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Encyclopedia > Vichy France
L'État Français
French State
Client state of Nazi Germany

1940 – 1944
Flag
Flag Presidential Standard
Motto
"Travail, famille, patrie"
French: Work, family, fatherland
Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942)
Capital Vichy
Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945)
Language(s) French
Religion Roman Catholic
Government Dictatorship
Chief of state
 - 19401944 Philippe Pétain
President of the Council
 - 19401942 Philippe Pétain
 - 19421944 Pierre Laval
Legislature National Assembly
Historical era World War II
 - Election of Pétain July 10, 1940
 - French surrender 22 June 1940
 - Liberation of Paris August 25, 1944
 - Allied take of Sigmaringen April 22, 1945
 - Disestablished August 25, 1944
Currency Franc

Vichy France, or the Vichy regime, was the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944. It succeeded the Third Republic. The "French state" (L'État Français), as it called itself in contrast with the "French Republic", was proclaimed by Marshal Philippe Pétain, following the military defeat of France by Nazi Germany during World War II, and the vote by the National Assembly on July 10, 1940, to grant extraordinary powers to Pétain, who held the title of "President of the Council" instead of President of France. Pétain headed the reactionary program of the so-called "Révolution nationale", aimed at "regenerating the Nation." Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vichy_France. ... Flag Ratio: 2:3 The national flag of France (Vexillological symbol: , known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... Image File history File links LocationVichyFrance. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Vichy (Occitan: Vichèi) is a French commune, situated in the département of Allier and the région of Auvergne. ... Sigmaringen is a city in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg, formerly Hohenzollern, capital of the Sigmaringen district. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician and four times Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III (Belgian) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Liberation of Paris in World War II took place in late August 1944 after the battle of Normandy. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Baton of a modern Marshal of France The Marshal of France (French: Maréchal de France) is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a military rank. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III (Belgian) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The official title President of the Council of Ministers is used to describe the head of government of the states of Italy, Poland and Serbia and Montenegro, and formerly in Portugal and France, during the Third and Fourth Republics. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... The Révolution nationale (National Revolution) was the official ideological name under which the Vichy regime (the French state) established by Marshall Pétain in July 1940 presented its program. ...


Vichy France had legal authority in both the northern zone of France, which was occupied by the German Wehrmacht, and the unoccupied southern "free zone", where the regime's administrative center of Vichy was located. The southern zone remained under Vichy control until the Allies landed in French North Africa in November 1942. Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Vichy (Occitan: Vichèi) is a French commune, situated in the département of Allier and the région of Auvergne. ... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ... In various forms, France had colonial possessions since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ...


Pétain and the Vichy regime willfully collaborated with Nazi Germany to a high degree. The French police organized raids to capture Jews and others considered "undesirables" by the Germans in both the northern and southern zones. Collaboration, literally, consists of working together with one or more other people. ... The National Police (Police Nationale) is one of two national police forces and the main civil law enforcement agency of France, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns. ...


The legitimacy of Vichy France and Pétain's leadership was challenged by General Charles de Gaulle, who claimed to instead incarnate the legitimacy and continuity of France. Following the Allies' invasion of France in Operation Overlord, de Gaulle proclaimed the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF) in June, 1944. After the Liberation of Paris in August, the GPRF installed itself in Paris on August 31. The GPRF was recognized as the legitimate government of France by the Allies on October 23, 1944. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... The Liberation of Paris in World War II took place in late August 1944 after the battle of Normandy. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


With the liberation of France in August and September, the Vichy officials and supporters moved to Sigmaringen, a French enclave in Germany and there established a government in exile, headed by Pétain, until April 1945. Sigmaringen is a city in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg, formerly Hohenzollern, capital of the Sigmaringen district. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ...

Contents

Overview

Further information: World War IIEvents preceding World War II in Europe , and  Causes of World War II

In 1940, Marshal Philippe Pétain was known mainly as a World War I hero, the winner of Verdun. As last President of the Council of the Third Republic, Pétain suppressed the parliament and immediately turned the regime into a non-democratic government collaborating with Germany. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In Europe, the origins of the war are closely tied to the rise of fascism, especially in Nazi Germany. ... The immediate Causes of World War II are generally held to be the German invasion of Poland, and the Japanese attacks on China, the United States, and the British and Dutch colonies. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants France German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died. ... The official title President of the Council of Ministers is used to describe the head of government of the states of Italy, Poland and Serbia and Montenegro, and formerly in Portugal and France, during the Third and Fourth Republics. ...


Vichy France was established after France surrendered to Germany on June 22, 1940, and took its name from the government's administrative center in Vichy, southeast of Paris. Paris remained the official capital, to which Pétain always intended to return the government when this became possible. While officially neutral in the war, Vichy actively collaborated with the Nazis, including, to some degree, with their racial policies. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Vichy (Occitan: Vichèi) is a French commune, situated in the département of Allier and the région of Auvergne. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ...


It is a common misconception that the Vichy regime administered only the unoccupied zone of southern France (incorrectly named "free zone", zone libre, by Vichy), while the Germans directly administered the occupied zone. In fact, the civil jurisdiction of the Vichy government extended over the whole of metropolitan France, except for Alsace-Lorraine, a disputed territory which was placed under German administration (though not formally annexed). French civil servants in Bordeaux, such as Maurice Papon, or Nantes were under the authority of French ministers in Vichy. René Bousquet, head of French police nominated by Vichy, exercised his power directly in Paris through his second, Jean Leguay, who coordinated raids with the Nazis. Some historians claim that the difficulties of communication across the demarcation line between the two zones, and the tendency of the Germans to exercise arbitrary power in the occupied zone, made it difficult for Vichy to assert its authority there [citation needed] . Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Maurice Papon (September 3, 1910 – February 17, 2007) was a former official of the French Vichy government who collaborated with Nazi Germany in World War II and was in charge of the Paris police during the Paris massacre of 1961. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... dfBold textdfdfBold textasdf Headline text adsfsadf == Headline text == asdf ... The National Police (Police Nationale) is one of two national police forces and the main civil law enforcement agency of France, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns. ... Jean Leguay (29 November 1909 — 5 July 1989) was a high ranking French civil servant, accomplice of the Deportation of Jews from France. ...


On 11 November 1942, the Germans launched Operation Case Anton, occupying southern France, following the landing of the Allies in North Africa (Operation Torch). Although Vichy's "Armistice Army" was disbanded, thus diminishing Vichy's independence, the abolition of the line of demarcation made civil administration easier. Vichy continued to exercise jurisdiction over most of France until the collapse of the regime following the Allied invasion in June 1944. November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Case (or operation) Anton was the code-name for the Nazi-German occupation of Vichy France during World War II. Anton was invoked at Hitlers order after the allied landings in French Morocco (Operation Torch) in November 1942. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in...


Until August 1945, the Vichy regime was acknowledged as the official government of France by the United States and other countries, including Canada, which was at the same time at war with Germany. Even the United Kingdom maintained unofficial contacts with Vichy for some time, until it became apparent that the Vichy Prime Minister Pierre Laval intended full collaboration with the Germans. Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician and four times Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ...


The Vichy government's claim to be the de jure French government was challenged by the Free French Forces of Charles de Gaulle, based first in London and later in Algiers, and French governments ever since have held that the Vichy regime was an illegal government run by traitors. Historians in particular have debated the circumstances of the vote of full powers to Pétain on July 10, 1940. The main arguments advanced against Vichy's right to incarnate the continuity of the French state were based on the pressure exerted by Laval on deputies in Vichy, and on the absence of 27 deputies and senators who had fled on the "Massilia" ship and could thus not take part in the vote. Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Free French Forces under review during the Battle of Normandy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... “Alger” redirects here. ... Traitor redirects here. ... The Vichy 80 refers to a minority group of French elected officials who, on July 10, 1940, voted against the constitutional change that dissolved the Third Republic and established the Nazi puppet state of Vichy France. ...


Within Vichy France, there was a low-intensity civil war between the French Resistance—drawn from the Communist and Republican elements of society—against the reactionary elements who desired a fascist or similar regime as in Francisco Franco's Spain. This civil war can be seen as the continuation of a division existing within French society since the 1789 French Revolution, illustrated by events such as the Bourbon Restoration and the White Terror enforced by the Chambre introuvable; the 1825 vote of the Anti-Sacrilege Act by the ultra-royalist comte de Villèle; the 1871 Paris Commune and the violent repression which followed, including the creation of the Basilique du Sacré-Coeur in expiation of the "Commune's sins"; the May 16, 1877 crisis; the Dreyfus Affair; the conflict during the application of the 1905 law on the separation of the Church and the State; the 6 February 1934 riots, etc. A part of French society had never accepted the Republican regime issuing from the Revolution, and wished to reestablish the Ancien Régime. This was made apparent by the glee of the leader of the monarchist Action française, Charles Maurras, who qualified the suppression of the French Republic as a "divine surprise".[citation needed] Low intensity conflict (LIC) is an armed conflict, usually between a regular army or law enforcement and non-regular armed militias (terror organization, guerrilla fighters, gangs, rioters etc). ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20 November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ... La Chambre introuvable is the name given by king Louis XVIII of France to the 1815-1816 Chamber of Deputies dominated by Ultra-royalists who completely refused the inheritance of the French Revolution. ... The Anti-Sacrilege Act (1825–1830) was a French law against blasphemy and sacrilege passed in January 1825 under King Charles X. The law was never applied (except for a minor point) and finally revoked under King Louis-Philippe in the first months of the July monarchy. ... The term Ultra-Royalists or simply Ultras refers to a reactionary faction which sat in the French parliament from 1815 to 1830 under the Bourbon Restoration. ... Jean-Baptiste Guillaume Joseph Marie Anne Seraphin, comte de Villèle (April 14, 1773 - March 13, 1854), was a French statesman. ... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... The Sacré-CÅ“ur Basilica (French: Basilique du Sacré-CÅ“ur, Basilica of the Sacred Heart) is a Roman Catholic basilica and popular landmark in Paris, France, dedicated to the Sacred Heart. ... The May 16, 1877 crisis (French: Crise du Seize mai) is one of the main political crisis during the French Third Republic (1870-1940) with two defining traits: it concerned both the contested supremacy of counterrevolutionaries monarchists on the new Republic, and the role and power of the president. ... The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ... The first page of the bill, as brought before the Chambre des Députés in 1905 On 9 December 1905, a law was passed in France separating the church and the state. ... The 6 February 1934 crisis refers to an anti-parliamentarist demonstration organised in Paris by far-right leagues (antiparliamentarian militias), which finished by a riot on Place de la Concorde, which is located on the Right Bank of the Seine, in front of the Palais Bourbon, seat of the National... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... The Action Française is a French Monarchist movement and periodical founded by Maurice Pujo and Henri Vaugeois and whose principal ideologist was Charles Maurras. ... Charles Maurras (April 20, 1868 Martigues Bouches-du-Rhône France – November 16, 1952) was a French author, poet, and critic. ...


