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Encyclopedia > Victor Hugo
Victor-Marie Hugo

Born 26 February 1802
Died 22 May 1885
Literary movement Romanticism
Debut works Nouvelles Odes et Poésies Diverses (New Odes and Various Poems) (1824)
Influences Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand, Walter Scott, Voltaire
Influenced Louis-Honoré Fréchette, Charles Dickens, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Irvine Welsh, Albert Camus, Gérard de Nerval, Paul Verlaine, Ayn Rand
Signature

Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced [viktɔʁ maʁi yˈgo]) (February 26, 1802May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. Subject: Victor Hugo Source: French Government, Ministry of Culture, http://www. ... ... Romantics redirects here. ... François-René, vicomte de Chateaubriand (September 4, 1768 - July 4, 1848) was a French writer and diplomat considered the founder of Romanticism in French literature. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Louis-Honoré Fréchette Louis-Honoré Fréchette, (November 16, 1839 – May 31, 1908), poet, playwright, and short story writer born in Lévis, Québec, Canada. ... Dickens redirects here. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, pronounced , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821–February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and lasting effect... Irvine Welsh (born Leith, Edinburgh, September 27, 1958) is an acclaimed contemporary Scottish novelist, most famous for his novel Trainspotting. ... For other uses, see Camus. ... Gérard de Nerval (May 22, 1808 – January 26, 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French poet, essayist and translator Gérard Labrunie, the most essentially Romantic among French poets. ... Paul Verlaine Paul-Marie Verlaine (IPA: ; March 30, 1844–January 8, 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. ... Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982), born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum (Russian: ), was a Russian-born American novelist and philosopher. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 298 pixelsFull resolution (1164 × 434 pixel, file size: 4 KB, MIME type: image/png) autograph of Victor Hugo File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation). ... Romantics redirects here. ...


In France, Hugo's literary reputation rests primarily on his poetic and dramatic output and only secondarily on his novels. Among many volumes of poetry, Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles stand particularly high in critical esteem, and Hugo is sometimes identified as the greatest French poet. In the English-speaking world his best-known works are often the novels Les Misérables and Notre-Dame de Paris (sometimes translated into English as The Hunchback of Notre-Dame). La Légende des siècles is a series of poems by Victor Hugo that recounts mans struggle throughout history. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the original 1862 novel. ... The Hunchback of Notre Dame (original French title, Notre-Dame de Paris) is an 1831 French novel written by Victor Hugo. ...


Though extremely conservative in his youth, Hugo moved to the political left as the decades passed; he became a passionate supporter of republicanism, and his work touches upon most of the political and social issues and artistic trends of his time. He is buried in the Panthéon. Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... The Panthéon The Panthéon is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ...

Contents

Early life and influences

Victor Hugo cabinet card by London Stereoscopic Company
Victor Hugo cabinet card by London Stereoscopic Company

Victor-Marie Hugo was the third and last son of Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo (1773–1828) and Sophie Trébuchet (1772-1821); his brothers were Abel Joseph Hugo (1798–1855) and Eugène Hugo (1800–1837). He was born in 1802 in Besançon (in the region of Franche-Comté) and lived in France for the majority of his life. However, he was forced into exile during the reign of Napoleon III — he lived briefly in Brussels during 1851; in Jersey from 1852 to 1855; and in Guernsey from 1855 to 1870 and again in 1872-1873. There was a general amnesty in 1859; after that, his exile was by choice. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Utinam (Latin: If God wills) Citadel Vauban of Besançon Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Franche-Comté Department Doubs (25) Intercommunality Grand Besançon Mayor Jean-Louis Fousseret (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Doubs Haute-Saône Jura Territoire de Belfort Arrondissements 8 Cantons 116 Communes 1,786 Statistics Land area1 16,202 km² Population (Ranked 20th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ...


Hugo's early childhood was marked by great events. The century prior to his birth saw the overthrow of the Bourbon Dynasty in the French Revolution, the rise and fall of the First Republic, and the rise of the First French Empire and dictatorship under Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon was proclaimed Emperor two years after Hugo's birth, and the Bourbon Monarchy was restored before his eighteenth birthday. The opposing political and religious views of Hugo's parents reflected the forces that would battle for supremacy in France throughout his life: Hugo's father was a high-ranking officer in Napoleon's army, an atheist republican who considered Napoleon a hero; his mother was a staunch Catholic Royalist who is believed to have taken as her lover General Victor Lahorie, who was executed in 1812 for plotting against Napoleon. Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Victor Lahorie was a French general, who worked under Napolean Bonapartes command. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting...


Sophie followed her husband to posts in Italy (where Léopold served as a governor of a province near Naples) and Spain (where he took charge of three Spanish provinces). Weary of the constant moving required by military life, and at odds with her unfaithful husband, Sophie separated temporarily from Léopold in 1803 and settled in Paris. Thereafter she dominated Hugo's education and upbringing. As a result, Hugo's early work in poetry and fiction reflect a passionate devotion to both King and Faith. It was only later, during the events leading up to France's 1848 Revolution, that he would begin to rebel against his Catholic Royalist education and instead champion Republicanism and Freethought. Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ... Faith in Christianity centers on faith in the Resurrection of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:1-4) ... the gospel I preached to you. ... // Observations of liberals As 1848 began, liberals in France awaited the death of King Louis Philippe, expecting a new revolution after his death. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ...


Early poetry and fiction

Like many young writers of his generation, Hugo was profoundly influenced by François-René de Chateaubriand, the famous figure in the literary movement of Romanticism and France’s preëminent literary figure during the early 1800s. In his youth, Hugo resolved to be “Chateaubriand or nothing,” and his life would come to parallel that of his predecessor’s in many ways. Like Chateaubriand, Hugo would further the cause of Romanticism, become involved in politics as a champion of Republicanism, and be forced into exile due to his political stances. François-René de Chateaubriand, painting by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ...


The precocious passion and eloquence of Hugo's early work brought success and fame at an early age. His first collection of poetry (Nouvelles Odes et Poésies Diverses) was published in 1824, when Hugo was only twenty two years old, and earned him a royal pension from Louis XVIII. Though the poems were admired for their spontaneous fervor and fluency, it was the collection that followed two years later in 1826 (Odes et Ballades) that revealed Hugo to be a great poet, a natural master of lyric and creative song. Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Odes et Ballades, published in 1828, is a collection of poems by author Victor Hugo written between 1822 and 1828. ...


