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Encyclopedia > Video game music
Out Run (1986) is an arcade game with an integral soundtrack.

Video game music is any of the musical pieces or soundtracks found in video games. Image File history File links Outrun-arcadescreenshot_irfanview_pngout. ... Image File history File links Outrun-arcadescreenshot_irfanview_pngout. ... Out Run (also spelled OutRun and Outrun) is a 1986 racing game designed by Yu Suzuki and Sega-AM2 for the video arcade market. ... // In film formats, the sound track is the physical area of the film which records the synchronized sound. ... Namcos Pac-Man was a hit, and became a universal phenomenon. ...

Contents

History

8-bit machines and chip music

Super Mario Bros. (1985) for the NES is widely known for its music.
  • Audio sample ( file info) — play in browser (beta)

At the time video games began to blossom as a form of entertainment in the 1970s, music was stored on physical medium in analog waveforms such as compact cassettes and phonograph records. Such components were expensive and prone to breakage under heavy use making them less than ideal for use in an arcade cabinet, though in rare cases, they were used (Journey). A more affordable method of having music in a video game was to use digital means, where a specific computer chip would change electrical impulses from computer code into analog sound waves on the fly for output on a speaker. Sound effects for the games were also generated in this fashion. NES title screen of Super Mario Bros This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... NES title screen of Super Mario Bros This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... Super Mario Bros. ... Image File history File links Super Mario Bros. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... This article is about computer and video games. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... The Compact Cassette, often referred to as audio cassette, cassette tape, cassette, or simply tape, is a magnetic tape sound recording format. ... Manufacturers put records inside protective and decorative cardboard jackets and an inner paper sleeve to protect the grooves from dust and scratches. ... This arcade cabinet, containing Centipede, is an upright. ... Journey is an arcade game made by Bally/Midway in the 1980s. ...


While this allowed for inclusion of music of arcade games in the 1970s, it was usually monophonic, looped, or used sparingly between stages or at the start of a new game, such as Pac Man, or Pole Position. The decision to include any music into a video game meant that at some point it would have to be transcribed into computer code by a programmer, whether or not the programmer had musical experience. Some music was original, some was public domain music such as folk songs. The popular Atari 2600 home system, for example, was capable of generating only two tones, or "notes," at a time. Some exceptions, such as arcade games developed by Exidy, took steps toward digitized, or 'sampled' sounds. Pac-Man is an arcade game developed by Namco and licensed for distribution in the USA by Midway, first released in Japan in 1979. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, was the first successful video game console to use plug-in cartridges instead of having one or more games built in. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous signal to a discrete signal. ...


This approach in game development carried on into the 1980s. As advances in silicon and cost of technology fell it ushered in a definitive new generation of arcade machines and home consoles. In arcades, machines based on the Motorola 68000 CPU and Yamaha YM chips for sound generators allowed for several more tones or 'channels' of sound, sometimes 8 or more. Home console systems also had a comparable upgrade in sound ability beginning with the Colecovision in 1982 capable of 4 channels. However, more notable was the Japanese release of the Famicom in 1983 which would later be known in the US as the NES in 1985. It was capable of a total of 5 channels, one being capable of simple PCM sampled sound. Also of note was the home computer Commodore 64 released in 1982, which was capable of early forms of filtering effects and different types of waveforms. Its comparatively low cost made it a popular alternative to other home computers, as well as its ability to use a TV for a monitor. The Motorola 68000 is a CISC microprocessor, the first member of a successful family of microprocessors from Motorola, which were all mostly software compatible. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Nintendo Entertainment System (U.S., Europe, and Australia) NES redirects here. ... “NES” redirects here. ... PCM is an initialism which can have different meanings: Phase Change Material Pulse-code modulation, a way to digitally encode signals representing sound and their video counterparts Potential Cancer Marker Communist Party of Mexico Plug Compatible Manufacturer Power-train control module, a computer in a car which controls the car... The Commodore 64 is the best-selling single personal computer model of all time. ... Waveform quite literally means the shape and form of a signal, such as a wave moving across the surface of water, or the vibration of a plucked string. ...


Approach to game music development in this time period usually involved using simple tone generation and/or frequency modulation synthesis to simulate instruments for melodies, and use of a 'noise channel' for simulating percussive noises. Early use of PCM samples in this era was limited to sound bites (Monopoly), or as an alternate for percussion sounds (Super Mario Bros 3). The music on home consoles often had to share the available channels with other sound effects. For example, if a laser beam was fired by a spaceship, and the laser used a 1400 Hz tone, then whichever channel was in use by music would stop playing music and start playing the sound effect. Frequency modulation synthesis (or FM synthesis) is a form of audio synthesis where the timbre of a simple waveform is changed by frequency modulating it with a modulating frequency that is also in the audio range, resulting in a more complex waveform and a different-sounding tone. ... This article or section should include material from Super Mario Advance 4: Super Mario Bros 3 Super Mario Bros. ...

Sanxion (1986) loader music on C64, Thalamusik, is one of Rob Hubbard's many hits.

The mid-to-late 1980s saw a tide of software releases for these platforms that had music developed by people with more musical experience than before. Quality of composition improved noticeably, and evidence of the popularity of music of this time period remains even today. Composers who made a name for themselves with their software include Koji Kondo (Super Mario Bros., The Legend of Zelda), Koichi Sugiyama[1] (Dragon Quest), Rob Hubbard (Monty On the Run), Hirokazu Tanaka (Metroid and Kid Icarus), Martin Galway (Times of Lore), Hiroshi Miyauchi (Out Run), Nobuo Uematsu (Final Fantasy), Yuzo Koshiro (Ys). Toward the end of the life of the Famicom, some cartridge games were released with additional tone generating chips built into them, further expanding to the number of channels. This demonstrated a more dedicated attention to the sound and music of games as the expansion added to the developer's cost of the cartridge. Image File history File links Sanxion_load. ... Image File history File links Sanxion_load. ... Sanxion is a 1986 horizontal scrolling shootem up by Thalamus Ltd. ... The Commodore 64 is the best-selling single personal computer model of all time. ... Thalamusik is a video game music piece featured on the loading screen of the Commodore 64 version of the 1986 horizontal scrolling shootem up Sanxion, inspired by Zoolook by Jean-Michel Jarre[1]. Thalamusik became very popular, so the magazine Zzap!64 included a full synthesised version on the... Rob Hubbard (born 1956?, Kingston upon Hull, England) is a music composer best known for his composition of computer game theme music, especially for microcomputers of the 1980s such as the Commodore 64. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Super Mario Bros. ... This article is about the first game in the series. ... Koichi Sugiyama (すぎやまこういち Sugiyama Kōichi; born April 11, 1931) is a Japanese music composer. ... Dragon Quest logo Dragon Quest ), published as Dragon Warrior in North America until the 2005 release of Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King, is a series of role-playing games produced by Enix (now Square Enix). ... Rob Hubbard (born 1956?, Kingston upon Hull, England) is a music composer best known for his composition of computer game theme music, especially for microcomputers of the 1980s such as the Commodore 64. ... Monty on the Run is a computer game created by the software house Gremlin Graphics for the C64, Spectrum and Amstrad CPC with music written by Rob Hubbard. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the first game in the series. ... For the title character, see Pit (Kid Icarus). ... Martin Galway (born January 3, 1966, Belfast, Northern Ireland) is one of the best known composers of music for the Commodore 64 sound chip, the SID soundchip. ... Times of Lore was an early computer-based roleplaying game with a detailed world. ... Out Run (also spelled OutRun and Outrun) is a 1986 racing game designed by Yu Suzuki and Sega-AM2 for the video arcade market. ... Nobuo Uematsu , born March 21, 1959) is a Japanese composer of video game music, and one of the most well-known, prolific, and versatile in the field. ... For the first installment in the series, see Final Fantasy (video game). ... Yuzo Koshiro , born December 12, 1967 in Hino, Tokyo) is a Japanese video game music composer. ... Ys , IPA: ) (pronounced IPA: ) is a Japanese-origin computer role-playing game series, and Nihon Falcom corporations flagship franchise. ...