The fall of France and the establishment of the Vichy Regime

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France declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939 following the German invasion of Poland. After the eight-month Phony War, the Germans launched their offensive in the west on 10 May 1940. Within days, it became clear that French forces were overwhelmed and that military collapse was imminent. Government and military leaders, deeply shocked by the debacle, debated how to proceed. Many officials, including the Prime Minister, Paul Reynaud, wanted to move the government to French territories in North Africa, and continue the war with the French naval fleet and the resources of the French empire. Others, particularly the vice-premier Philippe Pétain and the commander-in-chief, General Maxime Weygand, insisted that the responsibility of the government was to remain in France and share the misfortune of its people. The latter view called for an immediate cessation of hostilities. The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... Prehistoric France is the period in the human occupation (including early hominins) of the geographical area covered by present-day France which extended through prehistory and ended in the Iron Age with the Celtic La Tène culture. // France includes Olduwan (Abbevillian) and Acheulean sites from early or non-modern... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... There are other articles with similar names; see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... The History of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes the periods of the First French Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814–1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe dOrléans (1830... The History of France from 1914 to the present, includes the later years of the Third French Republic (1871-1941), the Vichy Regime (1940-1944), the years after Libération (1944-1946), the French Fourth Republic (1946-1958) and the French Fifth Republic (since 1958) and also includes World War... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... This is a history of the economy of France. ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... France had colonial possessions, in various forms, from the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... The visual and plastic arts of France have had an unprecedented diversity -- from the Gothic cathedral of Chartres to Georges de la Tours night scenes to Monets Waterlilies and finally to Duchamps radical Fontaine -- and have exerted an unparalleled influence on world cultural production. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. ... This is a timeline of French history. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phony War The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III (Belgian) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Paul Reynaud (October 15, 1878 - September 21, 1966) was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... General Maxime Weygand Maxime Weygand (January 21, 1867 - January 28, 1965) was a French military commander in both World War I and World War II. // Weygand was born in Brussels. ...


While this debate continued, the government was forced to relocate several times, finally reaching Bordeaux, in order to avoid capture by advancing German forces. Communications were poor and thousands of civilian refugees clogged the roads. In these chaotic conditions, advocates of an armistice gained the upper hand. The Cabinet agreed on a proposal to seek armistice terms from Germany, with the understanding that, should Germany set forth dishonorable or excessively harsh terms, France would retain the option to continue to fight. In reality, once the government breached the psychological barrier of seeking terms from Germany, the armistice would be hard to turn down. General Huntziger, who headed the French armistice delegation, was told to break off negotiations if the Germans demanded the occupation of all metropolitan France, the French fleet or any of the French overseas territories.


France's armistice with Hitler

Further information: Armistice with France (Second Compiègne) and German occupation of France during World War II

France capitulated on 22 June 1940. The United States and the Soviet Union would not enter the war until 1941. Thus, the United Kingdom was left as the only world power at war with the Axis. The Second Armistice at Compiègne, France was signed on June 22, 18:50, 1940, between Nazi Germany and France. ... Location of Vichy France (green). ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Prime Minister Paul Reynaud resigned and, on his recommendation, President Albert Lebrun appointed the 84-year-old Pétain to replace him on 16 June. The Armistice with France (Second Compiègne) agreement was signed on 22 June. A separate agreement was reached with Italy, which had entered the war against France on 10 June, well after the outcome of the battle was beyond doubt. Paul Reynaud (October 15, 1878 - September 21, 1966) was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany. ... Albert Lebrun (August 29, 1871 - March 6, 1950) was a French politician, President of France from 1932 to 1940, and as such was the last president of the Third Republic. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Second Armistice at Compiègne, France was signed on June 22, 18:50, 1940, between Nazi Germany and France. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hitler was motivated by a number of reasons to agree to the armistice. He feared that France would continue to fight from North Africa, and he wanted to ensure that the French navy was taken out of the war. He could not know, of course, that the tide of opinion within the French government had turned decisively against this course of action. In addition, leaving a French government in place would relieve Germany of the considerable burden of administering French territory. Finally, he hoped to direct his attentions toward Britain, where he anticipated another quick victory.

France under German occupation (Nazis occupied southern zone starting in November 1942).
France under German occupation (Nazis occupied southern zone starting in November 1942).

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Conditions of armistice and 10 July 1940 vote of full powers

The armistice divided France into occupied and unoccupied zones. Germany would occupy northern and western France including the entire Atlantic coast. The remaining two-fifths of the country would be governed by the French government with the capital at Vichy under Pétain. Ostensibly, the French government would administer the entire territory.


The army of the armistice

The Germans preferred to occupy northern France themselves. For the most part, the one-point-two million French prisoners of war would remain in captivity during the German occupation. In addition, the French had to pay the occupation costs for the three-hundred-thousand strong German occupation army. The costs amounted to twenty million Reichmarks per day The French had to pay at the artificial rate of twenty francs to the Mark. This was fifty times the actual costs of the occupation garrison. The French government also had the responsibility for preventing any French people from going into exile. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


In southern France, the French were allowed an army. Article IV of the Armistice allowed for a small French army to be kept in being in the unoccupied zone, the Army of the Armistice (Armee de l' Armistice). The article also allowed for the military provision of the French Empire overseas. The function of these forces was to keep internal order and to defend French territories from Allied assault. The French forces were to remain under the overall direction of the German armed forces. The Military of France has a long history of serving its country. ... The term French Empire can refer to: The First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1804 - 1814 or 1815) The Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852 - 1870) The Second French Colonial Empire (1830 - 1960) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


The exact strength of the Vichy French Metropolitan Army was set at 3,768 officers, 15,072 non-commissioned officers, and 75,360 men. All Vichy French forces had to be volunteers. In addition to the army, the size of the paramilitary Gendarmerie was fixed at 60,000 men plus an anti-aircraft force of 10,000 men. Despite the influx of trained soldiers from the colonial forces (reduced in size in accordance with the Armistice), there was a shortage of volunteers. As a result, 30,000 men of the 'class of 1939' were retained to fill the quota. At the beginning of 1942, these conscripts were released, but there still was an insufficient number of men. This shortage was to remain until the dissolution despite Vichy appeals to the Germans for a regular form of conscription. 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...


The Vichy French Metropolitan Army was deprived of tanks and other armored vehicles. The army was also desperately short of of motorized transport. This was a special problem in the cavalry units which were supposed to be motorized.


The Vichy French colonial forces were reduced in accordance with the Armistice. Still, in the Mediterranean area alone, the Vichy French had approximately 55,000 men in Morocco, approximately 50,000 men in Algeria, and just under 40,000 men in the "Army of the Levant" in Lebanon and Syria. The colonial forces were allowed some armored vehicles. However, these tended to be "vintage" tanks as old as the World War I-era Renault FT-17. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Renault FT-17 (Automitrailleuse à chenilles Renault FT modèle 1917) was the French light tank. ...


German custody

France was also required to turn over to German custody anyone within the country whom the Germans demanded. Within French deliberations, this was singled out as a potentially "dishonorable" term, since it would require France to hand over persons who had entered France seeking refuge from Germany. Attempts to negotiate the point with Germany were unsuccessful, and the French decided not to press the issue to the point of refusing the Armistice, though they may have hoped to ameliorate the requirement in future negotiations with Germany after the signing.


Mers-el-Kebir

The French government broke off diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom on 5 July 1940 after the destruction of the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir by British naval forces following an ultimatum that gave the French Fleet many options to remove themselves from the theatre of war and prevent the vessels being used by the Germans. This move by Britain hardened relations between the two countries and led to more conflict between the former allies before U.S. entrance into the war. is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Commanders James Somerville Marcel-Bruno Gensoul Strength 3 battleships, 1 carrier, 2 cruisers, 11 destroyers 4 battleships, 6 destroyers, 1 seaplane tender Casualties — 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships damaged 1,297 killed The Destruction of the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir, French North Africa (now...


Vichy government

On July 1, 1940, the Parliament and the government gathered themselves in Vichy, a city in the center of France, which was used as a provisional capital. Laval and Raphaël Alibert started convincing the representatives of the French people, both Senators and Assemblymen, to vote full powers to Pétain. They used every means available: promising some ministerial posts, threatening and intimidating others. The charismatic figures who could have opposed themselves to Laval, Georges Mandel, Edouard Daladier, etc., were on board the ship Massilia, headed for North Africa. On July 10, 1940, the Parliament, composed of the Senate and the National Assembly, voted by 569 votes against 80 (known as the Vichy 80, including 62 Radicals and Socialists), and 30 voluntary abstentions, to grant full and extraordinary powers to Marshal Pétain. By the same vote, they also granted him the power to write a new Constitution. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Raphaël Alibert (Born Saint-Laurent 17th February 1887 - Died Paris, 5th June 1963) was a French politician. ... // The French people are citizens of France and speak French (le français). ... Full Powers is a term in international law and is the authority of a person to sign a treaty or convention on behalf of a sovereign state. ... Georges Mandel was the adopted name of Louis George Rothschild (his family was not related to the famous banking dynasty). ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vichy 80 refers to a minority group of French elected officials who, on July 10, 1940, voted against the constitutional change that dissolved the Third Republic and established the Nazi puppet state of Vichy France. ... The Radical Party (Parti Radical or Républicains Radicaux et Radicaux-Socialistes, Radical Republicans and Radical Socialists), was a major French political party of the early to mid 20th century, originally considered radical due to its anti-clericalism. ... Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ... Abstention is a term in election procedure for when a participant in a vote either does not goes to vote (on election day) or, in parliamentary procedure, isnt absent during the vote, but does not cast a ballot. ...


The legality of this vote has been contested by the majority of French historians and by all French governments after the war. Three main arguments are put forward:

  • non-respect of the legal procedure
  • the impossibility for the Parliament to delegate its constitutional powers without controlling its use a posteriori
  • the 1884 constitutional amendment making it impossible to put into question the "republican form" of the regime

Partisans of Vichy claim, on the contrary, that the revision was voted by the two Chambers (the Senate and the National Assembly), in conformity with the law. Deputies and senators who voted to grant full powers to Pétain on this day were condemned on an individual basis after the Liberation.