Against his mother's wishes, young Victor fell in love and became secretly engaged to his childhood friend Adèle Foucher (1803-1868). Unusually close to his mother, it was only after her death in 1821 that he felt free to marry Adèle (in 1822). They had their first child Léopold in 1823, but the boy died in infancy. Hugo's other children were Léopoldine (August 28, 1824), Charles (November 4, 1826), François-Victor (October 28, 1828) and Adèle (August 24, 1830). Hugo published his first novel the following year (Han d'Islande, 1823), and his second three years later (Bug-Jargal, 1826). Between 1829 and 1840 he would publish five more volumes of poetry (Les Orientales, 1829; Les Feuilles d'automne, 1831; Les Chants du crépuscule, 1835; Les Voix intérieures, 1837; and Les Rayons et les ombres, 1840), cementing his reputation as one of the greatest eligiac and lyric poets of his time. Portrait of Léopoldine Hugo. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In number theory, the adele ring is a topological ring containing the field of rational numbers (or, more generally, to an algebraic number field). ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Published in 1826, Bug-Jargal is a novel by the French writer Victor Hugo about a friendship between the enslaved African prince of the title of the book and a French military officer named Leopold DAuverney during the tumultuous early years of the Haitian Revolution. ... Les Orientales is a series of poems by Victor Hugo. ...


Theatrical work

"The Battle of Hernani" (1830)
"The Battle of Hernani" (1830)

Hugo did not achieve such quick success with his works for the stage. In 1827, he published the never-staged verse drama Cromwell, which became more famous for the author's project than its own worth (the play's unwieldy length was considered "unfit for acting"). In his introduction to the work, Hugo urged his fellow artists to free themselves from the restrictions imposed by the French classical style of theatre, and thus sparked a fierce debate between French Classicism and Romanticism that would rage for many years. Cromwell was followed in 1828 by the disastrous Amy Robsart, an experimental play from his youth based on the Walter Scott novel Kenilworth, which was produced under the name of his brother-in-law Paul Foucher and managed to survive only one performance before a less-than-appreciative audience. Image File history File links Victor_Hugo-Hernani(1). ... Cromwell is a play by Victor Hugo written in 1827. ... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... Romantics redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... Kenilworth is a romance novel written by Walter Scott. ...


The first play of Hugo's to be accepted for production under his own name was Marion de Lorme. Though initially banned by the censors for its unflattering portrayal of the French monarchy, it was eventually allowed to premiere uncensored in 1829, but without success. However, the play that Hugo produced the following year — Hernani — would prove to be one of the most successful and groundbreaking events of nineteenth-century French theatre, the opening night of which became known as the "The Battle of Hernani". Today the work is largely forgotten, except as the basis for the Verdi opera Ernani. However, at the time, performances of the work sparked near-riots between opposing camps of French letters and society: Romantics vs. Classicists, Liberals vs. Conformists, and Republicans vs. Royalists. The play was largely condemned by the press, but played to full houses night after night, and all but crowned Hugo as the preeminent leader of French Romanticism. It also signalled that Hugo's concept of Romanticism was growing increasingly politicized: Hugo believed that just as Liberalism in politics would free the country from the tyranny of monarchy and dictatorship, Romanticism would liberate the arts from the constraints of Classicism. Marion Delorme (3 October 1613–2 July 1650) was a French courtesan known for her relationships with the important men of her time. ... Hernani (Full title: Hernani, ou lHonneur Castillan) is a drama by the great French romantic author Victor Hugo. ... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Ernani is an operatic dramma lirico in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, based on the play Hernani by Victor Hugo. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ...

Actress Juliette Drouet, Hugo's mistress
Actress Juliette Drouet, Hugo's mistress

In 1832 Hugo followed the success of Hernani with Le roi s'amuse (The King Takes His Amusement, used by Verdi for Rigoletto). The play was promptly banned by the censors after only one performance, due to its overt mockery of the French nobility, but then went on to be very popular in printed form. Incensed by the ban, Hugo wrote his next play, Lucrèce Borgia (see: Lucrezia Borgia), in only fourteen days. It subsequently appeared on the stage in 1833, to great success. Mademoiselle George (former mistress of Napoleon) was cast in the main role, and an actress named Juliette Drouet played a subordinate part. However, Drouet would go on to play a major role in Hugo’s personal life, becoming his life-long mistress. While Hugo had many romantic escapades throughout his life, Drouet was recognized even by his wife to have a unique relationship with the writer, and was treated almost as family. In Hugo’s next play (Marie Tudor, 1833), Drouet played Lady Jane Grey to George’s Queen Mary. However, she was not considered adequate to the role, and was replaced by another actress after opening night. It would be her last role on the French stage; thereafter she devoted her life to Hugo. Supported by a small pension, she became his unpaid secretary and travelling companion for the next fifty years. Image File history File links Victor_Hugo-Drouet. ... Juliette Drouet painted by Charles-Émile-Callande de Champmartin, 1837. ... Le roi samuse is a play written by Victor Hugo in 1832. ... Giuseppe Verdi, by Giovanni Boldini, 1886 (National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome) Rigoletto is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi. ... This article is about the historical person. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Juliette Drouet painted by Charles-Émile-Callande de Champmartin, 1837. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de jure) or 19 July 1553 (de facto) until her death. ...


