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Encyclopedia > Video

Video is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. Video technology was first developed for television systems, but has been further developed in many formats to allow for consumer video recording. Video can also be viewed through the Internet as video clips or streaming media clips on computer monitors. Look up video in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Videography refers to the process of capturing moving images on electronic media (e. ... Historical records of events have been made for thousands of years in one form or another. ... A still image is a single static image, as distinguished from a moving image (i. ... In TV and movies a scene is a part of the action in a single location. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Video clips are short clips in video format and predominantly found on the internet where the massive influx of new video clips during 2006 was dubbed as a new phenomenon having a profound impact on both the internet and other forms of media. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... This article is about the machine. ... A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. ...

Contents

Description of video

Analog video standards worldwide       NTSC       PAL or switching to PAL       SECAM       No information
Analog video standards worldwide       NTSC       PAL or switching to PAL       SECAM       No information

The term video (from Latin: "I see") commonly refers to several storage formats for moving eye pictures: digital video formats, including DVD, QuickTime, and MPEG-4; and analog videotapes, including VHS and Betamax. Video can be recorded and transmitted in various physical media: in magnetic tape when recorded as PAL or NTSC electric signals by video cameras, or in MPEG-4 or DV digital media when recorded by digital cameras. Image File history File links NTSC-PAL-SECAM.svg‎ NTSC-PAL-SECAM distribution. ... Image File history File links NTSC-PAL-SECAM.svg‎ NTSC-PAL-SECAM distribution. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, the United States, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for Sequential Color with Memory), is an analog color television system first used in France. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc. ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... An analog or analogue signal is any continuously variable signal. ... Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ... Sonys Betamax is the 12. ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, the United States, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... Video cameras are used primarily in two modes. ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... A MiniDV Camcorder For other uses, see DV (disambiguation). ... Digital cameras are a remarkable advance in technology. ...


Quality of video essentially depends on the capturing method and storage used. Digital television (DTV) is a relatively recent format with higher quality than earlier television formats and has become a standard for television video. (See List of digital television deployments by country.) Video quality is a characteristic of video passed through a video processing system. ... Digital television (DTV) is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound by means of digital signals, in contrast to analog signals used by analog (traditional) TV. DTV uses digital modulation data, which is digitally compressed and requires decoding by a specially designed television set, or a... The transition to digital television is a process that follows different paces around the world. ...


3D-video, digital video in three dimensions, premiered at the end of 20th century. Six or eight cameras with realtime depth measurement are typically used to capture 3D-video streams. The format of 3D-video is fixed in MPEG-4 Part 16 Animation Framework eXtension (AFX). In film, the term 3-D (or 3D) is used to describe any visual presentation system that attempts to maintain or recreate moving images of the third dimension, the illusion of depth as seen by the viewer. ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ...


In the UK, Australia, The Netherlands, Finland, Hungary and New Zealand, the term video is often used informally to refer to both Videocassette recorders and video cassettes; the meaning is normally clear from the context. Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... The videocassette recorder (or VCR, more commonly known in the UK and Ireland as the video recorder), is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable videotape cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ...


Video is often misspelled as Vedio in countries such as Morocco, Egypt, and Sri Lanka.


11 September 2001 is considered the most videoed day in history.


Characteristics of video streams

Number of frames per second

Frame rate, the number of still pictures per unit of time of video, ranges from six or eight frames per second (fps) for old mechanical cameras to 120 or more frames per second for new professional cameras. PAL (Europe, Asia, Australia, etc.) and SECAM (France, Russia, parts of Africa etc.) standards specify 25 fps, while NTSC (USA, Canada, Japan, etc.) specifies 29.97 fps. Film is shot at the slower frame rate of 24fps, which complicates slightly the process of transferring a cinematic motion picture to video. The minimum frame rate to achieve the illusion of a moving image is about fifteen frames per second. Frame rate, or frame frequency, is the measurement of the frequency (rate) at which an imaging device produces unique consecutive images called frames. ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for Sequential Color with Memory), is an analog color television system first used in France. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, the United States, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ...


