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Encyclopedia > Victorian era
Victorian Era
Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
18371901
Preceded by English Regency
Followed by Edwardian period
Monarch Queen Victoria

The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. Although commonly used to refer to the period of Queen Victoria's rule between 1837 and 1901, scholars debate whether the Victorian period—as defined by a variety of sensibilities and political concerns that have come to be associated with the Victorians—actually begins with the passage of Reform Act 1832. The era was preceded by the Regency era and succeeded by the Edwardian period. The latter half of the Victorian era roughly coincided with the first portion of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe and other non-English speaking countries. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The English Regency, or simply the Regency, is a name given to the period from 1811 to 1820 in the history of England. ... The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It succeeded the Victorian period and is sometimes extended to include the period up to the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, the start of World War... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ... The English Regency, or simply the Regency, is a name given to the period from 1811 to 1820 in the history of England. ... The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It succeeded the Victorian period and is sometimes extended to include the period up to the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, the start of World War... The Belle Époque (French for Beautiful Era) was a period in European history that began during the late 19th century and lasted until World War I. Occurring during the time of the French Third Republic and the German Empire, the Belle Époque was considered a golden age as peace prevailed...

Contents

Introduction

Queen Victoria had the longest reign in British history, and the cultural, political, economic, industrial and scientific changes that occurred during her reign were remarkable. When Victoria ascended to the throne, Britain was primarily agrarian and rural (though it was even then the most industrialised country in the world); upon her death, the country was highly industrialised and connected by an expansive railway network. The first decades of Victoria's reign witnessed a series of epidemics (typhus and cholera, most notably), crop failures and economic collapses. There were riots over enfranchisement and the repeal of the Corn Laws, which had been established to protect British agriculture during the Napoleonic Wars in the early part of the 19th century. Queen Victoria, the longest-reigning monarch of the UK The following is a list of the monarchs who have reigned for the longest amount of time in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (Northern Ireland after 1922), the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of England, or the... Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelt Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial one... railroads redirects here. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning vote) is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... The Corn Laws, in force between 1815 and 1846, were import tariffs ostensibly designed to protect British farmers and landowners against competition from cheap foreign grain imports. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack...

Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837)
Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837)

Discoveries by Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin began to examine centuries of the assumptions about humanity and the world, about science and history, and, finally, about religion and philosophy. As the country grew increasingly connected by an expansive network of railway lines, small, previously isolated communities were exposed and entire economies shifted as cities became more and more accessible. Download high resolution version (816x882, 209 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (816x882, 209 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Lyell The frontispiece from Principles of Geology Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, KT, (November 14, 1797 – February 22, 1875) was a Scottish lawyer, geologist, and populariser of uniformitarianism. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...


The mid-Victorian period also witnessed significant social changes: an evangelical revival occurred alongside a series of legal changes in women's rights. While women were not enfranchised during the Victorian period, they did gain the legal right to their property upon marriage through the Married Women's Property Act, the right to divorce, and the right to fight for custody of their children upon separation. Traditionally, a husband and wife were one person in law. As a result, according to Blackstone, the very being or legal existence of [a married] woman [was] suspended during the marriage, or at least [was] incorporated and confolidated into that of the husband: under whose wing, protection, and cover, she...


The period is often characterized as a long period of peace and economic, colonial, and industrial consolidation, temporarily disrupted by the Crimean War, although Britain was at war every year during this period. Towards the end of the century, the policies of New Imperialism led to increasing colonial conflicts and eventually the Anglo-Zanzibar War and the Boer War. Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform and the widening of the franchise. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... {{}} // The term imperialism was used from the third quarter of the nineteenth century to describe various forms of political control by a greater power over less powerful territories or nationalities, although analytically the phenomena which it denotes may differ greatly from each other and from the New imperialism. ... Combatants British Empire Zanzibar Strength 900 soldiers of the Zanzibar regular army; a detachment of Royal Marines of unknown strength; HMS Philomel; HMS Thrush; HMS Sparrow; HMS Racoon; HMS St George 2,800; HHS Glasgow Casualties Approximately 100 Approximately 500 killed The Anglo-Zanzibar War was fought between the United... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians...