The oncoming generation of Arcade, home consoles, and home computers would reshape the approach to music in video games.




Early digital synthesis and sampling

Shadow of the Beast (1989) on the Amiga, famed for its graphics and music.

The first home computer to make use of digital signal processing in the form of sampling was the Commodore Amiga in 1985. The computer's sound chip initially featured four independent 8-bit wide digital-to-analog converters. Instead of simply generating a waveform that sounded like a simplistic "beep", such as FM synthesis, this allowed short samples of pre-recorded sound waves to be played back through the computer's sound chip from memory. It allowed a developer to take a 'sample' of a real instrument or sound they wanted at a significantly higher quality and fidelity than was previously available or would come to be available on home computing for several years. This was an early development example of what would later be called wavetables and soundfonts. For its role in being first and affordable, the Amiga would remain a staple tool of early sequenced music composing, especially in Europe. File links The following pages link to this file: Shadow of the Beast Video game music ... File links The following pages link to this file: Shadow of the Beast Video game music ... Screenshot of Shadow of the Beast I (Amiga) Shadow of the Beast (also officially known as simply Beast) is a side-scrolling platform computer game produced by Reflections Interactive and published by Psygnosis in 1989. ... Amiga is the name of a range of home/personal computers using the Motorola 68000 processor family, whose development started in 1982. ... In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device for converting a digital (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current, voltage or electric charge). ... Waveform quite literally means the shape and form of a signal, such as a wave moving across the surface of water, or the vibration of a plucked string. ... This article is about the beep sound. ... Frequency modulation synthesis (or FM synthesis) is a form of audio synthesis where the timbre of a simple waveform is changed by frequency modulating it with a modulating frequency that is also in the audio range, resulting in a more complex waveform and a different-sounding tone. ... In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous signal to a discrete signal. ... A sound chip is an integrated circuit (i. ... Wavetable synthesis is used in digital musical instruments (synthesizers) to produce natural tone-like sounds. ... SoundFont is a brand name that collectively refers to a file format and associated technology designed to bridge the gap between recorded and synthesized audio, especially for the purposes of computer music composition. ... In the field of electronic music, a sequencer was originally any device that recorded and played back a sequence of control information for an electronic musical instrument. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


The Amiga's main rival, the Atari ST, used the Yamaha YM2149 programmable sound generator (PSG), which was limited compared to the Commodore 64's SID chip and thus digitized sound was heard on Atari ST only through certain programming tricks that consumed processor time making it impractical for games. Since it had in-built MIDI ports, the Atari ST was used by many professional musicians as a MIDI programming device. The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... The AY-3-8912 was a 3 voice sound chip designed by General Instruments. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ...


IBM PC clones in 1985 would not see any significant development in multimedia abilities for a few more years, and sampling would not become popular in other video game systems for several years. Though sampling had the potential to produce much more realistic sounds, each sample required much more data in memory. This was at a time when all memory, solid state (cartridge), magnetic (floppy disk) or otherwise was still very costly per kilobyte. Sequenced soundchip generated music on the other hand was generated with a few lines of comparatively simple code and took up far less precious memory. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In various types of electronic equipment, a cartridge can refer one method of adding different functionality or content (e. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to the decimal 1024 bytes (2 to the 10th power, or 1,024 bytes based in the binary system). ...


The previously mentioned hybrid approach (sampled and chip) to music composing in the Third Generation of consoles would continue into the Fourth Generation, or 16-bit era, of home game consoles with the Sega Mega Drive in 1988. The Mega Drive, (Sega Genesis in the US) sported advanced graphics over the NES and improved sound synthesis, but largely held the same approach to sound design. Ten channels of total tones with one for PCM samples were available in stereo instead of the NES's 5 channels (2 pulse, triangle, noice & DPCM) in mono. As before, it would often be used for percussion samples, or 'drum kits' (Sonic the Hedgehog 3). The 16-bit which referred to the CPU should not be confused with 16-bit sound samples. The Genesis did not support 16-bit sampled sounds. The sound system would still be considered rather limiting to most musicians and it forced much more imaginative use of the FM synthesizer to create an enjoyable listening experience. In the history of video games, the 8-bit era was the third generation of video game consoles, but the first after the video game crash of 1983 and considered by some to be the first modern era of console gaming. ... In the history of video games, the 16-bit era was the fourth generation of video game consoles. ... The Sega Mega Drive ) is a video game console released by Sega in Japan in 1988, North America in 1989, and the PAL region in 1990. ... This article is about the spacecraft and the mission. ... Sonic the Hedgehog 3 ), often abbreviated and officially known in Europe as Sonic 3, is a platform game in the Sonic the Hedgehog series for the Mega Drive/Genesis. ... Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. ...


As cost of magnetic memory declined in the form of diskettes, the evolution of video game music on the Amiga (and game music development in general) shifted to sampling in some form. It took some years before Amiga game designers learned to wholly utilize digitized sound effects in music (an early exception case was the title music of text adventure game The Pawn, 1986). Also, by this time computer and game music had already begun to form its own identity, and thus many music makers intentionally tried to produce music that sounded like that heard on the Commodore 64, which resulted in the chiptune genre. Zork I is one of the first interactive fiction games, as well as being one of the first commercially sold. ... The Pawn is an interactive fiction game by Magnetic Scrolls which was first published by Rainbird in 1986. ... The Commodore 64 is the best-selling single personal computer model of all time. ... MOS 6581 and 8580 Commodore 64 SID chips Chiptune, or chip music, or micromusic is music written in sound formats where all the sounds are synthesized in realtime by a computer or video game console sound chip, instead of using sample-based synthesis. ...