Interlacing

Video can be interlaced or progressive. Interlacing was invented as a way to achieve good visual quality within the limitations of a narrow bandwidth. The horizontal scan lines of each interlaced frame are numbered consecutively and partitioned into two fields: the odd field (upper field) consisting of the odd-numbered lines and the even field (lower field) consisting of the even-numbered lines. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats. Abbreviated video resolution specifications often include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is often specified as 576i50, where 576 indicates the vertical line resolution, i indicates interlacing, and 50 indicates 50 fields (half-frames) per second. Interlacing is a method of displaying images on a raster-scanned display device, such as a cathode ray tube (CRT). ... Progressive scan Progressive or noninterlaced scanning is any method for displaying, storing or transmitting moving images in which the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. ...


In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all of the scan lines. The result is a higher perceived resolution and a lack of various artifacts that can make parts of a stationary picture appear to be moving or flashing.


A procedure known as deinterlacing can be used for converting an interlaced stream, such as analog, DVD, or satellite, to be processed by progressive scan devices, such as TFT TV-sets, projectors, and plasma panels. Deinterlacing cannot, however, produce a video quality that is equivalent to true progressive scan source material. Deinterlacing is the process of converting interlaced video (a sequence of fields) into a non-interlaced form (a sequence of frames). ... Liquid crystal display television (LCD TV) is television that uses LCD technology for its visual output. ... Video quality is a characteristic of video passed through a video processing system. ...


Video resolution

Comparison of TV resolutions
Comparison of TV resolutions

The size of a video image is measured in pixels for digital video, or horizontal scan lines and vertical lines of resolution for analog video. In the digital domain (e.g. DVD) standard-definition television (SDTV) is specified as 720/704/640×480i60 for NTSC and 768/720×576i50 for PAL or SECAM resolution. However in the analog domain, the number of visible scanlines remains constant (486 NTSC/576 PAL) while the horizontal measurement varies with the quality of the signal: approximately 320 pixels per scanline for VCR quality, 400 pixels for TV broadcasts, and 720 pixels for DVD sources. Aspect ratio is preserved because of non-square "pixels".
New high-definition televisions (HDTV) are capable of resolutions up to 1920×1080p60, i.e. 1920 pixels per scan line by 1080 scan lines, progressive, at 60 frames per second. Image File history File links Standard_video_res. ... Image File history File links Standard_video_res. ... This article is about the picture element. ... Standard-definition television or SDTV refers to television systems that have a lower resolution than HDTV systems. ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ...


Video resolution for 3D-video is measured in voxels (volume picture element, representing a value in three dimensional space). For example 512×512×512 voxels resolution, now used for simple 3D-video, can be displayed even on some PDAs. A voxel (a portmanteau of the words volumetric and pixel) is a volume element, representing a value on a regular grid in three dimensional space. ... User with Treo (PDA with smartphone functionality) Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers, but have become much more versatile over the years. ...


Aspect ratio

Comparison of common cinematography and traditional television (green) aspect ratios.
Comparison of common cinematography and traditional television (green) aspect ratios.

Aspect ratio describes the dimensions of video screens and video picture elements. The screen aspect ratio of a traditional television screen is 4:3, or about 1.33:1. High definition televisions use an aspect ratio of 16:9, or about 1.78:1. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack (also known as "Academy standard") is around 2.37:1. Download high resolution version (1175x500, 5 KB)Illustration of various aspect ratios. ... Download high resolution version (1175x500, 5 KB)Illustration of various aspect ratios. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see Aspect ratio. ...


Pixels on computer monitors are usually square, but pixels used in digital video often have non-square aspect ratios, such as those used in the PAL and NTSC variants of the CCIR 601 digital video standard, and the corresponding anamorphic widescreen formats. Therefore, an NTSC DV image which is 720 pixels by 480 pixels is displayed with the aspect ratio of 4:3 (which is the traditional television standard) if the pixels are thin and displayed with the aspect ratio of 16:9 (which is the anamorphic widescreen format) if the pixels are fat. Digital video is a type of video recording system that works by using a digital, rather than analog, of the video signal. ... CCIR 601 is the old name of a standard published by the CCIR (now ITU-R) for encoding interlaced analogue video signals in digital form. ...


