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Encyclopedia > Video card
Video Card

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A video card, also referred to as a graphics accelerator card, display adapter, graphics card, and numerous other terms, is an item of personal computer hardware whose function is to generate and output images to a display. It operates on similar principles as a sound card or other peripheral devices. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 404 pixelsFull resolution (1248 × 630 pixel, file size: 1. ... 64-bit PCI expansion slots inside a Power Macintosh G4 The Peripheral Component Interconnect, or PCI Standard (in practice almost always shortened to PCI), specifies a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. ... The Accelerated Graphics Port (also called Advanced Graphics Port, often shortened to AGP) is a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a graphics card to a computers motherboard, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics. ... PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ... VGA Connector There are at least four versions of VGA connector, the three-row 15 pin DE-15 (also called mini sub D15) in originaland DDC2pinouts, and a less featureful and far less common 9-pin VGA, plus a Mini-VGA used for laptops. ... DVI redirects here. ... Composite video, also called CVBS (Composite Video Blanking and Sync), is the format of an analog television (picture only) signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto an RF carrier. ... Three cables, each with RCA plugs at both ends, are often used to carry analog component video Component video is a video signal that has been split into two or more components. ... HDMI cable and HDMI official logo Type Digital audio/video connector Production history Designer The HDMI group Designed December 2002 Manufacturer Various Produced 2003 Specifications Hot pluggable Yes External Yes Audio signal PCM, DVD-Audio, Super Audio CD, Dolby TrueHD, DTS-HD Master Audio Video signal 480i, 480p, 576i, 576p... DMS-59 connector. ... Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. ... A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. ... A sound card (also known as an audio card) is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under control of computer programs. ...


The term is usually used to refer to a separate, dedicated expansion card that is plugged into a slot on the computer's motherboard, as opposed to a graphics controller integrated into the motherboard chipset. An integrated graphics controller may be referred to as an "integrated graphics processor" (IGP). An expansion card (also expansion board, adapter card or accessory card) in computing is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a computer motherboard to add additional functionality to a computer system. ... A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ... “GPU” redirects here. ... Diagram of a motherboard chipset A chipset is a group of integrated circuits, or chips, that are designed to work together, and are usually marketed as a single product. ...


Some video cards offer added functionalities, such as video capture, TV tuner adapter, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 decoding or even FireWire, mouse, light pen, joystick connectors, or even the ability to connect two monitors. Video capture usually refers to the various methods of capturing video on a computer. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... The 6-pin and 4-pin FireWire Connectors The alternative ethernet-style cabling used by 1394c FireWire is Apple Inc. ... A contemporary computer mouse, with the most common standard features: two buttons and a scroll wheel. ... A light pen is a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with the computers CRT monitor. ... For other uses, see Joystick (disambiguation). ... Dual Apple Computer Cinema Displays Multi Monitor or Multi Head are synonymous terms referring to the use of multiple physical display devices such as monitors, televisions and projectors in order to increase the area available for computer programs running on a single computer system. ...


Video cards are not used exclusively in IBM type PCs; they have been used in devices such as Commodore Amiga (connected by the slots Zorro II and Zorro III), Apple II, Apple Macintosh, Atari Mega ST/TT (attached to the MegaBus or VME interface), Spectravideo SVI-328, MSX and in video game consoles. This article is about the family of home computers. ... Zorro II is the name of the general purpose expansion bus used by the Amiga 2000 computer. ... Released as the expansion bus of the Commodore Amiga 3000 in 1990, the Zorro III computer bus was used to attach peripheral devices to an Amiga motherboard. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... For other uses, see Macintosh (disambiguation) and Mac. ... Sony MSX 1, Model HitBit-10-P MSX was the name of a standardized home computer architecture in the 1980s. ... Game console redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Video card history starts in the 1960s, when printers were replaced with screens as visualization element. Video cards were needed to create the first images. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ...

Year Text Mode Graphics Mode Colors Memory
MDA 1981 80*25 - 1 4 KB
CGA 1981 80*25 640*200 16 16 KB
HGC 1982 80*25 720*348 1 64 KB
EGA 1984 80*25 640*350 16 256 KB
IBM 8514 1987 80*25 1024*768 256 -
MCGA 1987 80*25 320*200 256 -
VGA 1987 720*400 640*480 256 256 KB
SVGA 1989 80*25 1024*768 256 1 MB
XGA 1990 80*25 1024*768 65,536 2 MB

The first video card, which was released with the first IBM PC, was developed by IBM in 1981. The MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter) could only work in text mode representing 25x80 lines in the screen. It had a 4KB video memory and just one color.[1] IBM PC redirects here. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Green screen driven by a Monochrome Display Adapter The Monochrome Display Adapter (MDA, also MDA card, Monochrome Display and Printer Adapter, MDPA) introduced in 1981 was IBMs standard video display card and computer display standard for the PC. The MDA did not have any graphics mode of any kind...