The argument concerning the non-respect of the procedure is grounded on the absence and on the non-voluntary abstentions of 176 representatives of the people (the 27 on board the Massilia, and additional 92 deputies and 57 senators some of whom were in Vichy, but not present for the vote). In total, the Parliament was composed of 846 members, 544 deputies and 302 senators. One senator and 26 deputies were on the Massilia. One senator did not vote. 8 senators and 12 MPs voluntarily abstained. 57 senators and 92 MPs abstained involuntarily. Thus, out of a total of 544 deputies, only 414 voted; and out of a total of 302 senators, only 235 voted. 357 deputies voted in favor of Pétain, and 57 refused to grant him full powers. 212 senators also voted for Pétain, while 23 voted against. The dubious conditions of this vote thus explain why a majority of French historians refuse to consider Vichy as a complete continuity of the French state, notwithstanding the fact that although Pétain could claim for himself legality (and a dubious legality), de Gaulle, as the Gaullist myth would later make clear, incarnated the real legitimacy. The debate is thus not only of legitimacy versus legality (indeed, by this fact alone, Charles de Gaulle's claim to hold legitimacy ignores the interior Resistance). But it rather concerns the illegal circumstances of this vote.[1] Charles de Gaulle, in his generals uniform Gaullism (French: Gaullisme) is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ...


The text voted by the Congress stated:

"The National Assembly gives full powers to the government of the Republic, under the authority and the signature of Marshall Pétain, to the effect of promulgating by one or several acts a new Constitution of the French state. This Constitution must guarantee the rights of labour, of family and of the fatherland. It will be ratified by the nation and applied by the Assemblies which it has created.[2]

The Constitutional Acts of 11 and 12 July 1940 granted to Pétain all powers (legislative, judicial, administrative, executive — and diplomatic) and the title of "head of the French state" (chef de l'Etat français), as well as the right to nominate his successor. On 12 July, Pétain designated Pierre Laval as Vice-President and his designated successor, and appointed Fernand de Brinon as representative to the German High Command in Paris. Pétain remained the head of the Vichy regime until 20 August 1944. The French national motto, Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité (Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood), was replaced by Travail, Famille, Patrie (Work, Family, Fatherland); it was noted at the time that TFP also stood for the criminal punishment of "travaux forcés en perpetuité" ("forced labour in perpetuity") [citation needed]. Paul Reynaud, who had not officially resigned as Prime Minister, was arrested in September 1940 by the Vichy government and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1941 before the opening of the Riom Trial. is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician and four times Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... Fernand de Brinon (born August 26, 1885 - died April 15, 1947) was a French lawyer and journalist who was one of the architects of collaboration with the Nazis during World War II. Born into a wealthy family in the city of Libourne in the Gironde département, the aristocratic Marquis... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Liberté, égalité, fraternité (French for freedom, equality, brotherhood) is the motto of the French Republic. ... Léon Blum Édouard Daladier The Riom Trial (February 19, 1942 - May 21, 1943) was an attempt by the regime of Vichy France headed by Marshall Pétain to prove that the leaders of the French Third Republic (1870-1940), and particularly the leaders of the Popular Front government elected...


Democratic liberties and guarantees were immediately suspended (administrative internments, censorship, re-establishment of the felony of opinion (délit d'opinion, i.e. repeal of freedom of thought and of expression), etc.) Elective bodies were replaced by nominated ones. The "municipalities" and the departmental commissions were thus placed under the authority of the administration and of the prefects (nominated by and dependent on the executive power). In January 1941, the National Council (Conseil National), composed of notables from the countryside and the provinces, was instituted under the same conditions. Both the United States and the Soviet Union recognized the new regime, despite Charles de Gaulle's attempts, in London, to oppose this decision. Internment camp for Japanese in Canada during World War II Internment is the imprisonment or confinement[1] of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. ... In standard conditions, France does not have censorship laws, being a liberal democracy respectful of freedom of press. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties and are now grouped into 22 metropolitan and four overseas régions. ... A prefecture (French: ) in France is the administrative town of a department (French: ). By extension, it is also the name of one of the governing bodies of the department, and of the building housing this government body. ...


State collaboration with Nazi Germany

Historians distinguish between a state collaboration followed by the regime of Vichy, and "collaborationists", which usually refer to the French citizens eager to collaborate with Nazi Germany and who pushed towards a radicalization of the regime. "Pétainistes", on the other hand, refers to French people who supported Marshal Pétain, without being too keen on collaboration with Nazi Germany (although accepting Pétain's state collaboration). State collaboration was illustrated by the Montoire (Loir-et-Cher) interview in Hitler's train, on October 24, 1940, during which Pétain and Hitler shook hands and agreed on this cooperation between the two states. Organized by Laval, a strong proponent of Collaboration, the interview and the handshake were photographed, and Nazi propaganda made strong use of this photo to gain support from the civilian population. On October 30, 1940, Pétain officialized state collaboration, declaring on the radio: "I enter today on the path of Collaboration..." [3] On June 22, 1942, Laval declared that he was "hoping for the victory of Germany." Montoire-sur-le-Loir is a commune in France situated in the department of Loir-et-Cher in the region of Centre. ... Loir-et-Cher is a département in north-central France named after its two principal rivers. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Poster depicting America as a monstrous war machine destroying European culture. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...


The composition of the Vichy cabinet, and its policies, were mixed. Many Vichy officials such as Pétain, though not all, were reactionaries who considered that France's unfortunate fate was a kind of divine punishment for its Republican character and the actions of its left-wing governments of the 1930s, in particular of the Popular Front (1936-1938) led by Léon Blum. Charles Maurras, a monarchist writer and founder of the Action française movement, judged that Pétain's accession to power was, in that respect, a "divine surprise"; and many people of the same political persuasion judged that it was preferable to have an authoritarian, Catholic government similar to that of Francisco Franco's Spain, albeit under Germany's yoke, than have a Republican government. Others, like Joseph Darnand, were strong anti-Semites and overt Nazi sympathizers. A number of these joined the Légion des Volontaires Français contre le Bolchévisme (Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism) units fighting on the Eastern Front, which later became the SS Charlemagne Division. Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... The Popular Front was an alliance of left-wing political parties (the Communists, the Socialists and the Radicals), which was in government in France from 1936 to 1938. ... Léon Blum Léon Blum (9 April 1872 - 30 March 1950), was the Prime Minister of France three times: from 1936 to 1937, for one month in 1938, and from December 1946 to January 1947. ... Charles Maurras (April 20, 1868 Martigues Bouches-du-Rhône France – November 16, 1952) was a French author, poet, and critic. ... The Action Française is a French Monarchist movement and periodical founded by Maurice Pujo and Henri Vaugeois and whose principal ideologist was Charles Maurras. ... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20 November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... Joseph Darnand, wearing the wide beret of the Milice Joseph Darnand (March 19, 1897 – October 10, 1945) was a French pro-Nazi leader and commander of the Vichy French Milice. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism (Légion des Volontaires Français contre le Bolchévisme) was an armed force formed in Vichy France to fight the Soviets on the Eastern Front. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Governments of
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On the other hand, technocrats such as Jean Bichelonne or engineers from the Groupe X-Crise used their position to push various state, administrative and economic reforms. These reforms would be one of the strongest element arguing in favor of the thesis of a continuity of the French administration before and after the war. Many of these civil servants remained in function after the war, or were quickly reestablished in their functions after a short-term moment during which they were set aside, while much of these reforms were retained and reinforced after the war. In the same way as the necessities of war economy during the first World War I had pushed toward state measures which organized the economy of France against the prevailing classical liberal theories, an organization which was retained after the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, reforms adopted during WWII were kept and extended. Along with the March 15, 1944 Charter of the Conseil National de la Résistance (CNR), which gathered all Resistant movements under one unified political body, these reforms were a main instrument in the establishment of post-war dirigisme, a kind of semi-planned economy which made of France the modern social democracy it is now. Examples of such continuities include the creation of the "French Foundation for the Study of Human Problems" by Alexis Carrel, a renowned physician who also supported eugenics. This institution would be renamed after the war National Institute of Demographic Studies (INED) and exists to this day. Another example is the creation of the national statistics institute, renamed INSEE after the Liberation. Another, last example, is the reorganization and unification of the French police by René Bousquet, who created the Groupe mobile de réserve (GMR, Reserve Mobile Groups), a police force charged with striking fear amid the civilian population. Starting in the summer of 1943, the GMR would be the most effective force used against the Resistants in the maquis. After the war, they would be renamed in 1944 Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS, Republican Security Companies) which are the current anti-riot police used by the Republic. Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Technocracy (techno for technology and cracy for power) is an organizational system in which decision makers and political leaders are selected on the basis of technological knowledge —often because of some conflict or competition where technological escalation is a constant feature. ... The Groupe X-Crise (or X-Crise) was a French technocratic movement created in 1931 as an aftermath of the 1929 Wall Street Krach and the following Great Depression. ... War economy is the term used to describe the contingencies undertaken by the modern state to mobilize its economy for war production. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Conseil National de la Résistance (CNR) or the National Council of the Resistance is the body that directed and coordinated the different movements of the French Resistance - the press, trade unions, and members of political parties hostile to the Vichy regime, starting from mid-1943. ... Dirigisme (from the French) (in English also dirigism although per the OED both spellings are used) is an economic term designating an economy where the government exerts strong directive influence. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Alexis Carrel Alexis Carrel (June 28, 1873 – November 5, 1944) was a French surgeon and biologist. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... The Institut National dÉtudes Démographiques (INED - National Institute of Demographic Studies) is a French public establishment. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... The National Police (Police Nationale) is one of two national police forces and the main civil law enforcement agency of France, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns. ... dfBold textdfdfBold textasdf Headline text adsfsadf == Headline text == asdf ... Maquis is a type of high ground in southeastern France]] covered with scrub growth. ... A CRS officier in normal gear, standing by a Bastille Day parade The Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (Republican Security Companies, CRS) are the riot control forces and general reserve of the French National Police. ...

Created in 1941, the Drancy internment camp, on the outskirts of Paris, was under control of the French police until July 3, 1943. The Nazis then took day-to-day control as part of the major stepping up at all facilities for the mass exterminations. SS-Hauptsturmführer Alois Brunner directed it until August 1944. He was condemned in absentia in France in 2001 on charges of crimes against humanity, and is believed to be the world's highest-ranking Nazi fugitive still alive.
Created in 1941, the Drancy internment camp, on the outskirts of Paris, was under control of the French police until July 3, 1943. The Nazis then took day-to-day control as part of the major stepping up at all facilities for the mass exterminations. SS-Hauptsturmführer Alois Brunner directed it until August 1944. He was condemned in absentia in France in 2001 on charges of crimes against humanity, and is believed to be the world's highest-ranking Nazi fugitive still alive.[4]

Image File history File links DrancyConcentrationCamp. ... Image File history File links DrancyConcentrationCamp. ... Drancy deportation camp was an infamous temporary prison camp in the city of Drancy, north of Paris, France used to hold Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps. ... The National Police (Police Nationale) is one of two national police forces and the main civil law enforcement agency of France, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns. ... The   (German for Protective Squadron), abbreviated (Runic) or SS (Latin), was a large security and military organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) in Germany. ... Hauptsturmführer was a Nazi rank of the SS which was used between the years of 1934 and 1945. ... Alois Brunner (born April 8, 1912 in Rohrbrunn, Burgenland, reports of death contested) is an Austrian Nazi war criminal who was Adolf Eichmanns assistant. ...