Hugo’s Angelo premiered in 1835, to great success. Soon after, the Duke of Orleans (son of King Louis-Philippe, and an admirer of Hugo’s work) founded a new theatre to support new plays. Théâtre de la Renaissance opened in November 1838, with the premiere of Ruy Blas. Though considered by many to be Hugo’s best drama, at the time it met with only average success; in 1947 Jean Cocteau adapted it for cinema, with Jean Marais in the title role. Hugo did not produce another play until 1843. The Burgraves played for only 33 nights, losing audiences to a competing drama, and it would be his last work written for the theatre. Though he would later write the short verse drama Torquemada in 1869, it was not published until a few years before his death in 1882, and was never intended for the stage. However, Hugo's interest in the theatre continued, and in 1864, he published a well-received essay on William Shakespeare, whose style he tried to emulate in his own dramas. Louis Philippe (real name: Philippe Auclair) is a London-based French singer, songwriter, arranger and producer who has been active from the mid-80s onwards. ... Ruy Blas is a tragic drama by Victor Hugo. ... Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... Jean Marais photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1947 Jean Marais, born Jean-Alfred Villain-Marais (December 11, 1913 - November 8, 1998) was a French actor, and the lover of Jean Cocteau. ... A play by Victor Hugo about the Inqusition on Spain. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Mature fiction

Illustration by Alfred Barbou from the original edition of Notre Dame de Paris (1831)
Illustration by Alfred Barbou from the original edition of Notre Dame de Paris (1831)

Victor Hugo's first mature work of fiction appeared in 1829, and reflected the acute social conscience that would infuse his later work. Le Dernier jour d'un condamné (Last Days of a Condemned Man) would have a profound influence on later writers such as Albert Camus, Charles Dickens, and Fyodor Dostoevsky. Claude Gueux, a documentary short story about a real-life murderer who had been executed in France, appeared in 1834, and was later considered by Hugo himself to be a precursor to his great work on social injustice, Les Misérables. But Hugo’s first full-length novel would be the enormously successful Notre-Dame de Paris (The Hunchback of Notre Dame), which was published in 1831 and quickly translated into other languages across Europe. One of the effects of the novel was to shame the City of Paris to undertake a restoration of the much-neglected Cathedral of Notre Dame, which was attracting thousands of tourists who had read the popular novel. The book also inspired a renewed appreciation for pre-renaissance buildings, which thereafter began to be actively preserved. Image File history File links Victor_Hugo-Hunchback. ... Image File history File links Victor_Hugo-Hunchback. ... The Hunchback of Notre Dame (original French title, Notre-Dame de Paris) is an 1831 French novel written by Victor Hugo. ... Le Dernier jour dun condamné is a novel by Victor Hugo that recounts the thoughts of a man condemned to die. ... Le Dernier jour dun condamné is a novel by Victor Hugo that recounts the thoughts of a man condemned to die. ... For other uses, see Camus. ... Dickens redirects here. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, pronounced , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821–February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and lasting effect... Claude Gueux was a short story written by Victor Hugo in 1834. ... This article is about the original 1862 novel. ... This article is about the Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris. ... The Hunchback of Notre Dame (original French title, Notre-Dame de Paris) is an 1831 French novel written by Victor Hugo. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Notre Dame de Paris: Western Façade For other uses, see Notre Dame. ...

Portrait of "Cosette" by Émile Bayard, from the original edition of Les Misérables (1862)
Portrait of "Cosette" by Émile Bayard, from the original edition of Les Misérables (1862)

Hugo began planning a major novel about social misery and injustice as early as the 1830s, but it would take a full 17 years for his most enduringly popular work, Les Misérables, to be realized and finally published in 1862. The author was acutely aware of the quality of the novel and publication of the work went to the highest bidder. The Belgian publishing house Lacroix and Verboeckhoven undertook a marketing campaign unusual for the time, issuing press releases about the work a full six months before the launch. It also initially published only the first part of the novel (“Fantine”), which was launched simultaneously in major cities. Installments of the book sold out within hours, and had enormous impact on French society. The critical establishment was generally hostile to the novel; Taine found it insincere, Barbey d'Aurevilly complained of its vulgarity, Flaubert found within it "neither truth nor greatness," the Goncourts lambasted its artificiality, and Baudelaire - despite giving favorable reviews in newspapers - castigated it in private as "tasteless and inept." Nonetheless, Les Misérables proved popular enough with the masses that the issues it highlighted were soon on the agenda of the French National Assembly. Today the novel remains popular worldwide, adapted for cinema, television and musical stage to an extent equaled by few other works of literature. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the original 1862 novel. ... Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (April 21, 1828 - March 5, 1893) was a French critic and historian. ... Jules Amédée Barbey dAurevilly. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – Croisset, May 8, 1880) is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Charles Baudelaire Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821–August 31, 1867) was one of the most influential French poets. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ...


The shortest correspondence in history is between Hugo and his publisher Hurst & Blackett in 1862. It is said Hugo was on vacation when Les Misérables (which is over 1200 pages) was published. He telegraphed the single-character message '?' to his publisher, who replied with a single '!'.


Hugo turned away from social/political issues in his next novel, Les Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea), published in 1866. Nonetheless, the book was well received, perhaps due to the previous success of Les Misérables. Dedicated to the channel island of Guernsey where he spent 15 years of exile, Hugo’s depiction of Man’s battle with the sea and the horrible creatures lurking beneath its depths spawned an unusual fad in Paris: Squids. From squid dishes and exhibitions, to squid hats and parties, Parisiennes became fascinated by these unusual sea creatures, which at the time were still considered by many to be mythical.[citation needed] The Guernsey word used in the book has also been used to refer to the octopus. Toilers of the Sea is the English translation of Les Travailleurs de la mer, the title of a novel by Victor Hugo. ... Toilers of the Sea is the English translation of Les Travailleurs de la mer, the title of a novel by Victor Hugo. ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ...


Hugo returned to political and social issues in his next novel, L'Homme Qui Rit (The Man Who Laughs), which was published in 1869 and painted a critical picture of the aristocracy. However, the novel was not as successful as his previous efforts, and Hugo himself began to comment on the growing distance between himself and literary contemporaries such as Flaubert and Zola, whose realist and naturalist novels were now exceeding the popularity of his own work. His last novel, Quatrevingt-treize (Ninety-Three), published in 1874, dealt with a subject that Hugo had previously avoided: the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. Though Hugo’s popularity was on the decline at the time of its publication, many now consider Ninety-Three to be a powerful work on par with Hugo’s more well known novels.[citation needed] For the Batman graphic novel, see Batman: The Man Who Laughs. ... For the Batman graphic novel, see Batman: The Man Who Laughs. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – Croisset, May 8, 1880) is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Émile Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was an influential French writer, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. ... Naturalism is a movement in theater, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. ... Quatrevingt-treize (Ninety-Three) is the last novel by the French writer Victor Hugo. ... Ninety-Three (Quatre-vingt-treize) is the last novel by the French writer Victor Hugo. ... For other uses of terror, see Terror. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Ninety-Three (Quatre-vingt-treize) is the last novel by the French writer Victor Hugo. ...

