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Encyclopedia > Video game

A video game is a game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device.[1] The word video in video game traditionally referred to a raster display device.[2] However, with the popular use of the term "video game", it now implies any type of display device. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms are broad in range, from large computers to small handheld devices. Specialized video games such as arcade games, while previously common, have gradually declined in use. This article is about the British magazine covering computer and video games. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 562 pixel, file size: 692 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The text below is generated by a template which has been proposed for deletion. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 562 pixel, file size: 692 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The text below is generated by a template which has been proposed for deletion. ... Tom Clancys Ghost Recon Advanced Warfighter 2 (GRAW 2) is the sequel to Tom Clancys Ghost Recon Advanced Warfighter. ... For other uses, see Game (disambiguation). ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into output device. ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into output device. ... Consumer electronics is a term used to describe the category of electronic equipment intended for everyday use by people, the consumers. ... Game console redirects here. ... This article is about the machine. ... This article or section reads like an advertisement. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ...


The input device normally used to manipulate video games is called a game controller, which varies across platforms. For instance, a dedicated console controller might consist of only a button and a joystick, or feature a dozen buttons and one or more joysticks. Early personal computer based games historically relied on the availability of a keyboard for gameplay, or more commonly, required the user to purchase a separate joystick with at least one button to play. Many modern computer games allow the player to use a keyboard and mouse simultaneously. An input device is a hardware mechanism that transforms information in the external world for consumption by a computer. ... A game controller is an input device used to control a video game. ... For other uses, see Joystick (disambiguation). ... A 104-key PC US English QWERTY keyboard layout The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and QWERTY. A computer keyboard is a peripheral partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... Gameplay includes all player experiences during the interaction with game systems, especially formal games. ... A contemporary computer mouse, with the most common standard features: two buttons and a scroll wheel. ...


Beyond the common element of visual feedback, video games have utilized other systems to provide interaction and information to the player. Chief examples of these are sound reproduction devices, such as speakers and headphones, and an array of haptic peripherals, such as vibration or force feedback. “Sound recorder” redirects here. ... The Speaker Icon Computer speakers, or multimedia speakers, are external speakers and are usually equipped with a male-end stereo jack plug (usually color-coded lime green as for the PC 99 standard) for computer sound cards; however, there are some that have female RCA connector, and some people link... For other uses, see Headphones (disambiguation). ... This article is about haptic technology. ... Haptic means pertaining to the technology of touch. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of video games
See also: First video game
Tennis for Two, an early analog computer game that used an oscilloscope for a display.
Tennis for Two, an early analog computer game that used an oscilloscope for a display.

The formulative years of video games consist of basic games that made use of interactive electronic devices with various display formats. The earliest example was in 1947, where the idea for a "Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device" was conceived by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann. The two filed for a patent on January 25, 1947, which was issued on December 14, 1948 as U.S. Patent 2455992.[3] Inspired by radar displays, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets represented by drawings fixed to the screen.[4] Other examples included the NIMROD computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain, Alexander S. Douglas's OXO for the EDSAC in 1952, William Higinbotham's interactive game called Tennis for Two in 1958, and MIT students Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, and Wayne Wiitanen's Spacewar! on a DEC PDP-1 computer in 1961. Each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim,[5] OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe,[6] Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court,[4] and Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other.[7] Video games were introduced as a commercial entertainment medium in 1971, becoming the basis for an important entertainment industry in the late 1970s/early 1980s in the United States, Japan, and Europe. ... There are numerous debates over who created the first video game, with the answer depending largely on how video games are defined. ... Image File history File links Tennis_for_Two. ... Image File history File links Tennis_for_Two. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A special purpose computer that played the game of Nim, designed and built by Ferranti and displayed at the Exhibition of Science during the 1951 Festival of Britain. ... The Festival of Britain emblem, designed by Abram Games, from the cover of the South Bank Exhibition Guide, 1951 The Festival of Britain was a national exhibition which opened in London and around Britain in May 1951. ... OXO (also known as Noughts and Crosses) is a tic-tac-toe computer game made for the EDSAC computer in 1952. ... EDSAC EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) was an early British computer (one of the first computers to be created). ... William (Willy) A. Higinbotham (October 25, 1910 - November 10, 1994), an American physicist, is credited with creating one of the first computer games, Tennis for Two. ... Tennis for Two was a game developed in 1958 on an oscilloscope which simulated a game of tennis or ping pong. ... Spacewar! is one of the earliest video games for a digital computer. ... DEC, dec or Dec may refer to: December - a month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar Department of Environment and Conservation Digital Equipment Corporation - a computer and technology company, now part of HP Declination - a term from astronomy Diethylcarbamazine - a drug commonly used to treat infections by filarial parasites... PDP-1 at the Computer History Museum. ... For other uses, see Nim (disambiguation). ... Tic-tac-toe, also called noughts and crosses and many other names, is a paper and pencil game between two players, O and X, who alternate in marking the spaces in a 3×3 board. ... Illustration showing the interior of a cathode-ray tube for use in an oscilloscope. ... Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... PDP-1 at the Computer History Museum. ... Ariane 5 lifts off with the Rosetta probe on 2nd of March, 2004. ...


In 1971, Computer Space was released and was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game. Created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, it used a standard television and game generated video signal for display (the game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green). Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it also used a standard television and game generated video signal.[4][8] These systems were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong; an arcade version in 1972 and a home version in 1975.[9] The commercial success of Pong led other companies to develop numerous Pong-clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry.[10] Computer Space is a video arcade game released in November, 1971 by Nutting Associates. ... Nolan K. Bushnell (born February 5, 1943) is an American electrical engineer and entrepreneur who founded both Atari and the Chuck E. Cheeses Pizza-Time Theaters chain. ... Ted Dabney and Nolan Bushnell created the first arcade game, Computer Space, in 1971 and founded Atari Computers in 1972. ... For the metal band, see Soilent Green. ... The Magnavox Odyssey was the worlds first commercially sold video game console. ... Ralph H. Baer (born March 8, 1922) is a German-born American inventor, noted for his many contributions to games and the video game industry. ... This article is about the corporate game company. ... For other uses, see Pong (disambiguation). ... Pac-Man is one of the most recognizable video games ever created. ...


Overview

Platforms

The term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic or computer hardware which, in conjunction with low-level software, allows a video game to operate.[11] The term "system" is also commonly used. For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ...


