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Encyclopedia > Victoria and Albert Museum
The Victoria and Albert Museum
Established 1852
Location Cromwell Gardens, South Kensington, London
Collection size 4.6 million objects
Museum area 12.5 acres / 145 galleries
Visitor figures 2,400,000 (2006) [1]
Director Mark Jones
Nearest tube station(s) South Kensington
Website www.vam.ac.uk

The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the world's largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects. Founded in 1852 as the South Kensington Museum, the V&A has since grown to now cover some 12.5 acres[2] and 145 galleries. Its collection span 5000 years of art, from ancient times to the present day, in virtually every medium, from the cultures of Europe, North America, Asia and North Africa. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 369 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The main entrance of the Victoria and Albert Museum on Cromwell Gardens. ... The junction with Old Brompton Road and Pelham Street, outside South Kensington tube station. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Mark Jones is a British art historian and museum director; as of 2007 he is director of the Victoria and Albert Museum. ... Located on Cromwell Road in South Kensington, London, South Kensington tube station is the closest London Underground station to the Natural History, Science and Victoria and Albert Museums, as well as to Imperial College. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... “European History” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that List of Native American tribes be merged into this article or section. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... The people of the Maghreb and the Sahara speak various dialects of Berber and Arabic, and almost exclusively follow Islam. ...


The holdings of ceramics, glass, textiles, costumes, silver, ironwork, jewellery, furniture, medieval objects, sculpture, prints and printmaking, drawings and photographs are amongst the largest and most comprehensive in the world. The museum possesses the world's largest collection of post-classical sculpture, the holdings of Italian Renaissance items are the largest outside Italy. The departments of Asia include art from South Asia, Japan, China, Korea and the Islamic world. The East Asian collections are among the best in Europe, with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork, whilst the Islamic collection, alongside the Musée du Louvre and Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, is amongst the largest in the world. Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum. ... This article is about the material. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Yarkand ladies summer fashions. ... Ironwork is any weapon, artwork, utensil or architectural feature made of iron especially used for decorative purposes. ... Amber jewellery in the form of pendants Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal ornament, such as a necklace, ring, or bracelet, made from jewels, precious metals or other substance. ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... The term Old Master Print is used to describe works of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). ... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... Drawing is a visual art which makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. ... The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre) in Paris, France, is one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as The Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ...


Alongside other neighbouring institutions, including the Natural History Museum and Science Museum, the V&A is located in what is termed London's "Albertopolis", an area of immense cultural, scientific and educational importance. Since 2001, the Museum has embarked on a major £150m renovation program[3] which has seen a major overhaul of the departments including the introduction of newer galleries, gardens, shops and visitor facilities. Following in similar vein to other national UK museums, entrance to the museum has been free since 2001. For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... Image:Science Museum bernoulli exhibit. ... Albertopolis is a nickname for the area centered around South Kensington, London, between Cromwell Road and Kensington Gore, which contains a large number of educational and cultural sites, including Imperial College London Natural History Museum Royal Albert Hall Royal College of Art Royal College of Music Royal Geographical Society Science...

Contents

History

Foundation

The V&A has its origins in The Great Exhibition of 1851, with which Henry Cole the museum's first director was involved in planning; initially it was known as The Museum of Manufactures,[4] first opening in May 1852 at Marlborough House, but by September had been transferred to Somerset House. At this stage the collections covered both applied art and science.[5] Several of the exhibits from the Exhibition were purchased to form the nucleus of the collection.[6] By February 1854 discussions were underway to transfer the museum to the current site[7] and it was renamed as the South Kensington Museum. In 1855 the German architect Gottfried Semper, at the request of Cole, produced a design for the museum, but was rejected by the Board of Trade as too expensive.[8] The site was occupied by Brompton Park House, this was extended including the first refreshment rooms opened in 1857, the museum being the first in the world to provide such a facility.[9] The official opening by Queen Victoria was on 22 June 1857.[10] In the following year, late night openings were introduced, made possible by the use of gas lighting. This was to enable in the words of Cole "to ascertain practically what hours are most convenient to the working classes"[11] — this was linked to the use of the collections of both applied art and science as educational resources to help boost productive industry.[12] In these early years the practical use of the collection was very much emphasised as opposed to that of "High Art" at the National Gallery and scholarship at the British Museum.[13] This led to the transfer to the museum of The School of Design that had been founded in 1837 at Somerset House, after the transfer it was referred to as the Art School or Art Training School, later to become the Royal College of Art which finally achieved full independence in 1949. From the 1860s to the 1880s the scientific collections had been moved from the main museum site to various improvised galleries to the west of Exhibition Road.[14] In 1893 the "Science Museum" had effectively come into existence when a separate director was appointed.[15] The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park 1851. ... Sir Henry Cole (15 July 1808, Bath – 18 April 1882, London) was a civil servant who facilitated many innovations in commerce and education in 19th century Britain. ... Marlborough House, London Marlborough House is a mansion in Westminster, London. ... The central courtyard of Somerset House in London. ... Gottfried Semper Gottfried Semper (1803-1879) was a German architect, art critic, and professor of architecture, who designed and built the Semper Oper in Dresden between 1838 and 1841. ... The Board of Trade circa 1808. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The National Gallery is an art gallery in London, located on the north side of Trafalgar Square. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... The central courtyard of Somerset House in London. ... The Darwin Building at Kensington Gore The Royal College of Art (RCA) is a university in London, England. ... The main entrance of the Science Museum on Exhibition Road. ...


The laying of the foundation stone to the left of the main entrance of the Aston Webb building, on 17 May 1899[16] was the last official public appearance by Queen Victoria. It was during this ceremony that the change of name from the South Kensington Museum to the Victoria and Albert Museum was made public. is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The exhibition which the Museum organised to celebrate the centennial of the 1899 renaming, "A Grand Design," first toured in North America from 1997 (Baltimore Museum of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston and the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco), returning to London in 1999.[17] To accompany and support the exhibition, the Museum published a book, Grand Design, which it has made available for reading online on its website.[18] A centennial is a 100-year anniversary of an event, or the celebrations pertaining thereto. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Baltimore Museum of Art in Baltimore, Maryland, was founded in 1914. ... Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (Doù venons-nous? Que faisons-nous? Où allons-nous?) (1897). ... The Royal Ontario Museum, commonly known as the ROM (rhyming with Tom), is a major museum for world culture and natural history in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), located in Houston, is the largest art museum in Texas, USA, and the largest art museum in the USA east of Los Angeles, south of Chicago, and west of Washington. ... The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, comprising the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum in Golden Gate Park and the California Palace of the Legion of Honor in Lincoln Park is the largest public arts institution in the city of San Francisco and one of the largest art museums...


1900–1950

Victoria and Albert Museum — Front Elevation
Victoria and Albert Museum — Front Elevation

The opening ceremony for the Aston Webb building by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra took place on 26 June 1909.[19] In 1914 the construction commenced of the Science Museum signalling the final split of the science and art collections,[20] since then the museum has maintained its role of one of the world's greatest decorative arts collections. At the outbreak of World War II most of the collection was packed away and sent either to an underground quarry in Wiltshire, Montacute House in Somerset, or to a disused tunnel near Aldwych tube station with larger items remaining in situ being sand bagged and bricked in.[21] During the war some of the galleries were used between 1941 and 1944 as a school for children evacuated from Gibraltar.[22] The South Court became a canteen, first for the Royal Air Force and later for Bomb Damage Repair Squads.[23] Prior to the return of the collections after the war, the "Britain Can Make It" exhibition was held between September and November 1946,[24] attracting nearly a million and a half visitors.[25] This was organised and held under the auspices of the Council of Industrial Design which had been established by central government in 1944 "to promote by all practicable means the improvement of design in the products of British industry";[26] the success of this exhibition led to the planning of the Festival of Britain. By 1948 most of the collections had been returned to the museum. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (525x709, 168 KB) I made this painting. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (525x709, 168 KB) I made this painting. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... Princess Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Carolina Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was Queen Consort to Edward VII of the United Kingdom and thus Empress of India during her husbands reign. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London is part of the National Museum of Science and Industry. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Montacute House, the west front. ... Aldwych tube station is a disused station formerly on the Piccadilly Line of the London Underground. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... The Festival of Britain emblem, designed by Abram Games, from the cover of the South Bank Exhibition Guide, 1951 The Festival of Britain was a national exhibition which opened in London and around Britain in May 1951. ...


Since 1950

In 2000, a 9 metre high, blown glass chandelier by Dale Chihuly was installed as a focal point in the rotunda at the V&A's main entrance.
In 2000, a 9 metre high, blown glass chandelier by Dale Chihuly was installed as a focal point in the rotunda at the V&A's main entrance.

In July 1973 - as part of its outreach programme to young people - the V&A became the first museum in Britain to present a rock concert. The V&A presented a combined concert/lecture by British progressive folk-rock band Gryphon, who explored the lineage of mediaeval music and instrumentation and related how those contributed to contemporary music 500 years later. This innovative approach to bringing young people to museums was a hallmark of the Directorship of Roy Strong and was subsequently emulated by some other British museums. Download high resolution version (768x1097, 394 KB)The Rotunda, or main entrance, of the Victoria and Albert Museum now sports a magnificent, 30ft high, blown glass chandelier by Dale Chihuly. ... Download high resolution version (768x1097, 394 KB)The Rotunda, or main entrance, of the Victoria and Albert Museum now sports a magnificent, 30ft high, blown glass chandelier by Dale Chihuly. ... A contemporary chandelier in the Galt House in Louisville, Kentucky. ... Dale Chihuly. ... Gryphon were a British progressive rock band of the 1970s, notable for their unusual sound and instrumentation. ...


In the 1980s Sir Roy Strong renamed the museum as 'The Victoria and Albert Museum, the National Museum of Art and Design'. Strong's successor Elizabeth Esteve-Coll oversaw a turbulent period for the institution in which the museum's curatorial departments were re-structured leading to public criticism from some staff. Esteve-Coll's attempts to make the V&A more accessible included a criticised marketing campaign emphasising the cafe over the collection. Sir Roy Strong is an English arts curator, writer, broadcaster and garden designer. ... Dame Elizabeth Anne Loosemore Esteve-Coll (née Kingdon), DBE, BA, FRSA (b. ...


In 2001 "Future Plan" was launched, which involves redesigning all the galleries and public facilities in the museum that have yet to be remodelled. This is to ensure that the exhibits are better displayed, more information is available and the Museum meets modern expectations for museum facilities; it should take about ten years to complete the work.


The museum also runs the Museum of Childhood at Bethnal Green; and the Theatre Museum in Covent Garden and used to run Apsley House. The Theatre Museum is now closed, although it is planned to reopen in new galleries in the V&A. Exterior of the museum The official opening of the Bethnal Green Museum by the Prince of Wales in 1872. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Museum of Performance (formerly the Theatre Museum) in the Covent Garden district of London is the United Kingdoms national museum of the performing arts. ... Covent Garden is a district in central London and within the easterly bounds of the City of Westminster. ... Apsley House in 1829 by TH Shepherd. ...


Architecture of the Museum

The Victorian period

The Victorian areas have a complex history, with piecemeal additions by different architects. Founded in May 1852, it was not until 1857 that the museum moved to the present site. This area of London was known as Brompton but had been renamed South Kensington. The land was occupied by Brompton Park House, which was extended, most notably by the "Brompton Boilers",[27] which were starkly utilitarian iron galleries with a temporary look; they were later dismantled and used to build the V&A Museum of Childhood. The first building to be erected that still forms part of the museum was the Sheepshanks Gallery in 1857 on the eastern side of the garden[28]; its architect was Captain Francis Fowke. The next major expansions were designed by the same architect, these were the Turner and Vernon galleries built 1858-9 [29](Built to house the eponymous collections, which were later transferred to the Tate Gallery, now used as the picture galleries and tapestry gallery respectively), then the North [30]and South Courts [31], both of which opened by June 1862. They now form the galleries for temporary exhibitions and are directly behind the Sheepshanks Gallery. On the very northern edge of the site is situated the Secretariat Wing[32], also built in 1862 this houses the offices and board room etc and is not open to the public. Brompton is a locality in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. ... The junction with Old Brompton Road and Pelham Street, outside South Kensington tube station. ... Francis Fowke (1823-1865) was a British engineer and architect. ...

The Ceramic Staircase - Designed by Frank Moody
The Ceramic Staircase - Designed by Frank Moody

An ambitious scheme of decoration was developed for these new areas: a series of mosaic figures depicting famous European artists of the Medieval and Renaissance period were produced[33]. These have now been removed to other areas of the museum. Also started were a series of frescos by Lord Leighton: Industrial Arts as Applied to War 1878–1880 and Industrial Arts Applied to Peace, which was started but never finished[34]. To the east of this were additional galleries, the decoration of which was the work of another designer Owen Jones, these were the Oriental Courts (covering India, China and Japan) completed in 1863, none of this decoration survives,[35] part of these galleries became the new galleries covering the 19th century, opened in December 2006. The last work by Fowke was the design for the range of buildings on the north and west sides of the garden, this includes the refreshment rooms, reinstated as the Museum Café in 2006, with the silver gallery above, (at the time the ceramics gallery), the top floor has a splendid lecture theatre although this is seldom open to the general public. The ceramic staircase in the northwest corner of this range of buildings was designed by F.W. Moody[36]; all the architectural details are produced in moulded and coloured pottery. All the work on the north range was designed and built in 1864–1869. The style adopted for this part of the museum was Italian Renaissance, much use was made of terracotta, brick and mosaic, this north façade was intended as the main entrance to the museum with its bronze doors designed by James Gamble & Reuben Townroe having six panels depicting: Humphrey Davy (chemistry); Isaac Newton (astronomy); James Watt (mechanics); Bramante (architecture); Michelangelo (sculpture); Titian (painting); thus representing the range of the museums collections[37],Godfrey Sykes also designed the terracotta embellishments and the mosaic in the Pediment of the North Façade commemorating the Great Exhibition the profits from which helped to fund the museum, this is flanked by terracotta statue groups by Percival Ball[38]. This building replaced Brompton Park House, which could then be demolished to make way for the south range. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas. ... Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (December 31, 1830 - January 25, 1896) was an English painter and sculptor. ... Owen Jones (15 February 1809 - 19 April 1874) was a British architect, decorative artist, author and educator. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... Humphry Davy Sir Humphry Davy (December 17, 1778 - May 29, 1829), often incorrectly spelled Humphrey, was an Cornish chemist. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... Donato Bramante Donato Bramante (1444 - March 11, 1514), Italian architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his most famous design was St. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. ... A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ...