Caricature by Honoré Daumier, at the peak of Hugo's political career: "Hugo is the darkest of all the great serious men." (1849)
Caricature by Honoré Daumier, at the peak of Hugo's political career: "Hugo is the darkest of all the great serious men." (1849)

Image File history File links Victor_Hugo-Cartoon3. ... Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ...

Political life and exile

After three unsuccessful attempts, Hugo was finally elected to the Académie française in 1841, solidifying his position in the world of French arts and letters. Thereafter he became increasingly involved in French politics as a supporter of the Republic form of government. He was elevated to the peerage by King Louis-Philippe in 1841 and entered the Higher Chamber as a pair de France, where he spoke against the death penalty and social injustice, and in favour of freedom of the press and self-government for Poland. He was later elected to the Legislative Assembly and the Constitutional Assembly, following the 1848 Revolution and the formation of the Second Republic. The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Louis Philippe (real name: Philippe Auclair) is a London-based French singer, songwriter, arranger and producer who has been active from the mid-80s onwards. ... Pair de France (Peer of France) is the French title of the Peers who held a lay or ecclesiastical fief of high rank, known as pairie, of the Kingdom of France, a rather different institution than the British peerage. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... (Redirected from 1848 Revolution) —Alexis de Tocqueville, Recollections The European Revolutions of 1848, in some countries known as the Spring of Nations, were the bloody consequences of a variety of changes that had been taking place in Europe in the first half of the 19th century. ... There were several Second Republics in the course of history. ...

Among the Rocks on Jersey (1853-55)
Among the Rocks on Jersey (1853-55)

When Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) seized complete power in 1851, establishing an anti-parliamentary constitution, Hugo openly declared him a traitor of France. He fled to Brussels, then Jersey, and finally settled with his family on the channel island of Guernsey at Hauteville House, where he would live in exile until 1870. Image File history File links Victor_Hugo-Exile. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British dependencies. ...


While in exile, Hugo published his famous political pamphlets against Napoleon III, Napoléon le Petit and Histoire d'un crime. The pamphlets were banned in France, but nonetheless had a strong impact there. He also composed some of his best work during his period in Guernsey, including Les Misérables, and three widely praised collections of poetry (Les Châtiments, 1853; Les Contemplations, 1856; and La Légende des siècles, 1859). Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Napoléon le Petit was an influential political pamphlet by Victor Hugo which condemned the reign of Napoleon III, Emperor of France. ... Histoire dun crime is a novel by Victor Hugo about Napoleon IIIs takeover of France. ... This article is about the original 1862 novel. ... Les Châtiments is a collection of poems by Victor Hugo, attacking the grandeur of Napoléon IIIs Second Empire. ... La Légende des siècles is a series of poems by Victor Hugo that recounts mans struggle throughout history. ...


He convinced the government of Queen Victoria to spare the lives of six Irish people convicted of terrorist activities and his influence was credited in the removal of the death penalty from the constitutions of Geneva, Portugal and Colombia.[1] Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...


Although Napoleon III granted an amnesty to all political exiles in 1859, Hugo declined, as it meant he would have to curtail his criticisms of the government. It was only after Napoleon III fell from power and the Third Republic was proclaimed that Hugo finally returned to his homeland in 1870, where he was promptly elected to the National Assembly and the Senate. Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, Troisième Republique, sometimes written as IIIème Republique) ( 1870/ 75- 1940/ 46), was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Fourth Republic. ...


Because of his concern for the protection of artistic work and intellectual property, he was a founding member of the Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, which led to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale (ALAI) was founded 1878 in Paris. ... For the treaty establishing the General Postal Union, see Treaty of Bern. ...


Religious views

Hugo's religious views changed radically over the course of his life. In his youth, he identified as a Catholic and professed respect for Church hierarchy and authority. From there he evolved into a non-practicing Catholic, and expressed increasingly violent anti-papist and anti-clerical views. He dabbled in Spiritualism during his exile, and in later years settled into a Rationalist Deism similar to that espoused by Voltaire. When a census-taker asked Hugo in 1872 if he was a Catholic, he replied, "No. A Freethinker". Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ... // By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was an object of intense curiosity. ... This article is not about continental rationalism. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... The word freethinker has different meanings: A freethinker is a proponent of the philosophical practice known as Freethinking, thus being a practitioner of Freethought. ...

Hugo during his "spiritualist" period in Guernsey (1855)
Hugo during his "spiritualist" period in Guernsey (1855)

Hugo never lost his antipathy towards the Roman Catholic Church, due largely to what he saw as the Church's indifference to the plight of the working class under the oppression of the monarchy; and perhaps also due to the frequency with which Hugo's work appeared on the Pope's list of "proscribed books" (Hugo counted 740 attacks on Les Misérables in the Catholic press). On the deaths of his sons Charles and François-Victor, he insisted that they be buried without crucifix or priest, and in his will made the same stipulation about his own death and funeral. However, although Hugo believed Catholic dogma to be outdated and dying, he never directly attacked the institution itself. He also remained a deeply religious man who strongly believed in the power and necessity of prayer. Image File history File links Victor_Hugo-Brooding. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Venetiis, M. D. LXIIII. The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) is a list of publications which the Catholic Church censored for being a danger to itself and the faith of its members. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ...


Hugo's Rationalism can be found in poems such as Torquemada (1869, about religious fanaticism), The Pope (1878, violently anti-clerical), Religions and Religion (1880, denying the usefulness of churches) and, published posthumously, The End of Satan and God (1886 and 1891 respectively, in which he represents Christianity as a griffin and Rationalism as an angel). In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ...


"Religions pass away, but God remains", Hugo declared. Christianity would eventually disappear, he predicted, but people would still believe in "God, Soul, and the Power."


Declining years and death

Victor Hugo, by Alphonse Legros.
Victor Hugo, by Alphonse Legros.