In common usage a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer connected to a high-resolution video monitor. A "console game" is played on a specialized electronic device that connects to a standard television set or composite video monitor. A "handheld" gaming device is a self contained electronic device that is portable and can be held in a user's hands. "Arcade game" generally refers to a game played on an even more specialized type of electronic device that is typically designed to play only one game and is encased in a special cabinet. These distinctions are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. There are also platforms that have non video game variations such as in the case of electro-mechanically based arcade machines. There are also devices with screens which have the ability to play games but are not dedicated video game machines. Examples are mobile phones, PDAs, graphing calculators, GPS receivers, MP3 players, digital cameras and watches. For information on interactive gaming in general, see video game. ... A video monitor is similar to a television. ... This article is about games played on consoles. ... Television set may refer to: Television, a device to display television programs Television studio, an installation in which television or video productions take place Set construction, theatrical scenery This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A handheld game console is a lightweight, portable electronic machine for playing video games. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... A Donkey Kong upright arcade cabinet An arcade cabinet, also known as an arcade machine or coin-op, is the housing within which an arcade games hardware resides. ... In engineering, electromechanics combines the sciences of electromagnetism of electrical engineering and mechanics. ... Look up PDA in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A typical graphing calculator. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... A digital audio player (DAP) is a device that stores, organizes and plays digital music files. ... Digital cameras are a remarkable advance in technology. ...


Genres

Main article: Video game genres

A video game, like most other forms of media, may be categorized into genres based on many factors such as method of game play, types of goals, and more. Because genres are dependent on content for definition, genres have changed and evolved as newer styles of video games are created. As the production values of video games have increased over the years both in visual appearance and depth of story telling, the video game industry has been producing more life-like and complex games that push the boundaries of the traditional game genres. Some genres represent combinations of others, such as massively multiplayer online role-playing games. It is also common to see higher level genre terms that are collective in nature across all other genres such as with action or horror-themed video games. Further information: Game classification Video games are categorized into genres based on their gameplay interaction. ... Further information: Game classification Video games are categorized into genres based on their gameplay interaction. ... Players interacting in Ultima Online, a classic MMORPG. Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) is a genre of online computer role-playing games (CRPGs) in which a large number of players interact with one another in a virtual world. ...


Types

Video games are primarily meant for entertainment. However, some video games are made (at least in part) for other reasons. These include advergames, educational games, propaganda games (e.g. militainment) and others. Many of these fall under the category of serious games. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Educational games are games; board and card games, including video games that are designed to teach people, typically children, about a certain subject, expand concepts, reinforce development, understand an historical event or culture, or assit them in learning a skill as they play. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... Militainment is a portmanteau that consists of Military and entertainment. It is defined as either: a form of entertainment that features and celebrates the military a form of entertainment controlled by the military The U.S. military in particular excels in the authorship of militainment, although the Russian military also... A serious game is a software application developed with game technology and game design principles for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment. ...


Development

Main article: Game development

Video game development and authorship, much like any other form of entertainment is frequently a cross disciplinary field. Video game developers, as employees within this industry are commonly referred, primarily include programmers and graphic designers. Although, over the years this has expanded to include almost every type of skill that you might see prevalent in any movie or television program including sound designers, musicians, and other technicians; all of which are managed by producers. Game development - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A video game developer is a software developer (a business or an individual) that creates video games. ... A game programmer is a software engineer who primarily develops computer or video games or related software (such as game development tools). ... Graphics are often utilitarian and anonymous,[1] as these pictographs from the US National Park Service illustrate. ... Sound design is a technical/conceptually creative field. ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ... A game producer is the person in charge of overseeing development of a video game. ...


In the early days of the industry, it was more common for a single person to manage all of the roles needed to create a video game. As platforms have become more complex and powerful in the type of material they can present, larger teams have been needed to generate all of the art, programming, cinematography, and more. This is not to say that the age of the "one-man shop" is gone as this still occurs in the casual gaming and handheld markets where single screen games are more prevalent due to technical limitations of the target platform (such as cellphones and PDAs).


With the growth of the size of development teams in the industry the problem of cost has become more critical then ever. Development studios need to be able to pay their staff a competitive wage in order to attract and retain the best talent, while publishers are constantly on the look to keep costs down in order to maintain profitability on their investment. Typically, a video game console development team can range in sizes of anywhere from 5 to 50 people, with some teams exceeding 100. The growth of team size combined with greater pressures to get completed projects into the market to begin recouping production costs has led to a greater occurrence of missed deadlines and unfinished products; Duke Nukem Forever is the quintessential example of these problems. Duke Nukem Forever (DNF) is a first-person shooter video game being developed by 3D Realms, and is the next game in the Duke Nukem series. ...

See also: Video game industry practices

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Computer and video game industry. ...

Modifications

Main article: Mod (computer gaming)

Games running on a PC are often designed with end-user modifications in mind, and this consequently allows modern computer games to be modified by gamers without much difficulty. These mods can add an extra dimension of replayability and interest. The Internet provides an inexpensive medium to promote and distribute mods, and they have become an increasingly important factor in the commercial success of some games. Developers such as id Software, Valve Software, Crytek, Epic Games and Blizzard Entertainment ship their games with the very development tools used to make the game in the first place, along with documentation to assist mod developers, which allows for the kind of success seen by popular mods such as the (previously) Half-Life mod Counter-Strike. For other uses, see Mod. ... For other uses, see Mod. ... id Software (IPA: officially, though originally ) is an American computer game developer based in Mesquite, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. ... Valve Software is a Bellevue, Washington-based video game developer made famous by its first product, Half-Life, which was released in November 1998. ... Crytek is a video game development company founded in 1999. ... Epic Games, also known as Epic and formerly as Epic MegaGames, is a computer game development company based in Cary, North Carolina, United States. ... Blizzard Entertainment, a division of Vivendi Games, is an American computer game developer and publisher headquartered in Irvine, California. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Counter-Strike (CS) is a popular team-based mod of Valves first-person shooter (FPS) Half-Life. ...


Cheats

Cheating in computer games may involve cheat codes implemented by the game developers,[12][13] modification of game code by third parties,[14][15] or players exploiting a software glitch. Modifications are facilitated by either cheat cartridge hardware or a software trainer.[14] Cheats usually make the game easier by providing an unlimited amount of some resource; for example lives, health, and/or ammunition.[13][14] Other cheats might provide an unusual or amusing feature, like altered game colors or graphical appearances. Cheating in video games is a process whereby a player of a video game creates an advantage beyond the bounds of normal gameplay, usually to make the game easier. ... Cheat codes are codes that can be entered into a computer game to change the games behaviour. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Trainers are programs made to modify behaviour of a computer game, usually u addresses and values, in order to allow cheating. ...