Vichy's racial policies and collaboration

Further information: Révolution nationale

As soon as it had been established, Pétain's government took measures against the so-called "undesirables": Jews, métèques (immigrants), Freemasons, Communists — inspired by Charles Maurras' conception of the "Anti-France", or "internal foreigners", which Maurras defined as the "four confederate states of Protestants, Jews, Freemasons and foreigners" — but also Gypsies, homosexuals, and, in a general way, any left-wing activist. Vichy imitated the racial policies of the Third Reich and also engaged in natalist policies aimed at reviving the "French race", although these policies never went as far as the eugenics program implemented by the Nazis. The Révolution nationale (National Revolution) was the official ideological name under which the Vichy regime (the French state) established by Marshall Pétain in July 1940 presented its program. ... In ancient Greece, the term metic meant resident alien, a person who did not have citizen rights in their Greek city-state (polis) of residence. ... The Masonic Square and Compasses. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Charles Maurras (April 20, 1868 Martigues Bouches-du-Rhône France – November 16, 1952) was a French author, poet, and critic. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... The Racial Policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, and including measures aimed primarily against Jews by an ideological theory based on historical, but renewed antisemitism in 1920s and 1930s Europe. ... Natalism is the belief that human reproduction is the basis for individual existence. ... Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys nazism and race social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the centre of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as Life Unworthy of Life, including but not limited to: criminal, degenerate, dissident, feeble-minded, homosexual, idle...


The internment camps already opened by the Third Republic were immediately put to a new use, before ultimately inserting themselves as necessary transit camps for the implementation of the Holocaust and the extermination of all "undesirables," including the Roma people who refer to the extermination of Gypsies as Porrajmos. There have been internment camps and concentration camps in France before, during and after World War II. Beside the camps created during World War I to intern German, Austrian and Ottomans civilians prisoners, the Third Republic (1871-1940) opened various internment camps for the Spanish refugees fleeing the Spanish Civil... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Gypsy arrivals in the Belzec death camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe. ...


The Third Republic had opened various concentration camps, first used during World War I to intern enemy aliens. Camp Gurs, for example, had been set up in the south-western part of France after the fall of Catalonia, in the first months of 1939, during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), to receive the Republican refugees, including Brigadists from all nations, fleeing the Francists. But as soon as Edouard Daladier's government (April 1938-March 1940) took the decision to outlaw the French Communist Party (PCF) following the German-Soviet non-aggression pact (aka Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) signed in August 1939, these camps were also used to intern French communists. Drancy internment camp was founded in 1939 for this use. It later became the central transit camp through which all deportees passed before heading to the concentration and extermination camps in the Third Reich and in Eastern Europe. Furthermore, when the Phoney War started with France's declaration of war against Germany on September 3, 1939, these camps were used to intern enemy aliens. These included German Jews and anti-fascists, but any German citizen (or Italian, Austrian, Polish, etc.) would also be interned in Camp Gurs and others. Common law prisoners were also evacuated from the prisons in the north of France, before the advance of the Wehrmacht, and interned in these camps. Camp Gurs then received its first contingent of political prisoners in June 1940, which included left-wing activists (communists, anarchists, trade-unionists, anti-militarists, etc.), pacifists, but also French fascists who supported the victory of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Finally, after Pétain's proclamation of the "French state" and the beginning of the implementation of the "Révolution nationale" ("National Revolution"), the French administration opened up many concentration camps, to the point that historian Maurice Rajsfus wrote: "The quick opening of new camps was creative of employements, and the Gendarmerie never ceased to hire during this period."[5] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... In law during wartime, an enemy alien is a person who is a citizen of a country which is a state of war with the land where he or she is found. ... Camp Gurs was an internment and refugee camp constructed by the French government in 1939 in Southwest France after the fall of Catalonia at the end of the Spanish Civil War to control those who fled Spain out of fear of retaliation from Francisco Francos regime. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... The three-pointed red star, symbol of the International Brigades The Flag of the International Brigades The International Brigades were Republican military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the republic in the Spanish... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Drancy deportation camp was an infamous temporary prison camp in the city of Drancy, north of Paris, France used to hold Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps. ... Extermination camps were one type of facility that the Nazis built before and during World War II for the systematic murder of millions of people in what has become known as The Holocaust. ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phoney War The Phoney War[1] was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of... Anti-Fascism is a belief and practice of opposing all forms of Fascism. ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Pacifism is opposition to the practice of war. ... Pacifist may mean: an advocate of pacifism. ... The far-right tradition in France founds its origins, as the distinction of left and right in politics itself, to the 1789 French Revolution. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Révolution nationale (National Revolution) was the official ideological name under which the Vichy regime (the French state) established by Marshall Pétain in July 1940 presented its program. ... A gendarmerie or gendarmery (pronounced ) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. ...


Besides the Spaniards and political prisoners already detained there, Camp Gurs was then used to intern foreign Jews, stateless persons, Gypsies, homosexuals, people involved in prostitution, indigents... Vichy opened its first internment camp in the northern zone on October 5, 1940, in Aincours, in the Seine-et-Oise department, which it quickly filled with PCF members.[6] The Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, in the Doubs, was used to intern Gypsies[7]. The Camp des Milles, near Aix-en-Provence, was the largest internment camp in the Southeast of France. 2,500 Jews were deported from there following the August 1942 raids[8] The term stateless can mean more than one thing: In law, a stateless person is a person without a state, in other words someone who is not a citizen or subject of any state. ... Seine-et-Oise was a département of France encompassing the western, northern, and southern parts of the metropolitan area of Paris. ... The Saline Royale (Royal Saltworks) at Arc-et-Senans, in the forest of Chaux near Besançon, France is notable as an early Enlightenment architectural project to rationalize industrial buildings and processes according to a philosophical order. ... Doubs is a département in eastern France named after the Doubs River. ... The Camp des Milles was a French concentration camp, opened in September 1939, in a former tile factory near the village of Les Milles, part of the commune of Aix-en-Provence (Bouches-du-Rhône). ... Aix (prounounced eks), or, to distinguish it from other cities built over hot springs, Aix-en-Provence is a city in southern France, some 30 km north of Marseille. ...


Besides the concentration camps opened by Vichy, the Germans also opened on French territory some Ilags (Internierungslager) to detain enemy aliens, and in Alsace, which had been annexed by the Reich, they opened the camp of Natzweiler, which is the only concentration camp created by Nazis on French territory (annexed by the Third Reich). Natzweiler included a gas chamber which was used to exterminate at least 86 detainees (mostly Jewish) in the aim of constituting a collection of preserved skeletons (as this mode of execution did no damage to the skeletons themselves) for the use of Nazi professor August Hirt. Ilag is an abbreviation of the German word Internierunslager. ... Camp entrance Natzweiler-Struthof was a Nazi concentration camp located close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller (German Natzweiler) in France about 50 km from the city of Strasbourg. ... A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced. ... August Hirt in an undated photograph SS-Hauptsturmführer August Hirt served as a chairman at the Reich University in Strasbourg. ...


While it is certain that the Vichy government and a large number of its high administration collaborated in such policies, the exact level of such cooperation is still debated. Compared with the Jewish communities established in other countries invaded by Nazi Germany, French Jews suffered proportionately lighter losses [citation needed]. Former Vichy officials later claimed that they did as much as they could to minimize the impact of the Nazi policies, although mainstream French historians contend that the Vichy regime went beyond the Nazi expectations. Maurice Papon, who became head of the Parisian police in 1958, during which he oversaw the 1961 Paris massacre, and Budget Minister under Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, was condemned in the 1990s for crimes against humanity. Maurice Papon (September 3, 1910 – February 17, 2007) was a former official of the French Vichy government who collaborated with Nazi Germany in World War II and was in charge of the Paris police during the Paris massacre of 1961. ... The Préfet de Police is an official of the Government of France who supervises police and emergency services to Paris and the surrounding eight departments of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, Yvelines and Val dOise, and has other security duties... The Paris massacre of 1961 was an incident in Paris, France, in which on October 17 the French police attacked an unarmed demonstration of Algerians, who demanded independence for their homeland from French colonial rule. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


With regard to economic contribution to the German economy it is estimated that France provided 42% of the total foreign aid.[9]


In August 1940 laws against antisemitism in the media (the Marchandeau Act) were repealed.


Eugenics policies

In 1941, Nobel Prize winner Alexis Carrel, who had been an early proponent of eugenics and euthanasia and was a member of Jacques Doriot's French Popular Party (PPF), went on to advocate for the creation of the Fondation Française pour l’Etude des Problèmes Humains (French Foundation for the Study of Human Problems), using connections to the Pétain cabinet (specifically, French industrial physicians André Gros and Jacques Ménétrier). Charged of the "study, under all of its aspects, of measures aimed at safeguarding, improving and developing the French population in all of its activities," the Foundation was created by decree of the collaborationist Vichy regime in 1941, and Carrel appointed as 'regent'.[10] The Foundation also had for some time as general secretary François Perroux. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Alexis Carrel Alexis Carrel (June 28, 1873 – November 5, 1944) was a French surgeon and biologist. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Euthanasia (from Ancient Greek: ευθανασία, good death) is the practice of ending the life of a terminally ill person in a painless or minimally painful way, for the purpose of limiting suffering. ... Jacques Doriot Jacques Doriot (September 26, 1898, Bresles, Oise—February 22, 1945, near Mengen, Württemberg) was a French politician prior to and during World War II. He began as a Communist but then turned Fascist. ... The Parti Populaire Français (French Popular Party) (28th June, 1936–February 22, 1945) was a fascist political party led by Jacques Doriot before and during World War Two. ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ...


It was at the origins of the 16 December 1942 Act inventing the "prenuptial certificate", which had to precede any marriage and was supposed, after a biological examination, to insure the "good health" of the spouses, in particular in regard to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and "life hygiene" (sic). Carrel's institute also conceived the "scholar book" ("livret scolaire"), which permitted to individually follow each students' grades in the French secondary schools, and thus classify and hierarchize them according to scholarly results. Beside these eugenics activities aimed at classifying the population and at "improving" its "health", the foundation was also at the origin of the October 11, 1946 law instituting occupational medicine, enacted by the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF) after the Liberation. A sexually transmitted disease (STD) is an illness caused by an infectious pathogen that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... Schoolsystem in France The French educational system is highly centralised, organised, and ramified. ... // What is occupational medicine Occupational medicine is the branch of clinical medicine most active in the field of occupational health. ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ...