The release of a freely-distributed program named Sound Tracker by Karsten Obarski in 1987 started the era of MOD-format which made it easy for anyone to produce music based on digitized samples. MOD-files were made with programs called "trackers" after Obarski's Sound Tracker. This MOD/tracker -tradition continued with PC computers in 1990s. Good examples of Amiga games using digitized instrument samples include David Whittaker's soundtrack for Shadow of the Beast, Chris Hülsbeck's soundtrack for Turrican 2 and Matt Furniss's tunes for Laser Squad. Richard Joseph also composed some theme songs featuring vocals and lyrics for games by Sensible Software most famous being Cannon Fodder (1992) with a song "War Has Never Been So Much Fun" and Sensible World of Soccer (1994) with a song "Goal Scoring Superstar Hero". These songs used long vocal samples. Karsten Obarski (born May 11, 1960), handle Obi, is considered a pioneer of the demo scene for the creation of the program Ultimate Soundtracker, the ancestor of all Trackers. ... For other uses, see Mod. ... For other uses, see Mod. ... ModPlug Tracker in Fast Tracker 2 colors mode Tracker is the generic term for a class of software music sequencers which, in their purest form, allow the user to arrange sound samples stepwise on a timeline across several monophonic channels. ... The Commodore Amiga was an important platform for computer games in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... David Whittaker is known for numerous computer game tunes he wrote in 1980s and early 1990s for many different formats. ... Screenshot of Shadow of the Beast I (Amiga) Shadow of the Beast (also officially known as simply Beast) is a side-scrolling platform computer game produced by Reflections Interactive and published by Psygnosis in 1989. ... Chris Hülsbeck (born March 2, 1968) is a game music composer from Germany. ... The original Commodore 64 version of Turrican features large levels with detailed graphics. ... Matt Furniss is a videogame sound artist. ... Laser Squad is a classic computer game, originally released for the ZX Spectrum and later for the Amiga, Amstrad CPC, Atari ST and Commodore 64 computers, and yet another couple of years later for PC computers. ... Richard Joseph is a game musician and sound specialist. ... Logo Sensible Software was a highly regarded software house in the nineties from the United Kingdom that released several games, amongst those the popular Sensible Soccer series and Cannon Fodder. ... Cannon Fodder is an expression used to denote the treatment of armed forces as a worthless commodity to be expended. ... Mega Drive screenshot Sensible Soccer, often affectionately known as Sensi, is a football video game series which was highly popular in the early 1990s and which still retains a cult following. ...


Similar to the Amiga, this approach to sound and music developments in arcades began to appear in certain specialized arcade system board revisions. In 1991, games like Street Fighter II on the CPS-1 used voice samples extensively along with sound effects and percussion. Neo Geo's MVS system also carried powerful sound development which often included surround sound. An arcade system board is a standardized printed circuit board or group of printed circuit boards that are used as the basis for multiple arcade games with very similar hardware requirements. ... Street Fighter II: The World Warrior is a 1991 competitive fighting game by Capcom. ... The CPS-1 (CPシステム shīpī shisutemu) or Capcom Play System 1, is an arcade system board by Capcom that debuted in 1988 with Forgotten Worlds and Ghouls n Ghosts. ... Neo-Geo is the name of a cartridge-based arcade and home video game system released in 1990 by Japanese game company SNK. The system offered comparatively colorful 2D graphics and high-quality sound. ... Multichannel audio is the name for a variety of techniques for expanding and enriching the sound of audio playback by recording additional sound channels that can be reproduced on additional speakers. ...

Final Fantasy IV on Super Famicom (Japanese SNES) (1990).
The SNES (1990) brought digitized sound to console games.
The SNES (1990) brought digitized sound to console games.

The evolution also carried into home console video games, most notably with the release of the Super Famicom in 1990, and SNES in 1991. This home console system sported a specialized custom Sony chip for both the sound generation and for special hardware DSP. It was capable of 8 channels of sampled sounds at up to 16-bit resolution, possessed an impressive selection of DSP effects including a type of ADSR seen usually in high end synthesizers of the time period, and full stereo sound. This allowed experimentation with applied acoustics in video games, such as musical acoustics (early games like Castlevania IV, F-Zero, Final Fantasy IV, Gradius III, and later games Chrono Trigger), directional (Star Fox) and spatial acoustics (Dolby Pro-Logic was used in some games, like King Arthur's World and Jurassic Park), as well as environmental and architectural acoustics (Zelda III, Secret of Evermore). Many games also made heavy use of the high quality sample playback capabilities (Super Star Wars, Tales of Phantasia). The only real limitation to this powerful setup was the still costly solid state memory. Image File history File links Final Fantasy IVj battle screen This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... Image File history File links Final Fantasy IVj battle screen This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... For the first installment in the series, see Final Fantasy (video game). ... Image File history File links Super_Nintendo_Entertainment_System-USA.jpg From ja-wiki, GNU FDL. Taken by User:Muband en: Super Nintendo Entertainment System, North American version. ... Image File history File links Super_Nintendo_Entertainment_System-USA.jpg From ja-wiki, GNU FDL. Taken by User:Muband en: Super Nintendo Entertainment System, North American version. ... The Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super NES, also known as SNES or Super Nintendo, is a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Brazil, Europe, and Australia. ... This article should be merged with Super Nintendo Entertainment System The Super Famicom design differed from that of the American SNES, though the controllers are almost the same. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ... An ADSR envelope is a parameter used in synthesizers, including those that produce sound by subtractive synthesis, to control the sound produced. ... Super Castlevania IV (known as 悪魔城ドラキュラ Akumajō Dracula in Japan) was the first Castlevania game released on the Super NES console. ... F-Zero is a fast-paced futuristic racing game developed and published by Nintendo for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. ... Final Fantasy IV ) is a console role-playing game developed and published by Square Co. ... Gradius III , lit. ... Chrono Trigger ) is a console role-playing game developed and published by Square Co. ... Star Fox ) (also known as Star Wing in Europe due to trademark issues) is the first game in the Star Fox series of video games. ... Dolby Pro Logic is an analog surround sound system developed by Dolby Laboratories, Inc. ... It has been suggested that Acoustic transmission be merged into this article or section. ... The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past, released in Japan on November 21, 1991, as ゼルダの伝説 神々のトライフォース (Zeruda no Densetsu: Kamigami no Toraifōsu, literally The Legend of Zelda: Triforce of the Gods... Secret of Evermore, released in North America on September 18, 1995, is a role playing video game for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System video game console. ... Super Star Wars is the first of a series of three Super Nintendo games based on the original three films of the Star Wars series. ... Tales of Phantasia ) is a Super Famicom game in the RPG genre published by Namco and released in Japan in 1995. ... Semiconductor memory is a generic term referring to any computer storage method implemented on a semiconductor-based integrated circuit. ...