When Hugo returned to Paris in 1870, the country hailed him as a national hero. During the siege of Paris and the Commune, Hugo escaped the city in a hot air balloon. Despite his popularity Hugo lost his bid for reelection to the National Assembly in 1872. He went on to weather, within a brief period, the Siege of Paris, a mild stroke, his daughter Adèle’s commitment to an insane asylum, and the death of his two sons. (His other daughter, Léopoldine, had drowned in a boating accident in 1843; his wife Adèle died in 1868; and his faithful mistress, Juliette Drouet, died in 1883, only two years before his own death.) Despite his personal loss, Hugo remained committed to political change. On 30 January 1876 Hugo was elected to the newly created Senate. His last phase in his political career is considered a failure. Hugo took on a stubborn role and got little done in the Senate. Image File history File links Legros_-_Victor_Hugo. ... Image File history File links Legros_-_Victor_Hugo. ... Alphonse Legros (May 8, 1837 - December 8, 1911), painter and etcher, was born at Dijon. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Combatants Prussia, Baden Bavaria, Württemberg (later German Empire) France Commanders Wilhelm I of Germany Helmuth von Moltke Louis Jules Trochu Joseph Vinoy Strength 240,000 regulars 200,000 regulars 200,000 militia and sailors Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 24,000 dead or wounded 146,000 captured 47... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In February of 1881 Hugo celebrated his 79th birthday. To honor the fact that he was entering his eightieth year, one of the greatest tributes to a living writer was held. The celebrations began on the 25th when Hugo was presented with a Sèvres vase, the traditional gift for sovereigns. On the 27th one of the largest parades in French history was held. Marchers stretched from Avenue d'Eylau, down the Champs-Elysees, and all the way to the centre of Paris. The paraders marched for six hours to pass Hugo as he sat in the window at his house. Every inch and detail of the event was for Hugo; the official guides even wore cornflowers as an allusion to Cosette's song in Les Misérables.


Drawings

Victor Hugo, Setting Sun (1853-1855).
Victor Hugo, Setting Sun (1853-1855).

Many are not aware that Hugo was almost as prolific in the visual arts as he was in literature, producing more than 4,000 drawings in his lifetime. (Some reproductions can be viewed on the internet at ArtNet and on the website of artist Misha Bittleston). Image File history File links Victor_Hugo-Setting_Sun. ... Image File history File links Victor_Hugo-Setting_Sun. ...


Originally pursued as a casual hobby, drawing became more important to Hugo shortly before his exile, when he made the decision to stop writing in order to devote himself to politics. Drawing became his exclusive creative outlet during the period 1848-1851.

Victor Hugo, Octopus with the Initials V.H. (1866).
Victor Hugo, Octopus with the Initials V.H. (1866).

Hugo worked only on paper, and on a small scale; usually in dark brown or black pen-and-ink wash, sometimes with touches of white, and rarely with color. The surviving drawings are surprisingly accomplished and "modern" in their style and execution, foreshadowing the experimental techniques of Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism. Image File history File links Victor_Hugo-Octopus. ... Image File history File links Victor_Hugo-Octopus. ... Pen and ink refers to a technique of drawing or writing, in which colored (this includes black) ink is applied to paper using a pen or other stylus. ... Max Ernst. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ...


He would not hesitate to use his children's stencils, ink blots, puddles and stains, lace impressions, "pliage" or folding (i.e. Rorschach blots), "grattage" or rubbing, often using the charcoal from match sticks or his fingers instead of pen or brush. Sometimes he would even toss in coffee or soot to get the effects he wanted. It is reported that Hugo often drew with his left hand or without looking at the page, or during Spiritualist séances, in order to access his unconscious mind, a concept only later popularized by Sigmund Freud. Spiritualism is a religion in which contact with the spirits of the dead through a medium is central. ... Look up séance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


Hugo kept his artwork out of the public eye, fearing it would overshadow his literary work. However, he enjoyed sharing his drawings with his family and friends, often in the form of ornately handmade calling cards, many of which were given as gifts to visitors when he was in political exile. Some of his work was shown to, and appreciated by, contemporary artists such as Van Gogh and Delacroix; the latter expressed the opinion that if Hugo had decided to become a painter instead of a writer, he would have outshone the artists of their century. van Gogh redirects here. ... Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar) Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 - August 13, 1863) was an important painter from the French romantic period. ...


Memorials

The people of Guernsey erected a statue in Candie Gardens to commemorate his stay in the islands.


The City of Paris has preserved his residences Hauteville Houses, Guernsey and 6, Place des Vosges, Paris as museums. The house where he stayed in Vianden, Luxembourg, in 1871 has also become a commemorative museum. This article is about the capital of France. ... The Pavillon de la Reine at Place des Vosges The Place des Vosges is the oldest square in Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Vianden, view from the castle Castle of Vianden Vianden (Luxemburgish: Veianen) is a small city in north-eastern Luxembourg with approx. ...


Hugo is venerated as a saint in the Vietnamese religion of Cao Dai.[2] For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). ... Cao Dais Holy See, called the Tay Ninh Holy See, is located in Tay Ninh, Viet Nam Caodaism (Vietnamese:  ) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ...


The Avenue Victor-Hugo in the XVIème arrondissement of Paris bears Hugo's name, and links the Place de l'Étoile to the vicinity of the Bois de Boulogne by way of the Place Victor-Hugo. This square is served by a Paris Métro stop also named in his honor. The 16th arrondissement (XVIe arrondissement), located on the Right Bank is one of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France. ... The upper lake, with rowboats The Bois de Boulogne is a park located along the western edge of the 16ème arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt. ... “Métro” redirects here. ... List of stations of the Paris Métro Victor Hugo is a station of the Paris Métro, serving Line 2. ...


The school Lycée Victor Hugo in his town of birth, Besançon in France. City flag City coat of arms Motto: Utinam (Latin: If God wills) Citadel Vauban of Besançon Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Franche-Comté Department Doubs (25) Intercommunality Grand Besançon Mayor Jean-Louis Fousseret (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ...


Avenue Victor-Hugo, located in Shawinigan, Quebec, Canada, was named to honor him. Shawinigan is a city in the Province of Quebec, Canada on the Saint-Maurice River. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


In the city of Avellino, Italy, Victor Hugo lived briefly stayed in what is now known as Il Palazzo Culturale, when reuniting with his father, Leopold Sigisbert Hugo, in 1808. Victor would later write about his brief stay here quoting "C’était un palais de marbre...". Avellino is a town and comune, capital of the province of Avellino in the Campania region of southern Italy. ...


