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Encyclopedia > Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross

Obverse of the medal and ribbon. Ribbon: 32mm, crimson (blue ribbon for naval awards 1856–1918).
Awarded by some British Empire/Commonwealth countries
Type Military decoration
Eligibility Some British Empire/Commonwealth and allied Military personnel. (Eligibility has varied over time.)
Awarded for "... most conspicuous bravery, or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice, or extreme devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy."[1]
Status Currently awarded.
Statistics
Established 29 January 1856
First awarded 1856
Last awarded 2006
Total awarded 1,356
Distinct
recipients
1,353
Precedence
Same George Cross
Next (lower) Conspicuous Gallantry Cross

The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. It takes precedence over all other postnominals and medals. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and civilians under military command, and is presented to the recipient by the British monarch during an investiture held at Buckingham Palace. It is the joint highest award for bravery in the United Kingdom with the George Cross, which is the equivalent honour for valour not in the face of the enemy.[2] The Victoria Cross is the highest award for gallantry awarded to British and some Commonwealth military personnel. ... Image File history File links Victoria_Cross_Medal_Ribbon_&_Bar. ... Image File history File links Ribbon bar for the Canadian Victoria Cross. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The George Cross (GC) is the highest civil decoration of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Conspicuous Gallantry Cross (CGC) is a second level military decoration of the United Kingdom armed forces. ... A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Post-nominal letters also called Post-nominal initials or Post-nominal titles are letters placed after the name of an individual to indicate that that individual holds a position, educational degree, accreditation, office, or honour. ... This article is about the use of the term rank. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... The George Cross (GC) is the highest civil decoration of the Commonwealth of Nations. ...


The VC was introduced in 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War. Since then the medal has been awarded 1,356 times to 1,353 individual recipients. Only 14 medals have been awarded since the end of the Second World War. The medal itself is made from the gunmetal of a weapon supposedly captured at the siege of Sevastopol, but several historians have since questioned the true origin of the gunmetal.[3] Due to its rarity, the VC is highly prized and the medal can reach over £200,000 at auction and there are a number of public and private collections devoted to it, most notably that of Lord Ashcroft, which contains over one-tenth of the total VCs awarded.[4] “Queen Victoria” redirects here. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Gunmetal (disambiguation). ... Combatants Second French Empire, United Kingdom Russian Empire Commanders General François Canrobert (later replaced by General Pélissier) Lord Raglen Admiral Kornilov (later replaced by Admiral Pavel Nakhimov) Lt. ... “GBP” redirects here. ... Sir Michael Anthony Ashcroft, Baron Ashcroft, KCMG, is a Conservative politician in the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

Origin

In 1854, after 40 years of peace, Britain found itself fighting a major war against Russia. The Crimean War was one of the first wars with modern reporting, and the dispatches of William Howard Russell described many acts of bravery and valour by British servicemen that went unrewarded.[5] Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Categories: People stubs | 1821 births | 1907 deaths ...


Before the Crimean War, there was no official standardised system for recognition of gallantry within the British armed forces. Officers were eligible for an award of one of the junior grades of the Order of the Bath and Brevet promotions whilst a Mention in Despatches existed as an alternative award for acts of lesser gallantry. This structure was actually very limited; in actual practice awards of the Order of the Bath were confined to officers of field rank[6] Brevet promotions or Mentions in Despatches were largely confined to those who were under the immediate notice of the commanders in the field, generally members of the commander's own Staff.[7] Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mentioned in Dispatches (MID) is a military award for gallantry or otherwise commendable service. ... A field officer or field grade officer is an army or marine commissioned officer senior in rank to a company officer but junior to a general officer. ...


In other European countries there existed awards that did not discriminate against class or rank; France awarded the Légion d'honneur (Legion of Honour) and The Netherlands gave the Order of William. There was a growing feeling amongst the public and in the Royal Court that a new award was needed to recognise incidents of gallantry that were unconnected with a man's lengthy or meritorious service. Queen Victoria signed a Royal Warrant on 29 January 1856[5] that officially recognised the VC. The order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War.[8] Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Knights Cross (3rd class) of the Order of William The Military Order of William is the oldest and, at the same time, highest honour of the Kingdom of The Netherlands. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought...


Queen Victoria had instructed the War Office to strike a new medal that would not recognise birth or class. The medal was meant to be a simple decoration that would be highly prized and eagerly sought after by those in the military services.[9] To maintain its simplicity Queen Victoria, under the guidance of Prince Albert, vetoed the suggestion that the award be called The Military Order of Victoria and instead suggested the name Victoria Cross. The original warrant stated that the Victoria Cross would only be awarded to soldiers who have served in the presence of the enemy and had performed some signal act of valour or devotion.[10] The first ceremony was held on 26 June 1857 where Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in a ceremony in Hyde Park.[5] “Queen Victoria” redirects here. ... Old War Office Building, seen from Whitehall, London - the former location of the War Office The War Office was a former department of the British Government, responsible for the administration of the British Army between the 17th century and 1963, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Augustus Charles Albert Emanuel, later HRH The Prince Consort) (26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


It was originally intended that the VCs would be cast from the bronze cascabels of two cannons that were captured from the Russians at the siege of Sevastopol.[11][12][13] The historian John Glanfield has since proven through the use of X-Rays of older Victoria Crosses that the metal used for VCs is in fact from antique Chinese guns and not of Russian origin.[3][12][14] It was also thought that some medals made during the First World War were composed of metal captured from different Chinese guns during the Boxer Rebellion but the original metal was used after the war. It is also believed that another source of metal was used between 1942 and 1945 to create five Second World War VCs when the Sevastopol metal went missing.[3] Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Combatants Second French Empire, United Kingdom Russian Empire Commanders General François Canrobert (later replaced by General Pélissier) Lord Raglen Admiral Kornilov (later replaced by Admiral Pavel Nakhimov) Lt. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


The barrels of the cannon in question are stationed outside the Officers' Mess at the Royal Artillery Barracks at Woolwich. The remaining portion of the only remaining cascabel, weighing 358 oz (10 kg), is stored in a vault maintained by 15 Regiment Royal Logistic Corps at Donnington, Telford. It can only be removed under armed guard. It is estimated that approximately 80 to 85 more VCs could be cast from this source. A single company of jewellers, Hancocks of London, has been responsible for the production of every VC awarded since its inception.[15] The Royal Artillery Barracks in 1900 The Royal Artillery Barracks in 2005. ... , Woolwich town hall dates from when this was a borough in its own right. ... The Royal Logistic Corps is the British Army corps that provides the logistic support for the Army. ... For other places named Donnington, see: Donnington Donnington now forms part of the new town of Telford in Shropshire, England. ... Hancocks is a retail jeweller in London, founded on 1 January 1849 by Charles F. Hancock, formerly a partner of Storr and Mortimer. ...


Appearance

Victoria Cross medal, ribbon, and bar.
Victoria Cross medal, ribbon, and bar.