Other consoles of the generation could boast similar abilities. The Neo-Geo home system was capable of powerful sample processing, but was several times the cost of a SNES. The Sega CD upgrade to the Genesis added multiple PCM channels, but few titles used this feature and instead simply streamed music from the CD from a Red Book format. Neither saw the circulation of the SNES. Neo-Geo is the name of a cartridge-based arcade and home video game system released in 1990 by Japanese game company SNK. The system offered comparatively colorful 2D graphics and high-quality sound. ... The Sega Mega-CD (Japanese: メガCD) is an add-on device for the Sega Mega Drive released in Europe, Australia, and Japan. ... The CDDA trademark Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ...


Popularity of the SNES and its software remained limited to regions where NTSC television was the broadcast standard. Partly because of the difference in frame rates of PAL broadcast equipment, many titles released were never re-designed to play appropriately and ran much slower than originally intended, or were simply never released. This represented a divergence in popular video game music between PAL and NTSC countries that still shows to this day. This divergence would be lessened as the Fifth Generation of home consoles launched globally, and as Commodore began to take a backseat to general purpose PCs and Macs. The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Television encoding systems by nation. ...


Though the Sega-CD, and to a greater extent the PC Engine in Japan, would give gamers a preview of the direction video game music would take in streaming music, the use of both sampled and sequenced music continues in game consoles even today. The huge storage benefit of optical media would be coupled with progressively more powerful audio generation hardware and higher quality samples in the Fifth Generation. In 1994, the PlayStation with a CD-ROM drive supported 24-channels of 16-bit samples of up to 44.1 kHz sample rate, equal to CD audio quality. It also sported a few hardware DSP effects like reverb. Many Squaresoft titles continued to use sequenced music, such as Final Fantasy 7, Legend of Mana, and Final Fantasy Tactics. The Sega Saturn also with a CD drive supported 32 Channels of PCM at the same resolution as the PSX. In 1996 the N64, still using a solid state cartridge, actually supported an integrated and scalable sound system that was potentially capable of 100 channels of PCM, and an improved sample rate of 48 kHz. Games for the N64, because of the cost of the solid state memory, typically had samples of lesser quality than the other two however, and music tended to be simpler in construct. The PC Engine was a video game console released by NEC, a Japanese company, in 1987. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... In the history of computer and video games, the 32-bit / 64-bit era was the fifth generation of video game consoles. ... The Sony PlayStation ) is a video game console of the 32/64-bit era, first produced by Sony Computer Entertainment in the mid-1990s. ... When sound is produced in an enclosed space multiple reflections build up and blend together creating reverberation or reverb. ... Square Co. ... Final Fantasy VII is a video game that was Squaresoft (now Square Enix)s first Final Fantasy game on the PlayStation. ... Legend of Mana ) is the fourth game in the Mana series. ... Final Fantasy Tactics ) (often abbreviated as FFT) is a tactical role-playing game developed and published by Square Co. ... The Sega Saturn ) is a 32-bit video game console, first released on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 11, 1995 in North America and July 8, 1995 in Europe. ... An N64 (with Super Smash Bros. ...


The more dominant approach for games based on CDs, however, was shifting toward streaming audio. Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ...


Pre-recorded and streaming music

Taking entirely pre-recorded music had many advantages over sequencing for sound quality. Music could be produced freely with any kind and number of instruments, allowing developers to simply record one track to be played back during the game. Quality was only limited by the effort put into mastering the track itself. Memory space costs that was previously a concern was somewhat addressed with optical media becoming the dominant media for software games. CD quality audio allowed for music and voice that had the potential to be truly indistinguishable from any other source or genre of music. A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ...

The first developers of IBM PC computers neglected audio capabilities (first IBM model, 1981).
The first developers of IBM PC computers neglected audio capabilities (first IBM model, 1981).

In the same timeframe of late 1980s to mid 1990s, the sampling approach had skipped over PC games. Early PC gaming was limited to a 1-bit PC speaker, leftover legacy from an IBM clone's standard and was poor for generating complex sounds. Expansion cards allowed for FM synthesis, such as the AdLib sound card. MIDI sequencing was used by the game developers to drive the FM synthesis (Doom). A typical PC lacked the specialised computing power to deal with sampling play back, or a way to output it. Rather than the game developer do their own sampling, wavetable sequencing became a popular alternative. A wavetable with samples pre-made and conforming to General MIDI would be installed on a sound card either by design, or by addition of a daughter board. Quality of these wavetable samples had the tendency to range wildly from on manufacturer to the next, but Roland's product were used as a standard until the release of Creative's Sound Blaster in 1989. The Sound Blaster represented an affordable catch-all solution for PC users to have access to sound features. It included a joystick port, midi support using AdLib FM synthesis compatibility, a standardised port for daughter cards for their own Wave Blaster and for other companies' products, and 8-bit 22.05 kHz (later 44.1 kHz) digital audio recording and playback of a single stereo channel. This still did not result in wide use of sampling for PC games because of the inability to play more than one sample at a time. Sequenced music would continue on PCs as the most commonly found game music until mid 90s as CD-ROMs became a more common feature of PCs and game software, as well as a general increase in storage capacity. This gave developers the memory space to use streaming for their soundtracks. Download high resolution version (1024x740, 91 KB) IBM PC 5150 with keyboard and green monochrome monitor (5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... Download high resolution version (1024x740, 91 KB) IBM PC 5150 with keyboard and green monochrome monitor (5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... The PC speaker is the most primitive sound system used in IBM compatible PCs, and in fact used to be the only one in use in PC games before more technologically advanced sound cards such as AdLib or the Sound Blaster were introduced as ISA plug-in cards in the... AdLib, Inc. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... Doom (or DOOM)[1] is a 1993 computer game by id Software that is among the landmark titles in the first-person shooter genre. ... Wavetable synthesis is used in digital musical instruments (synthesizers) to produce natural tone-like sounds. ... A daughterboard or daughtercard is a circuit board meant to be an extension or daughter of a motherboard (or mainboard), or occasionally another card. ... Roland Corporation TYO: 7944 is a Japanese manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, electronic equipment and software. ... Creative Technology Limited (SGX: C76, NASDAQ: CREAF) is a listed manufacturer of computer multimedia products based in Singapore where the firm was initially founded by Sim Wong Hoo (born 1955) on July 1, 1981. ... The Sound Blaster family of sound cards was for many years the de facto standard for audio on the IBM PC compatible system platform, before PC audio became commoditized, and backward-compatibility became less of a feature. ... Wave Blaster may refer to: Yamaha Wave Blaster, a personal watercraft produced from 1993 to 1996 Creative WaveBlaster, a sound card by Creative in the Sound Blaster line of sound cards Category: ...


Simple of digitized music was experimented with earlier home computers and arcade machines - famous example being Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles arcade game, that plays the title music of cartoon. In fourth generation home video games and PCs this was limited to playing a Red Book audio track from a CD while the game was in play (Sonic CD). However, there were several disadvantages of regular CD-audio. Optical drive technology was still limited in spindle speed, so playing an audio track from the game CD meant that the system couldn't access data again until it stopped the track from playing. Looping, the most common form of game music, was also problem as when the laser reached the end of a track, it had to move itself back to the beginning to start reading again causing an audible gap in playback. To meet Wikipedias content policies, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For looping in computer programming, see program loop. ...