Works

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Published during Hugo's lifetime

Poems of Victor Hugo // Lord Byron, Percy Shelley and Leigh Hunt found The Liberal, edited by John Hunt; it lasts four issues and ends with Shelleys death in August. ... Odes is the title of an album of Greek Folk Songs by Vangelis and Irene Papas. ... // Lord Byron, Vision of Judgement Lord Byron, Don Juan July 15 — Cantos VI, VII, VIII, with a Preface, were published August 29 — Cantos IX, X, XI were published December 17 — Cantos XII, XIII, XIV The poem A Visit from St. ... Nouvelles Odes is a book by Victor Hugo. ... // March - Samuel Taylor Coleridge elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature Lord Byron: Don Juan, Cantos XV-XVI (March 24) The Deformed Transformed Victor Hugo — Nouvelles Odes Percy Bysshe Shelley: The Triumph of Life (posthumous) Posthumous Poems published in June by Mary Shelley; suppressed at insistence of Sir... Published in 1826, Bug-Jargal is a novel by the French writer Victor Hugo about a friendship between the enslaved African prince of the title of the book and a French military officer named Leopold DAuverney during the tumultuous early years of the Haitian Revolution. ... Odes et Ballades, published in 1828, is a collection of poems by author Victor Hugo written between 1822 and 1828. ... // Elizabeth Barrett (Browning), An Essay on Mind and Other Poems Victor Hugo, Odes et Ballades Dinah Maria Mulock Craik Stephen Foster (US) Robert Lowry (US) Reginald Heber John Taylor Poetry Categories: | | ... Cromwell is a play by Victor Hugo written in 1827. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Les Orientales is a series of poems by Victor Hugo. ... // Thomas Hood, The Dream of Eugene Aram Victor Hugo, Les Orientales Edgar Allan Poe, Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Other Poems Samuel Kettell, Specimens of American Poetry Henrik Wergeland, Creation, Man and the Messiah, epic poem by the Norwegian poet; the sheer scale of the poem invited to criticism; in 1845... Le Dernier jour dun condamné is a novel by Victor Hugo that recounts the thoughts of a man condemned to die. ... Hernani (Full title: Hernani, ou lHonneur Castillan) is a drama by the great French romantic author Victor Hugo. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Hunchback of Notre Dame (original French title, Notre-Dame de Paris) is an 1831 French novel written by Victor Hugo. ... Marion Delorme is a book of Victor Hugo in 5 acts. ... // Walter Savage Landor, Gebir, Count Julian Giacomo Leopardi, Canti Edgar Allan Poe, Poems March 18 — David Mills (died 1903), Canadian poet, politician, author and jurist May 25 — Edward Robert Bulwer Lytton (died 1873) June 13 — James Clerk Maxwell (died 1879), an important mathematician and theoretical physicist whose poetry was published... Le roi samuse is a play written by Victor Hugo in 1832. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the historical person. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Claude Gueux was a short story written by Victor Hugo in 1834. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... // John Clare is institutionalized as insane. ... Ruy Blas is a tragic drama by Victor Hugo. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... // Robert Brownings Sordello Mikhail Lermontovs The Novice Percy Bysshe Shelleys Defence of Poetry, posthumously published January 18 Henry Austin Dobson (UK) March 1 - Constance Fenimore Woolson (US) March 18 - William Cosmo Monkhouse (UK) June 2 - Thomas Hardy (UK) August 17 Wilfred Scawen Blunt (UK) October 5 - John... A travel guide written by Victor Hugo. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A play by victor hugo taking place along the Rhine. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Napoléon le Petit was an influential political pamphlet by Victor Hugo which condemned the reign of Napoleon III, Emperor of France. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Les Châtiments is a collection of poems by Victor Hugo, attacking the grandeur of Napoléon IIIs Second Empire. ... // Matthew Arnolds Poems, including Sobrab and Rustum and The Scholar-Gipsy Manuel António Álvares de Azevedos Lira dos Vinte Anos (posthumous) Martha Brownes (a. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... La Légende des siècles is a series of poems by Victor Hugo that recounts mans struggle throughout history. ... // Daniel Decatur Emmett, Dixies Land Edmund Fitzgerald, The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám (revised up to 1879) Victor Hugo, La Légende des siècles Alfred Lord Tennyson, Idylls of the King including Enid, Vivien, Elaine, and Guinevere Katharine Lee Bates (US) William Herbert Carruth (US) Perceval... This article is about the original 1862 novel. ... This article is about 1862 . ... William Shakespeare was an 1864 essay by Victor Hugo. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... // Matthew Arnold, Essays in Criticism, First Series, including The Function of Criticism at the Present Time Robert Williams Buchanan, The Session of the Poets, an attack on Algernon Charles Swinburne, published in The Spectator George Moses Horton, Naked Genius John Newman, The Dream of Gerontius Algernon Charles Swinburne, Atalanta in... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Toilers of the Sea is the English translation of Les Travailleurs de la mer, the title of a novel by Victor Hugo. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... For the Batman graphic novel, see Batman: The Man Who Laughs. ... LAnnée Terrible is a series of poems written by Victor Hugo. ... // Edward Lear, More Nonsense, Rhymes William Morris, Love is Enough Victor Hugo, LAnnée terrible Christina Rossetti, Sing-Song, a Nursery Rhyme Book Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gareth and Lynette June 27 — Paul Laurence Dunbar (died 1906), African-American poet November 30 — John McCrae (died 1918), Canadian poet, physician, author... Quatrevingt-treize (Ninety-Three) is the last novel by the French writer Victor Hugo. ... Ninety-Three (Quatre-vingt-treize) is the last novel by the French writer Victor Hugo. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Actes et Paroles (or Deeds and Words in English) is a book by Victor Hugo that recounts his life story and his dreams of the future. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... LArt dêtre grand-père or The Art of Being a Grandfather are a series of poems by Victor Hugo. ... // In the annals of poetasting, 1877 stands out as a historic year. ... Histoire dun crime is a novel by Victor Hugo about Napoleon IIIs takeover of France. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Le Pape (translation: The Pope) was a political tract by Victor Hugo supporting Christianity but attacking the rigid organization of the Catholic Church. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Religions et religion was an 1880 political tract by Victor Hugo supporting belief in God but attacking organized religion. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A play by Victor Hugo about the Inqusition on Spain. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Victor Hugos poetry captured the spirit of the Romantic era. ...