The decoration is a cross pattée, 41 mm high, 36 mm wide, bearing a crown surmounted by a lion, and the inscription FOR VALOUR.[16] This was originally to have been FOR BRAVERY, until it was changed on the recommendation of Queen Victoria, who thought some might erroneously consider that only the recipients of the VC were brave in battle.[12] The decoration, suspension bar and link weigh about 0.87 troy ounces (27 g).[17] Image File history File links Victoria_Cross_Medal_Ribbon_&_Bar. ... Image File history File links Victoria_Cross_Medal_Ribbon_&_Bar. ... Heraldic cross pattee A cross having arms with curving edges, narrow at the inner center, and very broad at the outer end. ... “Queen Victoria” redirects here. ... Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones. ...


The cross is suspended by a ring from a seriffed "V" to a bar ornamented with laurel leaves, through which the ribbon passes. The reverse of the suspension bar is engraved with the recipient's name, rank, number and unit.[9] On the reverse of the medal is a circular panel on which the date of the act for which it was awarded is engraved in the centre.[9] In typography, serifs are non-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. ...


The ribbon is crimson, 38 mm (1.5 inches) wide. The original (1856) specification for the award stated that the ribbon should be red for army recipients and blue for naval ones.[18] However the dark blue ribbon was abolished soon after the formation of the Royal Air Force on 1 April 1918. On 22 May 1920 King George V signed a warrant that stated all recipients would now receive a red ribbon and the living recipients of the naval version were required to exchange their ribbons for the new colour.[19] Although the Army warrants state the colour as being red it is defined by most commentators as being crimson or "wine-red".[20] “RAF” redirects here. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ...


Awarding the medal

The Victoria Cross is awarded for

"... most conspicuous bravery, or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice, or extreme devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy."[1]

Awards of the Victoria Cross have always been announced in the pages of the London Gazette. A recommendation for the VC is normally issued by an officer at regimental level and has to be supported by three witnesses.[21] In the case of a gallant and daring act being performed by a squadron, ship's company or a detached body of men (such as marines) in which all men are deemed equally brave and deserving of the Victoria Cross then a ballot is drawn. The officers select one officer, the NCOs select one individual and the private soldiers or seamen select two individuals. [22] For both individual and group awards the recommendation is then passed up the military hierarchy until it reaches the Secretary of State for War,[21] (now the Secretary of State for Defence) and then the monarch. Today, Royal assent is still required and the VCs are presented by the monarch.[21] The London Gazette , front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London. ... The structure of the British Army is broadly similar to that of the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force, being divided into two Commands as top-level budget holders; Land Command and the Adjutant-General. ... A command hierarchy is a group of people committed to carrying out orders from the top, that is, of authority. ... The secretary of war in cabinet position was Henry Knox. ... The Secretary of State for Defence is the senior United Kingdom government minister in charge of the Ministry of Defence. ...


Originally, the VC could not be awarded posthumously, and could not be awarded to Indian or African troops (although it could be awarded to their European officers).[23] Colonial troops were not eligible for the VC during the New Zealand land wars, so the New Zealand Cross (1869) was created.[24] One colonial soldier, Major Charles Heaphy was awarded the VC for his actions in 1864, as he was under British command.[25] In 1905 it was made available to be awarded posthumously.[23] In the twentieth century it was made available to all troops in the service of the Crown (the first Indian soldier, Khudadad Khan, received it in 1914).[23] Because New Zealand has never had an enemy invade its home territory, it is not generally known that 16 Victoria Crosses were awarded during the 19th century Land Wars in that country. ... Original New Zealand Cross The New Zealand Cross was introduced in 1869 during the Land Wars in New Zealand. ... Photo by Terry Macdonald Charles Heaphy (1820? - August 3, 1881) was a New Zealander recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... Missing image Photo submitted by Franklyncards Khudadad Khan was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ...


Between 1858 and 1881 the Victoria Cross could be awarded for actions taken "under circumstances of extreme danger" not in the face of the enemy.[26] Six such awards were made during this period - five of them for a single incident (a shipwreck off the Andaman Islands in 1867)[27]. In 1881, the criteria were changed again and the VC was only awarded for acts of valour "in the face of the enemy".[27] Due to this it has been suggested by many historians including Lord Ashcroft that the changing nature of warfare will result in fewer VCs being awarded.[23] The prevalence of more remote fighting techniques has meant that the opportunity to carry out acts of bravery are diminishing. The corresponding honour for acts of valour that do not qualify as "in the face of the enemy" is the George Cross, which ranks alongside the VC. Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ... The George Cross (GC) is the highest civil decoration of the Commonwealth of Nations. ...


Separate Commonwealth awards

See also: Victoria Cross for Australia, Victoria Cross (Canada), and Victoria Cross for New Zealand
Victoria Cross as it appears on Commonwealth War Graves Commission headstones.
Victoria Cross as it appears on Commonwealth War Graves Commission headstones.

In recent years, several Commonwealth countries have introduced their own honours systems, separate from the British Honours System. Australia, Canada and New Zealand[28] have each introduced their own decorations for gallantry and bravery, replacing British decorations such as the Military Cross with their own awards. Most Commonwealth countries, however, still recognise some form of the VC as their highest decoration for valour.[29] The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of the Australia Armed Forces. ... The Victoria Cross (Post-nominal letters V.C.) is the highest award for valour that can be awarded to members of the Canadian armed forces of any rank in any service, and allies serving under or with Canadian military command. ... The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of the New Zealand Armed Forces. ... Image File history File links VCstone. ... Image File history File links VCstone. ... The Azmak Cemetery, near Suvla Bay, Turkey, contains the graves of some of the soldiers who died during the Gallipoli Campaign. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals personal bravery, achievement or service to the United Kingdom. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ...


Australia was the first Commonwealth nation to create its own VC, on 15 January 1991. Although it is a separate award, its appearance is identical to its British counterpart.[30] Canada followed suit when in 1993 Queen Elizabeth signed Letters Patent creating the Canadian VC, which is also similar to the British version, except that the legend has been changed from FOR VALOUR to the Latin PRO VALORE.[31] is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


New Zealand was the third country to adapt the VC into its own honours system. While the New Zealand and Australian VCs are technically separate awards, the decoration is identical to the British design, including being cast from the same Crimean War gunmetal as the British VC.[28] As of July 2007, only one of the separate VCs have been awarded, to a New Zealand serviceman, Bill Apiata, on 2 July 2007, for his actions in conflict in Afghanistan in 2004. Corporal Bill Henry Willie Apiata VC (born 28 June 1972 in Mangakino, New Zealand) is a member of the Special Air Service of New Zealand and the first recipient of the Victoria Cross for New Zealand. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


A Canadian version has been cast though that was originally to be awarded to the Unknown Soldier at the rededication of the Vimy Memorial on 7 April 2007. This date was chosen as it was the 90th anniversary of the battle of Vimy Ridge but pressure from Veterans organisations caused the plan to be dropped.[32] The Canadian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is located at the National War Memorial in Confederation Square, Ottawa. ... Vimy Memorial face The Canadian National Vimy Memorial is one of Canadas most important overseas war memorials to those Canadians who gave their lives in the First World War. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Arthur Currie Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 200,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead, 7,004 wounded 20,000 dead or wounded, 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British campaign known...