The foundation also initiated studies on demographics (Robert Gessain, Paul Vincent, Jean Bourgeois), nutrition (Jean Sutter), lodging (Jean Merlet) as well as the first polls (Jean Stoetzel). The foundation, which became after the war the INED demographics institute, employed 300 researchers from the summer of 1942 to the end of the autumn of 1944.[11] "The foundation was chartered as a public institution under the joint supervision of the ministries of finance and public health. It was given financial autonomy and a budget of forty million francs—roughly one franc per inhabitant—a true luxury considering the burdens imposed by the German Occupation on the nation’s resources. By way of comparison, the whole Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) was given a budget of fifty million francs."[10] A poll is either an election or a survey of a particular group. ... INED is a shortcut for: Institut National Etudes Démographiques - National Institute for Demografic Research [1] International Network of Economic Developers [2] Instituto de Educación a Distancia [3] INed Editor for AIX The royal titulary of Ined of the 13th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt This article consisting of a... Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... The Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) is the largest and most prominent public research organization in France. ...


Alexis Carrel had previously published in 1935 the best-selling book titled L'Homme, cet inconnu (Man, This Unknown). Since the early 1930s, Alexis Carrel advocated the use of gas chambers to rid humanity of its "inferior stock," endorsing the scientific racism discourse. One of the founder of these pseudoscientifical theories had been Arthur de Gobineau in his 1853-1855 essay titled An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races. In the 1936 preface to the German edition of his book, Alexis Carrel had added a praise to the eugenics policies of the Third Reich, writing that: Gas chamber at San Quentin State Prison A gas chamber is a means of execution whereby a poisonous gas is introduced into a hermetically sealed chamber. ... It has been suggested that Race science be merged into this article or section. ... Phrenology is regarded today as a classic example of pseudoscience. ... Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (July 14, 1816 - October 13, 1882) was a French aristocrat who became famous for advocating White Supremacy and developing the racialist theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855). ... An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races by Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau is an early and significant work defining the concept of Scientific racism and White supremacy. ...

"(t)he German government has taken energetic measures against the propagation of the defective, the mentally diseased, and the criminal. The ideal solution would be the suppression of each of these individuals as soon as he has proven himself to be dangerous."[12]

Carrel also wrote in his book that:

"(t)he conditioning of petty criminals with the whip, or some more scientific procedure, followed by a short stay in hospital, would probably suffice to insure order. Those who have murdered, robbed while armed with automatic pistol or machine gun, kidnapped children, despoiled the poor of their savings, misled the public in important matters, should be humanely and economically disposed of in small euthanasic institutions supplied with proper gasses. A similar treatment could be advantageously applied to the insane, guilty of criminal acts.".[13]

Alexis Carrel had also taken an active part to a symposium in Pontigny organised by Jean Coutrot, the "Entretiens de Pontigny". Scholars such as Lucien Bonnafé, Patrick Tort and Max Lafont have accused Carrel of responsibility for the execution of thousands of mentally ill or impaired patients under Vichy.


The Statute on Jews

A Nazi ordinance dated 21 September 1940 forced Jews of the "occupied zone" to declare themselves as such in police office or sub-prefectures (sous-préfectures). Under the responsibility of André Tulard, head of the Service on Foreign Persons and Jewish Questions at the Prefecture of Police of Paris, a filing system registering Jewish people was created. Tulard had previously created such a filing system under the Third Republic, registering members of the Communist Party (PCF). In the sole department of the Seine, encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs, nearly 150,000 persons, unaware of the up-coming danger and assisted by the French police, presented themselves to the police offices, in accordance with the military order. The registered informations were then centralized by the French police, who constituted, under the direction of inspector Tulard, a central filing system. According to the Dannecker report, "this filing system subdivised itself into files alphabetically classed, Jewish with French nationality and foreign Jewish having files of different colours, and the files were also classed, according to profession, nationality and street" (of residency[14]). These files were then handed over to Theodor Dannecker, head of the Gestapo in France and under the orders of Adolf Eichmann, head of the RSHA IV-D. They were then used by the Gestapo on various raids, among them the August 1941 raid in the XIe arrondissement of Paris, during which 3,200 foreign Jews and 1,000 French Jews were interned in various camps, including Drancy. Furthermore, the French police noted on this occasion, on each identity documents of the Jewish people, their registration as Jews. As Italian political philosopher Giorgio Agamben has pointed out, this racial profiling was an important step in the organization of the police raids against the French Jewish community.[15] Look up ordinance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A prefecture (French: ) in France is the administrative town of a department (French: ). By extension, it is also the name of one of the governing bodies of the department, and of the building housing this government body. ... André Tulard was a French civil administrator and police inspector. ... The Préfet de Police is an official of the Government of France who supervises police and emergency services to Paris and the surrounding eight departments of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, Yvelines and Val dOise, and has other security duties... See File system for the terms usage in computing. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Seine was a département of France encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs. ... The National Police (Police Nationale) is one of two national police forces and the main civil law enforcement agency of France, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns. ... Theodor Dannecker (born 27 March 1913 in Tübingen; died 10 December 1945 in Bad Tölz) was an SS Hauptsturmführer and one of Adolf Eichmanns associates. ... Theodor Dannecker (born 27 March 1913 in Tübingen; died 10 December 1945 in Bad Tölz) was an SS Hauptsturmführer and one of Adolf Eichmanns associates. ... Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ... Reinhard Heydrich - the first director of RSHA The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office), was a subordinate organization of the SS created by Heinrich Himmler on September 22, 1939, through the merger of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, or Security Agency), the Gestapo (Secret State Police) and the Kriminalpolizei (Criminal Police). ... The 11e arrondissement is the most crowded of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France. ... Drancy deportation camp was an infamous temporary prison camp in the city of Drancy, north of Paris, France used to hold Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps. ... German identity card with a kinegram. ... Giorgio Agamben (born 1942) is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the Università IUAV di Venezia. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ...


On 3 October 1940, the Vichy government voluntarily promulgated the first Statute on Jews, which created a special, under-class of French Jewish citizens, and enforced, for the first time ever in France, racial segregation. The Statute first made mandatory the yellow badges, a reminiscence of old Christian anti-semitism. Police inspector André Tulard participated to the logistics concerning the attribution of these badges.[16] The October 1940 Statute also excluded Jews from the administration, the armed forces, entertainment, arts, media, and certain professional roles (teachers, lawyers, doctors of medicine, etc.). A Commissariat-General for Jewish Affairs (CGQJ, Commissariat Général aux Questions Juives), was created on March 29, 1941. It was first directed by Xavier Vallat, until May 1942, and then by Darquier de Pellepoix until February 1944. Mirroring the Reich Association of Jews, the Union Générale des Israélites de France was founded. is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vichy Regime voted in many laws on the status of Jews, grouping them as a lower class of citizen before rounding them up at Drancy then taking them to be exterminated in concentration camps. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... Compulsory Jewish badge under the Nazi occupation of Europe: the Star of David with the word Jew inside (this one in German) A yellow badge, also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a mandatory mark or a piece of cloth of specific geometric shape, worn on the outer garment... This article is about the history of Christianity and anti-Semitism. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Xavier Vallat (1891 - 6 January 1972), French politician, was Commissioner-General for Jewish Questions in the wartime Vichy France Vichy collaborationist government, and was sentenced after World War II to ten years in prison for his part in the persecution of French Jews. ... Louis Darquier de Pellepoix (real name Louis Darquier) (December 19, 1897, Cahors – August 29, 1980, near Málaga, Spain)[] was Commissioner for Jewish Affairs under the Vichy Régime. ...


The police also oversaw the confiscation of telephones and TSF (télégraphie sans fil) radios from Jewish homes and enforced a curfew on Jews starting from February 1942. It attentively monitored the Jews who did not respect the prohibition according to which they were not supposed to appear in public places and had to travel in the last car of the Parisian metro. The Text Services Framework (TSF) , is a COM framework and API in Windows XP and later Windows operating systems that supports advanced text input and text processing. ... A curfew can be one of the following: An order by the government or by the childs parents for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time. ...


Along with many French police officers, André Tulard was present on the day of the inauguration of Drancy internment camp in 1941, which was used as the central transit camp for detainees captured in France, in the huge majority by the French police itself. All Jews and others "undesirables" passed through Drancy before heading to Auschwitz and other camps. Drancy deportation camp was an infamous temporary prison camp in the city of Drancy, north of Paris, France used to hold Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ...


The July 1942 Vel'd'hiv round-up

Main article: Vel'd'hiv raid

In July 1942, the French police, under the orders of René Bousquet and his second in Paris, Jean Leguay, organized, along with responsibles from the SNCF train company, the Vel'd'hiv raid which took place on July 16 and 17 July. The police arrested 12,884 Jews—including 4,051 children which the Gestapo had not asked for—5,082 women and 3,031 men, all sent to Drancy. By its own, this action represented more than a quarter of the 42,000 French Jews sent to Auschwitz in 1942, of which only 811 would come back after the end of the war. In 1995, president Jacques Chirac recognized the responsibility of the French state for this raid. The Rafle du VeldHiv (short in French for the Vélodrome dhivers raid) is the name of the July 16, 1942 raid during which Vichy French police forces arrested 12,884 Jews — including 4,051 children which the Gestapo had not asked for — 5,802 women... dfBold textdfdfBold textasdf Headline text adsfsadf == Headline text == asdf ... Jean Leguay (29 November 1909 — 5 July 1989) was a high ranking French civil servant, accomplice of the Deportation of Jews from France. ... SNCF (Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company) is a French public enterprise. ... The Rafle du VeldHiv (short in French for the Vélodrome dhivers raid) is the name of the July 16, 1942 raid during which Vichy French police forces arrested 12,884 Jews — including 4,051 children which the Gestapo had not asked for — 5,802 women... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician and a former President of France. ...


August 1942 and January 1943 raids

Further information: Battle of Marseille

The French police, headed by Bousquet, arrested 7,000 Jews in the southern zone in August 1942. Two thousand five hundred of them transited through the Camp des Milles near Aix-en-Provence before joining Drancy. Then, on 22, 23 and 24 January 1943, assisted by Bousquet's police force, the Germans organized a raid in Marseille. During the Battle of Marseille, the French police controlled the identity of 40,000 people, and the operation succeeded in sending 2,000 Marseillese people in the death trains, leading to the extermination camps. The operation also encompassed the expulsion of an entire neighborhood (30,000 persons) in the Old Port before its destruction. For this occasion, SS Karl Oberg, in charge of the German Police in France, made the trip from Paris, and transmitted to Bousquet orders directly received from Himmler himself. It is another notable case of the French police's willfull collaboration with the Nazis.[17] The Battle of Marseille took place in the Old Port of Marseille, under the Vichy regime, on 22, 23 and 24 January 1943. ... The Camp des Milles was a French concentration camp, opened in September 1939, in a former tile factory near the village of Les Milles, part of the commune of Aix-en-Provence (Bouches-du-Rhône). ... (Redirected from 22 January) January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... (Redirected from 23 January) January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Marseille took place in the Old Port of Marseille, under the Vichy regime, on 22, 23 and 24 January 1943. ... German identity card with a kinegram. ... Extermination camps were one type of facility that the Nazis built before and during World War II for the systematic murder of millions of people in what has become known as The Holocaust. ... The   (German for Protective Squadron), abbreviated (Runic) or SS (Latin), was a large security and military organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) in Germany. ... General Carl Albrecht Oberg (b. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900–23 May 1945) was the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany by being second in power to Adolf Hitler in the Nazi hierarchy. ...