Glitches

Main article: Computer glitch

Software errors not detected by software testers during development can find their way into released versions of computer and video games. This may happen because the glitch only occurs under unusual circumstances in the game, was deemed too minor to correct, or because the game development was hurried to meet a publication deadline. Glitches can range from minor graphical errors to serious bugs that can delete saved data or cause the game to malfunction. Glitches in games for home computers, and now in consoles like the Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, and the Wii, may be later corrected if the developers release a patch. A computer glitch is the failure of a system, usually containing a computing device, to complete its functions or to perform them properly. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ... In computing, a patch is a small piece of software designed to update or fix problems with a computer program or its supporting data. ...


Theory

Main article: Game studies

Although departments of computer science have been studying the technical aspects of video games for years, theories that examine games as an artistic medium are a relatively recent development in the humanities. The two most visible schools in this emerging field are ludology and narratology. Narrativists approach video games in the context of what Janet Murray calls "Cyberdrama". That is to say, their major concern is with video games as a storytelling medium, one that arises out of interactive fiction. Murray puts video games in the context of the Holodeck, a fictional piece of technology from Star Trek, arguing for the video game as a medium in which we get to become another person, and to act out in another world.[16] This image of video games received early widespread popular support, and forms the basis of films such as Tron, eXistenZ, and The Last Starfighter. Game studies is the still-young field of analyzing games from a multi- and inter-disciplinary perspective. ... Narratology, a term coined by Professor Edward Maloney from Georgetown University, is the theory and study of narrative and narrative structure and ([1]) the way they affect our perception. ... Janet Murray is a professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology, where she is the director of graduate studies in the School of Literature, Communication, and Culture. ... A holodeck on the Enterprise-D; the arch and exit are prominent. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... Tron is a 1982 science fiction film starring Jeff Bridges as Kevin Flynn (and his counterpart inside the electronic world, Clu), Bruce Boxleitner as Alan Bradley (and Tron), Cindy Morgan as Lora Baines (and Yori) and Dan Shor as Ram. ... eXistenZ is a 1999 psychological thriller/science fiction film by Canadian director David Cronenberg. ... The Last Starfighter is a 1984 science fiction adventure film. ...


Ludologists break sharply and radically from this. They argue that a video game is first and foremost a game, which must be understood in terms of its rules, interface, and the concept of play that it deploys. Espen J. Aarseth argues that, although games certainly have plots, characters, and aspects of traditional narratives, these aspects are incidental to gameplay. For example, Aarseth is critical of the widespread attention that narrativists have given to the curvaceous heroine of the game Tomb Raider, saying that "the dimensions of Lara Croft's body, already analyzed to death by film theorists, are irrelevant to me as a player, because a different-looking body would not make me play differently... When I play, I don't even see her body, but see through it and past it."[17] Simply put, ludologists reject traditional theories of art because they claim that the artistic and socially relevant qualities of a video game are primarily determined by the underlying set of rules, demands, and expectations imposed on the player. Espen J. Aarseth is a major figure in the emerging field of video game studies. ... For the movie staring Angelina Jolie, see Lara Croft: Tomb Raider. ... Lara Croft is a fictional British video game character and the heroine of the Tomb Raider series of video games, movies, and comic books. ... Film theory debates the essence of the cinema and provides conceptual frameworks for analyzing, among other things, the film image, narrative structure, the function of film artists, the relationship of film to reality, and the film spectators position in the cinematic experience. ...


Social aspects

Demographics

The November 2005 Nielsen Active Gamer Study, taking a survey of 2,000 regular gamers, found that the U.S. games market is diversifying. The age group among male players has expanded significantly into the 25-40 age group. For casual online puzzle-style and simple mobile cell phone games, the gender divide is more or less equal between males and females. Females have been shown to be significantly attracted to playing certain online multi-user video games that offer a more communal experience, and small amount of young females have been shown to play aggressive games that are sometimes thought of as being "traditionally male" games. According to the ESRB almost 41% of PC gamers are women.[18] With such video game social networks as Miss Video Game and Guild Cafe having a large percentages of female gamers, the "traditionally male" games are now considered cross-gendered. Motorola T2288 mobile phone A mobile phone is a portable electronic device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (compare cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited range). ...


Multiplayer

Main article: Multiplayer game

Video gaming has traditionally been a social experience. From its early beginnings, video games have commonly been playable by more than a single player. Multiplayer video games are those that can be played either competitively or cooperatively by using either multiple input devices, or by hotseating. Tennis for Two, arguably the first video game, was a two-player game, as was its successor Pong. The first commercially available game console, the Magnavox Odyssey, had two controller inputs. A multiplayer game is a video game in which more than one person can play the same game at the same time. ... Gaming is an umbrella term that includes a number of special hobby game types: Board games Collectible card games Computer and video games Tabletop wargaming (i. ... A multiplayer game is a video game in which more than one person can play the same game at the same time. ... Hotseat or hot seat is a multiplayer mode provided by some computer games and video games (usually turn-based games), which allows two or more players to play on the same computer using the same single set of input devices (e. ... Tennis for Two was a game developed in 1958 on an oscilloscope which simulated a game of tennis or ping pong. ... For other uses, see Pong (disambiguation). ... The Magnavox Odyssey was the worlds first commercially sold video game console. ...


Since then, most consoles have been shipped with two or four controller inputs. Some have had the ability to expand to four, eight or as many as twelve inputs with additional adapters, such as the Multitap. Multiplayer arcade games typically feature play for two to four players. PlayStation 2 Multitap Hudson Soft released a Super Famicom Multitap in the shape of Bombermans face. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ...


Many early computer games for non-PC descendant based platforms featured multiplayer support. Personal computer systems from Atari and Commodore both regularly featured at least two game ports. Network games for these early personal computers were generally limited to only text based adventures or MUDs that were played remotely on a dedicated server. This was due both to the slow speed of modems (300-1200-bit/s), and the prohibitive cost involved with putting a computer online in such a way where multiple visitors could make use of it. This article is about the corporate game company. ... Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... This article is about a type of online computer game. ...


PC-based computer games started with a lower availability of multiplayer options because of technical limitations. However, with the advent of widespread local area networking technologies and Internet based online capabilities, the number of players in modern games can be 32 or higher, sometimes featuring integrated text and/or voice chat. MMOs can offer extremely high numbers of simultaneous players; EVE Online set a record with just under 36,000 players on a single server in 2006.[19]kil This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... LAN redirects here. ... The abbreviation MMO can stand for any of several things: Main Mechanical Outfitting Maintenance Management Officer Maintenance Manual Organization Level (TMINS) Man-made object Marine Mammal Observer Marketing Mix Optimization Massively multiplayer online (gaming) Materials and Manufacturing Ontario Maximum Operating Mach Number Means, Motive and Opportunity Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter Minimum... EVE Online is a persistent world multiplayer online game set in space. ...