The interiors of the three refreshment rooms were assigned to different designers. The Green Dining Room 1866–68 was the work of Philip Webb and William Morris[39], displays Elizabethan influences, the lower part of the walls are panelled in wood with a band of paintings depicting fruit and the occasional figure, with moulded plaster foliage on the main part of the wall and a plaster frieze around the decorated ceiling and stained glass windows. The Centre Refreshment Room 1865–77 was designed in a Renaissance style by James Gamble[40], the walls and even the Ionic columns are covered in decorative and moulded ceramic tile, the ceiling consists of elaborate designs on enamelled metal sheets and matching stained glass windows, the marble fireplace[41] was designed and sculpted by Alfred Stevens and was removed from Dorchester House prior to that building's demolition in 1929. The Grill Room 1876–81 was designed by Sir Edward Poynter[42], the lower part of the walls consist of blue and white tiles with various figures and foliage enclosed by wood panelling, above there are large tiled scenes with figures depicting the four seasons and the twelve months these were painted by ladies from the Art School then based in the museum, the windows are also stained glass, there is an elaborate cast iron grill still in place. Philip Speakman Webb born 12 January 1831 died 17 April 1915 was an architect who designed The Red House at Bexleyheath in 1859 and also the house Standen with William Morris. ... William Morris, socialist and innovator in the Arts and Crafts movement William Morris (March 24, 1834 – October 3, 1896) was an English artist, writer, socialist and activist. ... The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) Ionic order: 1 - entrablature, 2 - column, 3 - cornice, 4 - frieze, 5 - architrave or epistyle, 6 - capital (composed of abacus and volutes), 7 - shaft, 8... Alfred Stevens (January 28, 1818 - May 1, 1875), British sculptor, was born at Blandford in Dorset. ... Edward Poynter: Cave of the Storm Nymphs Sir Edward John Poynter (March 20, 1836 - July 26, 1919) was a British painter. ...


With the death of Fowke the next architect to work at the museum was Colonel (later Major General) Henry Scott (1822–83)[43] also of the Royal Engineers. He designed to the north west of the garden the five-storey School for Naval Architects (also known as the science schools)[44], now the Henry Cole Wing in 1867–72. Scott's assistant J.H. Wild designed the impressive staircase [45]that rises the full height of the building, made from Cadeby stone the steps are 7 feet in length, the balustrades and columns are Portland stone. It is now used to house the joint V&A and Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) architectural drawings library and the Sackler education centre to open in 2008. Continuing the style of the earlier buildings, various designers were responsible for the decoration, the terracotta embellishments were again the work of Godfrey Sykes, although Sgraffito was used to decorate the east side of the building designed by F.W. Moody[46], a final embellishment were the wrought iron gates made as late as 1885 designed by Starkie Gardner[47], these lead to a passage through the building. Scott also designed the two Cast Courts 1870–73[48] to the southeast of the garden (the site of the 'Brompton Boilers'), these vast spaces have ceilings 70 feet in height to accommodate the plaster casts of parts of famous buildings, including Trajan's Column (in two separate pieces). The final part of the museum designed by Scott was the Art Library and what is now the sculpture gallery on the south side of the garden, built 1877–83[49], the exterior mosaic panels in the parapet were designed by Reuben Townroe who also designed the plaster work in the library[50], Sir John Taylor designed the book shelves and cases[51], also this was the first part of the museum to have electric lighting[52]. This completed the northern half of the site but left the museum without a proper façade. The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects in the United Kingdom. ... Renaissance façade with Sgraffito in Mödling, Lower Austria Scraffito on a workshop in Linz Windows decorated with Sgraffito in Zrenjanin, Serbia Sgraffito (scratched, plural Scraffiti and often also written Scraffito) is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colors to... Sir John Taylor KCB FRIBA (15 November 1833 – 30 April 1912) was a British architect. ...


The Edwardian period

The main façade, built from red brick and Portland stone, stretches 720 feet along Cromwell Gardens and was designed by Aston Webb after winning a competition in 1891 to extend the museum. Construction took place between 1899 to 1909.[53] Stylistically it is a strange hybrid, although much of the detail belongs to the Renaissance there are medieval influences at work. The main entrance consisting of a series of shallow arches supported by slender columns and niches with twin doors separated by pier is Romanesque in form but Classical in detail. Likewise the tower above the main entrance has an open work crown surmounted by a statue of fame[54], a feature of late Gothic architecture and a feature common in Scotland, but the detail is Classical. The main windows to the galleries are also mullioned and transomed, again a Gothic feature, the top row of windows are interspersed with statues of many of the British artists whose work is displayed in the museum. Prince Albert appears within the main arch above the twin entrances, Queen Victoria above the frame around the arches and entrance. These façades surround four levels of galleries. Other areas designed by Webb include the Entrance Hall and Rotunda, the East and West Halls, the areas occupied by the shop and Asian Galleries as well as the Costume Gallery. The interior makes much use of marble in the entrance hall and flanking staircases, although the galleries as originally designed were white with restrained classical detail and mouldings, very much in contrast to the elaborate decoration of the Victorian galleries, although much of this decoration was removed in the early twentieth century.[55] The Cenotaph, in Whitehall, London, England, is made from Portland stone Portland stone is limestone from the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset. ... Sir Aston Webb, portrait by Solomon Joseph Solomon, ca 1906 Sir Aston Webb (May 22, 1849 - August 21, 1930) was an English architect, active in the late 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Venus de Milo, front. ...


The post-war period

The Museum survived the Second World War with only minor bomb damage. The worst loss was the Victorian stained glass on the Ceramics Staircase which was blown in when bombs fell near by; pock marks still visible on the façade of the museum were caused by shrapnel from the bombs. In the immediate post-war years there was little money available for other than essential repairs. The 1950s and early 1960s saw little in the way of building work, the first major work was the creation of new storage space for books in the Art Library in 1966 and 1967. This involved flooring over Aston Webb's main hall to form the book stacks[56], with a new medieval gallery on the ground floor (now the shop, opened in 2006). Then the lower ground floor galleries in the south west part of the museum were redesigned, opening in 1978 to form the new galleries covering Continental art 1600–1800 (late Renaissance, Baroque through Rococo and neo-Classical)[57]. In 1974 the museum had acquired what is now the Henry Cole wing from the Royal College of Science[58]. In order to adapt the building as galleries, all the Victorian interiors except for the staircase were recast during the remodelling. To link this to the rest of the museum, a new entrance building was constructed on the site of the former boiler house, the intended site of the Spiral, between 1978 and 1982[59]. This building is of concrete and very functional, the only embellishment being the iron gates by Christopher Hay and Douglas Coyne of the Royal College of Art[60]. These are set in the columned screen wall designed by Aston Webb that forms the façade. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Royal College of Science was a constituent part of Imperial College London, based in South Kensington. ... The Darwin Building at Kensington Gore The Royal College of Art (RCA) is a university in London, England. ...


Recent years

Cast Court — Plaster copy of Trajan's Column
Cast Court — Plaster copy of Trajan's Column

A few galleries were redesigned in the 1990s including: Indian, Japanese, Chinese, iron work, the main glass and the main silverware gallery, although this gallery was further enhanced in 2002 when some of the Victorian decoration was recreated. This included two of the ten columns having their ceramic decoration replaced and the elaborate painted designs restored on the ceiling. As part of the 2006 renovation the mosaic floors in the sculpture gallery were restored — most of the Victorian floors were covered in linoleum after the Second World War. After the success of the British Galleries, opened in 2001, it was decided to embark on a major redesign of all the galleries in the museum; this is known as 'Future Plan'. The plan is expected to take about ten years and was started in 2002. To date several galleries have been redesigned, notably, in 2002: the main Silver Gallery, Contemporary; in 2003: Photography, the main entrance, The Painting Galleries; in 2004: the tunnel to the subway leading to South Kensington tube station, New signage through out the museum, architecture, V&A and RIBA reading rooms and stores, metalware, Members' Room, contemporary glass, the Gilbert Bayes sculpture gallery; in 2005: portrait miniatures, prints and drawings, displays in Room 117, the garden, sacred silver and stained glass; in 2006: Central Hall Shop, Islamic Middle East, the new café, sculpture galleries. Several designers and architects have been involved in this work. Eva Jiricna designed the enhancements to the main entrance and rotunda, the new shop, the tunnel and the sculpture galleries. Gareth Hoskins was responsible for contemporary and architecture, Softroom, Islamic Middle East and the Members' Room, McInnes Usher McKnight Architects are designing the new Medieval and Renaissance galleries due to open in 2009.[61] Download high resolution version (768x1046, 233 KB)The two halves of a full-size plaster cast of Trajans Column dominates one of the two cast rooms in the sculpture section of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. ... Download high resolution version (768x1046, 233 KB)The two halves of a full-size plaster cast of Trajans Column dominates one of the two cast rooms in the sculpture section of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. ... The Cast Courts of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, comprise two large halls. ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ... A linoleum kitchen floor Linoleum is a floor covering made from solidified linseed oil (linoxyn) in combination with wood flour or cork dust over a burlap or canvas backing. ... Located on Cromwell Road in South Kensington, London, South Kensington tube station is the closest London Underground station to the Natural History, Science and Victoria and Albert Museums, as well as to Imperial College. ... Eva Jiricna (*1939) is a renowned Czech architect, entreprenuer, and designer, active in London. ...


Recently, controversy surrounded the museum's proposed building of an £80 million extension called The Spiral, designed by Daniel Libeskind, which was criticised as out of keeping with the architecture of the original buildings. The Spiral's design was described by some as looking like jumbled cardboard boxes. In September 2004, the museum's board of trustees voted to abandon the design after failing to receive funding from the Heritage Lottery Fund.[62] Daniel Libeskind in front of his extension to the Denver Art Museum. ... A play here! sign outside a newsagent, incorporating the National Lotterys logo of a stylised hand with crossed fingers. ...


The garden

The John Madejski Garden - Opened in 2005
The John Madejski Garden - Opened in 2005

The central garden was redesigned by Kim Wilkie and opened as the John Madejski Garden, on 5 July 2005. The design is a subtle blend of the traditional and modern, the layout is formal; there is an elliptical water feature lined in stone with steps around the edge which may be drained to use the area for receptions, gatherings or exhibition purposes. This is in front of the bronze doors leading to the refreshment rooms, a central path flanked by lawns leads to the sculpture gallery; the north, east and west sides have herbaceous borders along the museum walls with paths in front which continues along the south façade; in the two corners by the north façade there is planted an American Sweetgum tree; the southern, eastern and western edges of the lawns have glass planters which contain orange and lemon trees in summer, these are replaced by bay trees in winter. At night both the planters and water feature may be illuminated, and the surrounding façades lit to reveal details normally in shadow, especially noticeable are the mosaics in the loggia of the north façade. In summer a café is set up in the south west corner. The garden is also used for temporary exhibits of sculpture, for example a sculpture by Jeff Koons was shown in 2006. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... John Robert Madejski OBE DL, born Robert John Hurst on April 28, 1941 in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, is a British businessman, mainly active in publishing and the hotel industry. ... John Robert Madejski OBE DL, born Robert John Hurst on April 28, 1941 in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, is a British businessman, mainly active in publishing and the hotel industry. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Liquidambar styraciflua L. American Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), also known as Redgum, is a deciduous tree in the genus Liquidambar native to warm temperate areas of eastern North America. ... Bay tree can refer to: Bay Laurel Umbellularia Category: ... Villa Godi by Palladio. ... Jeff Koons (born January 21, 1955), is an American artist. ...


Departments

Education

The education department[63] has wide-ranging responsibilities. It provides information for the casual visitor as well as for school groups, including integrating learning in the museum with the National Curriculum; it provides research facilities for students at degree level and beyond, with information and access to the collections. It also oversees the content of the Museum's web site in addition to publishing books and papers on the collections, research and other aspects of the Museum. The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland, as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act 1988. ...


Several areas of the collection have dedicated study rooms, these allow access to items in the collection that are not currently on display, but in some cases require an appointment to be made[64].


The new Sackler education suite, occupying the two lower floors of the Henry Cole Wing is due to open in 2008. This will include lecture rooms and areas for use by schools, which will be available during school holidays for use by families, and will enable direct handling of items from the collection.


Research and Conservation

Research[65] is a very important area of the Museum's work, and includes: identification and interpretation of individual objects; other studies contribute to systematic research, this develops the public understanding of the art and artefacts of many of the great cultures of the world; visitor research and evaluation to discover the needs of visitors and their experiences of the Museum. Since 1990 the Museum has published research reports[66] these focus on all areas of the collections.


Conservation[67] is responsible for the long-term preservation of the collections, and covers all the collections held by the V&A and the Museum of Childhood. The conservators specialise in particular areas of conservation. Areas covered by conservator's work include 'preventive' conservation this includes: performing surveys, assessments and providing advice on the handling of items, correct packaging, mounting and handling procedures during movement and display to reduce risk of damaging objects. Activities include controlling the Museum environment (for example, temperature and light) and preventing pests (primarily insects) from damaging artefacts. The other major category is 'interventive' conservation, this includes: cleaning and reintegration to strengthen fragile objects, reveal original surface decoration, and restore shape. Interventive treatment makes an object more stable, but also more attractive and comprehensible to the viewer. It is usually undertaken on items that are to go on public display.


Collections

The Victoria & Albert Museum is split into four Collections departments, Asia; Furniture, textiles and Fashion; Sculpture, Metalwork, Ceramics & Glass and Word & Image. The museum curators care for the objects in the collection and provide access to objects that are not currently on display to the public and scholars.


The collection departments are further divided into sixteen display areas, whose combined collection numbers over 6.5 million objects, not all items are displayed or stored at the V&A. There is a repository, in Blythe Road, West Kensington, as well as annex institutions managed by the V&A [68], also the Museum lends exhibits to other institutions. The following lists each of the collections on display and the number of objects within the collection.

  • Architecture (annex of the RIBA)
  • Asia
  • British Galleries (cross department display)
  • Ceramics
  • Childhood (annex of the V&A)
  • Contemporary (cross department function)
  • Fashion & Jewellery
  • Furniture
  • Glass
  • Metalwork
  • Paintings & Drawings
  • Periods and styles (cross department display)
  • Photography
  • Prints & Books (cross department function)
  • Sculpture
  • Textiles
  • Theatre Museum (consumed annex of the V&A)
  • 2,050,000
  • 160,000
  • ...
  • 74,000
  • 20,000
  • ...
  • 28,000
  • 14,000
  • 6,000
  • 31,000
  • 202,500
  • ...
  • 500,000
  • 1,500,000
  • 17,500
  • 38,000
  • 1,905,000

The museum has 145 galleries, but given the vast extent of the collections only a small percentage is ever on display. Many acquisitions have been made possible only with the assistance of the National Art Collections Fund. The National Art Collections Fund (the Art Fund for short) is an independent membership-based British charity. ...


Architecture

In 2004, the V&A alongside RIBA opened the first permanent gallery in the UK[69] covering the history of architecture with displays using models, photographs, elements from buildings and original drawings. With the opening of the new gallery, the RIBA Architectural Drawings Library has been transferred to the museum, joining the already extensive collection held by the V&A. With over 600,000 drawings, over 750,000 papers and paraphernalia, and over 700,000 photographs from around the world, together they form the world's most comprehensive architectural resource.