The New Zealand and Australian[30] awards created are still created from the gunmetal captured during the Crimean War but the Canadian VC is not. It is currently made from an unspecified source.[31]


Authority and privileges

Order of precedence

As the highest award for valour of the United Kingdom, the Victoria Cross is always the first award to be presented at an investiture, even before knighthoods, as was shown at the investiture of Johnson Beharry who received his medal before General Sir Mike Jackson.[11] Due to its status the VC is always the first medal worn in a row of medals and it always appears first in post-nominal letters before any other awards or honours.[29] Similar acts of extreme valour that don't take place in the face of the enemy are honoured with the George Cross which has equal precedence but is awarded second due to fact that the GC is newer.[2] The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Johnson Beharry in front of a mural of the Victoria Cross Private Johnson Gideon Beharry, VC (born 26 July 1979, in Grenada), of the 1st Battalion, Princess of Waless Royal Regiment is a British soldier who, in March 2005, was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest military decoration for... General Sir Michael Mike Jackson, GCB, CBE, DSO, ADC Gen (born 21 March 1944) is a British army officer, currently Chief of the General Staff. ... Post-nominal letters also called Post-nominal initials or Post-nominal titles are letters placed after the name of an individual to indicate that that individual holds a position, educational degree, accreditation, office, or honour. ... The George Cross (GC) is the highest civil decoration of the Commonwealth of Nations. ...


Salute

There is a widespread erroneous myth that it is statutory for "all ranks to salute a bearer of the Victoria Cross." There is no official requirement that appears in the official Warrant of the VC, nor in Queen's Regulations and Orders but tradition dictates that this occurs and as such the Chiefs of Staff will salute a private soldier awarded a VC or GC.[2] The Queens Regulations and Orders for the Canadian Forces (QR&O) is a publication of the Department of National Defence, and contains orders and regulations that govern the Canadian Forces. ...


Annuity

The original warrant stated that NCOs and private soldiers or seamen on the Victoria Cross Register were entitled to a £10 per annum annuity.[33] In 1898, Queen Victoria raised the pension to £50 for those that could not earn a livelihood, be it from old age or infirmity.[34] Today holders of the Victoria Cross or George Cross are entitled to an annuity, the amount of which is determined by the awarding government. Since 2002, the annuity paid by the British government is £1,495 per year.[35] As of January 2005, under the Canadian Gallantry Awards Order, members of the Canadian Forces or people who joined the British forces before 31 March 1949 while domiciled in Canada or Newfoundland receive $3,000 per year.[36] The Australian Government provides the two surviving Australian recipients a Victoria Cross Allowance under Subsection 103.4 of the Veterans' Entitlements Act 1986.[37] In January 2006 the amount was $A3,230 per year which is indexed annually in line with Australian Consumer Price Index increases.[38][39] Annuity contracts are offered by organizations and individuals that may accumulate value and take a current value and pay it out over a period of years. ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 4217 Code CAD User(s) Canada Inflation 2% Source The World Factbook, 2006 est. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia, Kiribati, Nauru, Tuvalu, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island Inflation 2. ...


Recipients

The largest number of VCs awarded in a single action was 11 at Rorke's Drift on 22 January 1879

A total of 1,356 Victoria Crosses have been awarded since 1856 to 1,352 people.[40] Three people have been awarded the VC and Bar, that is a medal for two separate actions; Noel Chavasse and Arthur Martin-Leake, both members of The Royal Army Medical Corps, and New Zealander Charles Upham.[41] In 1921 the award was given to the American Unknown Soldier of the First World War. (The British Unknown Warrior was reciprocally awarded the US Medal of Honor.)[42] One VC is in existence that is not counted in any official records. In 1856, Queen Victoria laid a Victoria Cross beneath the foundation stone of Netley Military hospital.[43] When the hospital was demolished in 1966 the VC, known as "The Netley VC", was retrieved and is now on display in the Army Medical Services Museum, Ash, near Aldershot.[43] List of Victoria Cross recipients might refer to List of Victoria Cross recipients by name List of living Victoria Cross recipients List of Victoria Cross recipients by campaign List of Victoria Cross recipients by nationality List of Victoria Cross recipients by unit Categories: | ... Image File history File linksMetadata The_defense_of_Rorke's_Drift. ... Image File history File linksMetadata The_defense_of_Rorke's_Drift. ... Combatants Britain Zulu Nation Commanders John Chard Gonville Bromhead Prince Dabulamanzi Strength 139 4,000–5,000 Casualties 17 killed, 10 wounded Around 500-600 dead found in 500 foot perimeter Rorkes Drift was a mission station in Natal, South Africa, situated near a natural ford (drift) on the... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Examples of Medal Bars A medal bar or medal clasp is a thin metal bar attached to the ribbon of a military decoration, civil decoration, or other medal. ... Noel Godfrey Chavasse (VC and bar, MC) (November 9, 1884–August 4, 1917) was a British soldier who is one of only three people to be awarded a Victoria Cross twice (the others are Arthur Martin-Leake and C.H. Upham). ... Missing image Photo submitted by Martin Hornby - (Gallaher Cigarette Cards) Arthur Martin-Leake was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... The Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) is a specialist corps in the British Army which provides medical services to all British Army personnel and their families in war and in peace. ... Charles Upham Captain Charles Hazlitt Upham VC and bar (September 21, 1908 – November 22, 1994) was a New Zealand soldier who won the Victoria Cross twice during the Second World War: in Crete in May 1941, and at Ruweisat Ridge, Egypt, in July 1942. ... Sailor and girl at the Tomb of the Unknowns, May 1943 The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named) is a monument in Arlington National Cemetery, United States dedicated to the American soldiers who have died without... The British tomb of The Unknown Warrior holds an unidentified British soldier killed on a European battlefield during World War I. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, London on November 11, 1920, the earliest such tomb honouring the unknown dead of World War I. Even the battlefield the Warrior came... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... The chapel is all that remains of the Hospital today. ...