To address these drawbacks, some PC game developers designed their own container formats in house, for each application in some cases, to stream compressed audio. This would cut back on memory used for music on the CD, allowed for much lower latency and seek time when finding and starting to play music, and also allowed for much smoother looping due to being able to buffer the data. A minor drawback was that use of compressed audio meant it had to be decompressed which put load on the CPU of a system. As computing power increased, this load became minimal, and in some cases dedicated chips in a computer (such as a sound card) would actually handle all the decompressing. In computing, a buffer is a region of memory used to temporarily hold output or input data, comparable to buffers in telecommunication. ...

Incidental music in Monkey Island 2: LeChuck's Revenge (1991).

Fifth generation home console systems also developed specialised streaming formats and containers for compressed audio playback. Sony would call theirs Yellow Book, and offer the standard to other companies. Games would take full advantage of this ability, sometimes with highly praised results (Castlevania: Symphony of the Night). Games ported from arcade machines, which continued to use FM synthesis, often saw superior pre-recorded music streams on their home console counterparts (Street Fighter Alpha 2). Even though the game systems were capable of "CD quality" sound, these compressed audio tracks were not true "CD quality." Many of them had lower sampling rates, but not so significant that most consumers would notice. Some games continued to use full redbook CD audio for their soundtracks (the Wipeout series) and could even be played in a standard CD player. The Secret of the Monkey Island II File links The following pages link to this file: Video game music ... The Secret of the Monkey Island II File links The following pages link to this file: Video game music ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rainbow Books. ... Castlevania: Symphony of the Night (SOTN) is a Japanese action-adventure game developed by Konami Computer Entertainment Tokyo and published by Konami for the Sony PlayStation video game console. ... The Street Fighter Alpha (in Japan and other parts of Asia, Street Fighter Zero) series of fighting games is part of the Street Fighter series developed by Capcom. ... Wipeout is the title of a series of futuristic anti-gravity racing games, originally produced by Psygnosis for the PlayStation video game console, with other versions of the game produced for the Sega Saturn, DOS, Amiga, Nintendo 64, PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable formats. ...


This overall freedom offered to music composers gave video game music the equal footing with other popular music it had lacked. A musician could now, with no need to learn about programming or the game architecture itself, independently produce the music to their satisfaction. This flexibility would be exercised as popular mainstream musicians would be using their talents for video games specifically. An early example would be Way of the Warrior on the 3DO, with music by White Zombie. A more well-known example would be Trent Reznor's score for Quake. 3DO can refer to: The 3DO Company, a developer of computer and video game software and hardware 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, the name of a number of video game consoles based on specifications created by above company This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... White Zombie was an American band named after the 1932 film White Zombie, which starred Bela Lugosi. ... Michael Trent Reznor (born May 17, 1965) is an American musician, singer, producer, and multi-instrumentalist. ...


An alternate approach, as with the TMNT arcade, was to take pre-existing music not written exclusively for the game and use it in the game. The game Star Wars: X-Wing vs. TIE Fighter and subsequent Star Wars games, took music composed by John Williams for the Star Wars movies of the 1970s and 1980s, and used it for the game soundtracks. John Towner Williams (born February 8, 1932) is an American composer and conductor. ... Star Wars is an epic science fantasy saga and fictional universe created by George Lucas during the late 1970s. ...


Both using new music streams made specifically for the game, and using previously released/recorded music streams are common approaches for developing sound tracks to this day. It is common for X-games sports based video games to come with some popular artists recent releases (SSX, Tony Hawk, Initial D), as well as any game with heavy cultural demographic theme that has tie-in to music (Need For Speed: Underground, Grand Theft Auto). Sometimes a hybrid of the two are used, such as in Dance Dance Revolution. Need for Speed: Underground is a racing video game, developed and published by Electronic Arts in 2003. ... Grand Theft Auto may refer to: Grand Theft Auto (series), a series of free-roam video games Grand Theft Auto (video game), the first game in the series Grand Theft Auto (film), a 1977 film by Ron Howard Motor vehicle theft, a felony in the United States This is a... Dance Dance Revolution, a. ...


Sequencing samples continue to be used in modern gaming for many applications, mostly RPGs. Sometimes a cross between sequencing samples, and streaming music is used. Games such as Republic: The Revolution (music composed by James Hannigan[2]) and Command & Conquer: Generals (music composed by William Brown) have utilised sophisticated systems governing the flow of incidental music by stringing together short phrases based on the action on screen and the player's most recent choices. Other games would dynamically mix the sound on the game based on cues of the game environment. In a recent game, if your snowboarder in SSX took to the air after jumping from a ramp, the music would soften or even muffle a bit, and the ambient noise of wind and air blowing would become louder to emphasize the sensation of being airborne. When you land, the music would resume regular playback until its next 'cue'. The LucasArts company pioneered this interactive music technique with their iMUSE system, used in their early adventure games and the Star Wars flight simulators Star Wars: X-Wing and Star Wars: TIE Fighter. Action games such as these will change dynamically to match the amount of danger. Stealth-based games will sometimes rely on such music. Republic: The Revolution is a game produced by a former programmer of Lionhead Studios. ... SSX (Super Snow Cross) is the first in a series of snowboarding video games published by EA Sports BIG. It was developed by EA Canada and released with the launch of the PlayStation 2 in October 2000. ... LucasArts is an American video game developer and publisher. ... iMUSE (stands for Interactive MUsic Streaming Engine) is a game engine specifically designed to synchronize music with visual action in a videogame. ...


Personalized soundtracks

Being able to play one's own music during a game in the past usually meant turning down the game audio and using an alternate music player. Some early exceptions were possible on PC/Windows gaming in which it was possible to independently adjust game audio while playing music with a separate program running in the background.


Some PlayStation games supported this by swapping the game CD with a music CD, although when the game needed data, you had to swap the CDs again. One of the earliest games, Ridge Racer, was loaded entirely into RAM, letting the player insert a music CD to provide a soundtrack throughout the entirety of the gameplay. In Vib Ribbon, this became a gameplay feature, with the game generating levels based entirely on the music on whatever CD the player inserted. Ridge Racer is a racing game created by Namco. ... An in-game screenshot Vib-Ribbon is a game for Sony PlayStation. ...


Microsoft's Xbox, a competitor in the sixth generation of home consoles opened new possibilities. Its ability to copy music from a CD onto its internal hard drive allowed gamers to utilize their own music more seamlessly with gameplay than ever before. The feature, called Custom Soundtrack, had to be enabled by the game developer. The feature carried over into the seventh generation with the Xbox 360. The Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. ... The Xbox 360 is the successor to Microsofts Xbox video game console, developed in cooperation with IBM, ATI, Samsung and SiS. Information on the console first came through viral marketing campaigns and it was officially unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, with detailed launch and game information divulged...