Starting with the MDA in 1981, several video cards were released, which are summarized in the attached table.[2][3][4][5] Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


VGA was widely accepted, which lead some corporations such as ATI, Cirrus Logic and S3 to work with that video card, improving its resolution and the number of colours it used. And so was born the SVGA (Super VGA) standard, which reached 1MB of video memory and 1024 x 768 dots of resolution at 256 color mode. VGA Port VGA plug Video Graphics Array (VGA) is an analog computer display standard first marketed in 1987 by IBM. It has been technologically outdated in the PC market for some time. ... “ATI” redirects here. ... Cirrus Logic NASDAQ: CRUS is a fabless semiconductor supplier specializing in analog, mixed-signal, and DSP chips. ... S3 Graphics, Ltd design graphics chipsets for PCs. ... Super Video Graphics Array, almost always abbreviated to Super VGA or just SVGA is a broad term that covers a wide range of computer display standards. ...


The evolution of video cards took a turn for the better in 1995 with the release of the first 2D/3D cards, developed by Matrox, Creative, S3 and ATI, among others. Those video cards followed the SVGA standard, but incorporated 3D functions. In 1997, 3dfx released the graphics chip Voodoo, which was very powerful and included new 3D effects (Mip Mapping, Z-buffering, Anti-aliasing...). From this point, a series of 3D video card releases happened, like Voodoo2 from 3dfx, TNT and TNT2 from NVIDIA. The power reached with these cards exceeded the PCI port capacity. Intel developed the AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) which solved the bottleneck between the microprocessor and the video card. From 1999 until 2002, NVIDIA controlled the video card market (taking over 3dfx)[6] with the GeForce family. The improvements carried out in these years were focused in 3D algorithms and graphics processor clock rate. Nevertheless, video memory also needed to improve their data rate, and DDR technology was incorporated. The capacity of video memory goes in this period from 32 MB with GeForce to 128 MB with GeForce 4. Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Matrox Electronic Systems Ltd is a Canadian company based in Dorval, Quebec, which produces video card components and equipment for personal computers. ... Creative Technology Limited (SGX: C76, NASDAQ: CREAF) is a listed manufacturer of computer multimedia products based in Singapore where the firm was initially founded by Sim Wong Hoo (born 1957) on July 1, 1981. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... 3dfx Interactive was a company which specialized in the manufacturing of cutting-edge 3D graphics processing units and, later, graphics cards. ... Z-buffer data In computer graphics, z-buffering is the management of image depth coordinates in three-dimensional (3-D) graphics, usually done in hardware, sometimes in software. ... In digital signal processing, anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts known as aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution. ... NVIDIA Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced IPA: ) is a U.S. corporation specializing in the manufacture of graphics processors (graphics processing units, GPUs) technologies for workstations, desktop computers, and handhelds. ... 64-bit PCI expansion slots inside a Power Macintosh G4 The Peripheral Component Interconnect, or PCI Standard (in practice almost always shortened to PCI), specifies a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. ... Intel redirects here. ... The Accelerated Graphics Port (also called Advanced Graphics Port, often shortened to AGP) is a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a graphics card to a computers motherboard, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics. ... This article is about the year. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The GeForce logo used since 2007 GeForce is a brand of PC graphics chipsets designed by NVIDIA. The first GeForce products were designed and marketed for the high-margin computer gamer community, but later the products releases expanded the product line to cover all tiers of the graphics market...


In 2006, the leadership of the video cards market[7] was disputed between NVIDIA and ATI with their biggest selling models GeForce and Radeon respectively. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The GeForce logo used since 2007 GeForce is a brand of PC graphics chipsets designed by NVIDIA. The first GeForce products were designed and marketed for the high-margin computer gamer community, but later the products releases expanded the product line to cover all tiers of the graphics market... ATI Radeon is a brand of graphics processing units (GPU) that has been manufactured by ATI Technologies since 2000 and the successor to their Rage line. ...


Components

A video card consists of a printed circuit board on which the components are mounted. These include: Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. ...