There are several statistics related to the largest number of VCs awarded in individual battles or wars. The largest number awarded for actions on a single day was 24 on 16 November 1857, at the relief of Lucknow and the amount awarded in a single action was 11 for the defence of Rorke's Drift on 22 January 1879.The record for the number of Victoria Crosses awarded in a single conflict was 634 during the First World War.[23] Following the death in November 2005 of Captain Umrao Singh, the last surviving Indian holder of the VC there were only twelve surviving holders of the VC – six British, two Australians and four Gurkhas – eight of them for exploits during the Second World War. Eight of the twelve surviving holders of the Victoria Cross attended the 150th Anniversary service of remembrance at Westminster Abbey on 26 June 2006.[44] is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Great Britain Indian rebels Commanders Sir Henry Lawrence Henry Havelock Sir James Outram Sir Colin Campbell Strength rising to approx. ... Combatants Britain Zulu Nation Commanders John Chard Gonville Bromhead Prince Dabulamanzi Strength 139 4,000–5,000 Casualties 17 killed, 10 wounded Around 500-600 dead found in 500 foot perimeter Rorkes Drift was a mission station in Natal, South Africa, situated near a natural ford (drift) on the... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Umrao Singh Umrao Singh is an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of North India, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


An Irishman, Surgeon General William Manley, remains the sole recipient of both the Victoria Cross and the Iron Cross. The Victoria Cross was awarded for his actions during the Waikato-Hauhau Maori War, New Zealand on 29 April 1864 whilst the Iron Cross was awarded for tending the wounded during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71.[45] New Zealand Flying Officer Lloyd Trigg, has the distinction of being the only serviceman ever awarded a VC on evidence solely provided by the enemy, for an action in which there were no surviving Allied witnesses.[46] The recommendation was made by the captain of the German U-boat U-468 sunk by Trigg's aircraft. Lieutenant-Commander Gerard Roope was also awarded a VC on recommendation of the enemy, the captain of the Admiral Hipper, but there were also numerous surviving Allied witnesses to corroborate his actions.[47] William George Nicholas Manley (VC, CB) (17 December 1831- 16 November 1901) was born Dublin and was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Flying Officer Lloyd Allan Trigg (5 May 1914–11 August 1943), VC, DFC, of Houhora, New Zealand, was the only serviceman in either World War I or World War II to be awarded a Victoria Cross on evidence solely provided by the enemy, for an action in which there were... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Unterseeboot 468 or U-468 was a Nazi German U-Boat that served during World War II. It was first launched on May 16th, 1942, with a crew of 49, under the command of Klemens Schamong. ... Lieutenant Commander (Lieutenant-Commander in the Royal Navy) is a commissioned officer rank in many navies superior to a Lieutenant and subordinate to a Commander. ... Gerard Broadmead Roope was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... The German heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper fought as part of the German Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was named after Admiral Ritter von Hipper, commander of the German battlecruiser squadron during the Battle of Jutland in 1916 and later commander-in-chief of the German High Seas Fleet. ...


Victoria Cross after World War II

Since the end of the Second World War the original VC has been awarded 13 times: four in the Korean War, one in the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation in 1965, four to Australians in the Vietnam War, two during the Falklands War in 1982, one in the Iraq War in 2004, and one in the War in Afghanistan - in 2004.[42] The Victoria Cross for New Zealand has been awarded once, which was earned in 2004 but awarded in 2007. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Combatants Taliban al-Qaeda IMU Hezbi Islami Afghanistan Northern Alliance ISAF Commanders Mohammed Omar Obaidullah Akhund # Mullah Dadullah  Jalaluddin Haqqani Osama bin Laden Ayman al-Zawahiri Mohammad Atef  Juma Namangani  Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Bismillah Khan Mohammed Fahim Abdul Rashid Dostum William J. Fallon Bantz J. Craddock Egon Ramms Dan McNeill Guy...


In March 2002, it was widely reported in the media that the VC was to be awarded to an unnamed Regimental Sergeant Major in the SAS for his involvement in fighting in the Tora Bora cave complex in November 2001.[48] There was some debate over whether he should be named but a compromise was reached that his name, and some specific details of the action, would be withheld from the official announcement in the London Gazette.[27] However, this did not happen; the VC award was never confirmed,[27] and he and another member of the SAS, who had also been discussed as a possible VC recipient, were awarded Conspicuous Gallantry Crosses in October 2002 instead.[27] Regimental Sergeant Major (RSM) is an appointment held by Warrant Officers Class 1 (WO1) in the British Army, Royal Marines and many Commonwealth armies including the Australian Army and New Zealand Army, and by Chief Warrant Officers (CWO) in the Canadian Forces. ... The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... Combatants United States, United Kingdom, Afghan Northern Alliance Taliban, al-Qaeda Commanders Bismillah Khan Tommy Franks Dan McNeill Osama bin Laden Strength n/a Unknown Casualties No Coalition deaths reported; Northern Alliance N/A At least 200 killed The Battle of Tora Bora was a military engagement that took place... The Conspicuous Gallantry Cross (CGC) is a second level military decoration of the United Kingdom armed forces. ...


The two awards given in the 21st century to British personnel have been for actions in the Afghanistan conflict and the Iraq War. On 18 March 2005, Private Johnson Beharry of the 1st Battalion, Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment became the first recipient of the VC since Sergeant Ian McKay in 1982.[11]The most recent award of the Victoria Cross to a British service person was the posthumous award on 14 December 2006 to Corporal Bryan Budd of 3 Para. It was awarded for two separate acts of "inspirational leadership and the greatest valour" which led to his death, during actions against the Taliban in Afghanistan in July and August 2006.[49] Combatants Taliban al-Qaeda IMU Hezbi Islami Afghanistan Northern Alliance ISAF Commanders Mohammed Omar Obaidullah Akhund # Mullah Dadullah  Jalaluddin Haqqani Osama bin Laden Ayman al-Zawahiri Mohammad Atef  Juma Namangani  Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Bismillah Khan Mohammed Fahim Abdul Rashid Dostum William J. Fallon Bantz J. Craddock Egon Ramms Dan McNeill Guy... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to Nato Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). ... Johnson Beharry in front of a mural of the Victoria Cross Private Johnson Gideon Beharry, VC (born 26 July 1979, in Grenada), of the 1st Battalion, Princess of Waless Royal Regiment is a British soldier who, in March 2005, was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest military decoration for... PWRR redirects here. ... Ian John McKay (7 May 1953 – 12 June 1982) was a posthumous recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the military rank. ... The Victoria Cross Bryan James Budd VC, (16 July 1977 - 20 August 2006) was a Corporal in the 3rd Battalion, the Parachute Regiment (3 PARA) of the British Army. ... The Parachute Regiment redirects here, for the Indian regiment, see The Parachute Regiment (India) The Parachute Regiment is the Airborne Infantry element of the British Army. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are an extremist, terrorist, and ethnic fundamentalist Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the United States, United Kingdom and the Northern Alliance. ...


It was announced on 2 July 2007 that Corporal Bill Apiata of the Special Air Service of New Zealand (NZ SAS) was awarded the Victoria Cross for New Zealand for carrying a severely wounded comrade 70 metres over rocky ground while under heavy machine-gun fire during the Afghanistan conflict in 2004.[50][51] is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Corporal Bill Henry Willie Apiata VC (born 28 June 1972 in Mangakino, New Zealand) is a member of the Special Air Service of New Zealand and the first recipient of the Victoria Cross for New Zealand. ... The Special Air Service of New Zealand (NZ SAS) was formed on July 7, 1955 as an elite New Zealand Army and highly-secretive unit capable of undertaking special missions. ... The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of the New Zealand Armed Forces. ...