Published posthumously

  • Théâtre en liberté (1886)
  • La fin de Satan (1886)
  • Choses vues (1887)
  • Toute la lyre (1888)
  • Amy Robsart (1889)
  • Les Jumeaux (1889)
  • Actes et Paroles Depuis l'exil, 1876-1885 (1889)
  • Alpes et Pyrénées (1890)
  • Dieu (1891)
  • France et Belgique (1892)
  • Toute la lyre - dernière série (1893)
  • Correspondences - Tome I (1896)
  • Correspondences - Tome II (1898)
  • Les années funestes (1898)
  • Choses vues - nouvelle série (1900)
  • Post-scriptum de ma vie (1901)
  • Dernière Gerbe (1902)
  • Mille francs de récompense (1934)
  • Océan. Tas de pierres (1942)
  • L'Intervention (1951)
  • Conversations with Eternity

Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... La Fin de Satan (The End of Satan) is a work of poetry Victor Hugo wrote in 1886. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Conversations with Eternity is a book by John Chambers, published from a series of notes by Victor Hugo. ...

Online texts

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... The Online Books Page is an index of e-text books available on the Internet. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...

Influence in Brazil

Victor Hugo's works, both in the original and in translation to Portuguese, are considered to have deeply influenced the Brazilian late 19th century literary movement known as condoreirismo, which is marked by the introspection of the Romantic period with a social and humanitarian concern. Particularly considered to have been influenced by Hugo is the well-known abolitionist poet Castro Alves. This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Antônio de Castro Alves, more commonly known as Castro Alves, was born on March 14, 1847, in the town of Cachoeira, Bahia, Brazil. ...


References

Online references

  • Afran, Charles (1997). “Victor Hugo: French Dramatist”. Website: Discover France. (Originally published in Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, 1997, v.9.0.1.) Retrieved November 2005.
  • Bates, Alfred (1906). “Victor Hugo”. Website: Theatre History. (Originally published in The Drama: Its History, Literature and Influence on Civilization, vol. 9. ed. Alfred Bates. London: Historical Publishing Company, 1906. pp. 11-13.) Retrieved November 2005.
  • Bates, Alfred (1906). “Hernani”. Website: Threatre History. (Originally published in The Drama: Its History, Literature and Influence on Civilization, vol. 9. ed. Alfred Bates. London: Historical Publishing Company, 1906. pp. 20-23.) Retrieved November 2005.
  • Bates, Alfred (1906). “Hugo’s Cromwell”. Website: Theatre History. (Originally published in The Drama: Its History, Literature and Influence on Civilization, vol. 9. ed. Alfred Bates. London: Historical Publishing Company, 1906. pp. 18-19.) Retrieved November 2005.
  • Bittleston, Misha (uncited date). "Drawings of Victor Hugo". Website: Misha Bittleston. Retrieved November 2005.
  • Burnham, I.G. (1896). “Amy Robsart”. Website: Theatre History. (Originally published in Victor Hugo: Dramas. Philadelphia: The Rittenhouse Press, 1896. pp. 203-6, 401-2.) Retrieved November 2005.
  • Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2001-05). “Hugo, Victor Marie, Vicomte”. Website: Bartleby, Great Books Online. Retrieved November 2005. Retrieved November 2005.
  • Haine, W. Scott (1997). “Victor Hugo”. Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions. Website: Ohio University. Retrieved November 2005.
  • Illi, Peter (2001-2004). “Victor Hugo: Plays”. Website: The Victor Hugo Website. Retrieved November 2005.
  • Karlins, N.F. (1998). "Octopus With the Initials V.H." Website: ArtNet. Retrieved November 2005.
  • Liukkonen, Petri (2000). “Victor Hugo (1802-1885)”. Books and Writers. Website: Pegasos: A Literature Related Resource Site. Retrieved November 2005.
  • Meyer, Ronald Bruce (2004). “Victor Hugo”. Website: Ronald Bruce Meyer. Retrieved November 2005.
  • Robb, Graham (1997). “A Sabre in the Night”. Website: New York Times (Books). (Excerpt from Graham, Robb (1997). Victor Hugo: A Biography. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.) Retrieved November 2005.
  • Roche, Isabel (2005). “Victor Hugo: Biography”. Meet the Writers. Website: Barnes & Noble. (From the Barnes & Noble Classics edition of The Hunchback of Notre Dame, 2005.) Retrieved November 2005.
  • Uncited Author. “Victor Hugo”. Website: Spartacus Educational. Retrieved November 2005.
  • Uncited Author. “Timeline of Victor Hugo”. Website: BBC. Retrieved November 2005.
  • Uncited Author. (2000-2005). “Victor Hugo”. Website: The Literature Network. Retrieved November 2005.
  • Uncited Author. "Hugo Caricature". Website: Présence de la Littérature a l’école. Retrieved November 2005.

Further reading

  • Barbou, Alfred (1882). Victor Hugo and His Times. University Press of the Pacific: 2001 paper back edition. [1].
  • Brombert, Victor H. (1984). Victor Hugo and the Visionary Novel. Boston: Harvard University Press. [2].
  • Davidson, A.F. (1912). Victor Hugo: His Life and Work. University Press of the Pacific: 2003 paperback edition. [3].
  • Dow, Leslie Smith (1993). Adele Hugo: La Miserable. Fredericton: Goose Lane Editions. [4].
  • Falkayn, David (2001). Guide to the Life, Times, and Works of Victor Hugo. University Press of the Pacific. [5].
  • Feller, Martin, Der Dichter in der Politik. Victor Hugo und der deutsch-französische Krieg von 1870/71. Untersuchungen zum französischen Deutschlandbild und zu Hugos Rezeption in Deutschland. Doctoral Dissertation, Marburg 1988.
  • Frey, John Andrew (1999). A Victor Hugo Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press. [6].
  • Grant, Elliot (1946). The Career of Victor Hugo. Harvard University Press. Out of print.
  • Halsall, A.W. et al (1998). Victor Hugo and the Romantic Drama. University of Toronto Press. [7].
  • Hart, Simon Allen (2004). Lady in the Shadows : The Life and Times of Julie Drouet, Mistress, Companion and Muse to Victor Hugo. Publish American. [8].
  • Houston, John Porter (1975). Victor Hugo. New York: Twayne Publishers. [9].
  • Ireson, J.C. (1997). Victor Hugo: A Companion to His Poetry. Clarendon Press. [10].
  • Maurois, Andre (1956). Olympio: The Life of Victor Hugo. New York: Harper & Brothers.
  • Maurois, Andre (1966). Victor Hugo and His World. London: Thames and Hudson. Out of print.
  • Robb, Graham (1997). Victor Hugo: A Biography. W.W. Norton & Company: 1999 paperback edition. [11].(description/reviews)