Benefits

C. Shawn Green and Daphne Bavelier have shown that action video game players have better visuomotor skills, such as their resistance to distraction, their sensitivity to information in peripheral vision, and their ability to count briefly presented objects than nonplayers. [20] They found that such enhanced abilities could be acquired by training with an action game, involving challenges to switch attention to different locations, but not with a game requiring concentration on single objects. Distraction is also a television game show: Distraction (game show) Distraction is the diverting of the attention of an individual or group from the chosen object of attention onto the source of distraction. ... Peripheral vision is a part of vision that occurs outside the very center of gaze. ...


Perhaps the most visible benefits of video gaming are its artistic and entertainment contributions. As a form of multimedia entertainment, modern video games contain a unique synthesis of 3D art, CG effects, architecture, artificial intelligence, sound effects, dramatic performances, music, storytelling, and, most importantly, interactivity. This interactivity enables the player to explore environments that range from simulated reality to stylized, artistic expressions (something no other form of entertainment can allow) where the actions of the player operating as a single, irreducible variable. In this respect, every game scenario will play out a slightly different way every time. Even if the game is highly scripted, this can still feel like a large amount of freedom to the person who is playing the game. Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


A related property is that of emergent behavior. While many games including card games and sports rely on emergent principles, video games commonly present simulated story worlds where emergent behavior occurs within the context of the game. This is something that some gamers find appealing as it introduces a certain level of randomness to a game. In discussing the issue, game designer Warren Spector has used the term "emergent narrative" to describe how, in a simulated environment, storyline can be created simply by "what happens to the player."[21] Emergent behavior in video games date back to the earliest games though. Generally any place where event driven instructions occur for AI in a game, emergent behavior will inevitably exist. For instance, take a racing game in which cars are programmed to avoid crashing and they encounter an obstacle in the track, the cars might then maneuver to avoid the obstacle causing the cars behind them to slow and/or maneuver to accommodate the cars in front of them and the obstacle. The programmer never wrote code to specifically create a traffic jam, yet one now exists in the game. A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature. ... Warren Spector, 1999 Warren Spector is a respected game designer, having worked to merge elements of RPGs and first-person shooters. ... // This disambiguation page covers alternative uses of the terms Ai, AI, and A.I. Ai (as a word, proper noun and set of initials) can refer to many things. ...


In Steven Johnson's book, Everything Bad Is Good For You, he argues that video games in fact demand far more from a player than traditional games like Monopoly. To experience the game, the player must first determine the objectives, as well as how to complete them. They must then learn the game controls and how the human-machine interface works, including menus and HUDs. Beyond such skills, which after some time become quite fundamental and are taken for granted by many gamers, video games are based upon the player navigating (and eventually mastering) a highly complex system with many variables. This requires a strong analytical ability, as well as flexibility and adaptability. He argues that the process of learning the boundaries, goals, and controls of a given game is often a highly demanding one that calls on many different areas of cognitive function. Indeed, most games require a great deal of patience and focus from the player, and, contrary to the popular perception that games provide instant gratification, games actually delay gratification far longer than other forms of entertainment such as film or even many books. [2] Some research[22] suggests video games may even increase players' attention capacities. Steven Berlin Johnson Steven Berlin Johnson (born June 6, 1968) is an American popular science author. ... Everything Bad is Good for You: How Todays Popular Culture Is Actually Making Us Smarter is a book by Steven Berlin Johnson in which he claims that popular culture in general, and tv shows and computer games in particular, have grown more complex and demanding over time and are... This article is about the board game. ... The HUD, short for Head-Up Display, is the method by which information is visually relayed to the player in computer and video games. ...


Also leading the study of video games' positive effects on society is Dr. James Paul Gee, Mary Lou Fulton Presidential Chair in Literacy Studies within Arizona State University's Mary Lou Fulton College of Education.[23] Formerly of the University of Wisconsin, Gee's book, What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy,[24] offers 36 learning principles, found in video games, that could be applied to reform America's education system. In a May 2003 column on Wired.com, Gee says, "We don't often think about video games as relevant to education reform, but maybe we should. Game designers don't often think of themselves as learning theorists. Maybe they should. Kids often say it doesn't feel like learning when they're gaming - they're much too focused on playing. If kids were to say that about a science lesson, our country's education problems would be solved.".[25] Arizona State University (ASU) is a public research institution of higher education and research with campuses located in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ...


Online multiplayer games, which take advantage of the fact that computer games can use the internet, provide players with the opportunity to compete in real time with other players from across the globe, something that is also unique to electronic gaming. MMORPGs take the concept much further with the establishment of vast, online communities existing in persistent, virtual worlds. Millions of players around the globe are attracted to video gaming simply because it offers such unprecedented ability to interact with large numbers of people engaged simultaneously in a structured environment where they are all involved in the same activity (playing the game). An online multiplayer game (OMG) is a video game that can be played over the Internet against other players. ... An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions. ...


Even simple games offer potential benefits to the player. Games like Tetris and Pac-man or Galaga are well-designed games that are easy to pick up but difficult to master, much like chess or poker. Despite their simplicity, simple games may also feature online capabilities or powerful AI. Depending on the game, players can develop and test their techniques against an advanced computer player or online against other human players. Tetris (Russian: ) is a falling-blocks puzzle video game, released on a large spectrum of platforms. ... Pac-Man is an arcade game developed by Namco and licensed for distribution by Midway Games in 1979. ... Galaga is a fixed shooter arcade game that was released by Namco in 1981 (and also licensed to Midway). ... This article is about the Western board game. ... For the domestic fireplace tool, see fireplace poker. ... // This disambiguation page covers alternative uses of the terms Ai, AI, and A.I. Ai (as a word, proper noun and set of initials) can refer to many things. ...


The U.S. army has deployed machines such as the PackBot which makes use of a game-style hand controller intended to make it more familiar to use by young people.[26] The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Packbot is a series of robots. ... A game controller is an input device used to control a video game. ...


Controversy

Like related forms of media, computer and video games have been the subject of frequent controversy and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes, advergaming (a form of advertising in games), consumption of drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, propaganda, or profanity in some games. Among others, critics of video games sometimes include parents' groups, politicians, organized religious groups, and other special interest groups, even though all of these can be found in all forms of entertainment and media. Various games have been accused of causing addiction and even violent behavior. "Video game censorship" is defined as the use of state or group power to control the playing, distribution, purchase, or sale of video games or computer games. Video game controversy comes in many forms, and censorship is a controversial subject. Proponents and opponents of censorship are often very passionate about their individual views. Video games have been the subject of controversy and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes, consumption of illegal drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, or profanity in some games. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Advert redirects here. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... In cartoons, profanity is often depicted by substituting symbols for words, as a form of non-specific censorship. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... A special interest is a person or political organization established to influence governmental policy or legislators in a specific area of policy. ... This Photoshopped EverCrack Trilogy box cover, an allusion to the notoriously addictive nature of EverQuest, has been widely circulated online. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ...