Forfeited VCs

See also Victoria Cross forfeitures

The original Royal Warrant involved an expulsion clause that allowed for a recipient's name to be erased from the official register in certain wholly discreditable circumstances, and his pension cancelled.[52] King George V though felt very strongly that the decoration should never be forfeited and in a letter to his Private Secretary, Lord Stamfordham, on 26 July 1920, his views are forcibly expressed: There were only 8 men who forfeited their Victoria Crosses before the rules were changed in the 20th century to prevent this. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Arthur John Bigge, 1st Baron Stamfordham (18 June 1849–31 March 1931) GCB KCMG GCVO GCIE KCSI ISO PC was Private Secretary to Queen Victoria during the last few years of her reign and also to King George V during most of his reign. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...

The King feels so strongly that, no matter the crime committed by anyone on whom the VC has been conferred, the decoration should not be forfeited. Even were a VC to be sentenced to be hanged for murder, he should be allowed to wear his VC on the gallows.[21]

After his intervention the rules pertaining to forfeitures were changed in 1931[21] and the eight men who had lost their VCs were restored to official lists.[53]


Value of the VC

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

Sales of the VC

Some recipients have felt the need to sell their medals, often to avoid rows between their children:[2]

"By selling the medal they're taking the problem away. Now that they sell for such a huge sum, it is very difficult for someone to leave their medal to a regiment. The most important thing is that it is on display somewhere to serve as a future inspiration." Didy Grahame, Secretary to the VC and GC Association [2]

Their inherent value has been highlighted by several recent sales; in April 2004 the VC awarded in 1944 to Sergeant Norman Jackson, RAF, was sold at auction for £235,250. On 24 July 2006, an auction at Bonhams in Sydney of the VC awarded to Captain Alfred Shout fetched a world record hammer price of AU$1 million. Captain Alfred Shout was awarded the VC posthumously in 1915 for hand-to-hand combat at the Lone Pine trenches in Gallipoli Turkey. The buyer (Kerry Stokes) has indicated that it will be displayed at the Australian War Memorial with the eight other VCs awarded to Australians at Gallipoli.[54] For other uses, see Sergeant (disambiguation). ... Norman Cyril Jackson (1919 – 1994) was a sergeant in the Royal Air Force who won the Victoria Cross during a bombing raid on Schweinfurt in April 1944. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bonhams is a privately-owned British auction house founded in 1793. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... A.J. Shout at Quinns Post, Gallipoli, 7 June 1915. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia, Kiribati, Nauru, Tuvalu, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island Inflation 2. ... For other uses, see Gallipoli (disambiguation). ... Kerry Stokes AO is the chairman of Seven Network, one of the largest broadcasting corporations in Australia, and a recipient of the Order of Australia recognising his contributions to Australian business. ...


Thefts of the VC

Given the rarity of the Victoria Cross and the fact they are rarely sold, these decorations are highly prized on the black market.[55] Several VCs have been stolen and being valuable have been placed on the Interpol watch-list for stolen items.[55] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The VC awarded to Milton Gregg, which was donated to the Royal Canadian Regiment Museum in London, Ontario Canada in 1979, was stolen on Canada Day, (1 July 1980), when the museum was overcrowded[56] and has been missing since. A VC awarded in 1917 to Canadian soldier Corporal Filip Konowal[57] was stolen from the same museum in 1973 and was not recovered until 2004.[58] Photo by Terry Macdonald Brigadier The Honourable Milton Fowler Gregg, VC , PC , OC , CBE , MC , ED , MA , DCL (April 10, 1892 - March 13, 1978) was a Canadian Member of Parliament, cabinet minister, academic, soldier, diplomat, and recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in... The Royal Canadian Regiment Museum is a military museum in London, Ontario, Canada. ... Nickname: Location of London in relation to Middlesex County and the Province of Ontario Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario County Middlesex County Settled 1826 as a village Incorporated 1855 as a city Government  - City Mayor Anne Marie DeCicco-Best  - Governing Body London City Council  - MPs Sue Barnes (LPC) Glen Pearson... Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada) is Canadas national holiday, marking the establishment of Canada as a self-governing Dominion on July 1, 1867. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Photo from The Royal Westminster Regiment Filip Konowal, VC (September 15, 1888 â€“ June 3, 1959) was a Ukrainian Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ...


Collections

The Imperial and Canadian Victoria Cross featured on Canadian postage stamps. The stamp on the right also contains a facsimile of words handwritten by Queen Elizabeth II which read: "Approved", followed by Her Majesty´s Royal Sign Manual "Elizabeth R"

This is a Canadian postage stamp. ... This is a Canadian postage stamp. ... The Victoria Cross (Post-nominal letters V.C.) is the highest award for valour that can be awarded to members of the Canadian armed forces of any rank in any service, and allies serving under or with Canadian military command. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... Royal sign-manual, the formal name given in Britain to the autograph signature of the sovereign. ...

In the UK

In 2004 a national Victoria Cross and George Cross memorial was installed in Westminster Abbey close to the tomb of The Unknown Warrior.[59] Westminster Abbey is a living monument to British history in that it contains monuments and memorials to central figures in British History including Charles Darwin and James VI & I. As such it was a significant honour for the VC to be commemorated in Westminster Abbey.[60] The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The British tomb of The Unknown Warrior holds an unidentified British soldier killed on a European battlefield during World War I. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, London on November 11, 1920, the earliest such tomb honouring the unknown dead of World War I. Even the battlefield the Warrior came... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ...


National Museums with significant (10 or more) VC holdings in the UK include:[61]

Museum Location Number of VCs
The Imperial War Museum Kennington, London 40
The National Army Museum Chelsea, London 39
The Royal Green Jackets Museum Winchester, Hampshire 34
The Royal Engineers Museum Gillingham, Kent 26
The Army Medical Services Museum Mytchett, Surrey 22
The Royal Regiment of Artillery Museum Woolwich, London 20
The Queen's Own Highlanders Museum Ardersier, Inverness-shire 16
The South Wales Borderers Museum Brecon, Wales 16
The Green Howards Regimental Museum Richmond, Yorkshire 15
The Royal Fusiliers Museum Tower of London 12
The National Maritime Museum Greenwich, London 11
The National War Museum of Scotland Edinburgh Castle 11
The RAF Museum Hendon, London 11
The Sherwood Foresters Museum Nottingham 11
The Gurkha Museum Winchester, Hampshire 10
The Royal Marines Museum Portsmouth, Hampshire 10
The Royal Welch Fusiliers Museum Caernarfon Castle, Wales 10