The Wii is also able to play custom soundtracks if it is enabled by the game (Excite Truck). The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ...


The PlayStation Portable can, in games like Need for Speed Carbon: Own the City also let the player play their own music from a Memory Stick. The PlayStation Portable , officially abbreviated as PSP) is a handheld game console released and manufactured by Sony Computer Entertainment. ... A 2GB Sony High Speed Memory Stick PRO Duo with MagicGate support. ...


Current application and future developments

The Xbox 360 wields Dolby Digital support, sampling and playback rate of 16-bit @ 48 kHz, hardware codec streaming, and potential of 256 audio simultaneous channels. While powerful and flexible, none of these features represent any major change in how game music is made from the last generation of console systems. PCs continue to rely on third-party devices for in-game sound reproduction, and SoundBlaster despite being largely the only major player in the entertainment audio expansion card business continues to advance its product development at a significant pace. Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies by Dolby Laboratories. ...


Future technology, while also powerful, does not represent any fundamental shift in video game music creation either. The PlayStation 3 will handle multiple types of surround sound technology, including Dolby TrueHD, and DTS-HD. Nintendo's Wii console shares many audio components with the Nintendo GameCube from the previous generation, including Dolby Pro Logic II. These features are extensions of technology already currently in use. Dolby TrueHD logo Dolby TrueHD, from Dolby Laboratories, is an advanced lossless multi-channel audio codec, intended primarily for high-end home-entertainment equipment, such as Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD. In this application, Dolby TrueHD competes with DTS-HD Master Audio, another lossless codec from Digital Theater System. ... DTS (also known as Digital Theater Systems), owned by DTS, Inc. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ... The Nintendo GameCube , GCN) is Nintendos fourth home video game console, belonging to the sixth generation era. ... Dolby Pro Logic is a surround sound processing technology designed to decode soundtracks encoded with Dolby Surround. ...


The game developer of today has many choices on how to develop music. More likely, changes in video game music creation will have very little to do with technology and more to do with other factors of game development as a business whole. As sales of video game music separate from the game itself became marketable in the west (compared to Japan where game music CDs had been selling for years), business elements also wield a level of influence that it had little before. Music from outside the game developer's immediate employment, such as music composers and pop artists, have been contracted to produce game music just as they would for a theatrical movie. Many other factors have growing influence, such as editing for content, politics on some level of the development, executive input and other elements.


Game music as a genre

Many of the games made for the Nintendo Entertainment System and other early game systems featured a similar style of music which may come closest to being described as the "video game genre" in terms of musical composition, as opposed to simply "video game music" for being in a video game or being played on a video game console. Some compositional features of this genre continue to influence certain music today, though, game soundtracks currently tend to emulate movie soundtracks more-so than this classic genre. This genre's compositional elements may have developed due to technological restraints. The genre might also have been influenced by technopop bands such as Yellow Magic Orchestra, which were quite popular during the period in which videogame music took its trademark sound. Features of this genre include: Yellow Magic Orchestra is a Japanese electropop band, formed in 1978. ...

  • Songs almost always have main sections or "verse sections" consisting of chord progressions of four or more chords (similar to much of J-Pop and 1980s Western Pop), as opposed to the two chord progressions found in most Western Pop verses. The "chorus" of the songs also often contain four or more different chords in their chord progressions. Often many songs feature a chord progression which is extremely popular in J-Pop, which (in the key of C) could be given as: F minor, C minor, G major, C minor, with C major quickly inserted before the series repeats again. Overall, there would be generally a higher number of sections of a song than a comparable pop song, as this helps to reduce the repetitive aspect of the music, which was generally played as a continuous loop. This also sets it apart from even J-Pop music or most other forms of popular music.
  • Songs feature a heavy amount of synchronization between instruments, in a way that would be difficult for a human to play. For example, although the tones featured in NES music can be thought of emulating a traditional four piece rock band (triangle wave used as a bass, two pulse waves analogous to two guitars, and an affected white noise channel used for drums), and although video game music was influenced by rock or pop music at the time, composers would often go out of their way to compose complex and rapid sequences of notes. That has been compared to music composition during the baroque period, where it is believed that composers compensated for instruments such as the harpsichord (which do not allow for musical expression based on the volume of the sound) by focusing more on musical embellishments. Composers were also limited in terms of polyphony, or the number of notes that can be played at once. Only three notes can be played at once on the Nintendo Entertainment System. A great deal of effort was put into creating the illusion that more notes are playing. As of the late 1990s, musical groups covering these melodies have sprung up. One such group is The Advantage, who attempt to emulate these melodies as closely as possible using real instruments. Another such group is The NESkimos, who opt to explore these songs artistically, and create entirely new songs out of them. See also MegaDriver.
  • The bassline of a large percentage of tunes during the 8-bit period consisted of notes played in the rhythm of a quarter note followed immediately by two eighth notes on most beats. The particular note played would often be the root of the chord.

A chord progression, as its name implies, is a series of chords played in an order. ... J-pop (or Jpop) is an abbreviation of Japanese pop. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is any of a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument currently called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals, the muselar virginals and the spinet. ... The Advantage is an American indie rock band from Nevada City, CA that specialize in doing covers of music from old Nintendo games. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... MegaDriver is a Brazilian heavy metal cover band. ...

Video game music outside of video games

Appreciation for video game music, particularly music from the Third & Fourth generation of home video game console and sometimes newer generations, continues today in very strong representation in both fans and composers alike, even out of the context of a video game. Melodies and themes from 20 years ago continue to be re-used in newer generations of video games. Themes from the original Metroid by Hirokazu Tanaka can still be heard in Metroid games from today as arranged by Kenji Yamamoto. In the history of video games, the 8-bit era was the third generation of video game consoles, but the first after the video game crash of 1983 and considered by some to be the first modern era of console gaming. ... In the history of video games, the 16-bit era was the fourth generation of video game consoles. ... This article is about the first game in the series. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Kenji Yamamoto is a Japanese video game musician working for Nintendo. ...