Not only are all the major British architects of the last four hundred years represented, but many European (especially Italian) and American architects' drawings are held in the collection. The holdings of drawings by Palladio are the largest in the world,[70] other Europeans well represented are Jaques Gentilhatre[71] and Antonio Visentini[72]. British architects whose drawings, and in some cases models of their buildings, in the collection, include: Inigo Jones[73] Sir Christopher Wren,Sir John Vanbrugh, Nicholas Hawksmoor, William Kent, James Gibbs, Robert Adam,[74] Sir William Chambers,[75] James Wyatt, Henry Holland, John Nash, Sir John Soane,[76] Sir Charles Barry, Charles Robert Cockerell, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin,[77] Sir George Gilbert Scott, John Loughborough Pearson, George Edmund Street, Richard Norman Shaw, Alfred Waterhouse, Sir Edwin Lutyens, Charles Rennie MacKintosh, Charles Holden, Lord Richard Rogers, Lord Norman Foster, Sir Nicholas Grimshaw and Zaha Hadid. Illustration from a 1736 English edition of I Quattro Libri dellArchitettura. ... View of Piazza San Marco in Venice, by Antonio Visentini (1742). ... Inigo Jones, by Sir Anthony van Dyck Inigo Jones (July 15, 1573–June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant English architect. ... Christopher Wren. ... Sir John Vanbrugh in Godfrey Knellers Kit-cat portrait, considered one of Knellers finest portraits. ... The career of Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 - 25 March 1736) formed the brilliant middle link in Britains trio of great baroque architects. ... William Kent William Kent (born in Bridlington, Yorkshire, c. ... St Martins-in-the-Fields, London, is the prototype of many New England churches. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... Sir William Chambers (1723-1796) was a Scottish architect, (though born in Stockholm where his father was a merchant). ... Fonthill Abbey. ... Henry Holland ( July 20, 1745 - June 17, 1806) was an architect to the English nobility who trained under Capability Brown and later married his daughter. ... John Nash For other people of the same name, see John Nash. ... Sir John Soane (10 September 1753 - 20 January 1837) was a British architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical tradition. ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster, Barrys most famous building. ... The main entrance to the Fitzwilliam Museum. ... Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (March 1, 1812 - September 14, 1852) was an English-born architect, designer and theorist of design now best remembered for his work on churches and on the Houses of Parliament. ... The chapel of St Johns College, Cambridge is characteristic of Scotts many church designs Sir George Gilbert Scott (July 13, 1811 – March 27, 1878) was an English architect of the Victorian Age, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches and cathedrals. ... John Loughborough Pearson (1817-1897) was a 19th century architect renowned for his work on churches and cathedrals. ... George Edmund Street (20 June 1824 – 18 December 1881), English architect, was born at Woodford in Essex. ... House in Frognal, 1885 Richard Norman Shaw (Edinburgh May 7, 1831 – London November 17, 1912), was the most influential British architect from the 1870s to the 1900s, known for his country houses and for commercial buildings. ... The Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, has an ornate terracotta facade typical of high Victorian architecture. ... Lutyens Early Life Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens OM (March 29, 1869 - January 1, 1944), a British architect, designed many English country houses and was instrumental in the layout and building of New Delhi. ... Hill House, Helensburgh. ... Charles Henry Holden (12 May 1875 - 1 May 1960) was an English architect known for his designs of stations on the London Underground railway system. ... For the American composer, see Richard Rodgers. ... The restored Reichstag in Berlin, housing the German parliament. ... Sir Nicholas Grimshaw (born 1939) is a prominent English architect, particularly noted for several modernist buildings, including the international railway terminal at Londons Waterloo Station and the Eden Project in Cornwall. ... Zaha Hadid Portrait Interior of Phaeno Science Center in Wolfsburg, Germany Bergisel Ski Jump, Innsbruck BMW Central Building, Leipzig Vitra fire station, Weil am Rhein, Germany Zaha Hadid (Arabic: زها حديد) CBE (born October 31, 1950, Baghdad, Iraq) is a notable Iraqi-British deconstructivist architect. ...


As well as period rooms, the collection includes parts of buildings, for example the two top stories of the facade of Sir Paul Pindar's house[78] [79]dated c1600 from Bishopsgate with elaborately carved wood work and leaded windows, a rare survivor of the Great Fire of London, there is a brick portal from a London house of the English Restoration period and a fireplace from the gallery of Northumberland house. European examples include a dormer window dated 1523–35 from the chateau of Montal. There are several examples from Italian Renaissance buildings including, portals, fireplaces, balconies and a stone buffet that used to have a built in fountain. The main architecture gallery has a series of pillars from various buildings and different periods, for example a column from the Alhambra. Examples covering Asia are in those galleries concerned with those countries, as well as models and photographs in the main architecture gallery. Looking north from a pedestrian bridge across Bishopsgate Bishopsgate, in the heart of Londons financial district. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ...

Asia

The V&As collection of Art from Asia numbers more than 160,000 objects, one of the greatest in existence. It has one of the world's most comprehensive and important collections of Chinese art whilst the collection of South Asian Art is the most important in the West. The museums coverage includes items from South and South East Asia, Himalayan Kingdoms, China, the Far East and the Islamic world.


The V&A holds over 19,000 items from the Islamic World, ranging from the early Islamic period (the 7th century) to the early 20th century. The Jameel Gallery of Islamic Art, opened in 2006, houses a representative display of 400 objects with the highlight being the Ardabil Carpet, the centrepiece of the gallery. The displays in this gallery cover objects from Spain, North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia and Afghanistan. A masterpiece of Islamic art is a 10th-century ewer carved from a single block of rock crystal. Many examples of Qur'āns with exquisite calligraphy dating from various periods are on display. A 15th-century Minbar from a Cairo mosque with ivory forming complex geometrical patterns inlaid in wood is one of the larger objects on display. Extensive examples of ceramics especially Iznik pottery, glasswork including 14th century lamps from mosques and metalwork are on display. The collection of Middle Eastern and Persian rugs and carpets is amongst the finest in the world, many were part of the Salting Bequest of 1909. Examples of tile work from various buildings including a fireplace dated 1731 from Istanbul made of intricately decorated blue and white tiles and turquoise tiles from the exterior of buildings from Samarkand are also displayed. Ardabil Carpet represents either one of the famous Persian rugs that are currently held by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. ... The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... For other uses of this word, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also called The Noble Quran; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... Contemporary Calligraphy Calligraphy (from Greek kallos beauty + graphẽ writing) is the art of beautiful writing (Mediavilla 1996: 17). ... Minbar in the Ortaköy mosque in Istanbul. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Iznik (which derives from the former Greek name, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... A traditional craftsman mending a rug in Isfahan. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ...


The Museum's collections of South and South-East Asian art are the most comprehensive and important in the West comprising nearly 60,000 objects, including about 10,000 textiles and 6000 paintings[80], the range of the collection is immense. The Nehru gallery of Indian art, opened in 1991, contains art from about 500 BC to the 19th century. There is an extensive collection of sculpture, mainly of a religious nature, Hindu, Buddhist and Jain. The gallery is richly endowed with art of the Mughal Empire, including fine portraits of the emperors and other paintings and drawings, jade wine cups and gold spoons inset with emeralds, diamonds and rubies, also from this period are parts of buildings such as a jaali and pillars[81]. India was a large producer of textiles, from dyed cotton chintz, muslin to rich embroidery work using gold and silver thread, coloured sequins and beads is displayed, as are carpets from Agra and Lahore. Examples of clothing are also displayed. One of the more unusual items on display in the Indian Gallery is 'Tipu's Tiger', an automaton and mechanical organ made in Mysore around 1795. It represents a tiger mauling a soldier or officer of the British East India Company. It is named after the ruler of Mysore who commissioned it, Tipu Sultan. In 1879–80 the collections of the British East India Company's India Museum were given to the V&A and the British Museum. Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू) (November 14, 1889 - May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the (moderately) socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British... A miniature, Kishengarh, Jaipur, Rajasthan Indian cave art at Bhimbetka The vast scope of the art of India intertwines with the cultural history, religions and philosophies which place art production and patronage in social and cultural contexts. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... One of the famous intricate jaalis from the Sidi Saiyyed mosque in Ahmedabad, India A jaali is the term for a perforated stone screen, usually with an ornamental pattern, as used in Indian architecture. ... Chintz is calico cloth printed with flowers and other devices in different colours, originally from India. ... Muslin is a type of finely-woven cotton fabric, introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. ... Gold Embroidery Cross-stitch embroidery, Hungary, mid-20th century Phulkari from Punjab region, India 15th century embroidered cope, Ghent, Belgium Embroidery, c. ... , stop erasing thisAgra   (Hindi: , Urdu: ), (IPA: ) is a city on the banks of the Yamuna River in Uttar Pradesh, India. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second largest city in Pakistan. ... Tipus Tiger is an automaton, representing a tiger savaging a European soldier. ... An automaton (plural: automata) is a self-operating machine. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Portrait of Tippu Sultan, 1792 Tippu (Tips) Sultan (full name Sultan Fateh Ali Tippu), also known as the Tiger of Mysore (November 20, 1750, Devanahalli – May 4, 1799, Srirangapattana), was the first son of Haidar Ali by his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-nissa. ...


The Far Eastern collections include more than 70,000 works of art[82] from the countries of East Asia: China, Japan and Korea. The T.T. Tsui Gallery of Chinese art opened in 1991, displaying a representative collection of the V&As approximately 16,000 objects[83] from China, dating from the 4th millennium BC to the present day. Though the majority of art works on display date from the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty, there are equisite examples of objects dating from the Tang Dynasty and earlier periods. Notably, a metre high bronze head of Buddha dated to the c750 AD and one of the oldest items a 2,000 year old jade horse head from a burial, other sculptures include life size tomb guardians. Classic examples of Chinese manufacturing are displayed which include lacquer, silk, porcelain, jade and cloisonné enamel. Two large ancestor portraits of a husband and wife painted in watercolour on silk date from the 18th century. There is a unique lacquer table, made in the imperial workshops during the reign of Emperor Xuande. Examples of clothing are also displayed. One of the largest objects is a mid 17th century bed. The work of contemporary Chinese designers is also displayed. Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... Media:Example. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Cloisonné is a multi-step enamel process used to produce jewelry, vases, and other decorative items. ... Categories: China-related stubs | 1398 births | 1435 deaths | Ming Dynasty emperors ...


The Toshiba gallery of Japanese art opened in December 1986. The majority of exhibits date from 1550 to 1900, but one of the oldest pieces displayed is the 13th-century sculpture of Amida Nyorai. Examples of classic Japanese armour from the mid 19th century, steel sword blades (Katana), Inro, lacquerware including the Mazarin Chest[84] dated c1640 is one of the finest surviving pieces from Kyoto, porcelain including Imari, Netsuke, woodblock prints including the work of Ando Hiroshige, graphic works include printed books, as well as a few paintings, scrolls and screens, textiles and dress including kimonos are some of the objects on display. One of the finest objects displayed is Suzuki Chokichi's bronze incense burner (koro) dated 1875, standing at over 2.25 metres high and 1.25 metres in diameter it is also one of the largest examples made. Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Bronze statue of Amida Buddha at Kotokuin in Kamakura (1252 CE) Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper, and a myriad of other types of works of art. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Inro An inro (印籠) was a case for holding small objects. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... It has been suggested that Arita (porcelain) be merged into this article or section. ... a monkey-shaped netsuke a netsuke maintains an inro (box) in the obi (belt) Japanese artists starting in the 17th century cleverly invented the miniature sculptures known as netsuke (Japanese:根付) to serve a very practical function. ... Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text or images used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China sometime between the mid-6th and late 9th centuries. ... Memorial portrait of Hiroshige by Kunisada. ... A traditional wedding kimono The kimono literally something worn) is the national costume of Japan. ... KORO is a Spanish-language television station in Corpus Christi, Texas, broadcasting locally on channel 28 as an affiliate of Univisión. ...


The smaller galleries cover Korea, the Himalayan kingdoms and South East Asia. Korean displays include green-glazed ceramics, silk embroideries from officials' robes and gleaming boxes inlaid with mother-of-pearl made between 500 AD and 2000. Himalayan items include important early Nepalese bronze sculptures, repoussé work and embroidery. Tibetan art from the 14th to the 19th century is represented by notable 14th- and 15th-century religious images in wood and bronze, scroll paintings and ritual objects. Art from Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka in gold, silver, bronze, stone, terracotta and ivory represents these rich and complex cultures, the displays span the 6th to 19th centuries. Refined Hindu and Buddhist sculptures reflect the influence of India; items on show include betel-nut cutters, ivory combs and bronze palanquin hooks. This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Himalayan can refer to: Himalaya, the mountains: Himalayan (cat), the type of cat Himalayan, the breed of rabbit This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Repoussé bracelet by Thomas Feeser, ©2005. ... Gold Embroidery Cross-stitch embroidery, Hungary, mid-20th century Phulkari from Punjab region, India 15th century embroidered cope, Ghent, Belgium Embroidery, c. ...

British Galleries

These fifteen galleries — which opened in November 2001 — contain around 4000 items. The displays in these galleries are based around three major themes: 'Style', 'Who Led Taste' and 'What Was New'. The period covered is 1500 to 1900, the galleries fall into three major subdivisions; Tudor and Stuart Britain 1500–1714, This covers the Renaissance, Elizabethan, Jacobean, Restoration and Baroque styles; Georgian Britain 1714–1837, this covers Palladianism, Rococo, Chinoiserie, Neoclassicism, the Regency, as well as continuing classical influences includes Chinese, Indian and Egyptian styles, also the Gothic Revival; Victorian Britain 1837–1901, this covers the later more scholarly phase of the Gothic Revival, French influences, Classical and Renaissance revivals, Aestheticism, Japanese style, continuing influence from China, Indian and the Islamic world, the Arts and Crafts movement and the Scottish School. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ... The term Jacobean refers to a period in English history that coincides with the reign of James I (1603 – 1625). ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... A villa with a superimposed portico, from Book IV of Palladios I Quattro Libri dellArchitettura, in a modestly priced English translation published in London, 1736. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Chinese House (Potsdam) Chinoiserie refers to a European artistic style which reflects Chinese influence and is characterized through the use of fanciful imagery of an imaginary China, asymmetry and whimsical contrasts of scale, the use of lacquerlike materials and decoration. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... The English Regency, or simply the Regency, is a name given to the period from 1811 to 1820 in the history of England. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... The Aesthetic movement is a loosely defined movement in art and literature in later nineteenth-century Britain. ... Artichoke wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. ...