Graphics processing unit (GPU)

A GPU is a dedicated graphics microprocessor optimized for floating point calculations which are fundamental to 3D graphics rendering. The main attributes of the GPU are the core clock rate, which typically ranges from 250 MHz to 650 MHz in modern cards, and the number of pipelines (vertex and fragment shaders), which translate a 3D image characterized by vertices and lines into a 2D image formed by pixels. “GPU” redirects here. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... The clock rate is the fundamental rate in cycles per second (measured in hertz) at which a computer performs its most basic operations such as adding two numbers or transferring a value from one processor register to another. ... Shaders are a set of different technologies. ... This example shows an image with a portion greatly enlarged, in which the individual pixels are rendered as little squares and can easily be seen. ...

Type Clock rate (MHz) Bandwidth (GB/s)
DDR 166 - 950 1.2 - 30.4
DDR2 533 - 1000 8.5 - 16
GDDR3 700 - 1800 5.6 - 54.4
GDDR4 1600 - 2400 64 - 156.6

Video memory

If the video card is integrated in the motherboard, it will use the computer RAM memory (lower throughput). If it is not integrated, the video card will have its own video memory which is called Video RAM or VRAM. The VRAM capacity of most modern video cards range from 128 to 1024 MB (workstation graphics cards). Before 2003, the VRAM was typically based on DDR technology. During and after that year, manufacturers moved towards the vastly superior DDR2, GDDR3 and GDDR4. The memory clock rate is between 400 MHz and 1.6 GHz. A very important element of the video memory is the Z-buffer, which manages the depth coordinates in 3D graphics. RAM redirects here. ... VRAM an acronym for Video RAM. Generally a term used in computers to describe RAM dedicated to the purpose of displaying bitmap graphics in raster graphics hardware. ... GDDR3 (Graphics Double Data Rate, version 3) is a graphics card-specific memory technology, designed by ATI Technologies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Z-buffer data In computer graphics, z-buffering is the management of image depth coordinates in three-dimensional (3-D) graphics, usually done in hardware, sometimes in software. ... This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ...


Video BIOS

The video BIOS or firmware chip is a chip that contains the basic program that governs the video card's operations and provides the instructions that allow the computer and software to interface with the card. It contains information on the memory timing, operating speeds and voltages of the processor and ram and other information. It is possible to re-flash a BIOS (enable factory-locked settings for higher performance) although this is typically only done by video card overclockers, and has the potential to irreversibly damage the card. Video BIOS is the BIOS of a graphics card in a computer. ... A microcontroller, like this PIC18F8720 is controlled by firmware stored inside on FLASH memory In computing, firmware is a computer program that is embedded in a hardware device, for example a microcontroller. ...


RAMDAC

Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter. RAMDAC takes responsibility for turning the digital signals produced by the computer processor into an analog signal which can be understood by the computer display. Depending on the number of bits used and the RAMDAC data transfer rate, the converter will be able to support different computer display refresh rates. With CRT displays, it is best to work over 75 Hz and never under 60 Hz, in order to minimise flicker.[8] (With LCD displays, flicker is not a problem.) Due to the growing popularity of digital computer displays and the migration of some of its functions to the motherboard, the RAMDAC is slowly disappearing. All current LCD and plasma displays and TVs work in the digital domain and do not require a RAMDAC. There are few remaining legacy displays which feature analog inputs (VGA, component, SCART etc) only; these do require a RAMDAC but they reconvert the analog signal back to digital before they can display it, with the unavoidable loss of quality stemming from this digital-to-analog-to-digital conversion. The term digital signal is used to refer to more than one concept. ... An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. ... Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter is a combination of three fast DACs with a small SRAM used in graphics display adapters to store the color palette and to generate the analog signals (usually a voltage amplitude) to drive a colour monitor. ... Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a computer display standard first marketed in 1987 by IBM. VGA belongs to a family of earlier IBM video standards and largely remains backward compatible with them. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Outputs

S-video (TV-out), DVI and SVGA outputs

The most common connection systems between the video card and the computer display are: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 112 pixelsFull resolution (913 × 128 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Common connectors on a Graphics card Image taken myself I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 112 pixelsFull resolution (913 × 128 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Common connectors on a Graphics card Image taken myself I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this...

