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Encyclopedia > Victor Goldschmidt

Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (Zürich, January 27, 1888March 20, 1947 in Oslo) was a chemist considered to be the founder of modern geochemistry and crystal chemistry, developer of the Goldschmidt Classification of elements. Zürich IPA (in English often Zurich, which is also the standard French form of the name) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 364,558 in 2002; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1888 is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... County Oslo NO-03 Landscape Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... A chemist is a scientist who specializes in chemistry. ... The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical components in time and space. ... The Goldschmidt Classification, developed by Viktor M. Goldschmidt, is a geochemical classification which groups the chemical elements according to their preferred host phases into siderorphile (iron loving), lithophile (silicate loving) , chalcophile (sulfur loving), and athmophile (gas loving). ...


Goldschmidt was born in Zürich. His parents, Heinrich J. Goldschmidt and Amelie Koehne named his son after his teacher Victor Meyer. There was a history of great scientists and philosophers in both families. The Goldschmidt family came to Norway 1901 when Heinrich Goldschmidt took over a chair as Professor of Chemistry in Kristiania (Oslo). Zürich IPA (in English often Zurich, which is also the standard French form of the name) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 364,558 in 2002; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... In the period 1878–1924, Kristiania was the name used for Norways capital Oslo (having been called Christiania since 1624). ...

Young Victor Goldschmidt
Young Victor Goldschmidt

Goldschmidt’s first important contribution was within the field of geology and mineralogy. His two first larger works were his doctor thesis Die Kontaktmetamorphose im Kristianiagebiet and Geologisch-petrographische Studien im Hochgebirge des südlichen Norwegens. Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ...


A series of publications under the title Geochemische Verteilungsgesetze der Elemente is usually referred to as the start of geochemistry, the science that describes the distribution of the chemical elements in nature. The geochemistry has not only greatly inspired the field of mineralogy and geology but also theoretical chemistry and crystallography. Goldschmidt’s work on atom and ion radii has been of enormous importance for crystallography. His work in this area has no doubt inspired the introduction of the Pauling covalent, ionic, and the Van der Waals radius. Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = solid and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Goldschmidt took great interest in the technical application of his science; the utilization of olivine for industrial refractory goes back to him. He was for many years the head of the Norwegian Committee for Raw Material (Statens Råstoffkomité). Olivine The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 in which the ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the series: forsterite (Mg-rich) and fayalite (Fe-rich). ...


There has hardly ever been a person in the Norwegian university world that made such an early and rapid career as Goldschmidt. Without even taking the usual exams or degrees he got a post-doctoral fellowship from the university already at the age of 21 (1909). He obtained his Norwegian doctor’s degree when he was 23 years old (1911). This is a degree that is usually obtained at an age of 30 to 40 years, even 50 years and more is not unusual. In 1912 Goldschmidt got the most distinguished Norwegian scientific award (the Fridtjof Nansens belonning) for his work Die Kontaktmetamorphose im Kristiania gebiet. The same year he was made Docent (Associate Professor) of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Oslo (known at that time as "Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet"). Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... Petrography is the description of rocks and their textures. ... The University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo, in Latin Universitas Osloensis) was founded in 1811 as Universitas Regia Fredericiana (the Royal Frederick University, norwegian ), modelled after the recently established Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Berlin. ...


In 1914 he applied for a professorship in Stockholm. The selecting committee unanimously chose Goldschmidt for the chair. But before the Swedish king had made the final official approbation, the University of Kristiania was able to secure him a similar chair. This was quite an unusual procedure and speed for appointing a professor. Usually it will take at least two years to obtain a new chair at a Norwegian university and one or two years to have the professor appointed. In Goldschmidt’s case it seems that all tradition of slowness was abolished, a fact that the University of Oslo shall always be grateful for. In 1929 Goldschmidt was called to the chair of mineralogy in Göttingen, but he returned to Oslo in 1935. Stockholm [, ] is the capital and the largest City of Sweden. ... Map of Germany showing Göttingen 1 External links Coat of Arms University of Göttingen Top: The old Auditorium Maximum (1862-65) Bottom: New library building Göttingen is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


During the German occupation Goldschmidt was arrested, on account of him being of Jewish extraction, but released by initiative of colleagues and the Norwegian Resistance shortly before his planned deportation to a German concentration camp. He later fled to Sweden and went on to England (where some of the Koehne family lived).


After the war he returned to Oslo again where he died, only 59 years old.


A larger work, Geochemistry, was edited and published posthumously in England in 1954.


References

  • Victor Moritz Goldschmidt: Father of Modern Geochemistry by Brian Mason (ISBN 0-941809-03X)

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