Color space and bits per pixel

Example of U-V color plane, Y value=0.5
Example of U-V color plane, Y value=0.5

Color model name describes the video color representation. YIQ was used in NTSC television. It corresponds closely to the YUV scheme used in NTSC and PAL television and the YDbDr scheme used by SECAM television. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x800, 53 KB) Example of U-V colour plane; Y-value = 0. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x800, 53 KB) Example of U-V colour plane; Y-value = 0. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An image along with its Y, Db, and Dr components. ...


The number of distinct colours that can be represented by a pixel depends on the number of bits per pixel (bpp). A common way to reduce the number of bits per pixel in digital video is by chroma subsampling (e.g. 4:4:4, 4:2:2, 4:2:0). In digital image processing, chroma subsampling is the use of lower resolution for the colour (chroma) information in an image than for the brightness (intensity or luma) information. ...


Video quality

Video quality can be measured with formal metrics like PSNR or with subjective video quality using expert observation. Video quality is a characteristic of video passed through a video processing system. ... The phrase peak signal-to-noise ratio, often abbreviated PSNR, is an engineering term for the ratio between the maximum value of a signal and the magnitude of background noise. ... Subjective video quality is a subjective characteristic of video quality. ...


The subjective video quality of a video processing system may be evaluated as follows:

  • Choose the video sequences (the SRC) to use for testing.
  • Choose the settings of the system to evaluate (the HRC).
  • Choose a test method for how to present video sequences to experts and to collect their ratings.
  • Invite a sufficient number of experts, preferably not fewer than 15.
  • Carry out testing.
  • Calculate the average marks for each HRC based on the experts' ratings.

Many subjective video quality methods are described in the ITU-T recommendation BT.500. One of the standardized method is the Double Stimulus Impairment Scale (DSIS). In DSIS, each expert views an unimpaired reference video followed by an impaired version of the same video. The expert then rates the impaired video using a scale ranging from "impairments are imperceptible" to "impairments are very annoying". Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Subjective video quality is a subjective characteristic of video quality. ... The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ...


Video compression method (digital only)

A wide variety of methods are used to compress video streams. Video data contains spatial and temporal redundancy, making uncompressed video streams extremely inefficient. Broadly speaking, spatial redundancy is reduced by registering differences between parts of a single frame; this task is known as intraframe compression and is closely related to image compression. Likewise, temporal redundancy can be reduced by registering differences between frames; this task is known as interframe compression, including motion compensation and other techniques. The most common modern standards are MPEG-2, used for DVD and satellite television, and MPEG-4, used for home video. Video compression refers to making a digital video signal use less data, without noticeably reducing the quality of the picture. ... Redundancy in information theory is the number of bits used to transmit a message minus the number of bits of actual information in the message. ... Image compression is the application of Data compression on digital images. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ...


Bit rate (digital only)

Bit rate is a measure of the rate of information content in a video stream. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s or bps) unit or Megabits per second (Mbit/s). A higher bit rate allows better video quality. For example VideoCD, with a bit rate of about 1 Mbit/s, is lower quality than DVD, with a bit rate of about 5 Mbit/s. HDTV has a still higher quality, with a bit rate of about 20 Mbit/s. In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... Video quality is a characteristic of video passed through a video processing system. ...


Variable bit rate (VBR) is a strategy to maximize the visual video quality and minimize the bit rate. On fast motion scenes, a variable bit rate uses more bits than it does on slow motion scenes of similar duration yet achieves a consistent visual quality. For real-time and non-buffered video streaming when the available bandwidth is fixed, e.g. in videoconferencing delivered on channels of fixed bandwidth, a constant bit rate (CBR) must be used. Variable bit rate (VBR) is a term used in telecommunications and computing that relates to sound or video quality. ... Constant bit rate (CBR) is a term used in telecommunications, relating to the quality of service. ...