Not just the work of British artists and craftspeople is on display, but work produced by European artists that was purchased or commissioned by British patrons. Also imports from Asia, including porcelain, cloth and wallpaper. Designers and artists whose work is on display in the galleries include Gian Lorenzo Bernini,[85] Grinling Gibbons,[86] Daniel Marot, Sir James Thornhill, William Kent, Sir William Chambers, Robert Adam, Canaletto, Josiah Wedgwood,[87] Matthew Boulton,[88] Eleanor Coade,[89] Canova,[90] John Constable, Thomas Chippendale, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin,[91] William Morris,[92] William Burges[93], Charles Robert Ashbee, Christopher Dresser,[94] James McNeill Whistler and Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Patrons who have influenced taste are also represented by works of art from their collections, these include: Horace Walpole[95] (a major influence on the Gothic Revival), William Thomas Beckford[96] and Thomas Hope.[97] Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini; December 7, 1598 – November 28, 1680) was a pre-eminent Baroque sculptor and architect of 17th century Rome. ... One of the many bookcase carvings Gibbons made for the Wren Library, Cambridge. ... Daniel Marot (1661-1752) was a French Protestant, an architect, furniture designer and engraver at the forefront of the classicizing Late Baroque Louis XIV style. ... Potrait of Sir Isaac Newton in old age by James Thornhill, 1709-12. ... William Kent William Kent (born in Bridlington, Yorkshire, c. ... Sir William Chambers (1723-1796) was a Scottish architect, (though born in Stockholm where his father was a merchant). ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... The Stonemasons Yard, painted 1726-30. ... Josiah Wedgwood Josiah Wedgwood (July 12, 1730 – January 3, 1795, born Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent) was an English potter, credited with the industrialization of the manufacture of pottery. ... Matthew Boulton. ... Belmont House, Lyme Regis, Dorset, with Coade Stone decoration. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... A provincial Chippendale-style chair with elaborate Gothick tracery back Thomas Chippendale (June 5, 1718 – November 13, 1779), born at Farnley near Otley, West Yorkshire, was a London cabinet-maker and furniture designer in the mid-Georgian, English Rococo, and Neoclassical styles. ... Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (March 1, 1812 - September 14, 1852) was an English-born architect, designer and theorist of design now best remembered for his work on churches and on the Houses of Parliament. ... William Morris, socialist and innovator in the Arts and Crafts movement William Morris (March 24, 1834 – October 3, 1896) was an English artist, writer, socialist and activist. ... William Burges William Burges (1827-1881) was an English architect and designer with influences which continue today. ... Charles Robert Ashbee ( London, May 17, 1863–Sevenoaks, Kent, May 23, 1942 ) was a designer and entrepreneur who was a prime mover of the English Arts and Crafts movement that took its craft ethic from the works of John Ruskin and its co-operative structure from the socialism of William... Christopher Dresser (1834-1904) at first earned his living as a botanist, but is now widely known as Britain’s first independent, industrial designer. ... Self portrait (1872) James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 11, 1834 – July 17, 1903) was an American-born, British-based painter and etcher. ... Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer and forerunner of the Gothic revival. ... William Beckford William Thomas Beckford (October 1, 1760 – May 2, 1844) was an English novelist, art critic, travel writer and politician. ... Thomas Hope (c. ...


Over the four centuries covered, the people influencing style are seen to change over time, in the early sixteenth century the Church prior to the Reformation and the British Monarchy dominated taste, but as time passed first the aristocracy, then also the middle class begin to have a greater and greater influence on taste. This mirrors rising national wealth and power, as British trade spread around the globe followed by the founding and expansion of the British Empire. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


There are five complete rooms from demolished buildings displayed in the galleries, these are: The parlour from the Old Palace Bromley-by-Bow dated 1606 with carved Renaissance-style oak panelling, overmantel and richly decorated plaster ceiling: the parlour from 2 Henrietta Street London dated 1727–28 designed by James Gibbs with an elaborate ceiling with in set paintings and carved fireplace; the Norfolk House Music Room,[98] St James Square London dated 1756, designed by Matthew Brettingham and Giovanni Battista Borra, the white panelling and ceiling have carved and gilded Rococo decoration with matching mirrors; the Strawberry Room from Lee Priory Kent, dated 1783–94 designed by James Wyatt in a Gothick style: the Ante-room from The Grove Harborne, Birmingham 1877–78 designed by John Henry Chamberlain in High-Victorian Neo-Gothic style. Further there are displays of parts of rooms: the Hayes Grange c1585–c1620 is an early example for Britain of the correct use of the classical orders, only the end wall and part of the ceiling is displayed due to the size of the room. There are parts of two Robert Adam designed rooms on show, a section of a wall from the Glass Drawing Room from Northumberland House dated 1773–1775, the main panels consist of glass backed by red foil, the pilasters glass backed with green foil and covered by elaborate carvings of gilded wood, and there is a neo-classical painting inset above the door, the other room comes from the Adelphi Buildings c1772, demolished in 1936, only the ceiling and fireplace survive.[99] Bromley-by-Bow is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ... St Martins-in-the-Fields, London, is the prototype of many New England churches. ... Norfolk House, at 31 St James’s Square, London, was built in 1722 for the Duke of Norfolk. ... Holkham Hall. ... Fonthill Abbey. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... Birmingham School of Art, now part of the University of Central England John Henry Chamberlain (1831 - 1883), generally known professionally as J H Chamberlain, was a nineteenth century English architect. ... Neo-gothic architecture is an American branch of the Gothic revival style that was imported from England in the 1830s. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... The Strand front of Northumberland House in 1752 by Canaletto. ... In architecture, pilasters comprise slightly-projecting pseudo-columns built into or onto a wall, with capitals and bases. ... The Adam brothers Adelphi Buildings in an 18th-century print; the terrace stood upon riverfront warehousing. ...


Some of the more notable works displayed in the galleries include: Pietro Torrigiani's coloured terracotta bust of Henry VII dated 1509–11; The Dacre Heraldic Beasts, extraordinary 2 metre high carvings of a bull, gryphon, ram and salmon, in realistic colours, dated 1519-21; Henry VIII's writing box dated 1525 made from walnut and oak, lined with leather and painted and gilded with the king's coat of arms; A spinet dated 1570–1580 for Elizabeth I: the Great Bed of Ware, dated 1590–1600, an elaborately carved four poster with head board inlaid with marquetry, said to sleep twelve people; portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger dated[100] c1620 of Margaret Laton and the actual embroidered jacket that the sitter is wearing in the painting; Bernini's bust of Thomas Barker dated c1638; the Mortlake tapestry dated to the mid-seventeenth century part of a series covering the story Venus and Vulcan; the wood relief of The Stoning of St Stephen dated c1670 by Grinling Gibbons; the state bed from Melville House dated 1700, over 4.6 metres high with hangings of crimson Italian velvet and Chinese silk linings; Embroidery hangings from Stoke Edith dated c1710-20; a unique set of silverware is the Macclesfield Wine Set, dated 1719–1720, it consists of a large wine cooler, cistern and fountain the last for washing wine glasses, the work of Anthony Nelme, this is the only complete set known to survive; the life size sculpture of George Frederick Handel dated 1738 by Louis-François Roubiliac; the sculpture of Castor and Pollux dated 1767 by Joseph Nollekens; a bureau dressing table dated 1771-5 by Thomas Chippendale; the Duchess of Manchester's cabinet dated 1776, designed by Robert Adam and incorporating Pietra Dura plaques made by Baccio Cappelli; there are two sculptures by Canova that are displayed alternately, The Three Graces dated 1815–17, when this is on display at The National Galleries of Scotland, then The Sleeping Nymph dated 1822 is displayed instead. The painting of Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Grounds, dated 1823 by John Constable; the sculpture of Bashaw[101] dated 1831–34, this is a life like sculpture of the Earl of Dudley's dog made from coloured marble, the dog has a paw on a writhing snake equally life like, the sculptor was Matthew Cotes Wyatt; A Carpet and tapestry[102] by William Morris; the Sideboard dated 1867–70 of ebonized mahogany and silver-plated metal work by Edward William Godwin,[103] furniture by Charles Rennie Mackintosh.[104] Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Heraldry is the science and art of describing of coats-of-arms, also referred to as achievements or armorial bearings. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... A spinet is a smaller type of harpsichord or other keyboard instrument, such as a piano or organ. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... The Great Bed of Ware is an extremely large oak four poster bed, carved with marquetry, that was originally housed in the White Hart Inn in Ware, England. ... The image on the cover of this box was made using the technique of marquetry. ... // A painter from Flanders, Belgium who worked in England Marcus Gheeraerts was born in Bruges in 1561 or 1562, and was brought to England in 1568 by his father, a painter of whose work hardly anything is known. ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... Mortlake is a part of south west London between Sheen and Barnes and bounded by the river Thames to the north. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... Vulcan, in Roman mythology, is the son of Jupiter and Juno, and husband of Maia and Venus. ... Melville House, lies to the southside of Monimail in Fife. ... Stoke Edith is a village in the English county of Herefordshire, situated on a road leading from Hereford to Ledbury. ... George Frideric Handel (German Georg Friedrich Händel), (February 23, 1685 – April 14, 1759) was a German-born British Baroque music composer. ... Louis-François Roubiliac (more correctly Roubillac) (1695 - January 11, 1762), French sculptor, was born at Lyons and became a pupil of Balthasar of Dresden and of Nicolas Coustou. ... Joseph Nollekens (1737-1823) was a sculptor from London generally considered to be the finest British sculptor of the late 18th century. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... Pietra dura (Italian for hard stone) is marble inlaid with designs in precious or semi-precious stonework. ... A frontal depiction of the version of the sculpture found in the Hermitage Museum. ... The National Gallery of Scotland, viewed from the north The National Gallery of Scotland viewed from the south in front of the Royal Scottish Academy and Princes Street The National Gallery of Scotland is the national art gallery of Scotland, in Edinburgh. ... Northampton Guild Hall, built 1861-4, displays Godwins Ruskinian Gothic style. ...


The influences on design that were new in different periods and explored in the displays, include: in the Tudor period, the spread of the printed book, the increasing employment of European artists and craftsmen and in the late 16th century, the establishment of tapestry weaving at the Sheldon works; in the Stuart period the increase in trade especially with Asia brought luxuries like carpets, lacquerware furniture, silk and porcelain, with in reach of more of the population, new forms of furniture appearing in the domestic setting such as bookcases and sofas and the increasing use of upholstery; in the Georgian age there is a growth in entertainment Vauxhall Gardens being an example, the growth in tea drinking and associated paraphernalia such as china, caddies and tables, the influence of the Grand Tour on taste, the growth of mass production as the Industrial Revolution takes hold, producing entrepreneurs such as Josiah Wedgwood, Matthew Boulton and Eleanor Coade; displays on the Victorian era investigate the impact of new technology on manufacturing with examples of the use of newly invented machinery, also for the first time since the reformation the church both Anglican and Roman Catholic have a major impact on art and design especially the Gothic revival commissioning art and architecture on a large scale, there is a large display on the Great Exhibition, that amongst other things led to the founding of the V&A, there is also the backlash against industrialisation led by John Ruskin, that would lead to the Arts and Crafts movement a pioneer of which was William Morris. A prospect of Vauxhall Gardens in 1751. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... The interior of the Pantheon in the 18th century, painted by Giovanni Paolo Panini In the 18th century, the Grand Tour was a kind of education for wealthy British noblemen, wherein the primary educational value was exposure to the cultured artifacts of antiquity and the Renaissance as well as the... The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ... Josiah Wedgwood Josiah Wedgwood (July 12, 1730 – January 3, 1795, born Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent) was an English potter, credited with the industrialization of the manufacture of pottery. ... Matthew Boulton. ... Belmont House, Lyme Regis, Dorset, with Coade Stone decoration. ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ...


Cast courts

One of the most dramatic parts of the museum is the Cast Courts in the sculpture wing, comprising two large, skylighted rooms two storeys high housing hundreds of plaster casts of sculptures, friezes and tombs. One of these is dominated by a full-scale replica of Trajan's Column, cut in half in order to fit under the ceiling. The other includes reproductions of various works of Italian Renaissance sculpture and architecture, including a full-size replica of Michelangelo's David. Replicas of two earlier Davids by Donatello and Verrocchio, are also included, although for conservation reasons the Verrocchio replica is displayed in a glass case. The Cast Courts of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, comprise two large halls. ... This page describe terms and jargon related to sculpture and sculpting. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... A tomb is a small building (or vault) for the remains of the dead, with walls, a roof, and (if it is to be used for more than one corpse) a door. ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ... Michelangelos David, finished by Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1504 (started in 1501) is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelos two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. David portrays the Biblical David at the moment that he decides to engage Goliath. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... Madonna with Sts John the Baptist and Donatus (1475-83), Cathedral of Pistoia. ...


The two courts are divided by corridors on both storeys, and the partitions that used to line the upper corridor (the Gilbert Bayes sculpture gallery) were removed in 2004 in order to allow the courts to be viewed from above.

Ceramics

This is the largest and most comprehensive collection in the world with over 75,000 objects in the collection, covering the entire globe, every populated continent is represented.


Well represented in the collection is Meissen porcelain, this factory being the first in Europe to discover the Chinese method of making porcelain, amongst the finest examples is the Meissen Vulture dating from 1731. Examples from the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres are extensive, especially the 18th and 19th centuries. The collection of 18th century British porcelain is the largest and finest in the world, examples from every factory are represented, the collection of Chelsea porcelain and Worcester Porcelain being especially fine. All the major nineteenth century British factories are also represented. A major boost to the collections was the Salting Bequest made in 1909, which covered amongst other areas Chinese and Japanese ceramics, this forms part of the finest collection of East Asian pottery and porcelain in the world, Kakiemon being amongst the wares displayed. A Meissen dinner service Meissen porcelain is the first European porcelain. ... A stone grinder for turning quartz, feldspar, kaolin and other stones into fine powder for making ceramic paste Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Manufacture nationale de Sèvres The Manufacture nationale de Sèvres is a porcelain factory located in Sèvres, France. ... The Chelsea porcelain manufactory (established around 1743-45) is the first important porcelain manufactory in England;[1] its earliest soft-paste porcelain, aimed to the aristocratic market—cream jugs in the form of two seated goats—are dated 1745. ... ... Saga Prefecture Bowl. ...


Many famous potters, such as Josiah Wedgwood, William Frend De Morgan and Bernard Leach are represented in the collection, as indeed is pottery from earlier periods. There is an extensive collection of Delftware produced in both Britain and Holland. The largest objects in the collection are a series of ceramic stoves mainly dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, made in Germany and Switzerland, they have elaborate mouldings and ornament and some are decorated with coloured schemes. There is unrivalled collection of Italian maiolica and lustreware from Spain. The collection of Iznik pottery from Turkey is the largest in the world. All the ceramics galleries are presently closed except on advertised dates, but with the help of a grant from the Headley Trust the first of the remodelled galleries should open in 2009. Josiah Wedgwood Josiah Wedgwood (July 12, 1730 – January 3, 1795, born Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent) was an English potter, credited with the industrialization of the manufacture of pottery. ... William and his wife Evelelyn William Frend de Morgan (1839 - 1917) was Britains most talented pottery and tile designer. ... Bernard Howell Leach CH (January 5, 1887 – May 6, 1979), a British studio potter. ... Delftware panel. ... Majolica is earthenware with a white tin glaze, decorated by applying colorants on the raw glazed surface. ... Lusterware is a type of pottery or porcelain with a metallic sheen that gives the effect of iridescence, produced by metallic oxides and an overglaze finish This style was popular with and likely invented by Persian potters in the 9th century. ... Iznik (which derives from the former Greek name, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ...


Contemporary

These galleries are dedicated to temporary exhibits showcasing both trends from recent decades and the latest in design and fashion.