French collaborationnistes and collaborators

Propaganda poster to promote the French Waffen-SS.

Stanley Hoffmann in 1974,[18] and after him, other historians such as Robert Paxton and Jean-Pierre Azéma have used the term collaborationnistes to refer to fascists and Nazi sympathizers who, for ideological reasons, wished a reinforced collaboration with Hitler's Germany. Examples of these are Parti Populaire Français (PPF) leader Jacques Doriot, writer Robert Brasillach or Marcel Déat. The Vichy regime also implemented compulsory work in Germany for young Frenchmen (service du travail obligatoire or STO), a move which pushed some of these young men to join the Resistance instead. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Stanley Hoffmann is a teacher at Harvard University int the United States of America. ... Robert Paxton (b 1932) is a historian who worked on Vichy France. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Parti Populaire Français (French Popular Party) was a far right political party led by Jacques Doriot before and during World War Two. ... Jacques Doriot Jacques Doriot (September 26, 1898, Bresles, Oise—February 22, 1945, near Mengen, Württemberg) was a French politician prior to and during World War II. He began as a Communist but then turned Fascist. ... Robert Brasillach (March 31, 1909 - February 6, 1945) was a French pro-Nazi author in the Vichy France who was executed for collaboration. ... Marcel Déat Marcel Déat (March 7, 1894-January 5, 1955) was a French Fascist and politician prior to and during World War II. Born in Guerigny, Déat became a member of the French Socialist Party in 1914. ...


A number of the French advocated fascist philosophies even before the Vichy regime. Far-right organizations, such as La Cagoule, had contributed to the destabilization of the Third Republic, particularly when the left-wing Popular Front was in power. After France's military defeat, some of these sympathisers actively assisted the Vichy regime; some even directly assisted the Nazis in taking Jewish private property, destroying synagogues and other Jewish monuments, and in shipping Jews to Nazi concentration camps. A prime example is the founder of L'Oréal cosmetics, Eugène Schueller, and his associate Jacques Corrèze. This sie is so crap it dont even give u the definition Signed by STAINLESS ... The Popular Front was an alliance of left-wing political parties (the Communists, the Socialists and the Radicals), which was in government in France from 1936 to 1938. ... The LOréal Group Euronext: FR0000120321, headquartered in the Paris suburb of Clichy, France, is the worlds largest cosmetics and beauty company. ... Eugène Schueller (20 March 1881 - 23 August 1957) was the founder of LOréal, the worlds leading company in cosmetics and beauty. ... Jacques Corrèze (? - 28 June 1991) was the former CEO of LOréal USA, the US operation of LOréal, the worlds leading company in cosmetics and beauty. ...


Collaborationists may have influenced the Vichy government's policies, but ultra-collaborationists comprised the majority of the government only until 1944.[19]


In order to enforce the régime's will, some paramilitary organizations with a fascist leaning were created. A notable example was the "Légion Française des Combattants" (L.F.C.) (French Legion of Fighters), including at first only former combatants, but quickly adding "Amis de la Légion" and cadets of the Légion, who had never seen battle, but were supporters of his dictatorial regime. The name was then quickly changed to "Légion Française des Combattants et des volontaires de la Révolution Nationale" (French Legion of Fighters and Volunteers of the National Revolution). Then, Joseph Darnand created a "Service d'Ordre Légionnaire" (S.O.L.), which consisted mostly of French supporters of the Nazis, of which Pétain fully approved. A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Joseph Darnand, wearing the wide beret of the Milice Joseph Darnand (March 19, 1897 – October 10, 1945) was a French pro-Nazi leader and commander of the Vichy French Milice. ... The Service dordre légionnaire (SOL) was a collaborationist militia created by Joseph Darnand, a far right veteran from the First World War. ...


Relationships with the Allied powers

The United States granted Vichy full diplomatic recognition, sending Admiral William D. Leahy to France as American ambassador. President Roosevelt and Secretary of State Cordell Hull hoped to use American influence to encourage those elements in the Vichy government opposed to military collaboration with Germany. The Americans also hoped to encourage Vichy to resist German war demands, such as for air bases in French-mandated Syria or to move war supplies through French territories in North Africa. The essential American position was that France should take no action not explicitly required by the armistice terms that could adversely affect Allied efforts in the war. The Vichy regime, proclaimed by Marshall Pétain after the Fall of France in 1940 before Nazi Germany, was quickly recognized by the Allies, including the USSR until 30 June 1941 and Operation Barbarossa. ... Diplomatic recognition is a political act by which one state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government, thereby according it legitimacy and expressing its intent to bring into force the domestic and international legal consequences of recognition. ... Fleet Admiral William Daniel Leahy (May 6, 1875 – July 20, 1959) was an American naval officer and the first U.S. military officer ever to hold the five-star rank in the U.S. armed forces. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871–July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...

  • Canada maintained, till the beginning of November 1942, full diplomatic relations with the Vichy Regime, until the Case Anton.[20]
  • Australia maintained, until the end of the war, full diplomatic relations with the Vichy Regime and entered also into full diplomatic relations with the Free French.[21].
  • The United Kingdom, shortly after the Armistice (22 June 1940), attacked a large French naval contingent in Mers-el-Kebir, killing 1,297 French military personnel. Unsurprisingly, Vichy severed diplomatic relations. Britain feared that the French naval fleet could wind up in German hands and be used against her own naval forces, which were so vital to maintaining world-wide shipping and communications. Under the armistice, France had been allowed to retain the French Navy, the Marine Nationale, under strict conditions. Vichy pledged that the fleet would never fall into the hands of Germany, but refused to send the fleet beyond Germany's reach, either by sending it to Britain, or even to far away territories of the French empire, such as the West Indies. This was not enough security for Winston Churchill. French ships in British ports were seized by the Royal Navy. The French squadron at Alexandria, under Admiral René-Emile Godfroy, was effectively interned until 1943 after an agreement was reached with Admiral Andrew Browne Cunningham, commander of the Mediterranean Fleet.

President Roosevelt disliked Charles de Gaulle, who he saw as an "apprentice dictator. [22]" Robert Murphy, Roosevelt's representative in North Africa, prepared starting in December 1940 (a year before the United States' entrance into the war) the landing in Morocco and Algeria. The US first tried to support General Maxime Weygand, general delegate of Vichy for Africa until December 1941. This first choice having failed, they turned to Henri Giraud a short time before the landing in North Africa on November 8, 1942. Finally, after François Darlan's turn towards the Free Forces — Darlan had been president of Council of Vichy from February 1941 to April 1942 —, they played him against de Gaulle. US General Mark W. Clark of the combined Allied command made Admiral Darlan sign on 22 November 1942 a treaty putting "North Africa to the disposition of the Americans" and making of France "a vassal country. [22]" Washington then imagined, between 1941 and 1942, a protectorate status for France, who would be submitted after the Liberation to an Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories (AMGOT) as Germany. After the assassination of Darlan on 24 December 1942, Washington turned again towards Henri Giraud, to whom had rallied Maurice Couve de Murville, who had financial responsibilities in Vichy, and Lemaigre-Dubreuil, a former member of La Cagoule and entrepreneur, as well as Alfred Pose, general director of the Banque nationale pour le commerce et l'industrie (National Bank for Trade and Industry) [22]. is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov Dmitry Pavlov Ivan Tyulenev Ivan Konev Semyon Budyonny Georgy Zhukov... Case (or operation) Anton was the code-name for the Nazi-German occupation of Vichy France during World War II. Anton was invoked at Hitlers order after the allied landings in French Morocco (Operation Torch) in November 1942. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Commanders James Somerville Marcel-Bruno Gensoul Strength 3 battleships, 1 carrier, 2 cruisers, 11 destroyers 4 battleships, 6 destroyers, 1 seaplane tender Casualties — 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships damaged 1,297 killed The Destruction of the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir, French North Africa (now... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... Nickname: Alexandria on the map of Egypt Map of Alexandria Coordinates: , Country Egypt Founded 334 BC Government  - Governor Adel Labib Population (2001)  - City 3,500,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Twin Cities  - Baltimore  United States  - Cleveland  United States  - ConstanÅ£a  Romania  - Durban  South Africa... René-Emile Godfroy was a French admiral. ... Bronze bust of Lord Cunningham, looking at Nelsons column and Whitehall Andrew Browne Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope (7 January 1883 - 12 June 1963), familiarly known as ABC, was the most famous British admiral of World War II, winning distinction in Mediterranean battles in 1940 and 1941, then... Robert Daniel Murphy (1894 - 1978) was an American diplomat Murphy had begun his diplomatic career in 1917 as a member of the American Legation in Bern, Switzerland. ... General Maxime Weygand Maxime Weygand (January 21, 1867 - January 28, 1965) was a French military commander in both World War I and World War II. // Weygand was born in Brussels. ... Roosevelt and Henri Giraud in Casablanca, 19 January 1943 Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 13 March 1949) was a French general who fought in the First and Second World Wars. ... François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer. ... Mark Wayne Clark (May 1, 1896 - April 17, 1984) was an American general during World War II and the Korean War. ... The Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories (AMGOT) was the form of military rule administered by Allied forces during and after World War II within European territories they occupied. ... Maurice Couve de Murville Maurice Couve de Murville (January 24, 1907 - December 24, 1999) was a French Protestant politician, a supporter of Charles de Gaulle, under whom he served as Foreign Minister (1958-1968), Finance Minister (1968), and Prime Minister (1968-1969). ... This sie is so crap it dont even give u the definition Signed by STAINLESS ...


Creation of Free French Forces

Poster of the Révolution nationale on which a Resistant has tagged the Free Republic of Vercors emblem featuring the V of Victory and the Cross of Lorraine.
Poster of the Révolution nationale on which a Resistant has tagged the Free Republic of Vercors emblem featuring the V of Victory and the Cross of Lorraine.

To counter the Vichy regime, General Charles de Gaulle created the Free French Forces (FFL) after his Appeal of 18 June, 1940 radio speech. Initially, Winston Churchill was ambivalent about de Gaulle and he dropped ties with Vichy only when it became clear they would not fight. Even so, the Free France headquarters in London was riven with internal divisions and jealousies. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Révolution nationale (National Revolution) was the official ideological name under which the Vichy regime (the French state) established by Marshall Pétain in July 1940 presented its program. ... The Maquis du Vercors was a maquis used as a refuge and a sanctuary for the French Resistance against the 1940-1944 German occupation of France in World War II. Many members of a the maquis, called maquisards died fighting in 1944 in the Vercors Plateau. ... The V sign is a hand gesture in which the first and second fingers are raised and parted, whilst the remaining fingers are clenched. ... Cross of Lorraine The Cross of Lorraine, ‡, is a heraldic cross. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Free French Forces under review during the Battle of Normandy. ... General de Gaulle speaking on the BBC on 18 June 1940 The Appeal of 18th June was a famous speech by Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces, in 1940. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ...