Other connection systems are: Super Video Graphics Array, almost always abbreviated to Super VGA or just SVGA is a broad term that covers a wide range of computer display standards. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is electromagnetic radiation which is emitted by electrical circuits carrying rapidly changing signals, as a by-product of their normal operation, and which causes unwanted signals (interference or noise) to be induced in other circuits. ... Barrel distortion simulation Pincushion distortion simulation In geometric optics and cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, image distortion is a deviation from rectilinear projection, a projection in which straight lines in a scene remain straight in an image. ... In statistics, when analyzing collected data, the samples observed differ in such things as means and standard deviations from the population from which the sample is taken. ... DVI redirects here. ... LCD redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Liquid crystal display. ... S-Video (also known as Y/C) is a baseband analog video format offering a higher quality signal than composite video, but a lower quality than RGB and component video. ... The inside of a DVD player A DVD player is a device not only playing discs produced under the DVD Video standard but also playing discs under the standard of DVD Audio. ... The videocassette recorder (or VCR, more commonly known in the UK and Ireland as the video recorder), is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable videotape cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... Game console redirects here. ...

  • Composite video: Analogic system, with very low resolution. It uses RCA connector.
  • Component video: It has three cables, each with RCA connector (YCbCr); it is used in projectors.
  • HDMI: digital technology released in 2003, whose goal is to replace all the others.
Bus Width (bits) Clock rate (MHz) Bandwidth (MB/s) Style
ISA XT 8 4,77 8 Parallel
ISA AT 16 8,33 16 Parallel
MCA 32 10 20 Parallel
EISA 32 8,33 32 Parallel
VESA 32 40 160 Parallel
PCI 32 - 64 33 - 100 132 - 800 Parallel
AGP 1x 32 66 264 Parallel
AGP 2x 32 133 528 Parallel
AGP 4x 32 266 1000 Parallel
AGP 8x 32 533 2000 Parallel
PCIe x1 1*32 25 / 50 100 / 200 Serial
PCIe x4 1*32 25 / 50 400 / 800 Serial
PCIe x8 1*32 25 / 50 800 / 1600 Serial
PCIe x16 1*32 25 / 50 1600 / 3200 Serial

Composite video, also called CVBS (Composite Video Blanking and Sync), is the format of an analog television (picture only) signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto an RF carrier. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Three cables, each with RCA plugs at both ends, are often used to carry analog component video Component video is a video signal that has been split into two or more components. ... A colour image and the Y, Cb and Cr elements of it. ... HDMI cable and HDMI official logo Type Digital audio/video connector Production history Designer The HDMI group Designed December 2002 Manufacturer Various Produced 2003 Specifications Hot pluggable Yes External Yes Audio signal PCM, DVD-Audio, Super Audio CD, Dolby TrueHD, DTS-HD Master Audio Video signal 480i, 480p, 576i, 576p... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Motherboard interface

Chronologically, connection systems between video card and motherboard were, mainly:

  • ISA: 16 bits architecture, 8 MHz data transfer rate. Released in 1981 by IBM, dominant in the marketplace in the 1980s.
  • MCA: 32 bits, 10 MHz. Released in 1987 by IBM. It wasn’t compatible with previous motherboards.
  • EISA: 32 bits, 8.33 MHz. Released in 1988 to compete with IBM. Compatible with previous motherboards.
  • VESA: ISA extension. 32 bit, 33 MHz.
  • PCI: 32 bit, 33 MHz. Replaced the previous buses from 1993. PCI allowed dynamic connectivity between devices, avoiding the jumpers manual adjustments. PCI-X was a version that improved PCI to 64 bits and 133 MHz.
  • AGP: Dedicated to graphics bus, 32 bits, 66 MHz.
  • PCI-Express: Point to point interface, released in 2004. In 2006 provided double data transfer rate of AGP. Should not be confused with PCI-X, an enhanced version of the original PCI specification.

In the attached table[9] is a comparison between a selection of the features of some of those interfaces.
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 64-bit PCI expansion slots inside a Power Macintosh G4 The Peripheral Component Interconnect, or PCI Standard (in practice almost always shortened to PCI), specifies a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Top: jumper block on IDE hard drive with shunt; bottom: assorted shunts In electronics and particularly computing, a jumper is two or more connecting points that can be conveniently shorted together to set up or adjust a printed circuit board, such as a computers motherboard. ... For other meanings of PCI, see PCI (disambiguation). ... The Accelerated Graphics Port (also called Advanced Graphics Port, often shortened to AGP) is a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a graphics card to a computers motherboard, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics. ... PCI Express, officially abbreviated as PCI-E or PCIe, is a computer expansion card interface format introduced by Intel in 2004. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other meanings of PCI, see PCI (disambiguation). ...