(note=Many VCs are on loan to the museum and are owned by individuals and not owned by the museums themselves.[61]) The Imperial War Museum is a museum in London featuring military vehicles, weapons, war memorabilia, a library, a photographic archive, and an art collection of 20th century and later conflicts, especially those involving Britain, and the British Empire. ... Kennington is an area of south London, situated within the London Borough of Lambeth. ... The National Army Museum is the British Armys central museum. ... Statue of Thomas More on Cheyne Walk. ... The Royal Green Jackets Museum in Winchester, England, UK showcases artefacts from British military history, specifically that of the Royal Green Jackets regiment and its preceding regiments. ... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ... The Royal Engineers is a corp of the British Army, a British equivalent of the US Army Corps of Engineers. ... , Gillingham is a town in Kent, England, forming part of the Medway conurbation; it is a constituent of Medway unitary authority. ... The Army Medical Services Museum is located in the Defence Medical Services Training Centre, Keogh Barracks, on Mytchett Place Road, Mytchett, Surrey, England. ... Mytchett is a small village in Surrey approximately 35 miles south west of London. ... Tactical Recognition Flash of the Royal Artillery The Royal Regiment of Artillery, generally known as the Royal Artillery (RA), is, despite its name, a corps of the British Army. ... , Woolwich town hall dates from when this was a borough in its own right. ... The Queens Own Highlanders (Seaforth and Camerons), officially abbreviated QOH, was an infantry regiment in the Scottish Division of the British Army. ... Ardersier is a small former fishing village in the Scottish Highlands, on the Moray Firth, east of Inverness, near Fort George, and Nairn. ... The South Wales Borderers was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... The Monmouthshire & Brecon Canal basin at Brecon, the starting point of the Taff Trail. ... The Green Howards Regimental Museum is the museum of the The Green Howards infantry regiment of the British Army. ... The town of Richmond as seen from the top of the keep of Richmond Castle Richmond is a market town on the River Swale in North Yorkshire, UK and is the administrative centre of the district of Richmondshire. ... The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) was a regiment in the British Army. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... The National Maritime Museum, Greenwich The National Maritime Museum (NMM) is the leading maritime museum of the United Kingdom, and one of the most important in the world. ... Greenwich is a town, now part of the south-eastern urban sprawl of London, England, on the south bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Greenwich. ... The National War Museum is housed in Edinburgh, and forms part of the National Museums of Scotland. ... The castle dominates the Edinburgh skyline as seen here from Princes Street Gardens Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which, from its position atop Castle Rock, dominates the sky-line of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands second most visited tourist attraction, after the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and... An Avro Lancaster in the main hangar of the RAF Museum London The Royal Air Force Museum (RAF Museum) is a museum dedicated to the history of aviation, and the British Royal Air Force in particular. ... For other places with the same name, see Hendon (disambiguation). ... The Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) was formed during the Childers Reforms in 1881 from the amalgamation of the 45th (Nottinghamshire) Regiment of Foot and the 95th (Derbyshire) Regiment of Foot . ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of North India, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ... The Royal Marines Museum is located in Portsmouth, Hampshire, England and is open to the public 7 days a week all year apart from Christmas Eve, Christmas Day and Boxing Day. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... The Royal Welch Fusiliers was a regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales Division. ... The ward of Caernarfon Castle, showing (from left to right) the Black Tower, the Chamberlains Tower, and the Eagle Tower. ...


Outside the UK

Museum Location Number of VCs
Australian War Memorial Canberra, Australia 61 (note 1)
Canadian War Museum Ottawa, Ontario 33
QEII Army Memorial Museum Waiouru, New Zealand 11

(note 1=It is the largest publicly held collection in the world.[62] including all nine VCs awarded to Australians at Gallipoli.) The Australian War Memorial is Australias national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organizations who have died in the wars of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... The Canadian War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Artillery at the entrance to the QEII Army Memorial Museum The QEII Army Memorial Museum at Waiouru, New Zealand is the main museum of the New Zealand Army. ... Waiouru is a small town in the centre of the North Island of New Zealand. ...


Private collections

Lord Ashcroft

British businessman and politician Lord Ashcroft has amassed a private collection of over 140 VCs. Lord Ashcroft purchased his first medal in 1986 and the collection now contains over a tenth of the medals ever awarded, the largest private collection of such medals ever accumulated. The medals are now looked after by The Ashcroft Collection and a book detailing the collection was published in November 2006.[4] Sir Michael Anthony Ashcroft, Baron Ashcroft, KCMG, is a Conservative politician in the United Kingdom. ...


Canon William Lummis

See also Canon William Lummis

Canon William Murrell Lummis, MC, was a military historian who built up an archive on the service records and final resting places of Victoria Cross holders.[63] This was then summarised into a pamphlet which was taken to be an authoritative source on these matters. However, Lummis was aware of short-comings in his work and encouraged David Harvey to continue it. The result was Harvey's seminal book Monuments to Courage. In 2007 the Royal Mail used material from Lummis' archives to produce a collection of stamps commemorating Victoria Cross winners.[64] Canon William Lummis, MC, is notable for building-up an archive on the final resting places of Victoria Cross holders. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... David Charles Harvey was born on the 26 July 1946 in East Ham . ... Monuments To Courage is a book by David Harvey, published in 1999. ... Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. ...


Similar decorations

Within the United Kingdom

The Dickin Medal was instituted in 1943 by Maria Dickin to honour the work of animals in war. ... The George Cross (GC) is the highest civil decoration of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Conspicuous Gallantry Cross (CGC) is a second level military decoration of the United Kingdom armed forces. ...