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Victor Hugo
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Victor Hugo
Preceded by
Népomucène Lemercier
Seat 14
Académie française

1841–1885
Succeeded by
Charles Leconte de Lisle
Persondata
NAME Hugo, Victor-Marie
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Hugo, Victor
SHORT DESCRIPTION French poet, novelist, dramatist
DATE OF BIRTH February 26, 1802
PLACE OF BIRTH Besançon, France
DATE OF DEATH May 22, 1885
PLACE OF DEATH Paris, France

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Louis Jean Népomucène Lemercier (April 20, 1771 – June 7, 1840), was a French poet and dramatist. ... This is a list of members of the Académie française (French Academy) by seat number. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... Charles-Marie-René Leconte de Lisle (October 22, 1818 - July 17, 1894), was a French poet of the Parnassian movement. ... Romantics redirects here. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from 1820 to 1900, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... Charles-Valentin Alkan (November 30, 1813–March 29, 1888) was a French composer and one of the greatest virtuoso pianists of his day. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... Bruckner redirects here. ... Chopin redirects here. ... Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( , often anglicized DVOR-zhak; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemia and Moravia in symphonic, oratorial, chamber and operatic works. ... Edvard Grieg Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. ... Liszt redirects here. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasilevič Rakhmaninov, 1 April 1873 (N.S.) or 20 March 1873 (O.S.) – 28 March 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music. ... Schubert redirects here. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Johan Julius Christian Jean / Janne Sibelius ( ; December 8, 1865 – September 20, 1957) was a Finnish composer of classical music and one of the most notable composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... The Mighty Handful (Moguchaya Kuchka / Могучая Кучка in Russian), better known as The Five in English-speaking countries, was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von Weber (November 18, 1786 in Eutin, Holstein – June 5, 1826 in London, England) was a German composer, conductor, pianist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. ... Romantic poetry was part of the Romantic movement of European literature during the 18th-mid-19th centuries. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Byron redirects here. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Goethe redirects here. ... Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin [] (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ... Keats grave in Rome (left). ... Categories: 1812 births | 1859 deaths | Polish poets | Polish writers | Stub ... Portrait of Alphonse de Lamartine Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux Alphonse Marie Louise Prat de Lamartine (Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Prat de Lamartine) (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician, born... Giacomo Leopardi, Count (June 29, 1798 – June 14, 1837) is generally considered, along with such figures as Dante, Petrarca, Ariosto and Tasso, to be among Italys greatest poets and one of its greatest thinkers. ... Mikhail Lermontov in 1837 Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (Михаил Юрьевич Лермонтов), (October 15, 1814–July 27, 1841), a Russian Romantic writer and poet, sometimes called the poet of the Caucasus, was the most important presence in the Russian poetry from Alexander Pushkins death until his own four years later, at the age... Adam Mickiewicz. ... Gérard de Nerval (May 22, 1808 - January 26, 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French poet, essayist and translator Gérard Labrunie, the most essentially Romantic among French poets. ... For the German rock band, see Novalis (band). ... Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič PuÅ¡kin,  ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26] – February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian... Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... Juliusz Słowacki Juliusz Słowacki (4 September 1809–3 April 1849) was one of the most famous Polish romantic poets. ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... Karl Pavlovich Briullov (Карл Павлович Брюллов), called by his friends the Great Karl (December 12, 1799, St Petersburg - June 11, 1852, Rome), was the first Russian painter of international standing. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... For a project of the French Space Agency, see COROT. Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (portrait by Nadar) Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape painter and printmaker in etching. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Self-portrait in chalk, 1810 by fellow artist Georg Friedrich Kersting, 1812 Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 – May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement. ... Monument at Gericaults tomb. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... “Goya” redirects here. ... Thomas Coles View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm, or The Oxbow, 1836 The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. ... Washington Crossing the Delaware Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze (May 24, 1816 – July 18, 1868) was a German-born American painter. ... -1... Self-portrait of the young Samuel Palmer, circa 1826. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775[1] – 19 December 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Victorianism is the name given to the attitudes, art, and culture of the later two-thirds of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Utinam (Latin: If God wills) Citadel Vauban of Besançon Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Franche-Comté Department Doubs (25) Intercommunality Grand Besançon Mayor Jean-Louis Fousseret (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Victor Hugo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3094 words)
It also signalled that Hugo's concept of Romanticism was growing increasingly politicized: Hugo believed that just as Liberalism in politics would free the country from the tyranny of monarchy and dictatorship, Romanticism would liberate the arts from the constraints of Classicism.
Hugo returned to political and social issues in his next novel, L'Homme Qui Rit (The Man Who Laughs), which was published in 1869 and painted a critical picture of the aristocracy.
Hugo's Rationalism can be found in poems such as Torquemada (1869, about religious fanaticism), The Pope (1878, violently anti-clerical), Religions and Religion (1880, denying the usefulness of churches) and, published posthumously, The End of Satan and God (1886 and 1891 respectively, in which he represents Christianity as a griffin and Rationalism as an angel).
Victor Hugo - MSN Encarta (695 words)
Hugo was born on February 26, 1802, in Besançon, and was educated both privately and in Paris schools.
Hugo's disappointment over Les burgraves was overshadowed in the same year by the drowning of one of his daughters and her husband.
Hugo's works set a standard for the rhetorical and poetic taste of generations of French youth, and he is still considered one of the finest French poets.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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