Stereoscopic

Stereoscopic video requires either two channels — a right channel for the right eye and a left channel for the left eye or two overlayed color coded layers. This left and right layer technique is occasionally used for network broadcast, or recent "anaglyph" releases of 3D movies on DVD. Simple Red/Cyan plastic glasses provide the means to view the images discretely to form a stereoscopic view of the content.* New HD DVD and Blu-ray Discs will greatly improve the 3D effect, in color coded stereo programs. The first commercially available HD players were expected to debut at the 2006 NAB Show in Las Vegas in April. See articles Stereoscopy and 3-D- Max film. HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage media format. ... The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) is a US trade association that advocates on behalf of over 8,300 radio and television stations and networks before Congress, the Federal Communications Commission and various judicial bodies. ... Stereo card image modified for crossed eye viewing. ...


Video formats

Video display standards Video connection standards
  • New digital:
    • ATSC (USA, Canada, etc.)
    • DVB (European, Digital Video Broadcasting)
    • ISDB (Japanese, Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting)
  • Old analog:
    • MAC (Europe - Obsolete)
    • MUSE (Japan-analog HDTV)
    • NTSC (USA, Canada, Japan, etc.)
    • PAL (Europe, Asia, Australia, etc.)
      • PALplus (PAL extension. Europe only)
      • PAL-M (PAL variation. Brazil)
    • SECAM (France, ex-USSR, Central Africa)

Analog tape formats (see analog television) ATSC redirects here. ... Official DVB logo, found on compliant devices DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted open standards for digital television. ... A picture of ISDB-T (taken during a tour of the NHK Osaka broadcasting station) Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) format that Japan has created to allow radio and television stations there to convert to digital. ... Multiplexed Analogue Components (MAC) is a high-definition television transmission standard, originally proposed in 1995 for European HDTV. MAC transmits luminance and chrominance data separately in time rather than separately in frequency (as other analog television formats do, such as composite video). ... // Definition Multiple sub-nyquist sampling Encoding (MUSE) is the first HDTV compression and transmission system. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, the United States, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... PALplus is an extension of the PAL analogue broadcasting system for transmitting 16:9 programs without sacrificing vertical resolution. ... For other meanings of PAL see PAL (disambiguation). ... SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for Sequential Color with Memory), is an analog color television system first used in France. ... Composite video, also called CVBS (Composite Video Blanking and Sync), is the format of an analog television (picture only) signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto an RF carrier. ... Three cables, each with RCA plugs at both ends, are often used to carry analog component video Component video is a video signal that has been split into two or more components. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Male BNC connector Cables with BNC connectors Adapter between a female BNC connector and banana plugs Picture to show the similarity between 50 Ω and 75 Ω BNC connectors Pulse generators with BNC connectors and cables. ... D4 is a type of analog video connector found on Japanese consumer electronics, typically HDTV, DVD, Bluray, D-VHS and HD-DVD devices. ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ... S-Video (also known as Y/C) is a baseband analog video format offering a higher quality signal than composite video, but a lower quality than RGB and component video. ... 5 pin 180° DIN connector 4 pin Mini-DIN S-Video connector Speaker DIN line socket (left) and plug DIN connectors are multi-pin electrical connectors based on a DIN standard. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other meanings of DVI, please see DVI (disambiguation). ... HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection) is a specification developed by Intel Corporation to protect digital audio and video content as it travels across Digital Visual Interface (DVI) or High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) connections. ... The High-Definition Multi-media Interface (HDMI) is an industry-supported, uncompressed, all-digital audio/video interface. ... HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection) is a specification developed by Intel Corporation to protect digital audio and video content as it travels across Digital Visual Interface (DVI) or High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) connections. ... An RF connector is an electrical connector designed to work at radio frequencies in the multi-megahertz range. ... Male BNC connector Cables with BNC connectors Adapter between a female BNC connector and banana plugs Picture to show the similarity between 50 Ω and 75 Ω BNC connectors Pulse generators with BNC connectors and cables. ... C connectors couple using two-stud bayonet-type locks. ... The GR connector was a type of RF connector used for terminating coaxial cable. ... Male F Connector The F connector is a type of RF connector commonly used for over the air terrestrial television, cable television and universally for satellite television and cable modems, usually with RG-6/U cable or (in older installations) with RG-59/U cable. ... TV Aerial Plug Aerial Plug on a Sony TV The Belling-Lee connector or IEC 169-2 connector, more often simply known as the TV aerial plug, is the traditional European antenna connector for TV sets and FM-radio receivers. ... Type N connector (male) Type N connector (female) Picture to show the similarity between 50ohm and 75ohm N connectors The N connector (in full, Type N connector) is a threaded RF connector used to join coaxial cables. ... TNC connector on the left beside BNC. The threaded Neill-Concelman (TNC) connector is a threaded version of the BNC connector. ... PL-259 plug. ... This article is about the serial digital interface used in professional video. ... VGA Connector There are at least four versions of VGA connector, the three-row 15 pin DE-15 (also called mini sub D15) in originaland DDC2pinouts, and a less featureful and far less common 9-pin VGA, plus a Mini-VGA used for laptops. ... The Mini-VGA connector is used on laptops and other systems in place of the standard VGA connector. ... Analog television (or analogue television) encodes television and transports the picture and sound information as an analog signal, that is, by varying the amplitude and/or frequencies of the broadcast signal. ...