In the early part of the era the House of Commons was dominated by the two parties, the Whigs and the Tories. From the late 1850s onwards the Whigs became the Liberals even as the Tories became known as the Conservatives. Many prominent statesmen led one or other of the parties, including Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, William Gladstone, Benjamin Disraeli and Lord Salisbury. The unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the later Victorian era, particularly in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement. Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The Conservative and Unionist Party, more commonly known as the Conservative Party, is currently the largest majortiy opposition party in the United Knigdom. ... Arms of Lord Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC (15 March 1779–24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830-1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835-1841), and a mentor of Queen Victoria. ... For other people named Robert Peel, see Robert Peel (disambiguation). ... Arms of Edward Smith-Stanley Statue in Parliament Square, London Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (29 March 1799–23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative... Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, KG, GCB, PC (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... Gladstone redirects here. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (December 21, 1804 – April 19, 1881), born Benjamin DIsraeli was a British Conservative statesman and literary figure. ... Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, PC (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), known as Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and as Viscount Cranborne from 1865 until 1868, was a British statesman and Prime Minister on three occasions, for a total of over 13 years. ... There were four Irish Home Rule Bills in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, to reverse parts of the 1801 Act of Union. ...


In May of 1857, the Indian Mutiny, a widespread revolt in India against the rule of the British East India Company, was sparked by sepoys (native Indian soldiers) in the Company's army. The rebellion, involving not just sepoys but many sectors of the Indian population as well, was largely quashed within a year. In response to the Mutiny, the East India Company was abolished in August 1858 and India came under the direct rule of the British crown, beginning the period of the British Raj. 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Belligerents Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi Some Indian civilians. ... The companys flag initially had the flag of England, the St Georges Cross, in the canton The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), often colloquially referred to as John Company, and Company Bahadur in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... Mutiny AKA. Matt Daye Is A conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change or overthrow an existing authority. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George...


Surgeries were very hazardous during this era. Illnesses were very common and disasterous. Surgeons did not wash or clean their hands prior to performing surgery and this caused many infections.


In January 1858, the Prime Minister Lord Palmerston responded to the Orsini plot against French emperor Napoleon III, the bombs for which were purchased in Birmingham, by attempting to make such acts a felony, but the resulting uproar forced him to resign. A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, KG, GCB, PC (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... Felice Orsini (1819 - March 13, 1858) was an Italian revolutionary who tried to assassinate Napoleon III. Felice Orsini was born at Meldola in Romagna. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... This article is about the British city. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ...


In July 1866, an angry crowd in London, protesting John Russell's resignation as prime minister, was barred from Hyde Park by the police; they tore down iron railings and trampled the flower beds. Disturbances like this convinced Derby and Disraeli of the need for further parliamentary reform. John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was an English Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... “Hyde Park” redirects here. ...


During 1875, Britain purchased Egypt's shares in the Suez Canal as the African nation was forced to raise money to pay off its debts. For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ...


In 1882 Egypt became a protectorate of Great Britain after British troops occupied land surrounding the Suez Canal in order to secure the vital trade route, and the passage to India. This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ...


In 1884 the Fabian Society was founded in London by a group of middle class intellectuals, including Quaker Edward R. Pease, Havelock Ellis, and E. Nesbit, to promote socialism. George Bernard Shaw and H. G. Wells would be among many famous names to later join this society. The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement, whose purpose is to advance the socialist cause by gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary means. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Quaker redirects here. ... Edward R. Pease (1857 - 1955) was an English writer and a founding member of the Fabian Society. ... Henry Havelock Ellis (February 2, 1859 - July 8, 1939), known as Havelock Ellis, was a British doctor, sexual psychologist and social reformer. ... Edith Nesbit (married name Edith Bland; August 15, 1858 - May 4, 1924) was an English author and poet whose childrens works were published under the androgynous name of E. Nesbit. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ...


On Sunday, November 13, 1887, tens of thousands of people, many of them socialists or unemployed, gathered in Trafalgar Square to demonstrate against British coercion in Ireland. Metropolitan Police Commissioner Sir Charles Warren ordered armed soldiers and 2,000 police constables to respond. Rioting broke out, hundreds were injured and two people died. This event was referred to as Bloody Sunday. is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Unemployment rates in the United States. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the name currently used by the territorial police force which is responsible for Greater London other than the City of London (the responsibility of the City of London Police). ... General Sir Charles Warren, GCMG, KCB, FRS, RE (7 February 1840–21 January 1927) was an officer in the British Royal Engineers, and in later life was Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, the head of the London Metropolitan Police, from 1886 to 1888, during the period of the Jack... For the painter, see John Constable. ... Categories: Stub | Riots ... Bloody Sunday 1887 Bloody Sunday, London, 13 November 1887, was the name given to a demonstration against coercion in Ireland and to demand the release from prison of MP William OBrien. ...