Video game music soundtracks were sold separately on CD in Japan well before the practice spread to other countries. Interpretive albums, re-mixes, and live performances were also common variations to original soundtracks (abbreviated OST). Koichi Sugiyama was an early figure in this practice sub-genres, and following the release of the Dragon Quest game in 1986, a live performance CD of his compositions was released and performed by the London Philharmonic Orchestra (then later by other groups including the Tokyo Philharmonic Orchestra, and NHK Symphony). Yuzo Koshiro, another early figure, released a live performance of the Actraiser soundtrack. Both Koshiro's and fellow Falcom composer Mieko Ishikawa's contributions to Ys music would have such long lasting impact that there were more albums released of Ys music than of almost all other game-type music. Koichi Sugiyama (すぎやまこういち Sugiyama Kōichi; born April 11, 1931) is a Japanese music composer. ... Dragon Quest logo Dragon Quest ), published as Dragon Warrior in North America until the 2005 release of Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King, is a series of role-playing games produced by Enix (now Square Enix). ... The London Philharmonic Orchestra (frequently abbreviated to LPO), based in London, is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... The Tokyo Philharmonic Orchestra (東京フィルハーモニー交響楽団) claims to be the oldest classical orchestra in Japan, having been founded in Nagoya in 1911. ... The NHK Symphony Orchestra ) in Tokyo, Japan began as the New Symphony Orchestra on October 5, 1926 and was the countrys first professional symphony orchestra. ... ActRaiser ) is a 1990 Super Nintendo Entertainment System game developed by Quintet and published by Enix Co. ... Nihon Falcom Corporation is an old Japanese computer game company. ... Ys , IPA: ) (pronounced IPA: ) is a Japanese-origin computer role-playing game series, and Nihon Falcom corporations flagship franchise. ...


Like anime soundtracks, these soundtracks and even sheet music books were usually marketed exclusively in Japan. Therefore, interested non-Japanese gamers have to import the soundtracks and/or sheet music books through on or offline firms specifically dedicated to video game soundtrack imports. This has been somewhat less of an issue more recently as domestic publishers of anime and video games have been producing western equivalent versions of the OSTs for sale in UK and US, but only for the most popular titles in most cases. The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ...

The Original Poster of the first Video Game Music Concert Dragon Quest in Concert (Family Classic Concert) held on August 20, 1987 at Suntory Hall, Tokyo, Japan. Composed and Conducted by Koichi Sugiyama, Dragon Quest Suites I&II were performed.
The Original Poster of the first Video Game Music Concert Dragon Quest in Concert (Family Classic Concert) held on August 20, 1987 at Suntory Hall, Tokyo, Japan. Composed and Conducted by Koichi Sugiyama, Dragon Quest Suites I&II were performed.

Other original composers of the lasting themes from this time have gone on to manage symphonic concert performances to the public exhibiting their work in the games. Koichi Sugiyama was once again the first in this practice in 1987 with his "Family Classic Concert" and has continued concert performances almost annually. In 1991 he also formed a series called Orchestral Game Concerts, notable for featuring other talented game composers such as Yoko Kanno (Nobunaga's Ambition, Romance of the 3 Kingdoms, Uncharted Waters), Nobuo Uematsu (Final Fantasy), Keiichi Suzuki (Mother /Earthbound), and Kentaro Haneda (Wizardry). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x624, 71 KB) This is a copyrighted poster. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x624, 71 KB) This is a copyrighted poster. ... Dragon Quest logo Dragon Quest ), published as Dragon Warrior in North America until the 2005 release of Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King, is a series of role-playing games produced by Enix (now Square Enix). ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Suntory Hall was constructed in the late 70s and early 80s is a Hall in Tokyo, Japan the first just for Musical concerts. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... Koichi Sugiyama (すぎやまこういち Sugiyama Kōichi; born April 11, 1931) is a Japanese music composer. ...


Global popularity of video game music would begin to surge with Squaresoft's 1990s successes, particularly, Chrono Trigger, Final Fantasy VI, and Final Fantasy VII. Compositions by Nobuo Uematsu on Final Fantasy 4 were arranged into Final Fantasy IV: Celtic Moon, a live performance by string musicians with strong celtic influence recorded in Ireland. The Love Theme from the same game has been used as an instructional piece of music in Japanese schools.


On August 20, 2003 for the first time outside of Japan, music written for video games from all over the world ranging from Final Fantasy to The Legend of Zelda was performed by a live orchestra, the Czech National Symphony Orchestra in a Symphonic Game Music Concert in Germany. This event was held as the official opening ceremony of Europe's biggest trading fair for video games, the GC Games Convention and repeated in 2004, 2005 and 2006. is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The annual European Symphonic Game Music Concert-series (also called GC Concerts) started in 2003 (08 / 20). ...


On November 17, 2003, Square Enix launched the Final Fantasy Radio on America Online. The radio station has initially featured complete tracks from Final Fantasy XI and Final Fantasy XI: Rise of Zilart and samplings from Final Fantasy VII through Final Fantasy X. 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Final Fantasy XI ), also known as Final Fantasy XI: Online or simply Final Fantasy Online, is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix). ... Final Fantasy XI ), also known as Final Fantasy XI: Online or simply Final Fantasy Online, is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix). ... Final Fantasy X ) is a console role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix), and the tenth installment in the Final Fantasy video game series; it was released in 2001, and is the first numbered Final Fantasy game for the Sony PlayStation 2 video game console. ...


The first officially sanctioned Final Fantasy concert in the United States was performed by the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra at Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, California, on May 10, 2004. All seats at the concert were sold out in a single day. "Dear Friends: Music from Final Fantasy" followed & was performed at various cities across the United States. The Final Fantasy Music Concert was a music concert performed in Los Angeles, California on May 10, 2004 at the Walt Disney Concert Hall. ... The Los Angeles Philharmonic is an orchestra based in Los Angeles, California, USA. From 1964-2003, the orchestra played its concerts in the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion of the Los Angeles Music Center. ... Main entrance of the Walt Disney Concert Hall. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On July 6, 2005, the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra also held a Video Games Live concert, which was founded by video game music composers Tommy Tallarico and Jack Wall at the Hollywood Bowl. This concert featured a variety of video game music, ranging from Pong to Halo 2. It also incorporated real-time video feeds that were in sync with the music, as well as laser and light special effects. Video Games Live has been touring worldwide since. is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Video Games Live Video Games Live is a concert tour featuring music from a variety of video games, combined with video, light, lasers, and special effects. ... Tommy Tallarico Tommy Tallarico (born on February 18, 1968) is an American video game music composer. ... Jack Wall is an American video game music composer. ... Hollywood Bowl opening night 2005. ...


On April 20 to April 27, 2007, Eminence Symphony Orchestra, the only orchestra dedicated to video game and anime music, performed the first part of their annual tour, the "A Night in Fantasia" concert series in Australia. Whilst Eminence had performed video game music as part of their concerts since their inception, the 2007 concert marked the first time ever that the entire setlist was comprised of pieces from video games. Up to seven of the world's most famous game composers were also in attendance as special guests. April 20 is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Eminence Symphony Orchestra in Sydney, Australia was founded in 2003 by Hiroaki Yura. ...


Other notable examples of video game music outside of games are listed in the timeline in this article.


Fan culture

In addition to these professional deviations, a huge network of English speaking fandom has sprung up with the help of emulators and the Internet in recent years. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Timeline

Below listed are some of the milestones reached in video game music, having to do explicitly with video games themselves.