Historically, this type of controversy and criticism is not unique to video games. The same situation has been applied to comic books, motion pictures, dancing and to some extent music and books. As long ago as the nineteenth century the same accusations were made about "penny dreadfuls".[27][28][29][30] Moreover, it appears to be a question of age. Since these art forms have been around longer, the backlash against them occurred further in the past, beyond the remembrance of today's youth. In both cases, the attempts at censorship in the United States were struck down as a violation of First Amendment rights, and they have gone on to become fully integrated facets of society. An organization known as the Entertainment Software Ratings Board or ESRB rates software for certain age groups, however publishers are not required to submit games for ratings, and parents are not always aware of the existence of these ratings.[31] A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures. ... A contemporary dancer rehearsing in a dance studio Dance generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. ... Tipper Gore, founder of the Parents Music Resource Center The Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) was an American committee formed in 1985 by four women: Tipper Gore, wife of Senator and later Vice President Al Gore; Susan Baker, wife of Treasury Secretary James Baker; Pam Howar, wife of Washington realtor... Many societies have banned certain books. ... Penny Dreadful can refer to: The 19th century British penny dreadful publications. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that applies and enforces ratings, advertising guidelines, and online privacy principles for computer and video games in the United States. ...


Commercial aspects

Game sales

A typical retail display (in Geneva, Switzerland) with a large selection of games for several major consoles
A typical retail display (in Geneva, Switzerland) with a large selection of games for several major consoles

The three largest producers of and markets for computer and video games (in order) are North America (US and Canada), Japan and the United Kingdom. Other significant markets include Australia, Spain, Germany, South Korea, Mexico, France and Italy.[32] Both India and China are considered emerging markets in the video game industry and sales are expected to rise significantly in the coming years. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x750, 336 KB)A retail display of video games at a Manor department store in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x750, 336 KB)A retail display of video games at a Manor department store in Geneva, Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ...


Sales of different types of games vary widely between these markets due to local preferences. Japanese consumers tend to purchase console games over computer games, with a strong preference for games catering to local tastes. In South Korea, computer games are preferred, especially MMORPG games and real-time strategy games; there are over 20,000 PC bang Internet cafés where computer games can be played for an hourly charge. Players interacting in Ultima Online, a classic MMORPG. Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) is a genre of online computer role-playing games (CRPGs) in which a large number of players interact with one another in a virtual world. ... A real-time strategy (RTS) video game is one that is distinctly not turn-based. ... An Internet café or cybercafé is a place where one can use a computer with Internet access for a fee, usually per hour or minute; sometimes one can have unmetered access with a pass for a day or month, etc. ...


The NPD Group tracks computer and video game sales in the United States. It reported that: The NPD Group, Inc. ...

  • Console and portable software sales: $6.2 billion, up 8% from 2003[33]
  • Console and portable hardware and accessory sales: $3.7 billion, down 35% from 2003[33]
  • PC game sales: $1.1 billion, down 15% from 2006[34]

Also note that PC games that are digitally distributed either directly or by distribution networks such as Steam are not tracked by the NPD, and Steam does not list sales numbers for games downloaded through their service. Software piracy is also more rampant on the PC.[35] Digital distribution (Also known as digital delivery) is the principle of providing digital information and content over the Internet in the form of products or services. ... Steam is a digital distribution, digital rights management, multiplayer and communications platform developed by Valve Corporation. ... The copyright infringement of software is often called software piracy by those seeking to reduce its incidence. ...


These figures are sales in dollars, not units; unit shipments for each category were higher than the dollar sales numbers indicate, as more software and hardware was sold at reduced prices compared to 2003. However, with the release of the Next-Gen Consoles in 2006, these numbers have increased dramatically. The game and film industries are also becoming increasingly intertwined, with companies like Sony having significant stakes in both. A large number of summer blockbuster films spawn a companion game, often launching at the same time to share the marketing costs. Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ...


There is also controversy relating video games in Australia and other PAL regions. In general when compared to the US, PAL gamers have to pay up to 40% to 50% more.[36] More of a problem in Australia is where games are constantly delayed for no apparent reason, most notably games released by Nintendo. As English is the main language in the Australian region there is no need for any translation and the complications of differences between the PAL and NTSC video formats are not existent, as the majority of video displays in Australia are fully capable of running at a 60 Hz format. There is also the problem of regional lockout in Australia, with most DVD players release coming region free in order to comply with local laws[37] [38], but video game consoles are still sold fully region locked. Some efforts to increase awareness of the issue, specifically to Nintendo of Australia, was in the form of a formal report outlining the issues, published by Aaron Rex Davies.[39] The report has gone on to gain a lot of attention in the public media.[40] For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and some other countries (see map). ... Regional lockout is the programming practice, code, chip, or physical barrier used to prevent the playing of media designed for a device from the country where it is marketed on the version of the same device marketed in another country. ...


Merchandise

See also

Video games Portal

Lists Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Pac-Man is one of the most recognizable video games ever created. ... // The terms Gaming PC and Gaming Computer specifically refer to computers built to have the capacity to play personal computer games. ... For information on interactive gaming in general, see video game. ... The term unlockable games refers to full video games that can be unlocked within another videogame, often as easter eggs. ... This article is about emulators in computer science. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An example of a regular cardbox for a 1998 PC game. ... Video game culture is a form of new media culture that has been influenced by video games. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

This is a hierarchical list linking to all articles related to computer and video games. ... This is a list of all video game lists that can be found on Wikipedia. ... This is a list of home computers, sorted alphanumerically, which lists all relevant details of their Video Hardware. ...