Cooling devices

Heat sink with fan attached.
Heat sink with fan attached.

Due to video card work charge, high temperatures are reached, which can cause a breakdown. Cooling devices are incorporated to avoid excessive heat. There are two types of cooling devices, and both can be used at the same time: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1875x959, 189 KB) The construction of this device is covered by several patents, but I think they only apply for manufacturing, not the image of device. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1875x959, 189 KB) The construction of this device is covered by several patents, but I think they only apply for manufacturing, not the image of device. ...

  • Heat sink: generally referred to as a passive cooling device, it has no moving parts and, therefore, is soundless and very reliable; it absorbs and dissipates heat from the GPU using thermal contact (by either direct or radiant contact with a cooling medium such as air). Its effectiveness depends on its size and other characteristics including shape and material (generally copper or aluminium).
  • Computer fan: usually known as an active cooling device, it has moving parts to push hot air away from the video card and as such will generate a small amount of noise. It is more effective than a heat sink at cooling, but due to the moving parts is far less reliable than a passive heat-sink.
  • Water Block (See: liquid cooling): uses liquid and heat sinks to cool the GPU. This method is used less often but is much more favorable to both other options as it is more effective than a fan and soundless just like a passive cooling device.

CPU heat sink with fan attached A heat sink (or heatsink) is an environment or object that absorbs and dissipates heat from another object using thermal contact (either direct or radiant). ... Moving parts are the components of a device that undergo continuous or frequent motion, most commonly rotation. ... A set of 4 industry standard 80mm fans, most commonly used in personal computers. ... Many components in a computer system unit produce large amout of heat during operation, including, but not limited to: the CPU, chipset, graphics card, and hard drives. ...

Power supply

Until 2006, video card power consumption had not been a big problem; nevertheless, present video card tendency is to consume even more power. Although power supplies are increasing their power too, the bottleneck is due to the PCI-Express connection, which is limited to supplying 150W.[10] Nowadays, video cards with a power consumption over 150W usually include a six-pin power socket that connects directly to the power supply,[11] which allows a direct connection between the computer power supply and the card, avoiding motherboard connection and, therefore, the PCIe port. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... PCI Express, officially abbreviated as PCI-E or PCIe, is a computer expansion card interface format introduced by Intel in 2004. ...


Manufacturers

Two types of manufacturers must be distinguished:


GPU and IGP Manufacturers

Video Card Manufacturers Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... ATI may stand for: ATI Technologies Inc. ... NVIDIA Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced IPA: ) is a U.S. corporation specializing in the manufacture of graphics processors (graphics processing units, GPUs) technologies for workstations, desktop computers, and handhelds. ... Matrox Electronic Systems Ltd is a Canadian company based in Dorval, Quebec, which produces video card components and equipment for personal computers. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... VIA Technologies logo VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics Group. ... S3 Graphics, Ltd design graphics chipsets for PCs. ...

  • Video card manufacturers: They assemble the GPU with the other components, causing differences between video cards with the same chip.

See also:


List of defunct graphics chips and card companies This is a list of defunct graphics chips and card vendors. ...


Graphics APIs

Due to the difficulties working with video cards at a programming level, interfaces which abstract the complexity and diversity of the graphic card primitives appeared. The most important are: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

  • Direct3D: Released by Microsoft in 1996, is a component of DirectX. Designed to be used exclusively in Windows, it is used by the majority of Windows videogames. The latest version of DirectX is DirectX 10, although the majority of computers still rely on graphics cards that use DirectX 9.0c.
  • OpenGL: Developed by Silicon Graphics in the early 1990s, OpenGL is a free, open, multi-language and multi-platform API. It is widely used in CAD, virtual reality, scientific visualization, information visualization, flight simulation and some games, particularly on Linux and other Unix like operating systems. The latest version is OpenGL 2.1.

Direct3D is part of Microsofts DirectX API. Direct3D is only available for Microsofts various Windows operating systems (Windows 95 and above) and is the base for the graphics API on the Xbox and Xbox 360 console systems. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms. ... “Windows” redirects here. ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ... Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... CADD and CAD redirect here. ... This article is about the simulation technology. ... For flight simulator software from Microsoft, see Microsoft Flight Simulator. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ...