Digital tape formats (see digital video) Digital video is a type of video recording system that works by using a digital, rather than analog, of the video signal. ...

Optical disc storage formats
Ampex is based in Redwood City, California. ... VERA (Vision Electronic Recording Apparatus) was an early videotape format developed by the BBC in the 1950s. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Sony U-matic VTR BVU-800 A U-matic tape U-matic is the name of a videocassette format developed by Sony in 1969. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Sonys Betamax is the 12. ... Sony Betacam-SP VTP BVW-65 Betacam and VHS size comparison Betacam SP L (top), Betacam SP S (left), VHS (right) The early form of Betacam tapes are interchangeable with Betamax, though the recordings are not. ... Betacam is a family of half-inch professional videotape formats developed by Sony from 1982 onwards. ... 2 Quadruplex (also called 2 Quad, or just quad, for short) was the first practical and commercially successful videotape format. ... Ampex is based in Redwood City, California. ... 1 Type C (designated Type C by SMPTE) is a professional open-reel videotape format co-developed and introduced by Ampex and Sony in 1976. ... Ampex is based in Redwood City, California. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... 1 inch type B (designated Type B by SMPTE) is an open-reel videotape format developed by Bosch in Germany in 1976. ... Logo of Robert Bosch GmbH Robert Bosch GmbH [1] is a German corporation which was started in 1886 by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart, Germany. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ... Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ... Introduced in Japan in 1987, S-VHS (Super VHS) was an improved version of the VHS standard for consumer video cassette recorders. ... Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ... VHS-C is the compact VHS format used for portable video recorders. ... Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ... Video 2000 (or V2000; also known as Video Compact Cassette, or VCC) was a consumer VCR system and videotape standard developed by Philips and Grundig to compete with JVCs VHS and Sonys Betamax video technologies. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... A Video8 cassette The 8mm video format refers informally to three related videocassette formats for the NTSC and PAL/SECAM television systems. ... A Video8 cassette The 8mm video format refers informally to three related videocassette formats for the NTSC and PAL/SECAM television systems. ... Sonys D1 format was the first major professional digital video format, introduced in 1987. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... D2 is a professional digital video tape format created by Ampex and other manufacturers through a standards group of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) and introduced at the 1988 NAB (National Association of Broadcasters) convention as a lower-cost alternative to the D1 format. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... D3 is a professional digital video tape format. ... Panasonic D5 HD VTR AJ-HD3700H A Cassette Tape for D5 HD(Medium) D5 is a professional digital video format introduced by Panasonic in 1994. ... Betacam is a family of half-inch professional videotape formats developed by Sony from 1982 onwards. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Betacam is a family of half-inch professional videotape formats developed by Sony from 1982 onwards. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... For the HDV virus, see Hepatitis D. HDV is an inexpensive high-definition video recording format which uses MPEG2 compression to fit HD content onto the same DV or MiniDV tapes originally developed for standard definition recording. ... ProHD is JVCs extension of the HDV video format, and adds provision for 24p (24 frames per second, progressive scan. ... Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ... D-VHS logo DVHS redirects here. ... Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ... A MiniDV Camcorder For other uses, see DV (disambiguation). ... A MiniDV tape Digital Video (DV) is a video format launched in 1996, and, in its smaller tape form factor MiniDV, has since become one of the standards for consumer and semiprofessional video production. ... MICROMV camcorder and tape (top) compared to miniDV and Hi8 tapes MicroMV was a videotape format introduced in 2001 by Sony. ... Digital8 (or D8) is a consumer digital videotape format developed by Sony, and introduced in 1999. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ...