See also

The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following have received the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... The following people are recipients of the Victoria Cross. ... As of 22 November 2005 there are twelve living Victoria Cross recipients: Living recipients Recently deceased See also Victoria Cross [Wikipedia Victoria Cross Project] Categories: | ... The following lists detail the Victoria Cross recipients for each campaign. ... The following lists detail the Victoria Cross recipients by nationality. ... This is a list of Victoria Cross recipients by unit. ... The schools of Britain, the British Empire, and later the Commonwealth, have contributed greatly to their armed forces, with some schools having lost hundreds of former pupils, especially in the First and Second World Wars. ... This article concerns British and Commonwealth of Nations orders and decorations awarded by the British Sovereign. ... . The Victoria Cross and George Cross Association is made up of surviving holders of the Victoria Cross, Britains highest military award for bravery in the field, and the George Cross, the equivalent award for civilians and military personnel who have displayed conspicuous bravery but not in action. ... Valour Road is a street in Winnipeg, formerly Pine Street, which had its name changed after the First World War, in recognition of the courage of three young men who all lived on that street that served in the war. ... This is a list of military decorations, listed in order of precedence, awarded by different countries, listed in alphabetical order. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of the Australia Armed Forces. ... The Victoria Cross (Post-nominal letters V.C.) is the highest award for valour that can be awarded to members of the Canadian armed forces of any rank in any service, and allies serving under or with Canadian military command. ... The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of the New Zealand Armed Forces. ... Military manpower Military age 16 years of age Availability 39,028,014 (2005) Males ages 16-49 Reaching military age males: 1,969,055 (2005) Active troops 620,000 (Ranked 9th) Military expenditures Dollar figure $3. ... The Param Vir Chakra is an Indian military decoration given for valour in combat operations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Parama Weera Vibhushanaya Ribbon/Bar Parama Weera Vibhushanaya Medal Parama Weera Vibhushanaya (පරම වීර වීභූෂණය) is the highest Sri Lanakn military decoration equivalent to United States Medal of Honor, that awarded as a reward for all ranks of the tri services (Regular/Volunteer) individual acts of gallantry and conspicuous bravery of the most... Argentine Nation to the Heroic Valour in Combat Cross (Spanish: ) is the highest national military decoration in Argentina. ... The Mannerheim Cross of the Cross of Liberty (Mannerheim-risti / Mannerheimkorset) is a Finnish military decoration introduced after the Winter War and named after Marshal Mannerheim. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... For other medals of the same name, see Medal of Valor (disambiguation). ... Knights Cross (3rd class) of the Order of William The Military Order of William is the oldest and, at the same time, highest honour of the Kingdom of The Netherlands. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... The Medal of Valor (Philippines) is the highest military award given by the Armed Forces of the Philippines. ... Virtuti Militari The Virtuti Militari (Latin: For Military Virtue) was created in 1792 and is Polands highest military decoration for valor in the face of the enemy and one of the oldest military decorations in the world still in use . ... Obverse of the Gold Star medal Hero of the Russian Federation (Russian: ) is the highest honorary title that can be bestowed on a citizen by the Russian Federation. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... The Order Pour le Mérite, known informally as the Blue Max (German: Blauer Max), was Prussias highest military order until the end of World War I. The award was a blue-enameled Maltese Cross with eagles between the arms, the Prussian royal cypher, and the French legend Pour... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... The Vietnam Military Merit Medal was the highest military decoration of South Vietnam during the years of the Vietnam War. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... The penultimate expression of the award: the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with golden Oakleaves, Swords and Diamonds. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hero of the Soviet Union (Russian: Герой Советского Союза, Geroy Sovyetskovo Soyuza) was the highest honorary title and the superior degree of distinction of the Soviet Union. ... The Order of the Golden Kite ) was a Japanese Order (decoration), established on 12 February 1889 by Emperor Meiji. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Military Honours and Awards. Defence Internet. UK Ministry of Defence. Retrieved on 2007-01-30.
  2. ^ a b c d e f The world's most exclusive club. Ministry of Defence (2007-04-30). Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  3. ^ a b c Davies, Catronia. "Author explodes myth of the gunmetal VC", The Telegraph, 2005-12-28. Retrieved on 2007-06-16. 
  4. ^ a b Ashcroft Collection website. Lord Ashcroft. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  5. ^ a b c Ashcroft, Michael, Preface to Victoria Cross Heroes
  6. ^ Original Warrant Foreword: And, whereas, the third class of Our Most Honourable Order of the Bath is limited, except in very rare cases, to the higher ranks of both services, and the granting of Medals, both in Our Navy and Army, is only awarded for long service or meritorious conduct, rather than for bravery in action or distinction before an enemy,
  7. ^ British Gallantry Awards, p283
  8. ^ Ashcroft, Michael, p.7-10
  9. ^ a b c The Victoria Cross. Vietnam Veterans Of Australia. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  10. ^ Original Warrant, Clause 5:Fifthly. It is ordained that the Cross shall only be awarded to those officers and men who have served Us in the presence of the enemy, and shall have then performed some signal act of valour or devotion to their country.
  11. ^ a b c Beharry, Johnson p.359
  12. ^ a b c 150 years of the Victoria Cross. Royal Naval Museum. Retrieved on 2007-06-18.
  13. ^ Hancocks of London History of VC. Hancocks of London. Retrieved on 2007-06-24.
  14. ^ Hancocks of London history of VC. Hancocks of London. Retrieved on 2007-06-24.
  15. ^ Hancocks Jewellers. Hancocks of London. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  16. ^ Original Warrant, Clause 1: Firstly. It is ordained that the distinction shall be styled and designated "The Victoria Cross", and shall consist of a Maltese cross of bronze, with our Royal crest in the centre, and underneath with an escroll bearing the inscription "For Valour".
  17. ^ Ashcroft, Michael, p.16
  18. ^ Original warrant, Clause Two: Secondly. It is ordained that the Cross shall be suspended from the left breast by a blue riband for the Navy, and by a red riband for the Army
  19. ^ The Victoria Cross mentioned in newsletter. Army Museum of Western Australia (2006-09-01). Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
  20. ^ The Victoria Cross. Imperial War Museum Exhibits and Firearms Collections. Retrieved on 2006-09-30.
  21. ^ a b c d e Posthumous VCs. National Army Museum. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  22. ^ Original Warrant, Clause 13: Thirteenthly. It is ordained that in the event of a gallant and daring act having been performed by a squadron, ship's company, or detached body of seamen and marines not under fifty in number, or by a brigade, regiment, troop or company in which the admiral, general, or other officer commanding such forces may deem that all are equally brave and distinguished, and that no special selection can be made by them, then is such case the admiral, general, or other officer commanding, may direct that for any such body of seamen or marines, or for every troop or company of soldiers, one officer shall be selected by the officers engaged for the Decoration, and in like manner one petty officer or non-commissioned officer shall be selected by the petty officers and non-commissioned officers engaged, and two seamen or private soldiers or marines shall be selected by the seamen, or private soldiers, or marines engaged, respectively for the Decoration, and the names of those selected shall be transmitted by the senior officers in command of the Naval force, brigade, regiment, troop, or company, to the admiral or general officer commanding, who shall in due manner confer the Decoration as if the acts were done under his own eye.
  23. ^ a b c d e Victoria Cross TV programme notes. fiveTV. Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
  24. ^ New Zealand Cross. New Zealand Encyclopedia (1966). Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
  25. ^ Charles heaphy biography. New Zealand Encyclopedia (1966). Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
  26. ^ Warrant Amendment dated 1858-08-10: subject to the rules and ordinances already made, on Officers and Men of Her Majesty's Naval and Military Services, who may perform acts of conspicuous courage and bravery under circumstances of extreme danger, such as the occurrence of a fire on board ship, or the foundering of a vessel at sea, or under any of the other circumstance in which, through the courage and devotion displayed, life or public property may be saved.
  27. ^ a b c d e VC background. British War Graves Memorial. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  28. ^ a b New Zealand Honours. Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved on 2007-01-30.
  29. ^ a b Order of Precedence for Commonwealth Orders and Decorations. London Gazette. Retrieved on 2007-06-30.
  30. ^ a b The Victoria Cross for Australia. The Government of Australia. Retrieved on 2007-06-30.
  31. ^ a b CTV.ca. "Top military honour now cast in Canada", CTV news, 2007-03-03. Retrieved on 2007-06-24. 
  32. ^ Teotonio, Isabel. "Vets irate at Victoria Cross proposal", Toronto Star, 2007-03-07. Retrieved on 2007-06-24. 
  33. ^ Original Warrant, Clause 14: It is ordained that every warrent officer, petty officer, seaman or marine, or non-commissioned officer, or soldier who shall have received the Cross, shall, from the date of the act by which the Decoration has been gained be entitled to a special pension of 10 pounds a year, and each additional bar conferred under Rule 4 on such warrent or petty officers, or non-commissioned officers or men, shall carry with it an additional pension of 5 pounds per annum.
  34. ^ Warrant Amendment 1898-07-1898 ...authorize the increase of the Victoria Cross pension from 10 pounds to 50 pounds per annum, the condition to be satisfied in such cases being inability to earn a livelihood, in consequence of age or infirmity occasioned by causes beyond an Annuitant's control.
  35. ^ Glanfield, John, Chap1
  36. ^ Canadian Gallantry Awards Order. Canadian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved on 2007-06-30.
  37. ^ Veteran's Entitlement Act 1986. Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  38. ^ Australian Veteran's Entitlement Act 1986, Clause 103, Victoria Cross allowance granted to a veteran under this section is payable at the rate of $A3,230 per year. The amount fixed by this subsection is indexed annually in line with CPI increases., (accessdate=2007-06-30)
  39. ^ Veteran's Entitlement Act 1986, Clause 198a,. Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved on 2007-06-30.
  40. ^ The Victoria Cross factsheet. Ministry of Defence. Retrieved on 2007-06-30.
  41. ^ Ashcroft, Michael, Introduction:A brief History of the VC (p.14-18)
  42. ^ a b Victoria Cross Register
  43. ^ a b Netley Hospital information. QARANC - Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  44. ^ Service of Remembrance Coverage. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-06-30.
  45. ^ Awards to Imperial Servicemen During the 2nd Maori War. New Zealand Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2007-06-30.
  46. ^ Ashcroft, Michael, p.296-298, Information on Flying Officer Lloyd Allan Trigg
  47. ^ Singh Gill, Himmat. "Of blood red in olive green", India Sunday Tribune. Retrieved on 2007-06-30. 
  48. ^ "Net close in on Osama", BBC, 2001-12-16. Retrieved on 2007-06-16. 
  49. ^ Operational Honours: VC and GC for acts of exceptional valour. MOD press release (2006-12-24). Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  50. ^ Gallantry in Afghanistan. NZ Government through news agency. Retrieved on 2007-07-01.
  51. ^ Press kit related to july 2007 gallantry awards (NZ). NZ Government through news agency. Retrieved on 2007-07-01.
  52. ^ Original Warrant Clause 15: Fifteenthly. In order to make such additional provision as shall effectually preserve pure this most honourable distinction, it is ordained that, if any person be convicted of treason, cowardice, felony, or of any infamous crime, or if he be accused of any such offence, and doth not after a reasonable time surrender himself to be tried for the same, his name shall forthwith be erased from the registry of individuals upon whom the said Decoration shall have been conferred, and by an especial Warrent under Our Royal Sign Manual, and the pension conferred under Rule 14 shall cease and determine from the date of such Warrant. It is hereby further declared, that We, Our Heirs and Given Successors, shall be the all judges of the circumstances requiring such expulsion; moreover, We shall at all times have power to restore such persons as may at any time have been expelled, both to the enjoyment of the Decoration and Pension.
  53. ^ British Military & Criminal History in the period 1900 to 1999. Stephen Stratford. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  54. ^ "Gallipoli VC medal sets auction record", The Age, 2006-07-24. Retrieved on 2007-01-30. 
  55. ^ a b List of stolen VCs. Iain Stewart, Victoria Cross.org. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  56. ^ "Victoria Cross: Theft of the VC. solarnavigator.net. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  57. ^ Information on Konowal. Lubomyr Y. Luciuk and Ron Sorobey. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  58. ^ Stolen VC back on display. CBC Canada. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  59. ^ News of Memorial. MoD. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  60. ^ Westminster Abbey, a history. Sacred Destinations guide. Retrieved on 2007-06-30.
  61. ^ a b List of Museums. Victoria cross.org. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  62. ^ Australian War Memorial List of Australian Victoria Cross. Australian War memorial. Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
  63. ^ Lummis cited as 'leading VC researcher'. Michael Daniels pHd (2007-06-15). Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  64. ^ The Post Office issues VC stamps in 2007 illustrated with artifacts from the collection of Canon Lummis in the National Army Museum. Royal Mail (2007-06-15). Retrieved on 2007-06-15.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This articles deals with the British ministry, see defence minister for other countries. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Museum of the Royal Navy in the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard section of HMNB Portsmouth, Portsmouth, Hampshire. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia, Kiribati, Nauru, Tuvalu, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island Inflation 2. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Abbott and Tamplin (1981). British Gallantry Awards. Nimrod Dix and Co.. ISBN 0902633740. 
  • (1997) The Register of the Victoria Cross. This England. ISBN 0-906324-03-3. 
  • Ashcroft, Michael (2006). Victoria Cross Heroes. Headline Book Publishing. ISBN 0755316320. 
  • Beharry, Johnson (2006). barefoot soldier. Sphere. ISBN 0-316-73321-0. 
  • Duckers, Peter (2006). British Gallantry Awards, 1855-2000. Shire Publications Ltd. ISBN 0747805164. 
  • Glanfield, John (2005). Bravest of the Brave. Sutton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0750936959. 
  • Harvey, David (2000). Monuments to Courage. Naval & Military Press Ltd. ISBN 1843423561. 
  • Ross, Graham (1995). Scotland's Forgotten Valour. MacLean Press. ISBN 1-899272-00-3. 