Fashion and jewellery

The costume collection is the most comprehensive in Britain, containing over 14,000 outfits plus accessories, it mainly covers the last four centuries and the latest in couture is added to the collection, there are also designs on paper. As everyday clothing from previous eras has not generally survived the collection is dominated by fashionable clothes made for special occasions. Some of the oldest items in the collection are medieval vestments especially Opus Anglicanum. One of the most important items in the collection is the wedding suit of James II of England this is displayed in the British Galleries. Some of the largest bequests of costume were in 1913 the Harrods collection containing 1,442 costumes and items, in 1971 the Cecil Beaton collection of 1,200 costumes and items, and in 2002 the Costiff collection of 178 Vivienne Westwood costumes. Other famous designers with work in the collection include Coco Chanel, Yves Saint Laurent, Zandra Rhodes, Mary Quant, Christian Lacroix, Jean Muir and Pierre Cardin.[105] Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican Churches. ... Opus Anglicanum are fine needlework done for the Church primarily by nuns and then by laywomen in workshops. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gabrielle Bonheur Coco Chanel (August 19, 1883 – January 10, 1971)[1] was a pioneering French fashion designer whose modernist philosophy, menswear-inspired fashions, and pursuit of expensive simplicity made her arguably the most important figure in the history of 20th-century fashion. ... Yves Saint-Laurent (born August 1, 1936 in Oran, Algeria) is a French fashion designer. ... Zandra Lindsey Rhodes (born 19 September 1940 in Chatham, Kent) is an English clothes designer, most prominent in the 1970s, known for her unusual clothes in loud colours. ... Mary Quant OBE FCSD (born February 11, 1934 in Kent, England) is an English fashion designer, one of the many designers who took credit for inventing the miniskirt and hot pants. ... Christian Marie Marc Lacroix (May 16, 1951 in Arles, France) is a French fashion designer. ... Jean Elizabeth Muir (1928-1995) was an English fashion designer. ... Pierre Cardin dress, 1967 For the Canadian Minister of Transport from 1940 to 1942, see Pierre Cardin (politician). ...


The jewellery collection with over 6,000 items, covers, amongst other periods, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, the Medieval period, Elizabethan jewels, the 17th century, 18th century, 19th century and on to the present day, there are also designs on paper. Some of the finest pieces are by Cartier, Peter Carl Fabergé and Lalique,[106] other items in the collection include diamond dress ornaments made for Catherine the Great, bracelet clasps once belonging to Marie Antoinette and the Beauharnais emerald necklace presented by Napoleon to his adopted daughter in 1806.[107] Modern jewellery is represented by designers such as Gerda Flockinger and Wendy Ramshaw. Not just western jewellery is in the collection, but also African and Asian. Major bequests include Lady Cory's, who in 1951 gave a collection of jewels that included major diamond jewellery from the 18th and 19th centuries. Dame Joan Evans, a pre-eminent jewellery scholar, bequethed in 1977 more than 800 jewels, dating from the Middle Ages to the early 19th century. A new jewellery gallery, largely paid for by William and Judith Bollinger, is due to open in 2008. Amber jewellery in the form of pendants Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal ornament, such as a necklace, ring, or bracelet, made from jewels, precious metals or other substance. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Pierre cartier was the grandson of Louis-Francois Cartier who had taken the jewellery workshop of his teacher, Adolphe Picard, in 1847 hence founding the famous Cartier jewellery. ... Bouquet of Lilies or Madonna Lily Egg by Fabergé Peter Carl Fabergé original name Carl Gustavovich Fabergé(May 30, 1846–September 24, 1920) was a Russian jeweller, best known for the fabulous Fabergé eggs, made in the style of genuine Easter eggs, but using precious metals and gemstones rather than... Illuminated automobile hood ornament in the form of a rooster by René Jules Lalique René Jules Lalique was born in Ay, Marne, France on April 6, 1860, and died May 5, 1945. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Dame Joan Evans, DBE (1893 - 1977) was a British historian of French and English mediaeval art. ...


Furniture and furnishings

The furniture and furnishings collection covers Britain, Europe and America from the Middle Ages to the present. The collection contains over 14,000 items that: include, complete rooms, musical instruments, clocks, as well as furniture mainly western dating from the Middle Ages to the present, though the majority of the furniture is British dating between 1700 and 1900[108], the finest examples are displayed in the British Galleries including work by Thomas Chippendale, A.W.N. Pugin, William Burges & Charles Rennie Mackintosh, as well as other famous designers. Also the national collection of wallpaper is held by the museum. For other uses, see Clock (disambiguation). ...


There are two complete 18th-century rooms from the continent on display: the Boudoir de Madame de Sévilly, dated 1781-2 from Paris[109], the architect was Claude Nicolas Ledoux, with exquisitely painted panelling the work of Jean Simeon Rousseau de la Rottiere and a glittering Italian 'cabinet' of 1780, elliptical in plan with a mirrored domed ceiling and elaborate parquet floor and carved panelling. Portrait of Ledoux with his son. ... Jean Simeon Rousseau de la Rottiere (1747–1820), the youngest son of Jules Antoine Rousseau (sculpteur du Roi), was a French decorative painter. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Soulages collection of Italian and French Renaissance objects were acquired between 1859 and 1865. The John Jones Collection covering French 18th century art and furnishings was left to the museum in 1882, then valued at £250,000, one of the most important pieces in this collection is a marquetry commode by the ébéniste Jean-Henri Riesener dated c1780, another signed piece of furniture in the collection is a bureau by Jean-François Oeben, and as well as furniture there are also, paintings, ceramics including an outstanding collection of Sèvres, goldsmiths' work, ormolu work, enamels, sculpture, tapestry, books and prints. Other 18th century ébénistes represented in the Museum collection include André-Charles Boulle, Adam Weisweiler, David Roentgen & Pierre Langlois. In 1901 Sir George Donaldson presented several pieces of art nouveau furniture to the museum which he acquired from the Paris Exposition Universelle, though this was criticised at the time, the result being that the museum ceased to collect contemporary items, and did not do so again until the 1960s. In 1986 the Lady Abingdon collection of French Empire furniture was bequeathed by Mrs T.R.P. Hole. The image on the cover of this box was made using the technique of marquetry. ... A Commode is a piece of furniture (typically a chair) with a built in chamber pot. ... Ébéniste is the French word for a cabinetmaker, as menuisier denotes a woodcarver or chairmaker. ... Jean-Henri Riesener (1734 - 1806) was born in Gladbeck in Germany and became a master cabinet maker at the court of France. ... The French word bureau, which originally referred to an office, can in English refer to: a sort of desk with drawers, such as a writing table or a pedestal desk the Bureau Mazarin is a 17th century desk form named after Cardinal Mazarin a public office or government agency the... Jean-François Oeben Johann Franz Oeben (9 October 1721 Heinsberg near Aachen - Paris 21 January 1763) was a French cabinetmaker, whose career was spent in Paris. ... André Charles Boulle (11 November 1642–28 February 1732), was a French cabinetmaker, who is generally considered to be the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry. ... Adam Weisweiler (c. ... David Roentgen,[1] (Herrenhag 1743–February 12, 1807), was the single most famous German cabinetmaker of the eighteenth century, famed throughout Europe for his marquetry and his secret drawers and mechanical fittings. ... The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a worlds fair held in Paris, France, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next. ...


There are a set of beautiful inlaid doors, dated 1580 from Antwerp City Hall, attributed to Hans Vredeman de Vries. One of the finest pieces of continental furniture in the collection is the Rococo Augustus Rex Bureau Cabinet dated c1750 from Germany, with especially fine marquetry and ormolu mounts. One of the grandest pieces of 19th century furniture is the highly elaborate French Cabinet dated 1861–1867 made by M. Fourdinois, made from ebony inlaid with box, lime, holly, pear, walnut and mahogany woods as well as marble with gilded carvings. Furniture designed by Ernest Gimson, C.F.A. Voysey, Adolf Loos and Otto Wagner are among the late 19th and early 20th century examples in the collection. The work of modernists in the collection include Marcel Breuer, Charles and Ray Eames and Eileen Gray. The work of Frank Lloyd Wright is represented by the Kaufmann Office designed and constructed between 1934 and 1937 for the owner of a Pittsburgh department store;[110] not currently on display due to the closure of the Cole Wing for redevelopment as the new education centre — as well as other furniture and furnishings. Contemporary designers represented in the collection include Ron Arad (industrial designer). The most important musical instrument in the collection is a violin by Antonio Stradivari dated 1699, the most unusual musical instrument on display is the giant double bass attributed to Gasparo da Salò and once owned by Domenico Dragonetti. Antwerp City Hall The City Hall (Dutch: Stadhuis) of Antwerp, Belgium, stands on the western side of Antwerps Grote Markt (Great Market Square). ... Hans Vredeman de Vries (Leeuwarden, 1527 – Antwerp, 1606) was a Dutch Renaissance architect. ... Ormolu (from French or moulu, signifying gold ground or pounded) is an 18th-century English term for applying finely ground, high-karat gold to an object in bronze. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Adolf Loos (December 10, 1870 in Brno, Moravia–August 8, 1933 in Vienna, Austria) was an early-20th century Viennese architect. ... Otto Wagner Otto Koloman Wagner (13 July 1841–11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect. ... Marcel Breuer Marcel Lajos Breuer (May 21, 1902 Pécs, Hungary – July 1, 1981 New York City), architect and furniture designer, was an influential modernist. ... Perhaps the most notable couple in the history of the field of industrial design. ... Bibendum chair by Eileen Gray E1027 table by Eileen Gray Early photograph of Eileen Grays E-1027 table and Block screen. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ... Ron Arad (b. ... Antonio Stradivari examining an instrument, in a Romantic 19th-century print. ... Gasparo da Salò is the name given to Gasparo di Bertolotti, one of the earliest violin-makers of which we have a historical record. ... Domenico Dragonetti with his Gasparo da Salò double bass Domenico Carlo Maria Dragonetti (April 9, 1763 - April 16, 1846), was an Italian double bass player, born in Venice. ...


Glass

The collection covers 4000 years of glass making, and has over 6000 items from Africa, Britain, Europe, America and Asia. The earliest glassware on display comes from Ancient Egypt and continues through the Ancient Roman, Medieval, Renaissance covering areas such as Venetian Glass and Bohemian glass and more recent periods, including Art Nouveau glass by Louis Comfort Tiffany and Émile Gallé. There are many examples of crystal chandeliers both English,[111] displayed in the British galleries and foreign for example Venetian (attributed to Guiseppe Briati) dated c1750 are in the collection. The Stained Glass collection is possibly the finest in the world, covering the medieval to modern periods, and covering Europe as well as Britain. Several examples of English sixteenth century Heraldic glass is displayed in the British Galleries. Many well known designers of stained glass are represented in the collection including, from the nineteenth century: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris. There is also an example of Frank Lloyd Wright's work in the collection. Twentieth century designers include Harry Clarke, John Piper, Patrick Reyntiens, Veronica Whall and Brian Clarke.[112] This article is about the material. ... Venetian glass is a type of glass object made in Venice, Italy, world-renowned for being colorful, elaborate, and skilfully made. ... Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) circa 1908 Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass and is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau and... Émile Gallé in 1889 Émile Gallé (Nancy, 8 May 1846 – Nancy, September 23, 1904) was a French artist who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major forces in the French Art Nouveau movement. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... Heraldry is the science and art of describing of coats-of-arms, also referred to as achievements or armorial bearings. ... A Harry Clarke window Over £1 million was spent in 1922 commissioning a set of Harry Clarke window in the Presentation Sisters convent on Green Street, Dingle. ... John Egerton Christmas Piper CH (December 13, 1903 – June 28, 1992) was a well-known 20th century English artist who lived for many years at Fawley Bottom near Henley-on-Thames. ... Veronica Whall Veronica Whall was daughter of Christopher Whall, a leader of the Arts & Crafts Movement in stained glass. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The main gallery was redesigned in 1994, the glass balustrade on the staircase and mezzanine are the work of Danny Lane, the gallery covering contemporary glass opened in 2004 and the sacred silver and stained glass gallery in 2005. In this latter gallery stained glass is displayed along side silverware starting in the 12th century and continuing to the present. Some of the most outstanding stained glass, dated 1243-1248 comes from the Sainte Chapelle, which will be displayed along with other examples in the new medieval galleries due to open in 2009. Examples of British stained glass are displayed in the British Galleries. One of the most spectacular items in the collection is the chandelier by Dale Chihuly in the rotunda at the museum's main entrance. La Sainte-Chapelle (French for The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. ... A contemporary chandelier in the Galt House in Louisville, Kentucky. ... Dale Chihuly. ...


Metalwork

This collection of over 45,000 items covers decorative ironwork, both wrought and cast, bronze, silverware, arms and armour, pewter, brassware and enamels. The main iron work gallery was redesigned in 1995. Ironwork is any weapon, artwork, utensil or architectural feature made of iron especially used for decorative purposes. ... It has been suggested that Wrought iron furniture be merged into this article or section. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Starch-polyester disposable cutlery Cutlery refers to any hand utensil used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pewter plate Pewter is a metal alloy, traditionally between 85 and 99 percent tin, with the remainder consisting of 1-15 percent copper, acting as a hardener, with the addition of lead for the lower grades of pewter, which have a bluish tint. ... For other uses, see Brass (disambiguation). ... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ...


There are over 10,000 objects made from silver or gold in the collection, the display (about 15% of the collection) is divided into secular[113] and sacred[114] covering both Christian (Roman Catholic, Anglican and Greek Orthodox) and Jewish liturgical vessels and items. The main silver gallery is divided into these areas: British silver pre-1800; British silver 1800 to 1900; modernist to contemporary silver; European silver. The collection includes the earliest known piece of English silver with a dated hallmark, this is a silver gilt beaker dated 1496–97. Silversmiths' whose work is represented in the collection include Paul de Lamerie[115] and Paul Storr whose Castlereagh Inkstand dated 1817–19 is one of his finest works. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Paul de Lamerie (1688 - 1751) was the best-known English silversmith of his generation. ... A Paul Storr Caryatid as part of an 1812 Desert Stand Paul Storr (b. ...


The main Iron Work gallery covers European wrought and cast iron from the Medieval period to the Early 20th century. The master of wrought ironwork Jean Tijou is represented by both examples of his work and designs on paper. One of the largest items is the Hereford Screen,[116] weighing nearly 8 tonnes, 10.5 metres high and 11 metres wide, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott in 1862 for the chancel in Hereford Cathedral, from which it was removed in 1967. It was made by Skidmore & Company. Its structure of timber and cast iron is embellished with wrought iron, burnished brass and copper. Much of the copper and ironwork is painted in a wide range of colours. The arches and columns are decorated with polished quartz and panels of mosaic.[117] Jean Tijou was a French Huguenot ironworker. ... The chapel of St Johns College, Cambridge is characteristic of Scotts many church designs Sir George Gilbert Scott (July 13, 1811 – March 27, 1878) was an English architect of the Victorian Age, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches and cathedrals. ... The current Hereford Cathedral, located at Hereford in England, United Kingdom, dates from 1079. ...


One of the rarest items in the collection is the 58 cm high Gloucester Candlestick,[118] dated to c1110, made from gilt bronze; with highly elaborate and intricate intertwining branches containing small figures and inscriptions, it is a tour de force of bronze casting. Also of importance is the Becket Casket dated c1180 to contain relics of St Thomas Becket, made from gilt copper, with enamelled scenes of the saint's martyrdom. Another highlight is the Reichenau Crozier[119] dated 1351. These items will be displayed in the new medieval galleries due to open in 2009. Gloucester (pronounced ) is a city and district in the English county of Gloucestershire, close to the Welsh border. ... Saint Thomas à Becket (or Thomas Becket) (ca. ... Alternate uses: Reichenau island Reichenau is a village in the municipality of Tamins in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland, where the two Rhine tributaries Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein meet. ... A crosier (crozier, pastoral staff) is the stylized staff of office carried by high-ranking Catholic prelates. ...