  • 1980: Sega releases Carnival, the first game to have continuous background music. Previously, some games used prerecorded cassettes for music.
  • 1983: Exidy releases Crossbow, the first game to feature fully digitized sounds (no music).
  • 1984: The recording company known as "Yen" releases the first game music album ever. Video Game Music contained music from various Namco games, including Pole Position, Xevious, Pac-Man, New Rally X, amongst others. This compilation of original Namco arcade music was released on LP (YLR-20003) and CT (YLC-20003).
  • 1985: Sega releases System 16, an arcade board featuring the powerful Yamaha YM2151 for FM synthesis with optional NEC chip for sampled synthesis. Arcade boards from other game companies (Namco, Capcom, Konami) would follow with designs that also utilised some configuration with the Yamaha YM2151.
  • 1986: Game Music Organization was formed as Yen's successor. Abbreviated to G. M. O., it was the first major label recording company to release only game music. They released many albums for many Japanese developers, almost all with titles along the lines of: [company] Game Music (vol. #). Example: Sega Game Music Vol. 1.
  • 1989: Game Music Organization is put to an end and Scitron becomes its successor. Scitron was put under Pony Canyon, instead of Alfa, as Game Music Organization was. Scitron didn't keep all the companies Game Music Organization had control over; Falcom and Konami went to King Records, Namco used Victor more and more, and many smaller development houses used King Records instead. Before, the game music industry was centered around Game Music Organization only, but now started to spread out. DATAM, Polystar's label for game music was also established now. KOEI creates the world's first in-house game music recording company.
  • 1990: Super Famicom is launched featuring a sound system of previously unmatched DSP, polyphony, and synthesis potential in home console and some arcade systems outside of pre-recorded music.
  • 1993: Mortal Kombat II is released with the DCS soundsystem, featuring the highest-quality music and sound effects in the arcade environment at the time.
  • 1997: The Lost World: Jurassic Park is released on PlayStation with the first ever fully orchestral soundtrack in a video game. The first Sakura Taisen game featured some orchestra earlier, and Heart of Darkness was developed earlier, but not released until later.
  • 2001: Accomplished Hollywood film composer Harry Gregson-Williams is hired to score Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty.
  • 2005: Tommy Tallarico and Jack Wall debut Video Games Live in summer of 2005; a concert featuring video game music spanning from the arcade days of Galaga and Frogger, classic games like Super Mario Bros, Castlevania, and The Legend of Zelda, to recent works like World of Warcraft, Medal of Honor and the Myst, Final Fantasy and Halo series. By 2007, the concert had toured world-wide as the most critically acclaimed video game concert.

Crossbow was a video arcade game first released by Exidy in 1983. ... Namco Ltd ) is a amusement company based in Japan, best known overseas for video games development. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Pac-Man is an arcade game developed by Namco and licensed for distribution by Midway Games in 1979. ... The Yamaha YM2151, also known as the OP-M (FM Operator Type-M) is a sound chip in the YM2100 family. ... Koeis Current Company Logo Koei Co. ... Mortal Kombat II (also referred to as MKII) is an arcade game and the second title in the Mortal Kombat fighting game series. ... DCS, an acronym for Digital Compression System, is a sound system developed by Williams Electronics. ... The Sony PlayStation ) is a video game console of the 32/64-bit era, first produced by Sony Computer Entertainment in the mid-1990s. ... Sakura Wars, also known as Sakura Taisen, is a popular series of video game and animation products created by Sega. ... Heart of Darkness is a video game by Amazing Studios and released by Interplay for PC, PlayStation and Game Boy Advance. ... Greetings from Hollywood Hollywood is a district of the city of Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., that extends from Vermont Avenue on the east to just beyond Laurel Canyon Boulevard above Sunset and Crescent Heights Boulevards on the west; the north to south boundary east of La Brea Avenue... A film score is a set of musical compositions written to accompany a film. ... Harry Gregson-Williams (born December 13, 1961) is a Grammy-nominated British film score composer. ... Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty (commonly abbreviated MGS2) is a stealth-based game that was developed and published by Konami for the PlayStation 2 in 2001. ... Tommy Tallarico Tommy Tallarico (born on February 18, 1968) is an American video game music composer. ... Jack Wall is an American video game music composer. ... Video Games Live Video Games Live is a concert tour featuring music from a variety of video games, combined with video, light, lasers, and special effects. ... A video arcade (known as an amusement arcade in the United Kingdom) is a place where people play arcade video games. ... Galaga is a fixed shooter arcade game that was released by Namco in 1981 (and also licensed to Midway). ... Frogger is an arcade game introduced in 1981. ... Super Mario Bros. ... Castlevania is a video game series, created and developed by Konami. ... A Legend of Zelda series logo The Legend of Zelda series (often shortened to Zelda, TLoZ, or LoZ), by Nintendo, is a series of video games created by celebrated game designer Shigeru Miyamoto. ... World of Warcraft (commonly abbreviated as WoW) is a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Blizzard Entertainment and is the fourth game in the Warcraft series, excluding expansion packs and the cancelled Warcraft Adventures: Lord of the Clans. ... Medal of Honor is the first title in the long-running Medal of Honor series of video games. ... Myst (or MYST) is a graphic adventure computer game designed and directed by the brothers Robyn and Rand Miller. ... For the first installment in the series, see Final Fantasy (video game). ... Halos protagonist, the Master Chief, in Halo: Combat Evolved. ...

Related music genres

Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Electronic music has existed, in various forms, for more than a century. ... A film score is the background music in a film, generally specially written for the film and often used to heighten emotions provoked by the imagery on the screen or by the dialogue. ... J-pop (or Jpop) is an abbreviation of Japanese pop. ... Bitpop is a type of electronic music, where at least part of the music is made using old 8-bit computers, game consoles and little toy instruments. ... Nintendocore, also known as Gamecore and Ataricore is a genre of music inspired by the music or soundtracks which accompany 8-bit video games, most notably those on the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). ... MOS 6581 and 8580 Commodore 64 SID chips Chiptune, or chip music, or micromusic is music written in sound formats where all the sounds are synthesized in realtime by a computer or video game console sound chip, instead of using sample-based synthesis. ...

See also

The following is a list of computer and video game musicians, those who have worked in the video game industry to produce video game soundtracks or otherwise contribute musically. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A music video game, also commonly known as a music game or rhythm game, is a type of video game where the gameplay is oriented almost entirely around the players ability to follow a musical beat and stay with the rhythm of the games soundtrack. ... Probing for bends using a jewellers screwdriver and alligator clips Circuit bending is the creative short-circuiting of low voltage, battery-powered electronic audio devices such as guitar effects, childrens toys and small synthesizers to create new musical instruments and sound generators. ...

References

  1. ^ http://sugimania.com/
  2. ^ http://www.jameshannigan.com/

External links

  • Video Game Music Archive - 21,000+ pieces of music, most manually sequenced after computer and video games (in MIDI format)
  • Game Soundtrack information - from Zip-Zap-Pow!
  • Video Games Live - the show's main site, complete with tour dates, news, pictures, and media from the show
  • GamesSound.com Academic articles on video game sound/music.

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