2004. Game Info Wire: (January 18, 2005). Retrieved on February 12, 2006.
  4. ^ Sales & Genre data. Entertainment Software Association (ESA): (2004). Retrieved on February 12, 2006.
  5. ^ Daphne Bavalier et. al.. Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature/University of Rochester. Retrieved on April 29, 2006.
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  Results from FactBites:
 
The Video Game Revolution: "Eight Myths About Video Games Debunked" by Henry Jenkins | PBS (1728 words)
Former military psychologist and moral reformer David Grossman argues that because the military uses games in training (including, he claims, training soldiers to shoot and kill), the generation of young people who play such games are similarly being brutalized and conditioned to be aggressive in their everyday social interactions.
Video games are not a meaningful form of expression.
Yet, a child who responds to a video game the same way he or she responds to a real-world tragedy could be showing symptoms of being severely emotionally disturbed.
Computer and video games - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4730 words)
The popularity of computer and video games, as a whole, has been increasing steadily ever since the 1984-1987 drop-off caused by the video game crash of 1983, and the popularity appears to be continuing to increase.
Computer and video games have been the subject of frequent controversy and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes, advertising, consumption of illegal drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, propaganda, or profanity in some games.
Video games are made by developers, who used to do this as individuals or small teams in the 80's.
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