The Burghley Nef, a salt-cellar, French, dated 1527-28, uses a nautilus shell to form the hull of a vessel, which rests on the tail of a parcelgilt mermaid, who rests on a hexagonal gilt plinth on six claw-and-ball feet. Both masts have main and top-sails, and battlemented fighting-tops are made from gold. This will be displayed in the new Renaissance Galleries due to open 2009. Burghley House from Jones Views of the Seats of Noblemen and Gentlemen (1819). ... Genera Allonautilus Nautilus Nautilus (from Greek ναυτίλος, sailor) is the common name of any marine creatures of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole family of the suborder Nautilina. ...


Paintings and drawings

The collection includes about 1130 British and 650 European oil paintings; 6800 British watercolours, pastels and 2000 miniatures, for which the museum holds the national collection. It includes the Raphael Cartoons:[120] the seven surviving (there were ten) full scale designs for tapestries in the Sistine Chapel, the subject matter being events from the Gospels, specifically the Acts of the Apostles. There is also on display a fresco by Pietro Perugino dated 1522 from the church of Castello di Fortignano Perugia and is amongst the painter's last works. One of the largest objects in the collection is the Spanish tempera on wood, 670 x 486 cm, retable of St George, c1400, consisting of many scenes and painted by Andrés Marzal De Sax in Valencia. Mona Lisa, Oil on wood panel painting by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Watercolor is a painting technique making use of water-soluble pigments that are either transparent or opaque and are formulated with gum to bond the pigment to the paper. ... Pastel is an art medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder. ... Some links to this page should perhaps link to miniature (illuminated manuscript). ... The Raphael Cartoons are seven tapestry cartoons made by the High Renaissance painter Raphael. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: ) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Self-portrait, 1497–1500. ... Location of Perugia in Italy Coordinates: , Country Region Province Province of Perugia Government  - Mayor Renato Locchi Area  - City 449 km²  (1,165 sq mi) Elevation 493 m (1,617 ft) Population (July 2006)[1]  - City 161,390  - Density 359/km² (929. ... Pala dOro. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Valencian) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ...


Nineteenth century British artists are well represented. John Constable and J.M.W. Turner are represented by oil paintings, water colours and drawings. One of the most unusual objects on display is Thomas Gainsborough's experimental showbox with its back-lit landscapes, which he painted on glass, which allowed them to be changed like slides. Other landscape painters with works on display include Philip James de Loutherbourg, Peter de Wint and John Ward. J. M. W. Turner, English landscape painter The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, painted 1839. ... Thomas Gainsborough (14 May 1727 (baptised) – 2 August 1788) was one of the most famous portrait and landscape painters of 18th century Britain. ... Lord Howes action, or the Glorious First of June, painted 1795 Philip James de Loutherbourg, also seen as Philippe-Jacques and Philipp Jakob and with the appellation the Younger (31 October 1740 – 11 March 1812) was an English artist of French origin. ... Peter De Wint (21 January 1784 - 30 January 1849) was an English landscape painter. ... For the manager of Cheltenham Town F.C., see John Ward (football manager) John Montgomery Ward (March 3, 1860 – March 4, 1925) was a 19th century professional baseball player, league official, labor organizer and manager. ...

TINTORETTO - Self-Portrait as a Young Man
TINTORETTO - Self-Portrait as a Young Man

In 1857 John Sheepshanks gifted 233 paintings, mainly by contemporary British artists, and a similar number of drawings to the museum with the intention of forming a 'A National Gallery of British Art', a role since taken on by Tate Britain; artists represented are William Blake, James Barry , Henry Fuseli, Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, Sir David Wilkie , William Mulready, William Powell Frith, Millais and Hippolyte Delaroche. Although some of Constable's works came to the museum with the Sheepshanks bequest, the majority of the artist's works were donated by his daughter Isabel in 1888,[121] including the large number of sketches in oil, the most significant being the 1821 full size oil sketch[122] for the The Hay Wain. Other artists with works in the collection include: Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, Domenico di Pace Beccafumi, Anthony van Dyck, Ludovico Carracci, Antonio Verrio, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Domenico Tiepolo, Canaletto, Francis Hayman, Pompeo Batoni, Benjamin West, Paul Sandby, Richard Wilson, William Etty, Henry Fuseli, Sir Thomas Lawrence, James Barry, Francis Danby, Richard Parkes Bonington & Alphonse Legros. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin) September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... John Sheepshanks (1787 - 1863), British manufacturer and art collector, was born in Leeds, and became a partner in his fathers business as a cloth manufacturer. ... Tate Britain is a part of the Tate Gallery in Britain, along with Tate Modern, Tate Liverpool and Tate St Ives. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... James Barry (1741-1806), Irish-English painter, best remembered for his six part series of paintings entitled The Progress of Human Culture. ... Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ... Monarch of the Glen by Sir Edwin Landseer, 1851: the image was widely distributed in steel engravings Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, RA (b. ... Sir David Wilkie (November 18, 1785 - June 1, 1841) was a Scottish painter. ... Choosing the Wedding Gown illustrating ch 1 of Vicar of Wakefield by Oliver Goldsmith William Mulready (April 1, 1786 - July 7, 1863) was an Irish genre painter living in London. ... Detail of a nude by Frith William Powell Frith (January 19, 1819 - November 9, 1909), was an English painter specialising in portraits and Victorian era narratives, who was elected to the Royal Academy in 1852. ... John Everett Millais (June 8, 1829–August 13, 1896) was a painter. ... Hippolyte Delaroche, commonly known as Paul (July 17, 1797 - November 4, 1856), French painter, was born in Paris. ... The Hay Wain is an oil on canvas painting by John Constable. ... // A painter from Flanders, Belgium who worked in England Marcus Gheeraerts was born in Bruges in 1561 or 1562, and was brought to England in 1568 by his father, a painter of whose work hardly anything is known. ... Self-portrait, 1525-1530 The beheading of Spurius Cassius, fresco (1532-1535), Palazzo Pubblico, Siena. ... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... Bargellini Madonna (1588) Oil on canvas, 282 x 188 cm Pinacoteca Nazionale, Bologna Ludovico Carracci (April 21, 1555 – November 13, 1619) was an Italian painter, etcher, and printmaker who helped reinvigorate Italian art after Mannerism by founding an academy in Bologna in 1585. ... Antonio Verrio (1639-1707) was a decorative painter of Italian origin. ... Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 - March 27, 1770) was an Venetian painter and printmaker, considered among the last Grand Manner fresco painters from the Venetian republic. ... Sketch for , for the ceiling of the church of San Lio, Venice. ... The Stonemasons Yard, painted 1726-30. ... Francis Hayman (1708 - 2 February 1776) was an English painter and illustrator who became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768 and later its first librarian. ... Portrait of Charles Crowle Pompeo Girolamo Batoni (1708-1787), Italian painter, was born at Lucca. ... Self Portrait of Benjamin West, ca. ... Paul Sandby (1725 – 9 November 1809) was an English map-maker turned landscape painter in water-colours, who, along with his older brother Thomas, became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768. ... Lake Avernus I, by Richard Wilson, c. ... William Etty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ... Alexander MacKenzie painted by Thomas Lawrence (c. ... James Barry (1741-1806), Irish-English painter, best remembered for his six part series of paintings entitled The Progress of Human Culture. ... Francis Danby (16th November 1793 - 9th February 1861) was a painter born in the south of Ireland. ... Richard Parkes Bonington (December 25, 1802 - September 28, 1828) was an English Romantic landscape painter. ... Alphonse Legros (May 8, 1837 - December 8, 1911), painter and etcher, was born at Dijon. ...


Richard Ellison's collection of 100 British watercolours was given by his widow in 1860 and 1873 'to promote the foundation of the National Collection of Water Colour Paintings'. Over 500 British and European oil paintings, watercolours and miniatures and 3000 drawings and prints were bequeathed in 1868-9 by the clergymen Chauncey Hare Townshend and Alexander Dyce.


Several French paintings entered the collection as part of the 260 paintings and miniatures (not all the works were French, for example Carlo Crivelli's Virgin and Child) that formed part of the Jones bequest of 1882 and as such are displayed in the galleries of continental art 1600-1800, including the portrait of the Duc d'Alençon by François Clouet, Gaspard Dughet and works by François Boucher including his portrait of Madame de Pompadour dated 1758, Jean François de Troy and their contemporaries. Annunciation with St Emidius (1486) 207x146,5 cm National Gallery, London Carlo Crivelli (c. ... Several counts and then royal dukes of Alençon have figured in French history. ... » Diane de Poitiers by François Clouet (1571) at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC Elisabeth of Austria by François Clouet (1571) (Louvre) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: François Clouet François Clouet (died 22 December 1572), son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist... Landscape, 1650-1660. ... François Boucher The Toilet of Venus (1751) typifies the superficially pleasing elegance of Bouchers mature style. ... Madame de Pompadour, portrait by François Boucher circa 1750 Madame de Pompadour (December 29, 1721 – April 15, 1764) was a well known courtesan and the famous mistress of King Louis XV of France. ... A reading of Molière, Jean François de Troy, about 1728 Jean François de Troy (1679-1752) was a French roccoco painter and tapestry designer born on January 27, 1679 in Paris. ...

REMBRANDT - The Departure of the Shunammite Woman
REMBRANDT - The Departure of the Shunammite Woman

Another major Victorian benefactor was Constantine Alexander Ionides, who left 82 oil paintings to the museum in 1901, including works by Botticelli, Tintoretto, Adriaen Brouwer, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, Gustave Courbet, Eugène Delacroix, Edgar Degas, Jean-François Millet, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones, plus watercolours and over a 1000 drawings and prints Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606 – October 4, 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (Florence March 1, 1445 - May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin) September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... Peasants Brawling over Cards by Adriaen Brouwer Adriaen Brouwer (1605 - 1638) was a Flemish painter. ... Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (portrait by Nadar) Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (July 26, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape painter. ... Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Edgar Degas (19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917), born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas (IPA ), was a French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpture, printmaking and drawing. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Dante Gabriel Rossetti (May 12, 1828 - April 10, 1882) was an English poet, painter and translator. ... Love Among the Ruins, by Edward Burne-Jones. ...


The Salting Bequest of 1909 included, amongst other works, water colours by J.M.W. Turner. Other water colourists include: William Gilpin, Thomas Rowlandson, William Blake, John Sell Cotman, Paul Sandby, William Mulready, Edward Lear, James Abbott McNeill Whistler and Paul Cezanne. J. M. W. Turner, English landscape painter The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, painted 1839. ... The Reverend William Gilpin (1724-1804) was an English clergyman, schoolmaster and author, best known as one of the originators of the idea of the picturesque. ... Thomas Rowlandson (July 1756 - April 22, 1827) was an English caricaturist. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... Greta Bridge, c. ... Paul Sandby (1725 – 9 November 1809) was an English map-maker turned landscape painter in water-colours, who, along with his older brother Thomas, became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768. ... Choosing the Wedding Gown illustrating ch 1 of Vicar of Wakefield by Oliver Goldsmith William Mulready (April 1, 1786 - July 7, 1863) was an Irish genre painter living in London. ... Edward Lear, 1812-1888 Eagle Owl, Edward Lear, 1837 Another Edward Lear owl, in his more familiar style Edward Lear (12 May 1812 – 29 January 1888) was an artist, illustrator and writer known for his nonsensical poetry and his limericks, a form which he popularised. ... James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 14, 1834 - July 17, 1903) was an American painter and etcher. ... Categories: 1839 births | 1906 deaths | French painters | Post-impressionism | Artist stubs ...


There is a copy of Raphael's School of Athens over 4 metres by 8 metres in size, dated 1755 by Anton Raphael Mengs on display in the eastern Cast Court. The painting School of Athens (italian: La scuola di Atene) its a fresco from Raphael Sanzio that shows renaissance thinkers who are situated with Greek and Roman scholars. ... Anton Raphael Mengs (March 12, 1728 - June 29, 1779) was a German painter. ...


Miniaturists represented in the collection include Hans Holbein the Younger, Nicholas Hilliard, Isaac Oliver, Peter Oliver, Jean Petitot, Alexander Cooper, Samuel Cooper, Thomas Flatman, Rosalba Carriera, Christian Friedrich Zincke, George Engleheart, John Smart, Richard Cosway & William Charles Ross. A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... Self-portrait, 1577. ... Isaac Oliver c. ... Peter Oliver (1594-1648) was an English miniaturist. ... Jean Petitot (1608 - April 3, 1691) was a French-Swiss enamel painter, was born at Geneva, a member of a Burgundian family which had fled from France on account of religious difficulties. ... Alexander Cooper son of Rupert hung like a horse Cooper(before 1609 - 1660) was an English miniature painter. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell, 1657. ... Thomas Flatman (1637–1688) was an English poet and miniature painter. ... Rosalba Carriera, self-portrait 1715 Rosalba Carriera (October 7, 1675 – April 15, 1757) was a Venetian Rococo painter. ... Christian Friedrich Zincke (b Dresden, 1683-5; d London, 24 March 1767) was a German miniature painter active in England in the 18th century. ... George Engleheart (born in October 1752 at Kew; died 1829 in Blackheath), English portrait miniature painter and great rival of Richard Cosway. ... John Smart (painter) (c. ... Richard Cosway (5 November 1742 - 4 July 1821) was a leading English portrait painter – more accurately a miniaturist - of the Regency era. ... Sir William Charles Ross (1794-1860) was a British painter. ...