The additional participation of Free French forces in the Syrian operation was controversial within Allied circles. It raised the prospect of Frenchmen shooting at Frenchmen, raising fears of a civil war. Additionally, it was believed that the Free French were widely reviled within Vichy military circles, and that Vichy forces in Syria were less likely to resist the British if they were not accompanied by elements of the Free French. Nevertheless, de Gaulle convinced Churchill to allow his forces to participate, although de Gaulle was forced to agree to a joint British-Free French proclamation promising that Syria and Lebanon would become fully independent at the end of the war.


However, there were still French naval ships under French control. A large squadron was in port at Mers El Kébir harbor near Oran. Vice Admiral Somerville, with Force H under his command, was instructed to deal with the situation in July 1940. Various terms were offered to the French squadron, but all were rejected. Consequently, Force H opened fire on the French ships. Nearly 1,000 French sailors died when the Bretagne blew up in the attack. Less than two weeks after the armistice, Britain had fired upon forces of its former ally. The result was shock and resentment towards the UK within the French Navy, and to a lesser extent in the general French public. Mers-el-Kébir (Arabic: ‎, “Great Harbor”) is a port town in northwestern Algeria, located by the Mediterranean Sea near Oran, in the Oran Province. ... View of Oran Oran (Arabic: , pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ... Force H was a British naval squadron during World War II. It was formed in 1940 to replace French naval power in the western Mediterranean that had been removed by the French armistice with Nazi Germany. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Commanders James Somerville Marcel-Bruno Gensoul Strength 3 battleships, 1 carrier, 2 cruisers, 11 destroyers 4 battleships, 6 destroyers, 1 seaplane tender Casualties — 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships damaged 1,297 killed The Destruction of the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir, French North Africa (now... The Bretagne was a dreadnought of the French Navy, lead ship of her class. ...


Vichy French colonies

While a few French colonies went over to the Free French immediately, many remained loyal to Vichy France. In time, the majority of the colonies tended to switch to the Allied side peacefully in response to persuassion and to changing events. But this took time. Guadeloupe and Martinique in the West Indies, as well as French Guiana on the northern coast of South America, did not join the Free French until 1943. Other French colonies had the decision to switch sides enforced more strenuously. The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Conflicts with Britain in Dakar, Syria, and Madagascar

Main articles: Battle of Dakar, Syria-Lebanon campaign, and Battle of Madagascar

On 23 September 1940, the British launched the Battle of Dakar, also known as Operation Menace. The Battle of Dakar was part of the West Africa Campaign. Operation Menace was a plan to capture the strategic port of Dakar in French West Africa. The port was under the control of the Vichy French. The plan called for installing Free French forces under General Charles de Gaulle in Dakar. By 25 September, the battle was over, the plan was unsuccessful, and Dakar remained under Vichy French control. Combatants United Kingdom Australia Free France Netherlands Vichy France Commanders Andrew Cunningham Charles De Gaulle Pierre François Boisson Strength 2 battleships, 1 aircraft carrier, 4 cruisers, 10 destroyers 1 battleship, 2 cruisers, destroyers, coastal emplacements Casualties 2 battleships and 2 cruisers damaged >2 destroyers damaged, 2 submarines sunk The... Combatants Australia U.K. British India British Palestine  Czechoslovakia Government-in-Exile Free France Vichy France Commanders Henry Maitland Wilson Henri Dentz Strength Approximately 35,000 troops Australian: 18,000 British: 9,000 Indian: 2,000 Free French: 5,000 Between 35,000 and 40,000 troops French: 8,000... Combatants United Kingdom South Africa Vichy France Empire of Japan Commanders Robert Sturges Armand Léon Annet Strength 10,000-15,000 (land forces) 8,000 (land forces)[1] Casualties 107 killed in action; 280 wounded;[2] 620 casualties in total (including deaths from disease) 150 killed in action; 500... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Free France Netherlands Vichy France Commanders Andrew Cunningham Charles De Gaulle Pierre François Boisson Strength 2 battleships, 1 aircraft carrier, 4 cruisers, 10 destroyers 1 battleship, 2 cruisers, destroyers, coastal emplacements Casualties 2 battleships and 2 cruisers damaged >2 destroyers damaged, 2 submarines sunk The... The name West African campaign refers to two battles during World War II: the Battle of Dakar (also known as Operation Menace) and the Battle of Gabon, both of which were in late 1940. ... (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In June 1941, the next flashpoint between Britain and Vichy France came when a revolt in Iraq was put down by British forces. German Air Force (Luftwaffe) and Italian Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) aircraft, staging through the French possession of Syria, intervened in the fighting in small numbers. That highlighted Syria as a threat to British interests in the Middle East. Consequently, on 8 June, British and Commonwealth forces invaded Syria and Lebanon. This was known as the Syria-Lebanon Campaign or Operation Exporter. The Syrian capital, Damascus, was captured on 17 June and the five-week campaign ended ended with the fall of Beirut and the Convention of Acre (Armistice of Saint Jean d'Acre) on 14 July 1941. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Insignia applied with a decal on the tail of the Règia Aeronautica aircraft (reconstruction). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Combatants Australia U.K. British India British Palestine  Czechoslovakia Government-in-Exile Free France Vichy France Commanders Henry Maitland Wilson Henri Dentz Strength Approximately 35,000 troops Australian: 18,000 British: 9,000 Indian: 2,000 Free French: 5,000 Between 35,000 and 40,000 troops French: 8,000... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... The Armistice of Saint Jean dAcre was an armistice on 14 July 1941 between Britsh forces in the Middle East and Vichy France forces in Syria under General Dentz. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


From 5 May to 6 November 1942, Operation Ironclad, another major operation by British forces against Vichy French territory was launched. This operation was known as the Battle of Madagascar. The British feared that Japanese forces might use Madagascar as a base and thus cripple British trade and communications in the Indian Ocean. As a result, Madagascar was invaded by British and Commonwealth forces. The island fell relatively quickly and the operation ended in victory for the British. But the operation is often viewed as an unnecessary diversion of British naval resources away from more vital theatres of operation. is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom South Africa Vichy France Empire of Japan Commanders Robert Sturges Armand Léon Annet Strength 10,000-15,000 (land forces) 8,000 (land forces)[1] Casualties 107 killed in action; 280 wounded;[2] 620 casualties in total (including deaths from disease) 150 killed in action; 500...


French Indochina

Main articles: Invasion of French Indochina, French-Thai War, and Second French Indochina Campaign

In June 1940, the Fall of France obviously made the French hold on Indochina tenuous. The isolated colonial administration was cut off from outside help and outside supplies. After the Japanese invasion of French Indochina in September 1940, also known as the Vietnam Expedition, the French were forced to allow the Japanese to set up military bases. Combatants Imperial Japanese Army, Japan French Army, Vichy France Commanders Lt. ... Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War... Combatants Empire of Japan France Strength 55,000 Casualties  ? 2,129 Europeans killed (military & civil) The Second French Indochina Campaign also known as the Japanese coup of March 1945, was a Japanese military operation in all Vietnam, then a French colony. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In World War II, Battle of France or Case Yellow (Fall Gelb in German) was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, executed 10 May 1940 which ended the Phony War. ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army, Japan French Army, Vichy France Commanders Lt. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


This seemingly subservient behavior convinced the regime of Major-General Plaek Pibulsonggram, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Thailand, that Vichy France would not seriously resist a confrontation with Thailand. In October 1940, the military forces of Thailand attacked across the border with Indochina and launched the French-Thai War. Field Marshal Plaek Pibulsonggram (July 14, 1897–June 11, 1964) (Thai แปลก พิบูลสงคราม or ป. พิบูลสงคราม, lastname sometimes spelled Phibunsongkhram, Phibul Songkhram or Pibul Songgram) was Prime Minister and military dictator of Thailand from 1938 to 1944 and 1948 to 1957. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War...


In March 1945 the Japanese staged a coup d'état in French Indochina and took control of Vietnam establishing their own colony, Empire of Vietnam, as a double puppet state. Combatants Empire of Japan France Strength 55,000 Casualties  ? 2,129 Europeans killed (military & civil) The Second French Indochina Campaign also known as the Japanese coup of March 1945, was a Japanese military operation in all Vietnam, then a French colony. ... Flag of the Empire of Vietnam The Empire of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Đế quốc Việt Nam, 越南帝國) was a short-lived puppet state of the Empire of Japan governing the whole of Vietnam between March 11 and August 23, 1945. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...


French Somaliland

During the Italian invasion and occupation of Ethiopia in the mid-1930s and during the early stages of World War II, constant border skirmishes occurred between the forces in French Somaliland and the forces in Italian East Africa. After the fall of France in 1940, French Somaliland declareded loyalty to the Vichy France. The colony remained loyal to Vichy France during the East African Campaign but stayed out of that conflict. This lasted until December 1942. By that time, the Italians had been defeated and the French colony was isolated by a British blockade. Free French and the Allied forces recaptured the colony's capital of Djibouti at the end of 1942. A local battalion from Djibouti participated in the liberation of France in 1944. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Republic of Djibouti (جيبوتي) is a country in eastern Africa, located in the Horn of Africa. ... Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in Africa. ... In World War II, Battle of France or Case Yellow (Fall Gelb in German) was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, executed 10 May 1940 which ended the Phony War. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants United Kingdom Sudan British Somaliland British East Africa British India Gold Coast Nigeria N. Rhodesia S. Rhodesia Union of S. Africa Free France Belgian Congo Ethiopian rebels Italy Italian East Africa Commanders Archibald Wavell William Platt Alan Cunningham Duke of Aosta Guglielmo Nasi Luigi Frusci Pietro Gazzera Carlo De... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


French North Africa

Main article: Operation Torch

The Allied invasion French North Africa, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, started on 8 November 1942 with landings in Morocco and Algeria. The invasion, known as Operation Torch, was launched because the Soviet Union had pressed the United States and Britain to start operations in Europe, and open a second front to reduce the pressure of German forces on the Russian troops. While the American commanders favored landing in occupied Europe as soon as possible (Operation Sledgehammer), the British commanders believed that such a move would end in disaster. An attack on French North Africa was proposed instead. This would clear the Axis Powers from North Africa, improve naval control of the Mediterranean Sea, and prepare an invasion of Southern Europe in 1943. American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt suspected the operation in North Africa would rule out an invasion of Europe in 1943 but agreed to support British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A military front or battlefront is a contested armed frontier between opposing forces. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... During World War II, Operation Sledgehammer was an Allied contingency plan for a limited-objective cross-channel invasion of Europe in response to a German or Soviet collapse in 1942. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ...