Culture

This inescapable sense of newness resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities. Gothic Revival architecture became increasingly significant in the period, leading to the Battle of the Styles between Gothic and Classical ideals. Charles Barry's architecture for the new Palace of Westminster, which had been badly damaged in an 1834 fire, built on the medieval style of Westminster Hall, the surviving part of the building. It constructed a narrative of cultural continuity, set in opposition to the violent disjunctions of Revolutionary France, a comparison common to the period, as expressed in Thomas Carlyle's The French Revolution: A History and Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities. Gothic was also supported by the critic John Ruskin, who argued that it epitomised communal and inclusive social values, as opposed to Classicism, which he considered to epitomise mechanical standardisation. Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... The Battle of the Styles is a term used to refer to the conflict between supporters of the Gothic style and the Classical style in architecture. ... From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster, Barrys most famous building. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish essayist, satirist, and historian, whose work was hugely influential during the Victorian era. ... The French Revolution: A History was written by the Scottish essayist, philosopher, and historian Thomas Carlyle. ... Dickens redirects here. ... For other uses, see A Tale of Two Cities (disambiguation). ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ...


The middle of the century saw The Great Exhibition of 1851, the first World's Fair and showcased the greatest innovations of the century. At its centre was the Crystal Palace, an enormous, modular glass and iron structure - the first of its kind. It was condemned by Ruskin as the very model of mechanical dehumanisation in design, but later came to be presented as the prototype of Modern architecture. The emergence of photography, which was showcased at the Great Exhibition, resulted in significant changes in Victorian art. John Everett Millais was influenced by photography (notably in his portrait of Ruskin) as were other Pre-Raphaelite artists. It later became associated with the Impressionistic and Social Realist techniques that would dominate the later years of the period in the work of artists such as Walter Sickert and Frank Holl. The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park 1851. ... For a listing of World Fairs, see List of worlds fairs. ... For other uses, see Crystal Palace. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... Sir John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (June 8, 1829 – August 13, 1896) was a British painter and illustrator and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. ... Persephone, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ... This article is about the art movement. ... A Diego Rivera mural depicting factory workers in Detroit Social Realism is an artistic movement, expressed in the visual and other realist arts, which depicts working class activities as heroic. ... Walter Sickert Walter Richard Sickert (May 31, 1860 in Munich (Germany) – January 22, 1942) was an English impressionist painter. ... Frank Holl (July 4, 1845 - July 31, 1888), English painter, was born in London, and was educated chiefly at University College School. ...


Events

1842 
A law is passed to ban women and children from working in coal, iron, lead and tin mining.
1848 
around 2,000 people a week die in a cholera epidemic.
1851 
The Great Exhibition (the first World's Fair) is held in the Crystal Palace, with great success and international attention.
1859 
Charles Darwin publishes "The Origin of Species", which leads to great religious doubt and insecurity.
1861 
Prince Albert dies; Queen Victoria refuses to go out in public for many years, and when she does she wears a widow's bonnet instead of the crown.
1888 
The serial killer known as Jack the Ripper murders and mutilates five (and possibly more) prostitutes on the streets of London.
1870 - 1891 
Under the Elementary Education Act 1870 basic State Education becomes free for every child under 13.
1913 
In the national Derby, suffragette Emily Wilding Davison threw herself under the King's horse, Anmer, as it rounded Tattenham Corner. She was killed and the Suffragettes had their first martyr.
Jedforest Instrumental Band stand built in 2006 stands in the shadow of Jedburgh Abbey Scottish Borders
Jedforest Instrumental Band stand built in 2006 stands in the shadow of Jedburgh Abbey Scottish Borders

Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park 1851. ... For other uses, see Crystal Palace. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Charles Augustus Emanuel, later HRH The Prince Consort; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... A bonnet is a kind of headgear which is usually brimless. ... Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. ... Jack the Ripper is the pseudonym given to an unidentified serial killer active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area of London, England in the second half of 1888. ... Whore redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Elementary Education Act 1870 commonly known as Forsters Education Act established guidelines which, on paper, granted the right to schooling to any male between the ages of 5 and 13. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom and United States, particularly in the years prior to World War I. The name was the Womens Social and Political Union (founded in 1903). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wikijib6. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wikijib6. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jedburgh (Referred to locally Jeddart or Jethart) is a town and former royal burgh in the Scottish Borders. ... Scottish Borders (often referred to locally as The Borders or The Borderland) is one of 35 local government unitary council areas of Scotland. ...