Drawings in the collection of c10,000 British and c2,000 old master works, include work by: Dürer, Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, Bernardo Buontalenti, Rembrandt, Antonio Verrio, Paul Sandby, John Russell (painter), Angelica Kauffmann, John Flaxman,[123] Hugh Douglas Hamilton, Thomas Rowlandson, Thomas Girtin, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, David Wilkie, John Martin (painter), Samuel Palmer, Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, Lord Frederic Leighton, Sir Samuel Luke Fildes and Aubrey Vincent Beardsley. Modern British artists represented in the collection include: Paul Nash , Percy Wyndham Lewis, Eric Gill, Stanley Spencer, John Piper, Graham Sutherland, Lucien Freud and David Hockney. In order to conserve the drawings, the displays in the gallery are changed regularly. Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... Painting by Castiglione Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (c. ... Bernardo Buontalenti was an architect in the Italian Renaissance who designed the crypt of the Basilica di San Lorenzo for the Medici family. ... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606 – October 4, 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. ... Antonio Verrio (1639-1707) was a decorative painter of Italian origin. ... Paul Sandby (1725 – 9 November 1809) was an English map-maker turned landscape painter in water-colours, who, along with his older brother Thomas, became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768. ... John Russell (1745-April 1806) was an English painter renowned for his portrait work in oils and pastels, and as a writer and teacher of painting techniques. ... Angelica Kauffmann Miranda and Ferdinand in The Tempest, 1782. ... John Flaxman (July 6, 1755 - December 7, 1826), was an English sculptor and draughtsman. ... Hugh Douglas Hamilton (c. ... Thomas Rowlandson (July 1756 - April 22, 1827) was an English caricaturist. ... Thomas Girtin (1775 - November 9, 1802), English painter and etcher, was the son of a well-to-do cordage maker in Southwark, London. ... Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (August 29, 1780 - January 14, 1867) was a French painter. ... David Wilkie may refer to: Sir David Wilkie (artist) David Wilkie (taxicab driver), killed during the UK miners strike (1984-1985) David Wilkie (swimmer) Category: ... The Great Day of His Wrath, c. ... Self-portrait of the young Samuel Palmer, circa 1826. ... Monarch of the Glen by Sir Edwin Landseer, 1851: the image was widely distributed in steel engravings Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, RA (b. ... Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (December 31, 1830 - January 25, 1896) was an English painter and sculptor. ... Sir Luke Fildes (1843-1927) was an English painter and illustrator born at Liverpool and trained in the South Kensington and Royal Academy schools. ... Aubrey Beardsley Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (August 21, 1872, Brighton, England - March 16, 1898, France) was an influential English artist, illustrator, and author. ... Paul Nash (1899 - 1946) was a British war artist. ... Wyndam Lewis in 1916 Percy Wyndham Lewis (November 18, 1882 - March 7, 1957) was a British painter and author. ... Arthur Eric Rowton Gill (February 22, 1882–November 17, 1940) was a British sculptor, typographer and engraver. ... Stanley Spencer (1891 - 1959) was an English painter. ... John Egerton Christmas Piper CH (December 13, 1903 – June 28, 1992) was a well-known 20th century English artist who lived for many years at Fawley Bottom near Henley-on-Thames. ... Graham Vivian Sutherland (August 24, 1903 – February 17, 1980) was an English artist. ... Lucian Freud OM (born December 8, 1922) is a British painter and printmaker. ... We Two Boys Together Clinging, 1961. ...

Periods and styles

These galleries cover an entire period in western design, objects on display cover all areas of the museum's collections relevant to that period, these are: Medieval and Renaissance; Baroque and Rococo; 18th century including Neoclassicism; 19th century including, Empire Style, Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau; 20th century including, Art Deco and Modernism. All these galleries are closed but due to reopen by 2008 or 2009. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... Empire is an early 19th century style of architecture and furniture design that and originates from Napoleons rule of France. ... Artichoke wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... Asheville City Hall. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ...


Photography

The collection contains over 500,000 images dating from the advent of photography, the oldest image dating from 1839. The gallery displays a series of changing exhibits and is closed when between exhibitions to allow re-display. Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ...


The collection includes the work of many photographers from Fox Talbot, Julia Margaret Cameron, Clementina Maude, Benjamin Brecknell Turner, Frederick Hollyer, Roger Fenton, Man Ray, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Ilse Bing, Bill Brandt, Cecil Beaton (there are over 8000 of his negatives), Don McCullin, David Bailey and Helen Chadwick to the present day. William Henry Fox Talbot (February 11, 1800 - September 17, 1877) was one of the first photographers and made major contributions to the photographic process. ... A portrait of Julia Jackson who was Camerons niece and favorite subject, an albumen silver print by Julia Margaret Cameron, taken in 1867. ... Clementina Maude, Viscountess Hawarden (1 June 1822 – 19 January 1865) was a portrait photographer of the 1860s. ... by Roger Fenton, 1855 Valley of the Shadow of Death by Roger Fenton, 1855 Roger Fenton (March 20, 1819 - August 8, 1869) was a pioneering British photographer, one of the first war photographers. ... Man Ray, photographed at Gaite-Montparnasse exhibition in Paris by Carl Van Vechten on June 16, 1934 Man Ray (August 27, 1890–November 18, 1976) was an American artist who spent most of his career in Paris, France. ... Henri Cartier-Bresson Henri Cartier-Bresson (August 22, 1908 – August 3, 2004) was a French photographer considered to be the father of modern photojournalism, an early adopter of 35 mm format, and the master of candid photography. ... Bill Brandt, Icons Bill Brandt (May 3, 1904 – December 20, 1983) was an influential British photographer and photojournalist known for his high-contrast images of British society and his distorted nudes and landscapes. ... Sir Cecil Walter Hardy Beaton (January 14, 1904 – January 18, 1980) was an English fashion and portrait photographer and a stage and costume designer for films and the theatre. ... Color, positive picture (A) and negative (B), monochrome positive picture (C) and negative (D) In photography, a negative may refer to 3 different things, although they are all related. ... I am a pink monkey and I have bladder problems!! I know Im god ... This article is about the English photographer. ... Helen Chadwick (1953 - March 15, 1996) was a British artist. ...


One of the most interesting of the collections are the James Lafayette society portraits, the collection contains over 600 photographs dating from the late 19th to early 20th centuries. The subjects covered include: bishops, generals, society ladies, Indian maharajas, Ethiopian rulers and other foreign leaders, actresses, people posing in their motor cars and a series covering the famous fancy dress ball held at Devonshire House in 1897 to celebrate Queen Victoria's diamond jubilee. A ball at Devonshire House in 1850. ...


In 2003 and 2007 Penelope Smail and Kathleen Moffat, generously donated Curtis Moffat's extensive archive to the Museum. He created dynamic abstract photographs, innovative colour still-lives and glamorous society portraits during the 1920's and 1930's. He was also a pivotal figure in Modernist interior design. In Paris during the 1920s, Moffat collaborated with Man Ray, producing portraits and abstract photograms or 'rayographs'. A colour photogram of lemons and tomato stems. ...


Prints and books

The museum houses the National Art Library,[124], containing over 750,000 books, it is one of the world's largest libraries dedicated to the study of fine and decorative arts. The library covers all areas and periods of the museum's collections with special collections covering illuminated manuscripts, rare books and artists' letters and archives. In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ...


The Library consists of three large public rooms, with around a hundred individual study desks. These are the West Room, Centre Room and Reading Room. The West Room is currently closed but will reopen in 2007. The centre room contains 'special collection material'.


One of the great treasures in the library is the Codex Forster, some of Leonardo da Vinci's note books, comprised of three parchment-bound manuscripts, Forster I, Forster II, and Forster III,[125] quite small in size, dated between 1490 and 1505. “Da Vinci” redirects here. ...

Image:‘Man climbing a ladder’, Codex Forster II, folios 45v, red chalk.jpg
LEONARDO DA VINCI - ‘Man climbing a ladder’, Codex Forster II, folios 45v

Their contents include a large collection of sketches and references to the equestrian sculpture commissioned by the Duke of Milan Ludovico Sforza to commemorate his father Francesco Sforza. These were bequeathed with over 18,000 books to the museum in 1876 by John Forster.[126] The Reverend Alexander Dyce[127] was another benefactor of the library, leaving over 14,000 books to the museum in 1869. Amongst the books he collected are early editions in Greek and Latin of the poets and playwrights Aeschylus, Aristotle, Homer, Livy, Ovid, Pindar, Sophocles and Virgil. More recent authors include Giovanni Boccaccio, Dante, Racine, Rabelais and Molière. “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... John Forster (April 2, 1812 - February 2, 1876), was an English biographer and critic. ... Ludovico Sforza in a portrait by Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis. ... Portrait of Francesco Sforza, ca 1460, by Bonifazio Bembo: Sforza insisted on being shown in his worn dirty old campaigning hat. ... John Forster (April 2, 1812 - February 2, 1876), was an English biographer and critic. ... Alexander Dyce (June 30, 1798 - May 15, 1869) was a Scottish dramatic editor and literary historian. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Pindar (or Pindarus) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece. ... Sophocles (ancient Greek: ; 495 BC - 406 BC) was the second of three great ancient Greek tragedians. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Racine is the name of several communities in the United States of America: Racine, Wisconsin, the largest Racine Racine, Minnesota Racine, Missouri Racine, Ohio Racine, West Virginia Racine County, Wisconsin Jean Racine was a 17th century French dramatist. ... François Rabelais (ca. ... Molière, engraved on the frontispiece to his Works. ...


Writers whose papers are in the library are as diverse as Charles Dickens and Beatrix Potter.[128] Illuminated manuscripts in the library dating from the 12th to 16th centuries include: the Eadwine Psalter, Canterbury; Pocket Book of Hours, Rheims; Missal from the Royal Abbey of Saint Denis, Paris; the Simon Marmion Book of Hours, Bruges; 1524 Charter illuminated by Lucas Horenbout, London; the Armagnac manuscript of the trial and rehabilitation of Joan of Arc, Rouen.[129] also the Victorian period is represented by William Morris. “Dickens” redirects here. ... (Helen) Beatrix Potter (28 July 1866 – 22 December 1943) was an English author and illustrator, botanist, and conservationist, best known for her childrens books, which featured animal characters such as Peter Rabbit. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... A illuminated page from the Très Riches Heures showing the day for exchanging gifts from the month of January A book of hours from the late 1470s. ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) is a city of north-eastern France, 98 miles east-northeast of Paris. ... Missal, in the Roman Catholic Church, is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Masses throughout the year. ... Saint Denis can refer to: a Christian saint: see Denis Seine-Saint-Denis a France Several communes in France: Saint-Denis,in the Aude d partement Saint-Denis, in the Gard d partement Saint-Denis, in the Seine-Saint-Denis d partement, home of Saint Denis Basilica Saint-Denis, in... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... Joan of Arc, or Jeanne dArc in French,[1] (1412 – May 30, 1431)[2] is a 15th century national heroine of France. ... Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ...


The print collection has over 500,000 items, covering: posters, greetings cards, book plates, as well as prints from the renaissance to the present, including works by Rembrandt, William Hogarth, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Canaletto, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Henri Matisse and Sir William Nicholson. Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606 – October 4, 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Giovanni Battista (also Giambattista) Piranesi (4 October 1729 - 9 November 1778) was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric prisons (Carceri dInvenzione). ... The Stonemasons Yard, painted 1726-30. ... The Old Museum in Berlin Karl Friedrich Schinkel (March 13, 1781 - October 9, 1841) was a German architect and painter. ... Henri Matisse, Self-Portrait in a Striped T-shirt 1906, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark Henri Matisse (December 31, 1869 – November 3, 1954) was a French artist, noted for his use of color and his fluid, brilliant and original draughtsmanship. ... Sir William Nicholson (1872-1949) was a British painter, also know for his work as an illustrator. ...

Sculpture

The Sculpture collection at the V&A is the most comprehensive holding of post-classical European sculpture in the world. There are approximately 17,500 objects[130] in the collection that cover the period from about 400 AD to 1914. This covers amongst other periods Byzantine and Anglo Saxon ivory sculptures, British, French and Spanish medieval statues and carvings, the Renaissance, Baroque, Neo-Classical, Victorian and Art Nouveau periods. All uses of sculpture are represented, from tomb and memorial, to portrait, allegorical, religious, mythical, statues for gardens including fountains, as well as architectural decorations. Materials used include, marble, alabaster, stone, terracotta, wood (history of wood carving), ivory, gesso, plaster, bronze, lead and ceramics. The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ... This article is about a system of myths. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... This article is about the history of wood carving. ... Gesso is the Italian word for chalk (akin to the Greek word gypsum), and is a powdered form of the mineral calcium carbonate used in art. ...

The collection of Italian, Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque and Neoclassical sculpture (both original and in cast form) is unequalled outside of Italy. It includes Canova's The Three Graces, which the museum jointly owns with National Galleries of Scotland. Italian sculptors whose work is held by the museum include: Bartolomeo Bon, Bartolommeo Bellano, Luca della Robbia, Giovanni Pisano, Donatello, Agostino di Duccio, Andrea Riccio, Antonio Rossellino, Andrea del Verrocchio, Antonio Lombardo, Andrea Riccio, Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi, Andrea della Robbia, Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, Michelangelo (represented by a freehand wax model and casts of his most famous sculptures), Jacopo Sansovino, Alessandro Algardi, Antonio Calcagni, Benvenuto Cellini (Medusa's head dated c1547), Agostino Busti, Bartolomeo Ammanati, Giacomo della Porta, Giambologna (Samson Slaying a Philistine c1562, his finest work outside Italy), Bernini (Neptune and Triton c1622–3), Giovanni Battista Foggini, Vincenzo Foggini (Samson and the Philistines), Massimiliano Soldani Benzi, Antonio Corradini, Andrea Brustolon, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Canova, Carlo Marochetti and Raffaelle Monti. An unusual sculpture is the ancient Roman statue of Narcissus restored by Valerio Cioli c1564 with plaster. The largest item from Italy is the Chancel Chapel from Santa Chiara Florence dated 1493–1500, designed by Giuliano da Sangallo it is 11.1 metres in height by 5.4 metres square, it includes a grand sculpted tabernacle by Antonio Rossellino and coloured terracotta decoration.[131] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini; December 7, 1598 – November 28, 1680) was a pre-eminent Baroque sculptor and architect of 17th century Rome. ... BERNINI - Neptune and Triton, in the V&A, London Neptune and Triton is an early sculpture by the 17th century Italian sculptor and architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini. ... Canova may refer to: Antonio Canova Canova, South Dakota This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A frontal depiction of the version of the sculpture found in the Hermitage Museum. ... The National Galleries of Scotland are: The National Gallery of Scotland The Royal Scottish Academy Building The Scottish National Portrait Gallery The Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art The Dean Gallery The Partner Galleries are: Duff House Paxton House See Also The Playfair Project ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Luca della Robbia (1400-1482) was a Florentine sculptor noted for his terracotta roundels. ... Giovanni Pisano (c. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... Agostino di Duccio (1418 - 1481) was an Italian early Renaissance sculptor. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Briosco, Andrea Andrea Briosco (c. ... Antonio Gamberelli (c. ... Madonna with Sts John the Baptist and Donatus (1475-83), Cathedral of Pistoia. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Briosco, Andrea Andrea Briosco (c. ... Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi (Bozzolo?, near Mantua ca. ... Madonna with Child and Angels. ... Michelozzo di Bartolommeo (1391 - 1472?) (sometimes called Michelozzo Michelozzi, although some sources say this is an error), Italian architect and sculptor, was a Florentine by birth, the son of a tailor, and in early life a pupil of Donatello. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Jacopo d’Antonio Sansovino (1486 - November 27, 1570) was an Italian sculptor and architect. ... Alessandro Algardi (July 31, 1598 - June 10, 1654), was an Italian sculptor and architect. ... Gold Salt cellar by Cellini. ... Medusa, by Arnold Böcklin (1878) In Greek mythology, Medusa (Greek: Μέδουσα, guardian, protectress[1]) was a monstrous chthonic female character, essentially an extension of an apotropaic mask, gazing upon whom could turn onlookers to stone. ... Agostino Busti, or Bambaia (c. ... Bartolomeo Ammanati (1511-1592) was a Florentine architect and sculptor. ... Giacomo della Porta (c. ... Portrait of Giovanni Bologna by Hendrick Goltzius Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, also known as Giovanni Da Bologna and Giovanni Bologna (1529 - 1608) was a sculptor who best known for his marble statuary and works in bronze. ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... BERNINI - Neptune and Triton, in the V&A, London Neptune and Triton is an early sculpture by the 17th century Italian sculptor and architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini. ... Giovanni Battista Foggini (April 25, 1652 - April 12, 1737) was an Italian sculptor of the Roman Baroque school. ... Massimiliano Soldani-Benzi or Massimiliano Soldani(15 July 1656 — 23 February 1740) was an Italian sculptor and medallist, mainly active in Florence. ... Monument to Johann Matthias Graf von der Schulenburg, Marshall of the Venetian forces, for the island of Corfu Antonio Corradini (1668-1752) was a Venetian Rococosculptor. ... Andrea Brustolon (20 July 1662, Belluno – 25 October 1732, Belluno) was a Venetian sculptor in wood who is known for his furnishings in the Baroque style and devotional sculptures. ... Giovanni Battista (also Giambattista) Piranesi (4 October 1729 - 9 November 1778) was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric prisons (Carceri dInvenzione). ... Baron Carlo (Charles) Marochetti (1805-1867) was a sculptor, born in Turin, but raised in Paris as a French citizen. ... Portrait by Piero di Cosimo, c. ...