Digital encoding formats

DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... // DVD is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for storing data, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... The DVD Forum is an international organization composed primarily of hardware and software companies that use and develop the DVD format. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... The Music Corporation of America was a United States based corporation in the music business. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage media format. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... The Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) is an optical medium-based digital audio/video format, developed to provide a means for playing HDTV content using existing optical media. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... CCIR 601 is the old name of a standard published by the CCIR (now ITU-R) for encoding interlaced analogue video signals in digital form. ... The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Motion JPEG (M-JPEG) is an informal name for multimedia formats where each video frame or interlaced field of a digital video sequence is separately compressed as a JPEG image. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... MPEG-1 defines a group of Audio and Video (AV) coding and compression standards agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group). ... “ISO” redirects here. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... H.261 is an 1990 ITU video coding standard originally designed for transmission over ISDN lines on which data rates are multiples of 64 kbit/s. ... The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... H.263 is a video codec designed by the ITU-T as a low-bitrate encoding solution for videoconferencing. ... The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... H.264 is a standard for video compression. ... The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... VC-1 is the informal name of the SMPTE 421M video codec standard initially developed by Microsoft. ... The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers or SMPTE (pronounced simptee or sometimes sumptee) is a US professional association of engineers. ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... There are several video formats in use worldwide: Analogue NTSC PAL SECAM Digital ATSC DVB ISDB These are strictly the format of the video itself, and not for the modulation used for transmission. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. ... VERA (Vision Electronic Recording Apparatus) was an early videotape format developed by the BBC in the 1950s. ... Sony U-matic VTR BVU-800 A U-matic tape U-matic is the name of a videocassette format developed by Sony in 1969. ... Cartrivision was a videocassette format introduced in 1972, and the first format of its kind available in the USA.[1] It was produced by Cartridge Television, Inc. ... Video Cassette Recording (VCR) was a video format by Philips, the first successful home videocassette recorder system. ... V-Cord was a videocassette format developed and released by Sanyo in 1974. ... VX was a short-lived and unsucessful videocassette format developed by Quasar in 1974. ... Sonys Betamax is the 12. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ... Video Cassette Recording (VCR) was a video format by Philips, the first successful home videocassette recorder system. ... Video 2000 (or V2000; also known as Video Compact Cassette, or VCC) was a consumer VCR system and videotape standard developed by Philips and Grundig to compete with JVCs VHS and Sonys Betamax video technologies. ... Compact video cassette or CVC was the one of the first compact video cassette system. ... VHS-C is the compact VHS format used for portable video recorders. ... M is the name of a professional videocassette format developed around 1982 by Matsushita and RCA. It was developed as a competitor to Sonys Betacam format. ... Sony Betacam-SP VTP BVW-65 Betacam and VHS size comparison Betacam SP L (top), Betacam SP S (left), VHS (right) The early form of Betacam tapes are interchangeable with Betamax, though the recordings are not. ... A Video8 cassette The 8mm video format refers informally to three related videocassette formats for the NTSC and PAL/SECAM television systems. ... Note: The MII video tape format is not to be confused with Panasonics M2 videogame console The official logo for the MII videocassette format (courtesy Panasonic) MII is a professional videocassette format developed by Panasonic in 1986 as their answer & competitive product to Sonys Betacam SP format. ... Introduced in Japan in 1987, S-VHS (Super VHS) was an improved version of the VHS standard for consumer video cassette recorders. ... A Video8 cassette The 8mm video format refers informally to three related videocassette formats for the NTSC and PAL/SECAM television systems. ... VHS-C is the compact VHS format used for portable video recorders. ... W-VHS is a high definition analog video tape format created by JVC. The format was originally introduced in 1994 for use with Japans Hi-Vision MUSE broadcasts and is no longer supported; the tapes are no longer manufactured and no players are currently produced for this format. ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ... Sonys D1 format was the first major professional digital video format, introduced in 1987. ... D2 is a professional digital video tape format created by Ampex and other manufacturers through a standards group of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) and introduced at the 1988 NAB (National Association of Broadcasters) convention as a lower-cost alternative to the D1 format. ... D3 is a professional digital video tape format. ... Panasonic D5 HD VTR AJ-HD3700H A Cassette Tape for D5 HD(Medium) D5 is a professional digital video format introduced by Panasonic in 1994. ... Sony Betacam-SP VTP BVW-65 Betacam and VHS size comparison Betacam SP L (top), Betacam SP S (left), VHS (right) The early form of Betacam tapes are interchangeable with Betamax, though the recordings are not. ... A MiniDV Camcorder For other uses, see DV (disambiguation). ... D-9 or Digital S as it was originally known, is a professional digital videotape format created by JVC in 1995. ... DVCPRO, DVCPRO 50, and DVCPRO HD refer to digital videotape formats using the DV codec, and devised by Panasonic. ... Betacam and VHS size comparison Betacam SP L, Betacam SP S, VHS Betacam is a family of half-inch professional videotape formats developed by Sony from 1982 onwards. ... A MiniDV tape For other uses, see DV (disambiguation). ... Betacam and VHS size comparison Betacam SP L, Betacam SP S, VHS Betacam is a family of half-inch professional videotape formats developed by Sony from 1982 onwards. ... A MiniDV tape DV (disambiguation). ... D-VHS logo DVHS redirects here. ... Digital8 (or D8) is a consumer digital videotape format developed by Sony, and introduced in 1999. ... A MiniDV tape Digital Video (DV) is a video format launched in 1996, and, in its smaller tape form factor MiniDV, has since become one of the standards for consumer and semiprofessional video production. ... D6 HDTV VTR is SMPTE videotape standard. ... MICROMV camcorder and tape (top) compared to miniDV and Hi8 tapes MicroMV was a videotape format introduced in 2001 by Sony. ... For the HDV virus, see Hepatitis D. HDV is an inexpensive high-definition video recording format which uses MPEG2 compression to fit HD content onto the same DV or MiniDV tapes originally developed for standard definition recording. ... Betacam and VHS size comparison Betacam SP L, Betacam SP S, VHS Betacam is a family of half-inch professional videotape formats developed by Sony from 1982 onwards. ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... Laserfilm was a videodisc format developed by McDonnell-Douglas in 1984 that was a transmissive laser-based playback medium (unlike its competitor, laserdisc, which was a reflective system). ... CD Video (also known as CDV, CD-V, or CD+V) was a format introduced in the mid-1980s that combined the technologies of compact disc and laserdisc. ... VCD redirects here. ... Box, inside and outside, to MovieCD edition of The Rutles - All you need is cash MovieCD was a format for digital video storage and consumer playback during the mid to late-1990s, marketed by SIRIUS Publishing, Inc. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... DVD-Video format logo DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD (DVD-ROM) discs, and is currently the dominant form of consumer video formats in the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. ... There are two types of MiniDVD cDVD, which are 80-mm versions of the 120-mm DVD mini-DVD, which are standard CDs filled with the DVD-video format // cDVD A Mini-DVD-RAM with DVD Round Holder. ... The China Video Disc (CVD), developed in the late 1990s, is a Chinese government-sponsored competitor to the SVCD standard. ... Compact Disc Super Video (SVCD) logo/trademark Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a format used for storing video on standard compact discs. ... The Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) is an optical medium-based digital audio/video format, developed to provide a means for playing HDTV content using existing optical media. ... XDCAM Disc XDCAM is an optical disk based professional video system introduced by Sony in 2003. ... High-Definition Versatile Disc (HVD) is an Asian standard of advanced high-definition technology originally developed in China by AMLogic Inc. ... FVD, or Forward Versatile Disc, is an offshoot of DVD developed in Taiwan jointly by the Advanced Optical Storage Research Alliance (AOSRA) and the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) as a more inexpensive alternative for high-definition content. ... A UMD The Universal Media Disc (UMD) is an optical disc medium developed by Sony for use on the PlayStation Portable. ... Versatile Multilayer Disc (VMD) is a high-capacity red laser optical disc technology designed by New Medium Enterprises, Inc. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage media format. ... Videodisc (or video disc) is a general term for a laser- or stylus-readable random-access circular disc that contains both audio and video signals recorded in an analog form. ... Phonovision, an experimental process for recording a television signal on phonograph records, was developed in the late 1920s in England by British television pioneer John Logie Baird. ... An Ad for the TeD Initially known as, The Video Disc or the Teldec Television Disc, TeD (Television Electronic Disc) was first announced at a press conference in Berlin on June 24, 1970. ... The Capacitance Electronic Disc (or CED) was a video playback system developed by RCA, in which video and audio could be played back on a TV using a special analog needle and high-density groove system similar to phonograph records. ... In electronics, solid state circuits are those that do not contain vacuum tubes. ... DVCPRO P2 (P2 is short form for Professional Plug-In) is a professional digital video format introduced by Panasonic in 2004, and especially tailored to ENG applications. ... SxS is a flash memory standard compliant to the ExpressCard standard created by Sony and Sandisk. ... Non-volatile memory, nonvolatile memory, NVM or non-volatile storage, is computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered. ... A hard disk drive (HDD), commonly referred to as a hard drive, hard disk or fixed disk drive,[1] is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces. ... Kinescope (IPA: ) originally referred to the cathode ray tube used in television monitors. ... Electronicam was a television recording system, based on a camera that shot film and television at the same time through a common lens. ...