References

  1. ^ AskOxford: video game. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 2007-10-30.
  2. ^ Raster monitor for video game displays. United States Patents. Retrieved on 2005-10-16.
  3. ^ U.S. Patent 2,455,992 
  4. ^ a b c Welcome to Pong-Story - Introduction. PONG-Story.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  5. ^ Welcome to... NIMROD!. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  6. ^ The First Video Game. Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  7. ^ Rabin, Steve [2005-06-14]. Introduction to Game Development. Massachusetts: Charles River Media. ISBN 1-58450-377-7. 
  8. ^ Orlando, Greg (2007-05-15). Console Portraits: A 40-Year Pictorial History of Gaming. Wired News. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  9. ^ History of Gaming - Interactive Timeline of Game History. PBS. Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  10. ^ Miller, Michael (2005-04-01). A History of Home Video Game Consoles. InformIT. Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  11. ^ platform - Definitions from Dictionary.com (HTML). Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
  12. ^ Vargas, Jose Antonio (2006-08-28). In Game World, Cheaters Proudly Prosper. Washington Post. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  13. ^ a b 1UP Staff. Cracking the Code: The Konami Code. 1UP.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  14. ^ a b c Rybka, Jason. Video Game Cheats and Codes - What Are Cheat Codes?. About.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  15. ^ Rybka, Jason. Why Use Cheats and Codes for Console and PC Games?. About.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  16. ^ Murray, Janet (1998). Hamlet on the Holodeck. MIT Press. ISBN 0262631873. 
  17. ^ Aarseth, Espen J. (2004-05-21). Genre Trouble (HTML). Electronic Book Review. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  18. ^ "Women video gamers: Not just solitaire" from PC World, Canada
  19. ^ MMORPG.com report EVE Online reaching 32955 Peak Concurrent Users
  20. ^ "Action video games modify visual attention" (2003). Nature 423: 534-537. Green & Bavelier. Retrieved on March 12, 2008. 
  21. ^ IGN: GDC 2004: Warren Spector Talks Games Narrative
  22. ^ Daphne Bavalier et al.. Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature/University of Rochester. Retrieved on April 29, 2006.
  23. ^ Joan Sherwood et al.. ASU News - Gee Named Mary Lou Fulton Presidential Chair. Arizona State University. Retrieved on December 4, 2007.
  24. ^ Gee, James Paul (2003). What Literacy and Learning Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403961697. 
  25. ^ James Paul Gee et al.. Wired 11.05: View. Codenet, Inc.. Retrieved on December 4, 2007.
  26. ^ iRobot Receives New Military Orders 14 PackBot Robots (2007). Retrieved on July 25, 2007.
  27. ^ Horror-Fanatics.com: Penny Dreadful Review
  28. ^ DVD Verdict Review - Penny Dreadful
  29. ^ Penny Dreadful - Movie Reviews, Trailers, Pictures - Rotten Tomatoes
  30. ^ Penny Dreadful Review (Celluloid Heroes)
  31. ^ "Grand Theft Auto Makers Sued By LA Attorney For Hidden Porn". Console Watcher (2006). Retrieved on October 26, 2006.
  32. ^ Computer And Video Games: A British Phenomena Around the World (PDF)
  33. ^ a b U.S. video game industry sales dip in 2004. Game Info Wire (January 18, 2005). Retrieved on February 12, 2006.
  34. ^ Sales & Genre data. Entertainment Software Association (ESA) (2004). Retrieved on February 12, 2006.
  35. ^ DiCarlo, Lisa (July 18, 2005). Do Game Publishers Ignore Piracy? (HTML). Forbes.com. Retrieved on October 29, 2007.
  36. ^ "Article on Regional Lockout Pricing"
  37. ^ [1]
  38. ^ "High Court of Australia enforcing region free"
  39. ^ "Research report into excessive delays in release of Wii software by Nintendo in Australia and New Zealand regions" by Aaron Rex Davies (PDF)
  40. ^ "Australia to Nintendo: Knock It Off"

Additional references Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ≠ Aerial view of Brookhaven National Laboratory. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wired News, online at Wired. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PBS redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... InformIT is a subsidiary of Pearson Education, is an online book vendor and an electronic publisher of technology and education content. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of About. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of About. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Janet Murray is a professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology, where she is the director of graduate studies in the School of Literature, Communication, and Culture. ... Espen J. Aarseth is a major figure in the emerging field of video game studies. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PC World is a global computer magazine published monthly by IDG. It offers advice on various aspects of PCs and related items, the Internet, and other personal-technology products and services. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “PDF” redirects here. ...

  • Lieu, Tina (August 1997). Where have all the PC games gone?". Computing Japan.
  • Costikyan, Greg (1994). I Have No Words & I Must Design.
  • Crawford, Chris (1982). The Art of Computer Game Design.
  • Salen, Katie; Eric Zimmerman (2005). The Game Design Reader: A Rules of Play Anthology. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19536-4. 
  • Smuts, Aaron (2005). Are Video Games Art?.
  • Blodget, Henry (April 12, 2005). How to Solve China's Piracy Problem. Slate.com. Retrieved on February 12, 2006.
  • Winegarner, Beth (January 28, 2005). Game sales hit record highs. Gamespot. Retrieved on February 12, 2006.
  • John Wills (2002-10-01). "Digital Dinosaurs and Artificial Life: Exploring the Culture of Nature in Computer and Video Games". Cultural Values (Journal for Cultural Research) 6 (4): 395–417. doi:10.1080/1362517022000047334. 
  • Guy, Hannah (2007). Women video gamers: Not just solitaire.

MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Game design is the process of designing the content and rules of a game. ... Game development - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Game programming, a subset of game development, is the programming of computer, console or arcade games. ... Game testing refers to the process of software testing for video games. ... Video game journalism is a branch of journalism concerned with the reporting and discussion of video games. ... Level design or game mapping is the creation of levels—locales, stages, or missions—for a video game (such as a console game or computer game). ... A game producer is the person in charge of overseeing development of a video game. ... A game designer is a person who designs games. ... A game programmer is a software engineer who primarily develops computer or video games or related software (such as game development tools). ... A game artist is responsible for all of the aspects of game development that calls for visual art. ... A game tester analyzes video games to document software defects as part of a quality control process in video game development. ... A level designer is a person who creates levels, challenges or missions for computer and/or video games using a specific set of programs. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... For information on interactive gaming in general, see video game. ... This article is about games played on consoles. ... A handheld video game is a video game designed primarily for handheld game consoles such as Nintendos Game Boy line. ... A video game developer is a software developer (a business or an individual) that creates video games. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of companies that have made video games for either computers or video game consoles. ... This is a list of video and computer game publishers, past and present. ... This is a list of all video game lists that can be found on Wikipedia. ... Below is a list of game industry people, people who work or have worked in the video game industry, on video or computer games. ... Video games were introduced as a commercial entertainment medium in 1971, becoming the basis for an important entertainment industry in the late 1970s/early 1980s in the United States, Japan, and Europe. ... The first generation of video game consoles lasted from 1972 until 1977. ... The second generation of video game consoles lasted from 1976 until 1984. ... E.T. for the Atari 2600 is considered by many to be emblematic of the crash along with the Atari 2600 version of Pac-Man. ... In the history of video games, the 8-bit era was the third generation of video game consoles, but the first after the video game crash of 1983 and considered by some to be the first modern era of console gaming. ... In the history of video games, the 16-bit era was the fourth generation of video game consoles. ... In the history of computer and video games, the 32-bit / 64-bit /3D era was the fifth generation of video game consoles. ... The sixth-generation era (sometimes referred to as the 128-bit era; see Number of bits below) refers to the computer and video games, video game consoles, and video game handhelds available at the turn of the 21st century. ... In the history of computer and video games, the seventh generation began on November 21, 2004 with the North American release of the Nintendo DS, followed by the PlayStation Portable on December 12, 2004. ... Events In 1952, the first video game ever made, OXO (also known as Noughts and Crosses) by A. S. Douglas. ... 1958 1958 in games 1952 in video gaming 1962 in video gaming Notable events of 1958 in computer and video games. ... 1962 1962 in games 1958 in video gaming 1971 in video gaming Notable events of 1962 in video gaming. ... 1971 1971 in games 1972 in video gaming Notable events of 1971 in video gaming. ... See also: 1971 in video gaming, other events of 1972, 1973 in video gaming, history of video games Events May 24: Magnavox unveils the Odyssey at a Burlingame, California convention. ... See also: 1972 in video gaming, other events of 1973, 1974 in video gaming, history of video games Events Atari releases the GotCha arcade game Midway Home Entertainment Inc. ... 1974 1974 in games 1973 in video gaming 1975 in video gaming Notable events of 1974 in video gaming. ... 1975 1975 in games 1974 in video gaming 1976 in video gaming Notable events of 1975 in video gaming. ... See also: 1975 in video gaming, other events of 1976, 1977 in video gaming, history of video games Events Exidy releases the controversial Death Race arcade game. ... Notable events of 1977 in computer and video games. ... See also: 1977 in video gaming, other events of 1978, 1979 in video gaming, history of video games Events Notable releases Cinematronics releases the Space Wars vector graphics arcade game Hudson releases Lode Runner for Nintendo home systems in Japan. ... 1979 1979 in games 1978 in video gaming 1980 in video gaming Notable events of 1979 in video gaming. ... 1980 1980 in games 1979 in video gaming 1981 in video gaming Notable events of 1980 in computer and video games. ... 1981 1981 in games 1980 in video gaming 1982 in video gaming Notable events of 1981 in computer and video games. ... 1982 1982 in games 1981 in video gaming 1983 in video gaming Notable events of 1982 in computer and video games. ... 1983 1983 in games 1982 in video gaming 1984 in video gaming Notable events of 1983 in computer and video games. ... 1984 1984 in games 1983 in video gaming 1985 in video gaming Notable events of 1984 in video gaming. ... 1985 1985 in games 1984 in video gaming 1986 in video gaming Notable events of 1985 in video gaming. ... 1986 1986 in games 1985 in video gaming 1987 in video gaming Notable events of 1986 in computer and video games. ... 1987 1987 in games 1986 in video gaming 1988 in video gaming Notable events of 1987 in video gaming. ... Notable events of 1988 in computer and video games. ... 1989 1989 in games 1988 in video gaming 1990 in video gaming Notable events of 1989 in video gaming. ... 1990 1990 in games 1989 in video gaming 1991 in video gaming Notable events of 1990 in video gaming. ... Notable events of 1991 in computer and video games. ... 1992 1992 in games 1991 in video gaming 1993 in video gaming Notable events of 1992 in video gaming. ... Notable events of 1993 in computer and video games. ... 1994 1994 in games 1993 in video gaming 1995 in video gaming Notable events of 1994 in computer and video games. ... 1995 1995 in games 1994 in video gaming 1996 in video gaming Notable events of 1995 in video gaming. ... 1996 1996 in games 1995 in video gaming 1997 in video gaming Notable events of 1996 in video gaming. ... 1997 1997 in games 1996 in video gaming 1998 in video gaming Notable events of 1997 in video gaming. ... 1998 1998 in games 1997 in video gaming 1999 in video gaming Notable events of 1998 in video gaming. ... 1999 1999 in games 1998 in video gaming 2000 in video gaming Notable events of 1999 in video gaming. ... 2000 2000 in games 1999 in video gaming 2001 in video gaming Notable events of 2000 in video gaming. ... 2001 2001 in games 2000 in video gaming 2002 in video gaming Notable events of 2001 in video gaming. ... 2002 2002 in games 2001 in video gaming 2003 in video gaming Notable events of 2002 in video gaming. ... 2003 2003 in games 2002 in video gaming 2004 in video gaming Notable events of 2003 in video gaming. ... 2004 2004 in games 2003 in video gaming 2005 in video gaming Notable events of 2004 in video gaming. ... 2005 2005 in games 2004 in video gaming 2006 in video gaming Notable events of 2005 in video gaming. ... Notable events of 2006 in video gaming. ... (NOTE: Some release dates listed are not global release dates. ... 2008 2008 in games 2007 in video gaming 2009 in video gaming Notable events of 2008 in video gaming. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Further information: Game classification Video games are categorized into genres based on their gameplay interaction. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Action-adventure games (British English: arcade adventure) are video games that combine elements of the adventure game genre with various action game elements. ... Solid Snake hides behind a tank in Metal Gear Solid, a popular stealth video game. ... Three enemies from Silent Hill 4: The Room, a survival horror title released by Konami in 2004. ... Beat Em Up is the Iggy Pop album on which the band were first labeled as The Trolls: Iggy Pop, Whitey Kirst, Pete Marshall, Alex Kirst, Lloyd Mooseman Roberts. ... HACK/slash is the name of a graphic novel from Devils Due Publishing. ... Screenshot of The King of Fighters XI (2005, SNK Playmore). ... Maze game was a computer game genre description used by computer journalists during the 1980s to describe any game in which the entire playing field was a maze. ... A simple platform sequence from the game Wonder Boy Platform game, or platformer, is a video game genre characterized by jumping to and from suspended platforms or over obstacles. ... Shooter games cover a fairly broad spectrum of sub-genres that have the commonality of controlling a character who is usually armed with a firearm that can be freely aimed. ... This article is about video games. ... Massively multiplayer online first-person shooter (MMOFPS) is a category of computer games that combines first-person shooter gameplay with a large number of simultaneous players over the Internet. ... Rail Shooter is a genre of shoot em up video games, deriving from the on-rails movement featured in such games. ... A run and gun (also known as run n gun or for some variants, overhead shooter) is a sub-genre of video games that incorporates elements from shoot em up games and platform games. ... For the video/computer game genre, see Shoot em up. ... Tactical shooters include games of the first-person shooter (FPS) and third-person shooter genre of video games that generally simulate non-fictional, squad-based or man-to-man combat. ... Third-person shooter (TPS or 3PS) is a genre of 3D computer and video games in which the player character is seen at a distance from a number of different possible perspective angles, as opposed to the first-person model in which the player views everything in the game world... Grand Theft Auto A top-down shooter (sometimes shortened to TDS, and also known as a top-view shooter) is a genre of computer and video games in which the player is displayed from above, or a top-down perspective. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Side-scrolling game. ... This article is about the computer and video game genre. ... Dating simulations (dating sims) are a video game subgenre of simulation games, usually Japanese, with romantic elements. ... Adventure is a genre of video game typified by exploration, puzzle-solving, interaction with game characters, and a focus on narrative rather than reflex-based challenges. ... Escape the room is a genre of online video games (similar to an adventure or puzzle game), usually made in Adobe Flash. ... Zork I is one of the first interactive fiction games, as well as being one of the first commercially sold. ... It has been suggested that FMV game be merged into this article or section. ... A visual novel is an interactive fiction game featuring mostly static graphics, usually with anime-style art. ... Computer role-playing games (CRPGs), often shortened to simply role-playing games (RPGs), are a type of video or computer game that traditionally use gameplay elements found in paper-and-pencil role-playing games. ... An Action-RPG, or action role-playing game is a type of computer and console role-playing game which requires quick action or reflexes from the player. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Players interacting in Ultima Online, a classic MMORPG. Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) is a genre of online computer role-playing games (CRPGs) in which a large number of players interact with one another in a virtual world. ... A roguelike is a computer game that borrows some of the elements of the 1980s computer game Rogue. ... A tactical role-playing game (usually simply called tactical RPG, sometimes referred to as strategy role-playing game or SRPG) is a type of computer role-playing game (CRPG) in which the focus of the gameplay is on making tactical decisions in battles. ... A screenshot from The Sims: Deluxe Edition. ... Construction and management simulation games (or CMSs)[1] are a type of simulation game which task players to build, expand or manage fictional communities or projects with limited resources. ... The SimCity series, a well known example of the city-building game type. ... Typical view from Transport Tycoon. ... This article is about the computer game genre. ... Life simulator games, or life simulators, are simulation games in which the player lives or controls an (or several) artificial lives. ... A pet-raising simulation is an online or computer game that focuses on the care, raising, breeding or exhibition of simulated animals. ... This article is about the strategy game genre. ... Artillery is the generic name for either early two or three-player (usually turn-based) computer games involving tanks fighting each other in combat or similar derivative games. ... A real-time strategy (RTS) video game is one that is distinctly not turn-based. ... Massively multiplayer online real-time strategy (MMORTS) is a genre of online computer game that combines real-time strategy (RTS) with a large number of simultaneous players over the Internet. ... A destroyer patrols local space around its attached carrier in Nexus: The Jupiter Incident. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A turn-based strategy (TBS) game is a game where the game flow is partitioned into well-defined and visible parts, called turns or rounds. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tactical wargames are wargames in which units range from individual vehicles and squads to platoons or companies, and are rated based on types and ranges of individual weaponry. ... For flight simulator software from Microsoft, see Microsoft Flight Simulator. ... Combat flight simulators are video games similar to flight simulator software used to simulate military aircraft and their operations. ... Many board games can be said to be racing games, such as Snakes and Ladders, Cribbage, or Formula Dé. (see race game) There are also toys made for racing, like slot cars and radio controlled cars. ... In its broadest definition, a space simulation is any software that simulates space and/or space flight. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Space simulation. ... Space combat simulators[1][2][3][4][5], or space combat games[6][7][8][9][10], are a genre of space simulators which feature spaceship combat. ... Space trading and combat simulators[1][2][3][4], also known as space trading and combat games or space trading simulators[5][6][7] (sometimes with the term exploration thrown in between[8][9][10][11][12]), are a genre of video games which is characterized by trading, combat and... A submarine simulator, or subsim for short, is a computer game in which the player commands a submarine. ... Screenshot of BVE 4. ... Vehicular combat (also known as car combat) games are typically video or computer games where the primary focus of play concerns automobiles or other motor vehicles, normally armed with guns or other weaponry, attempting to destroy vehicles controlled by the CPU or by opposing players. ... Adult video games are video games which have significant sexual content (like adult movies), and are therefore intended for an adult audience. ... An eroge , erotic game) is a Japanese video or computer game that features erotic content, usually in the form of anime-style artwork. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Christian video games refer to Christian-themed computer and video games. ... Educational games are games; board and card games, including video games that are designed to teach people, typically children, about a certain subject, expand concepts, reinforce development, understand an historical event or culture, or assit them in learning a skill as they play. ... Exergaming (formed from exercise and gaming) is a term used for video games that also provide exercise. ... Open source music video game StepMania A music video game, also commonly known as a music game or rhythm game, is a video game where the gameplay is oriented almost entirely around the players ability to follow a musical beat and stay with the rhythm of the games... Non-Games define a class of software products which lie on the border between video games, toys und applications. ... For the 1970s Canadian TV game show, see Party Game (game show). ... A programming game is a computer game, where the player has no direct influence on the course of the game. ... A serious game is a software application developed with game technology and game design principles for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment. ... A sports game is a computer or video game that simulates the playing of traditional sports. ... There are two types of traditional games: In games, a traditional game (historic) In computer and video games, a traditional game (computer) is a computer program adaption of a non-computer game (such as a board game or card game). ... The term casual game is used to refer to a category of electronic or computer games targeted at a mass audience — typically with very simple rules or play techniques, a very low degree of strategy, making them easy to learn and play as a pastime. ... In Fantastic Dizzy, the player has to complete a sliding puzzle to get an extra life. ... Online games refer to games that are played over some form of computer network. ... MMO redirects here. ... A sandbox game (or a video game with an optional sandbox mode) is a video game with an open-ended and non-linear style of gameplay, or a mode of gameplay within a game that is more often played in a goal-directed manner. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Video Game Revolution: "Eight Myths About Video Games Debunked" by Henry Jenkins | PBS (1728 words)
Former military psychologist and moral reformer David Grossman argues that because the military uses games in training (including, he claims, training soldiers to shoot and kill), the generation of young people who play such games are similarly being brutalized and conditioned to be aggressive in their everyday social interactions.
Video games are not a meaningful form of expression.
Yet, a child who responds to a video game the same way he or she responds to a real-world tragedy could be showing symptoms of being severely emotionally disturbed.
Computer and video games - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4730 words)
The popularity of computer and video games, as a whole, has been increasing steadily ever since the 1984-1987 drop-off caused by the video game crash of 1983, and the popularity appears to be continuing to increase.
Computer and video games have been the subject of frequent controversy and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes, advertising, consumption of illegal drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, propaganda, or profanity in some games.
Video games are made by developers, who used to do this as individuals or small teams in the 80's.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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