Entertainment

Popular forms of entertainment vary by socio-economic class. Victorian England, like the periods before it, was interested in theatre and the arts. Music, drama, and opera were widely attended. There were, however, other forms of entertainment. Gambling at cards in establishments popularly called casinos was wildly popular during the period—so much so that evangelical and reform movements specifically targeted such establishments in their efforts to stop gambling, drinking, and prostitution. Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Gamble redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A lion drinking Cygnus olor (mute swan) drinking Drinking is the act of consuming a liquid through the mouth. ... Whore redirects here. ...


Brass bands and 'The bandstand' became popular in the Victorian era typically associated with the British brass band. The band stand is a simple construction which not only creates an ornamental focal point, it also serves acoustic requirements whilst providing shelter from the changeable British weather. It was common to hear the sound of a brass band whilst strolling through parklands. At this time musical recording was still very much a novelty. The Lochgelly Band, a Scottish colliery band, circa 1890 A British-style brass band is a musical ensemble comprising a standardised range of brass and percussion instruments. ... A bandstand built in 1912 stands in the grounds of the Horniman Museum in London Jedforest Instrumental Bandstand built in 2006 stands in the shadow of Jedburgh Abbey Scottish Borders Eastbourne bandstand opened in 1935 A bandstand is a circular or semicircular structure set in a park, garden, or pier...


Another form of entertainment involved 'spectacles' where paranormal events, such as hypnotism, communication with the dead (by way of mediumship or channelling), ghost conjuring and the like, were carried out to the delight of crowds and participants. Such activities were very popular during this time compared to others in recent Western history. For other uses, see Hypnotized (song). ... Mediumship is a form of relationship to spirits practiced in many religions, including Spiritualism, Spiritism, Espiritismo, Candomblé, Voodoo, Kardecism, and Umbanda. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mediumship. ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ...


Technology and engineering

The impetus of the Industrial Revolution had already occurred, but it was during this period that the full effects of industrialization made themselves felt, leading to the mass consumer society of the 20th century. The revolution led to the rise of railways across the country and great leaps forward in engineering, most famously by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Another great engineering feat in the Victorian Era was the sewage system in London. It was designed by Joseph Bazalgette in 1858. He proposed to build 82 miles of sewerage linked with over 1,000 miles of street sewers. Many problems were found but the sewers were completed. After this, Bazalgette designed the Thames Embankment which housed sewers, water pipes and the London Underground. During the same period London's water supply network was expanded and improved, and gas reticulation for lighting and heating was introduced in the 1880s. The Clifton Suspension Bridge, Bristol, England. ... The Clifton Suspension Bridge, Bristol, England. ... The Clifton Suspension Bridge is a suspension bridge, spanning the Avon Gorge and linking Clifton in Bristol to Leigh Woods in North Somerset, England. ... This article is about the English city. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) (IPA: ), was a British engineer. ... Memorial to Sir Joseph Bazalgette on Victoria Embankment Sir Joseph William Bazalgette (28 March 1819 – 15 March 1891) was one of the great English civil engineers of the Victorian era. ... Victoria Embankment, London The Victoria Embankment, previously the Thames Embankment is a road and walkway along the north bank of the River Thames in London in the cities of Westminster and London. ... The London Underground is a rapid transit system that serves a large part of Greater London and some neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. ...


During the Victorian era, science grew into the discipline it is today. In addition to the increasing professionalism of university science, many Victorian gentlemen devoted their time to the study of natural history. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ...


Photography was realized in 1839 by Louis Daguerre in France and William Fox Talbot in England. By 1900, hand-held cameras were available. Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Louis Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (November 18, 1787 – July 10, 1851) was the French artist and chemist who is recognized for his invention of the Daguerreotype process of photography. ... William Henry Fox Talbot William Henry Fox Talbot (February 11, 1800 – September 17, 1877) was an early photographer who made major contributions to the photographic process. ...


Although initially developed in the early years of the 19th century, gas lighting became widespread during the Victorian era in industry, homes, public buildings and the streets. The invention of the incandescent gas mantle in the 1890s greatly improved light output and ensured its survival as late as the 1960s. Hundreds of gas works were constructed in cities and towns across the country. In 1882, incandescent electric lights were introduced to London streets, although it took many years before they were installed everywhere. Gas lighting is the process of burning piped natural gas or coal gas for illumination. ... Molten glassy material glows orange with incandescence in a vitrification experiment. ... For other uses of mantle see: mantle (disambiguation) An incandescent gas mantle, gas mantle, or Welsbach mantle is a device for generating bright white light when heated by a flame. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Most of the industrialized world is lit by electric lights, which are used both at night and to provide additional light during the daytime. ...