See also

Sound reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation and/or amplification of sound, often as music. ... The following is a list of video-related topics 3-D 4:3 601 16:9 A-C Academy Awards Adobe Premier -- real time editing [1] Advanced Authoring Format AAF alpha channel Animation Avid Xpress Pro -- real time editing Avid video editing family B-movie bluescreen/chroma key Bollywood Camcorder... Video clips are short clips in video format and predominantly found on the internet where the massive influx of new video clips during 2006 was dubbed as a new phenomenon having a profound impact on both the internet and other forms of media. ... Movie film formats Amateur formats: 8 mm Single-8 Super 8 mm 9,5 mm film 17. ... Digital television (DTV) is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound by means of digital signals, in contrast to analog signals used by analog (traditional) TV. DTV uses digital modulation data, which is digitally compressed and requires decoding by a specially designed television set, or a... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... Interlacing is a method of displaying images on a raster-scanned display device, such as a cathode ray tube (CRT). ... Progressive scan Progressive or noninterlaced scanning is any method for displaying, storing or transmitting moving images in which the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. ... Telecine (IPA pronunciation: . Phonetic: tel-e-Sin-ee; tel-e-Sin-a as cine is the same root as in cinema; also tele-seen.) is the process of transferring motion picture film into electronic form, or the machine used in this process. ... A video codec is a device or software that enables video compression and or decompression for digital video. ... Timecode is also the title of a 2000 film directed by Mike Figgis which was shot in one continuous take. ... A comparison of different color spaces. ... Video art is a type of art which relies on moving pictures and is comprised of video and/or audio data. ... This article refers to a surveillance system. ... Projected image from a video projector in a home cinema. ... A Video Synthesizer is a device that electronically creates a video signal. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Groupware | Telecommunications stubs ... A video editor operating an AVID video software editing system in an editing suite. ... Optical feedback Credit: Profero Graphics Two Screenshots of optical feedback Credit: Profero Graphics Optical feedback is the optical equivalent of acoustic feedback. ... Fulldome is used to refer to immersive dome-based video projection environments. ... A screencast is a digital recording of computer screen output, often containing audio narration. ...

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

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