The Register of the Victoria Cross A list of all 1350 Victoria Crosses with details of each recipient ISBN 0906324033 Publisher: Cheltenham: This England Books; 1981 Size: 8vo - over 7 3/4 - 9 3/4 Pagination: 303 + 4. ... Michael Anthony Ashcroft, Baron Ashcroft KCMG (born March 4, 1946) is a British businessman and politician who has been a member of the House of Lords since 2000. ... Johnson Beharry in front of a mural of the Victoria Cross Private Johnson Gideon Beharry, VC (born 26 July 1979, in Grenada), of the 1st Battalion, Princess of Waless Royal Regiment is a British soldier who, in March 2005, was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest military decoration for... David Charles Harvey was born on the 26 July 1946 in East Ham . ... Monuments To Courage is a book by David Harvey, published in 1999. ... SCOTLANDS FORgotten VALOUR is a book by Graham Ross published in 1995 by MacLean Press, ISBN 1899272003. ...

External links

The Imperial War Museum is a museum in London featuring military vehicles, weapons, war memorabilia, a library, a photographic archive, and an art collection of 20th century and later conflicts, especially those involving Britain, and the British Empire. ...

Archives


  Results from FactBites:
 
Victoria Cross - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2044 words)
The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest recognition for valour "in the face of the enemy" that can be awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth armed forces of any rank in any service, and civilians under military command.
Originally, the Victoria Cross could not be awarded posthumously, and could not be awarded to Indian or African troops (although it could be awarded to their European officers).
Holders of the Victoria Cross or George Cross are entitled to an annuity, the amount of which is determined by the awarding government.
Victoria Cross (Canada) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (809 words)
The Victoria Cross (Post-nominal letters "V.C.") is the highest award for valour that can be awarded to members of the Canadian armed forces of any rank in any service, and allies serving under or with Canadian military command.
Based on the British version of the Victoria Cross, it is only awarded for extraordinary valour and devotion to duty while facing a hostile force.
The Victoria Cross is the highest Canadian decoration in the Canadian honours system, thus it is placed before all other Canadian decorations, including the Order of Canada.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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