Prostitution

Beginning in the late 1840s, major news organisations, clergymen and single women became increasingly interested in prostitution, which came to be known as "The Great Social Evil." Although estimates of the number of prostitutes in London by the 1850s vary widely (in his landmark study, Prostitution, William Acton reported that the police estimated there were 8,600 in 1857 London alone), it is enough to say that the number of women working the streets became increasingly difficult to ignore. // First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi, Northland New Zealand. ... Whore redirects here. ... William Acton (1813-1875) was a British medical doctor and book writer. ...


When the United Kingdom Census 1851 publicly revealed a 4% demographic imbalance in favour of women (i.e. 4% more women than men), the problem of prostitution began to shift from a moral/religious cause to a socio-economic one. The 1851 census showed that the population of Great Britain was roughly 18 million; this meant that roughly 750,000 women would remain unmarried simply because there were not enough men. These women came to be referred to as "superfluous women" or "redundant women," and many essays were published discussing what, precisely, ought to be done with them. The United Kingdom Census of 1851 recorded the people residing in every household on the night of March 30, 1851, and was the second of the UK censuses to include details of household members. ... Socioeconomics or Socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. ...


While the Magdalen Hospital had been "reforming" prostitutes since the mid-18th century, the years between 1848 and 1870 saw a veritable explosion in the number of institutions working to "reclaim" these "fallen women" from the streets and retrain them for entry into respectable society—usually for work as domestic servants. The theme of prostitution and the "fallen woman" (an umbrella term used to describe any women who had sexual intercourse out of wedlock) became a staple feature of mid-Victorian literature and politics. In the writings of Henry Mayhew, Charles Booth and others, prostitution began to be seen as a social problem, rather than just a fact of urban life. A poster featuring an illustration of a stereotypical uniformed maid A domestic worker, or simply domestic, is a servant who works within their employers household. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Henry Mayhew (25 November 1812 - 25th July 1887) was an English journalist and one of the founders of the humorous magazine Punch, and the magazines editor for its beginning days. ... Rt. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up urban in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


When Parliament passed the first of the Contagious Diseases Acts in 1864 (which allowed the local constabulary to force any woman suspected of venereal disease to submit to its inspection), Josephine Butler's crusade to repeal the CD Acts yoked the anti-prostitution cause with the emergent feminist movement. Butler attacked the long-established double standard of sexual morality. Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... The Contagious Diseases Acts were passed by several different European nations during the middle of the nineteenth century and gave policeman the power to arrest prostitutes for the purpose of having them submit to mandatory venereal disease examinations. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD), a. ... Josephine Elizabeth Butler (1828 - 1906) was a Victorian era feminist campaigner who was primarily interested in the welfare of prostitutes. ... The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement or Womens Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... A double standard, according to the World Book Dictionary, is a standard applied more leniently to one group than to another. ...


Prostitutes were often presented as victims in sentimental literature such Thomas Hood's poem The Bridge of Sighs, Elizabeth Gaskell's novel Mary Barton and Dickens' novel Oliver Twist. The emphasis on the purity of women found in such works as Coventry Patmore's The Angel in the House led to the portrayal of the prostitute and fallen woman as soiled, corrupted, and in need of cleansing. The sentimental novel or the novel of sensibility is an 18th century literary genre which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment, sentimentalism, and sensibility. ... Thomas Hood Thomas Hood (May 23, 1799 - May 3, 1845) was a British humorist and poet. ... Elizabeth Gaskell, in the 1832 miniature by William John Thomson Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell (née Stevenson; 29 September 1810–12 November 1865), often referred to simply as Mrs. ... Mary Barton was Elizabeth Gaskells first novel, published in 1848. ... Dickens redirects here. ... Oliver Twist (1838) is Charles Dickens second novel. ... Coventry Kersey Dighton Patmore (July 23, 1823 - November 26, 1896) was an English poet and critic. ... The Angel in the House is a poem by Coventry Patmore, first published in 1854 and revised up until 1862. ...