Graphics techniques

Some of the most frequently used effects for enhancing the perceived quality of the output of graphics cards include the following: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

  • Anti-aliasing (AA): a technique used to counter distortion caused by aliasing effects.
  • Shader: pixel and vertex processing in terms of illumination, atmospheric optical phenomena or multi-layer surfaces.
  • High dynamic range rendering (HDR): a technique used to enable a wider range of brightness in real scenes (from light sources to dark shadows).
  • Texture mapping: allows the addition of details on surfaces, without adding complexity.
  • Motion blur: technique that blurs objects in motion.
  • Depth of field: technique that blurs faraway objects.
  • Lens flare: imitation of light sources.
  • Fresnel effect: reflections over an object, depending on the angle of vision. The more angle of vision, the more reflection.
  • Anisotropic filtering: enhances viewing angle of a displayed texture as it increases.

In digital signal processing, anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts known as aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution. ... Properly sampled image of brick wall. ... Shaders are a set of different technologies. ... High dynamic range rendering (HDRR or HDR Rendering), also known as high dynamic range lighting, is the rendering of 3D computer graphics scenes by using lighting calculations done in a larger dynamic range. ... Spherical texture mapping Texture mapping is a method, pioneered by Edwin Catmull, of adding detail, surface texture, or colour to a computer-generated graphic or 3D model. ... This amusement ride moved during the exposure. ... In optics, particularly film and photography, the depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of and beyond the subject that appears to be in focus. ... Photograph of NASA lunar lander containing lens flare. ... In optics, Fresnel reflection is the reflection of a portion of incident light at a discrete interface between two media having different refractive indices. ... An illustration of texture filtering methods showing trilinear MIP map texture on the left and enhanced with anisotropic texture filtering on the right. ...

See also

This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ... A cross-platform (or platform independent) programming language, software application or hardware device works on more than one system platform (e. ... API and Api redirect here. ... Direct3D is part of Microsofts DirectX API. Direct3D is only available for Microsofts various Windows operating systems (Windows 95 and above) and is the base for the graphics API on the Xbox and Xbox 360 console systems. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms. ... The GeForce logo used since 2007 GeForce is a brand of PC graphics chipsets designed by NVIDIA. The first GeForce products were designed and marketed for the high-margin computer gamer community, but later the products releases expanded the product line to cover all tiers of the graphics market... Z-buffer data In computer graphics, z-buffering is the management of image depth coordinates in three-dimensional (3-D) graphics, usually done in hardware, sometimes in software. ... . ... Using graphics hardware with free and open source software (FOSS) can be difficult, because some of the leading manufacturers of graphics cards do not provide technical documentation sufficient for independent developers to create accelerated 3D device drivers for their products. ... For other meanings of SLI, please see SLI. NVIDIA SLI Logo Scalable Link Interface (SLI) is a brand name for a multi-GPU solution developed by NVIDIA for linking two (or more) video cards together to produce a single output. ... CrossFire is a brand name for ATI Technologies multi-GPU solution, which competes with its rival nVidias Scalable Link Interface (SLI). ...

References

  1. ^ MDA in IBM PC.
  2. ^ History Table Reference (1).
  3. ^ History Table Reference (2).
  4. ^ History Table Reference (3).
  5. ^ History Table Reference (4).
  6. ^ NVIDIA takes over 3dfx.
  7. ^ NVIDIA vs ATI.
  8. ^ Refresh rate recommended.
  9. ^ Buses features.
  10. ^ Power supply solution.
  11. ^ PCIe power connector.
  • Mueller, Scott (2005) Upgrading and Repairing PCs. 16th edition. Que Publishing. ISBN 0-7897-3173-8

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Graphics card

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Manufacturers


  Results from FactBites:
 
Computer Video Card Support and Help (1077 words)
When the video card is connected to a monitor, it serves as the visual link between you and your computer, allowing you to view and manage your computer's software data.
Video memory is built onto the video board and/or motherboard, allowing the video card to run at higher resolutions and run at more efficient speeds.
Video cards are most commonly found in the PCI slots; however, with the release of the Pentium II came the AGP (Advanced Graphics Port) support.
Video card - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (273 words)
A video card, (also referred to as a graphics card, graphics accelerator card, display adapter and numerous other terms), is an item of personal computer hardware whose function is to generate and output images to a display.
A video card consists of a printed circuit board on which the components are mounted.
Unlike integrated video controllers, which usually share memory with the rest of the computer, most video cards have their own separate onboard memory, referred to as video RAM (VRAM).
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