DONATELLO - One of the finest surviving examples of Donatello's work in rilievo schiacciato
DONATELLO - One of the finest surviving examples of Donatello's work in rilievo schiacciato

Rodin is represented by over 20 works in the museum collection, making it one of the largest collections of the sculptor's work outside France; these were gifted to the museum by the sculptor in 1914, as acknowledgement of Britain's support of France in World War I[132], although the statue of St John the Baptist had been purchased in 1902 by public subscription. Other French sculptors with work in the collection are Hubert Le Sueur, François Girardon, Michel Clodion, Jean-Antoine Houdon, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux and Jules Dalou. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... Sunken-relief depiction of Pharoah Ankhenaten with his wife Nefertiti and daughters. ... Rodins The Burghers of Calais in Calais, France. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... Hubert Le Sueur (c. ... François Girardon (March 17, 1628 - September 1, 1715) was a French sculptor. ... MICHEL, CLAUDE, known as CLODION (1738-1814), French sculptor, was born on the 20th of December 1738 in Nancy. ... Jean-Antoine Houdon (March 20, 1741 - July 15, 1828) was a French sculptor. ... Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, sometimes called Jules Carpeaux (May 11, 1827 - October 12, 1875) was a French sculptor who studied under Fran ois Rude. ... Aimé-Jules Dalou, born December 31, 1838 - died April 15, 1902, was a French sculptor. ...


There are also several Renaissance works by Northern European sculptors in the collection including work by: Veit Stoss, Tilman Riemenschneider, Hendrick de Keyser, Jan van Schayck, Hans Daucher & Peter Flotner. Baroque works from the same area include the work of, Adriaen de Vries & Sébastien Slodtz. The Spanish sculptress Luisa Roldán is represented by her Virgin and Child with St Diego of Alcala c1695. Veit Stoss painted by Jan Matejko Veit Stoss (Polish: Wit Stwosz) (ca. ... Tilman Riemenschneider (1460 – 1531) was a German sculptor who lived in Würzburg. ... Hendrick de Keyser (born: 15 May 1565 - died: 15 May 1621) was a Dutch sculptor and architect born in Utrecht, Spanish Habsburg, which is now in the Netherlands. ... Adriaen de Vries (ca. ... Image:Hannibal Slodtz crop. ... Luisa Ignacia Roldán (1650 - 1704), called La Roldana, was a Spanish sculptress of the Baroque Era. ...


Sculptors both British and Europeans who were based in Britain and whose work is in the collection include:[133] Nicholas Stone, Caius Gabriel Cibber, Grinling Gibbons, John Michael Rysbrack, Louis-Francois Roubiliac, Peter Scheemakers, Sir Henry Cheere, Agostino Carlini, Thomas Banks, Joseph Nollekens, Joseph Wilton, John Flaxman, Sir Francis Chantrey, John Gibson, Edward Hodges Baily , Lord Leighton, Alfred Stevens, Thomas Brock , Alfred Gilbert, George Frampton, Eric Gill. A sample of some of these sculptors' work is on display in the British Galleries. Nicholas Stone (1586 - August 24, 1647) was an English sculptor and architect. ... Melancholy and Raving Madness Caius Gabriel Cibber (1630-1700) was a sculptor, and the father of Colley Cibber. ... One of the many bookcase carvings Gibbons made for the Wren Library, Cambridge. ... Johannes Michel or John Michael Rysbrack (born June 27, 1694 in Antwerp; died January 8, 1770 in London) was an 18th century Flemish sculptor. ... Louis-François Roubiliac (more correctly Roubillac) (1695 - January 11, 1762), French sculptor, was born at Lyons and became a pupil of Balthasar of Dresden and of Nicolas Coustou. ... Peter Scheemakers (1691 - 1781) was a Flemish sculptor who worked for most of his life in London. ... Agostino Carlini (1718?-August 1790) was an Italian-born sculptor (born in Genoa) who settled in England. ... Thetis rising from the sea, 1778, from the Victoria and Albert Museum Thomas Banks (December 29, 1735 — February 2, 1805), English sculptor, son of a surveyor who was land steward to the Duke of Beaufort, was born in London. ... Joseph Nollekens (1737-1823) was a sculptor from London generally considered to be the finest British sculptor of the late 18th century. ... Joseph Wilton (16 July 1722 – 1803) was an English sculptor and one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768 (and the Academys third keeper). ... John Flaxman (July 6, 1755 - December 7, 1826), was an English sculptor and draughtsman. ... Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey (April 7, 1782–November 25, 1841), was an English sculptor of the Georgian era. ... John Gibson, (June 19, 1790 - January 27, 1866), British sculptor, was born near Conway in 1790, his father being a market gardener. ... Edward Hodges Baily (March 10, 1788 - May 22, 1867) was a British sculptor who was born in Bristol. ... Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (December 31, 1830 - January 25, 1896) was an English painter and sculptor. ... Alfred Stevens (1828-1906) was a Belgian painter Alfred Stevens (1818-1875) was a British sculptor This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sir Thomas Brock (March 1, 1847 - August 22, 1922) was a British sculptor. ... Sir Alfred Gilbert (August 12, 1854 – November 4, 1934) was an English sculptor and goldsmith who enthusiastically experimented with metallurgical innovations. ... Sir George Frampton(1860-1928) was a notable British sculptor and leading member of the New Sculpture movement. ... Arthur Eric Rowton Gill (February 22, 1882–November 17, 1940) was a British sculptor, typographer and engraver. ...


With the opening of the Dorothy and Michael Hintze sculpture galleries in 2006 it was decided to extend the chronology of the works on display up to 1950, this has involved loans by other museums, including Tate Britain, so works by Henry Moore and Jacob Epstein along with other of their contemporaries are now on view. These galleries concentrate on works dated 1600 to 1950 by British sculptors, works by continental sculptors who worked in Britain, and works bought by British patrons from the continental sculptors, such as Canova's Theseus and the Minotaur. The galleries overlooking the garden are arranged by theme, tomb sculpture, portraiture, garden sculpture and mythology. Then there is a section that covers late nineteenth and early twentieth century sculpture, this includes work by Rodin and other French sculptors such as Dalou who spent several years in Britain where he taught sculpture. Michael Hintze is an Australian millionaire businessman, philanthropist and political patron, based in the United Kingdom. ... Reclining Figure (1951) outside the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, is characteristic of Moores sculptures, with an abstract female figure intercut with voids. ... Jacob Epstein photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Sir Jacob Epstein (10 November 1880 – 19 August 1959) was an American-born Jewish sculptor who worked chiefly in the UK, where he pioneered modern sculpture, often producing controversial works that challenged taboos concerning what public artworks appropriately depict. ...


Smaller scale works are displayed in the Gilbert Bayes gallery, covering medieval especially English alabaster sculpture, bronzes, wooden sculptures and has demonstrations of various techniques such as bronze casting using Lost-wax casting. A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Casting is a process by which a material is introduced into a mold while it is liquid, allowed to solidify in the shape inside the mold, and then removed producing a fabricated object, part, or casing. ...


The majority of the Medieval and Renaissance sculpture will be displayed in the new Medieval and Renaissance galleries in 2009.


One of the largest objects in the collection is the Hertogenbosch Roodloft,[134] from Holland, dated 1610–1613 this is as much a work of architecture as sculpture, 10.4 metres wide, 7.8 metres high, the architectural framework is of various coloured marbles including columns, arches and balustrade, against which are statues and bas-reliefs and other carvings in alabaster, the work of sculptor Conrad van Norenberch. A rood is an old English ( Anglo-Saxon) unit equal to quarter an acre, i. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ...


Textiles

The collection of textiles consists of over 38,000 examples, mainly western European though all populated continents are represented, dating from 1st century AD to the present, this is the largest such collection in the world. Techniques represented include: weaving, printing, embroidery, lace, tapestry and carpets. These are classified by technique, countries of origin and date of production. The collections are well represented in these areas: early silks from the Near East, lace, European tapestries and English medieval church embroidery. Both of the major English centres of tapestry weaving of the 16th & 17th centuries respectively, Sheldon & Mortlake are represented in the collection by several examples. Some of the finest tapestries are examples from the Gobelins workshop, including a set of 'Jason and the Argonauts' dating from the 1750s. Other continental centres of tapestry weaving with work in the collection include Brussels, Tournai, Beauvais, Strasbourg & Florence. One of the highlights of the collection is the four Devonshire Hunting Tapestries,[135] very rare 15th century tapestries, woven in the Netherlands, depicting the hunting of various animals; not just their age but their size make these unique. The collection has numerous examples of various types of textiles designed by William Morris[136], including, embroidery, woven fabrics, tapestries (Including the 'The Forest' tapestry of 1887), rugs and carpets, as well as pattern books and paper designs. The art deco period is covered by rugs and fabrics designed by Marion Dorn. From the same period there is a rug designed by Serge Chermayeff. Gold Embroidery Cross-stitch embroidery, Hungary, mid-20th century Phulkari from Punjab region, India 15th century embroidered cope, Ghent, Belgium Embroidery, c. ... Lace appliqué and bow at the bust-line of a nightgown. ... This article is about tapestry the textile. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Mortlake is a part of south west London between Sheen and Barnes and bounded by the river Thames to the north. ... The Manufacture des Gobelins is a tapestry factory located in Paris, France. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Tournai (in Dutch: Doornik in Latin: Tornacum) is a municipality located 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt (in French: Escaut, in Dutch: Schelde), in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... Beauvais is a town and commune of northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Oise département. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Serge Ivan Chermayeff (October 8, 1900 – May 8, 1996) was a British architect, writer, and co-founder of several architectural societies, including the American Society of Planners and Architects. ...


Theatre Museum

The Theatre Museum closed on 7 January 2007. The collections will be stored by the V&A but will be available for research and exhibitions, with the long-term intention of opening new galleries at the Museum. The Theatre Museum in the Covent Garden district of London, England, is the United Kingdoms National Museum of the Performing Arts. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Exhibitions

The V&A holds some of the most impressive exhibitions on art in London, this is in part because of the large galleries devoted to temporary exhibitions. A typical year will see over a dozen different exhibitions being staged covering all areas of the collections. Some of the larger exhibitions of recent years have been:

is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kylie Ann Minogue (IPA: [1]) (born May 28, 1968) is a Grammy Award-winning Australian pop singer-songwriter and occassional actress. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Directors

See also: Directors of the V&A Museum

[1] The Director of the V&A Museum is the head of the V&A in London, a post currently held by Mark Jones. ...

Images

Glass

Paintings & Drawings

Sculpture

References

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  2. ^ http://www.vam.ac.uk/futureplan/index.html
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  6. ^ page 19, The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, John Physick 1982
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  11. ^ page 35, The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, John Physick 1982
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  19. ^ page 246, The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, John Physick 1982
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  35. ^ page 94 Owen Jones: Design, Ornament, Architecture and Theory in an Age in Transition, Carol A. Hrvol Flores 2006
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  47. ^ page 155, The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, John Physick 1982
  48. ^ page 156, The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, John Physick 1982
  49. ^ page 172, The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, John Physick 1982
  50. ^ page 174, The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, John Physick 1982
  51. ^ page 174, The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, John Physick 1982
  52. ^ page 175, The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, John Physick 1982
  53. ^ Edwardian Architecture: A Biographical Dictionary, page 374, A. Stuart Gray 2nd Edition 1988
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  60. ^ page 277, The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, John Physick 1982
  61. ^ http://www.vam.ac.uk/futureplan/completed/index.html
  62. ^ Website with image of Spiral and BBC story on axing of Spiral extension
  63. ^ http://www.vam.ac.uk/res_cons/research/research_reports/1993/education_dept/index.html
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  66. ^ http://www.vam.ac.uk/res_cons/research/research_reports/index.html
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  89. ^ Mrs Coade's Stone, Alison Kelly, 1990
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  110. ^ Frank Lloyd Wright: The Kaufmann Office, Christopher Wilk 1993
  111. ^ The English Glass Chandelier, Martin Mortimer 2000
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  116. ^ http://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/metalwork/hereford/index.html
  117. ^ http://edward.vam.ac.uk/collections/metalwork/hereford/about/index.html
  118. ^ http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/art-2810
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  120. ^ http://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/paintings/raphael/index.html
  121. ^ http://www.vam.ac.uk/school_stdnts/schools_teach/teachers_resources/constable_resource/index.html
  122. ^ http://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/paintings/stories/Constable_Hay-Wain/index.html
  123. ^ John Flaxman 1755–1826: Sculptor, Illustrator, Designer, David Irwin, 1979
  124. ^ http://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/prints_books/prints_books/books/index.html
  125. ^ http://www.vandaimages.com/results.asp?cat1=Leonardo+da+Vinci&X8=2-33
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  129. ^ Illuminated Manuscripts and Their Makers, Rowan Watson, 2003
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  134. ^ http://www.vam.ac.uk/images/image/8864-popup.html
  135. ^ http://www.vandaimages.com/results.asp?cat1=Devonshire+Hunting+Tapestries&X8=17-15
  136. ^ pages 234 to 295, William Morris, Linda Parry Editor 1996

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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Victoria and Albert Museum
  • V&A websites:
    • The official Victoria and Albert Museum site
    • The official V&A print website
    • A list of past exhibitions held at the V&A
  • Victoria and Albert Museum at the Survey of London online:
    • Architectural history (to 1975) and description
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Coordinates: 51°29′48″N, 0°10′19″W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Victoria and Albert Museum - London Attractions - Best London Hotels and London City Guide (797 words)
The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) is on Cromwell Road in Kensington, West London.
It was renamed in 1899 in honour of Queen Victoria and her late consort Albert.
One of the dramatic parts of the museum is the Cast Courts, comprising two large, skylighted rooms two storeys high housing hundreds of plaster casts of sculptures, friezes and tombs.
Victoria and Albert Museum - Natural History Museum London (318 words)
Südlich vom Hydepark 15 und den Kensington 17 Gardens befindet sich das Victoria and Albert Museum, umgangssprachlich auch als VandA bezeichnet.
Das Museum beherbergt eine der größten Sammlungen Angewandter Kunst.
Zu dieser Zeit erhielt das Victoria and Albert Museum auch seinen heutigen Namen.
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