This emphasis on female purity was allied to the stress on the homemaking role of women, who helped to create a space free from the pollution and corruption of the city. In this respect the prostitute came to have symbolic significance as the embodiment of the violation of that divide. The double standard remained in force. Divorce legislation introduced in 1857 allowed for a man to divorce his wife for adultery, but a woman could only divorce if adultery was accompanied by cruelty. The anonymity of the city led to a large increase in prostitution and unsanctioned sexual relationships. Dickens and other writers associated prostitution with the mechanisation and industrialisation of modern life, portraying prostitutes as human commodities consumed and thrown away like refuse when they were used up. Moral reform movements attempted to close down brothels, something that has sometimes been argued to have been a factor in the concentration of street-prostitution in Whitechapel (East End) by the 1880s. Two homemakers. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (February 7, 1812 – June 9, 1870), pen-name “Boz”, was an English novelist of the Victorian era. ... The word commodity has a different meaning in business than in Marxian political economy. ... A brothel, also known as a bordello or whorehouse, is an establishment specifically dedicated to prostitution, providing the prostitutes a place to meet and to have sex with the clients. ... Whitechapel is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, United Kingdom. ...


By the time the CD Acts were repealed in 1886, Victorian England had been completely transformed. This era, which at its outset looked no different from the century before it, would end resembling much more the era that would follow.


See also

Manchester Town Hall is an example of Victorian architecture found in Manchester, UK. The Carson Mansion is an example of a Victorian home in Eureka, California, USA The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles predominantly in the Victorian era. ... Dante Gabriel Rossettis drawing room at No. ... Windsor Castle in Modern Times by Landseer depicts the Queen and the Prince Consort at home in the 1840s. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living at the time of Queen Victoria (reigned 1837 - 1901) in particular, and to the moral climate of Great Britain throughout the 19th century in... Image:Cg Charles Dickens is still one of the best known English writers of any era. ... The History of British society demonstrates innumerable changes over many centuries. ... Horror Victorianorum (terror of the Victorian) is a term devised by the philosopher David Stove to refer to irrational distaste for, or condemnation of, Victorian culture, art and design. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... The status of Women in the Victorian Era is often seen as an illustration of the striking discrepancy between Englands national power and wealth and what many, then and now, consider its appalling social conditions. ... Victoriana refers to items or material from the Victorian period (1833-1901), especially that particularly evocative of the design style and outlook of the time. ... Neo-Victorian is an aesthetic movement which amalgamates Victorian and Edwardian aesthetic sensibilities with modern principles and technologies, many of which originate and are still centered in Japan. ... Former workhouse at Nantwich, dating from 1780 A workhouse was a place where people who were unable to support themselves could go to live and work. ... Pax Britannica (Latin for the British Peace, modelled after Pax Romana) refers to a period of British imperialism after the 1805 Battle of Trafalgar, which led to a period of overseas British expansionism. ...

Further reading

  • Altick, Richard Daniel. Victorian People and Ideas: A Companion for the Modern Reader of Victorian Literature. W.W. Norton & Company: 1974. ISBN 0-393-09376-X.
  • Burton, Antoinette (editor). Politics and Empire in Victorian Britain: A Reader. Palgrave Macmillan: 2001. ISBN 0-312-29335-6.
  • Gay, Peter, The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud, 5 volumes, Oxford University Press, 1984-1989
  • Janowski, Diane, Victorian Pride - Forgotten Songs of America, 6 volumes, New York History Review Press, 2007-2008.
  • Flanders, Judith. Inside the Victorian Home: A Portrait of Domestic Life in Victorian England. W.W. Norton & Company: 2004. ISBN 0-393-05209-5.
  • Mitchell, Sally. Daily Life in Victorian England. Greenwood Press: 1996. ISBN 0-313-29467-4.
  • Wilson, A. N. The Victorians. Arrow Books: 2002. ISBN 0-09-945186-7

Richard Daniel Altick (born 1915) is an American literary scholar, known for his contributions to Victorian studies. ... Peter Gay (June 20, 1923-), a Jewish American historian of the social history of ideas, born in Berlin as Peter Joachim Fröhlich . ... Andrew Norman Wilson (born 1950) is an English writer, known for his biographies, novels and works of popular and cultural history. ...

External links and references

Preceded by
Regency era
Victorian period
18371901
Succeeded by
Edwardian era
The Regency period in the United Kingdom is the period between 1811 and 1820, when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son, later George IV, was instated to be his proxy as Prince Regent. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It is sometimes extended to include the period to the start of World War I in 1914 or even the end of the war in 1918. ...

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