By the time the Tunisia Campaign was fought, the Vichy French forces in North Africa were on the Allied side. Combatants United Kingdom United States France Germany Italy Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Harold Alexander Keneth Anderson Bernard Montgomery Albert Kesselring Erwin Rommel Hans-Jürgen von Arnim Giovanni Messe The Tunisia Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia), was a series of World War II battles that took place... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


German invasion, November 1942

Henri Giraud and de Gaulle during the Casablanca Conference in January 1943.

President Roosevelt continued to cultivate Vichy, and promoted General Henri Giraud as a preferable alternative to de Gaulle, despite the poor performance of Vichy forces in North Africa—Admiral François Darlan had landed in Algiers the day before Operation Torch with the XIXth Vichy Army Corps, but was neutralised within 15 hours by a 400-strong French resistance force on November 8, 1942. Nonetheless, Roosevelt and Churchill accepted Darlan, rather than de Gaulle, as the French leader in North Africa. De Gaulle had not even been informed of the landing in North Africa [23]The United States also resented the Free French taking control of St Pierre and Miquelon on 24 December 1941 because, Secretary of State Hull believed, it interfered with a U.S.-Vichy agreement to maintain the status quo with respect to French territorial possessions in the western hemisphere. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Roosevelt and Henri Giraud in Casablanca, 19 January 1943 Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 13 March 1949) was a French general who fought in the First and Second World Wars. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill. ... Roosevelt and Henri Giraud in Casablanca, 19 January 1943 Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 13 March 1949) was a French general who fought in the First and Second World Wars. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer. ... “Alger” redirects here. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871–July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...


After the November 8, 1942 putsch in North Africa by the French resistance, most Vichy figures were arrested (including General Alphonse Juin, chief commander in North Africa, and Admiral Darlan). However, Darlan was released and Eisenhower finally accepted his self-nomination as high commissioner of North Africa and French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF), a move that enraged de Gaulle, who refused to recognize Darlan's status. After Darlan signed an armistice with the Allies and took power in North Africa, Germany violated the 1940 armistice and invaded Vichy France on 10 November 1942 (operation code-named Case Anton), triggering the scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon. Alphonse Pierre Juin (16 December 1888 – 27 January 1967) was a Marshal of France. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Case (or operation) Anton was the code-name for the Nazi-German occupation of Vichy France during World War II. Anton was invoked at Hitlers order after the allied landings in French Morocco (Operation Torch) in November 1942. ... Combatants Vichy France Germany Commanders Jean de Laborde André Marquis Johannes Blaskowitz Casualties whole fleet scuttled ; 12 killed ; 26 wounded. ...


Giraud arrived in Algiers on November 10, and agreed to subordinate himself to Darlan as the French African army commander. Even though he was now in the Allied camp, Darlan maintained the repressive Vichy system in North Africa, including concentration camps in southern Algeria and racist laws. Detainees were also forced to work on the Transsaharien railroad. Jewish goods were "aryanized" (i.e. stolen), and a special Jewish Affair service was created, directed by Pierre Gazagne. Numerous Jewish children were prohibited from going to school, something which not even Vichy had implemented in metropolitan France [23]. The admiral was killed on 24 December 1942 in Algiers by the young monarchist Bonnier de La Chapelle. Although de la Chapelle had been a member of the resistance group led by Henri d'Astier de La Vigerie, it is believed he was acting as an individual. François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer. ... There have been internment camps and concentration camps in France before, during and after World War II. Beside the camps created during World War I to intern German, Austrian and Ottomans civilians prisoners, the Third Republic (1871-1940) opened various internment camps for the Spanish refugees fleeing the Spanish Civil... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Henri dAstier de la Vigerie (11 September 1897 - 10 October 1952) was a French soldier, resistance member, and politician. ...


The real power in mainland France devolved into the hands of Laval. After Admiral Darlan's assassination, Giraud became his de facto successor in French Africa with Allied support. This occurred through a series of consultations between Giraud and de Gaulle. The latter wanted to pursue a political position in France and agreed to have Giraud as commander in chief, as the more qualified miliary person of the two. It is questionable that he ordered that many French resistance leaders who had helped Eisenhower's troops be arrested, without any protest by Roosevelt's representative, Robert Murphy. Later, the Americans sent Jean Monnet to counsel Giraud and to press him into repeal the Vichy laws. After very difficult negotiations, Giraud agreed to suppress the racist laws, and to liberate Vichy prisoners of the South Algerian concentration camps. The Cremieux decree, which granted French citizenship to Jews in Algeria and which had been repealed by Vichy, was immediately restored by General De Gaulle. Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Robert Daniel Murphy (1894 - 1978) was an American diplomat Murphy had begun his diplomatic career in 1917 as a member of the American Legation in Bern, Switzerland. ... Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (November 9, 1888 – March 16, 1979) is regarded by many as the architect of European Unity. ... Portrait of Adolphe Crémieux by Jules Jean Antoine Lecomte du Noüy Isaac Moïse Crémieux, better known as Adolphe Crémieux (April 30, 1796 - February 10, 1880), was a French statesman. ...


Giraud took part in the Casablanca conference, with Roosevelt, Churchill and de Gaulle, in January 1943. The Allies discussed their general strategy for the war, and recognized joint leadership of North Africa by Giraud and de Gaulle. Henri Giraud and Charles de Gaulle then became co-presidents of the Comité français de la Libération Nationale, which unified the Free French Forces and territories controlled by them and had been founded at the end of 1943. Democratic rule was restored in French Algeria, and the Communists and Jews liberated from the concentration camps [23]. President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill. ... Free French Forces under review during the Battle of Normandy. ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ...


The Roosevelt administration was notably cool, if not hostile, to de Gaulle, especially resenting his refusal to cooperate in the Normandy invasion of 6 June 1944 (Operation Overlord). With the Vichy leaders gone from French territory due to the US, British, and Free French invasion and advance, on 23 October 1944 the U.S., Britain and the Soviet Union formally recognized the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF), headed by de Gaulle, as the legitimate government of France. is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ...


At the end of April 1945, Pierre Gazagne, secretary of the general government headed by Yves Chataigneau, took advantage of his absence to exile anti-imperialist leader Messali Hadj and arrest the leaders of his party, the Algerian People's Party (PPA) [23]. On the day of the Liberation of France, the GPRF would harshly repress a rebellion in Algeria during the Sétif massacre of May 8, 1945, which has been qualified by some historians as the "real beginning of the Algerian War." [23]. Messali Hadj (مصالي الحاج) was the founder of the Mouvement National Algérien, an early Algerian nationalist group and rival of the Front de Libération Nationale. ... The Algerian Peoples Party (French, Parti du Peuple Algerien, PPA), was a successor organization of the North African Star (Étoile Nord-Africaine), led by veteran Algerian nationalist Messali Hadj. ... Map of Algeria showing Sétif province The Sétif massacre refers to widespread disturbances in and around the Algerian market town of Setif located to the west of Constantine in 1945. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Jacques Massu Maurice Challe Said Boualam Pierre Lagaillarde Raoul...


Independence of the S.O.L

In 1943, the Service d'ordre légionnaire (SOL) collaborationist militia, headed by Joseph Darnand, became independent and was transformed into the "Milice française" (French Militia). Officially directed by Pierre Laval himself, the SOL was led by Darnand, who held an SS rank and pledged an oath of loyalty to Hitler. Under Darnand and his sub-commanders, such as Paul Touvier and Jacques de Bernonville, the Milice was responsible for helping the German forces and police in the repression of the French Resistance and Maquis. The Service dordre légionnaire (SOL) was a collaborationist militia created by Joseph Darnand, a far right veteran from the First World War. ... Joseph Darnand, wearing the wide beret of the Milice Joseph Darnand (March 19, 1897 – October 10, 1945) was a French pro-Nazi leader and commander of the Vichy French Milice. ... A recruitment poster for the Milice. ... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician and four times Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Hitler redirects here. ... Paul Touvier (April 3, 1915 - July 17, 1996) was the only Frenchman to be convicted of war crimes against humanity. ... Jacques de Bernonville (born December 20, 1897 - died April 26, 1972), was a French traitor and senior police officer in the Vichy regime in France infamously known as the man who hunted down resistance fighters during World War II. Count Jacques Dugé de Bernonville was born in Paris, France to... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Maquis were the dominantly rural guerrilla bands of Belgian and French Resistance. ...


In addition, the Milice participated with area Gestapo head Klaus Barbie in seizing members of the resistance and minorities including Jews for shipment to detention centres, such as the Drancy deportation camp, en route to Auschwitz, and other German concentration camps, including Dachau and Buchenwald. A recruitment poster for the Milice. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Klaus Barbie in Army NCO Uniform. ... The Drancy deportation camp was an infamous temporary prison camp in the city of Drancy, north of Paris, France. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... The main entrance just after the liberation Memorial at the camp, 1997. ... Slave laborers in the Buchenwald concentration camp (Elie Wiesel is second row, seventh from left). ...


Death toll

There were, in 1940, approximately 300,000 Jews in metropolitan France, half of them with French citizenship (and the others foreigners, mostly exiles). About 200,000 of them, and the large majority of foreign Jews, lived in Paris and its outskirts. Among the 150,000 French Jews, about 30,000, generally native from Central Europe, had been naturalized French during the 1930s. On this total of 300,000 Jews, approximatively 25,000 French Jews and 50,000 foreign Jews were deported [24]. According to historian Robert Paxton, 76,000 Jews were deported and died in concentration and extermination camps. Including the Jews who died in concentration camps in France, this makes for a total figure of 90,000 Jewish deaths (nearly a quarter of the total Jewish population before the war) [25]. Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into French nationality law. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... In law, naturalization refers to an act whereby a person acquires a citizenship different from that persons citizenship at birth. ... Robert Paxton (b 1932) is a historian who worked on Vichy France. ... There have been internment camps and concentration camps in France before, during and after World War II. Beside the camps created during World War I to intern German, Austrian and Ottomans civilians prisoners, the Third Republic (1871-1940) opened various internment camps for the Spanish refugees fleeing the Spanish Civil...


Proportionally, this makes for a lower death toll than in some other countries (in the Netherlands, 75% of the Jewish population was exterminated) [25]. This fact has been used as arguments by supporters of Vichy. However, according to Paxton, the figure would have been greatly lower if the "French state" had not willfully collaborated with Nazi Germany, which lacked staff for police activities. During the Vel'd'hiv raid of July 1942, Laval ordered the deportation of the children, against explicit German orders. Paxton pointed out that if the total number of victims had not been higher, it was due to the shortage in wagons, the Resistance of the civilian population and deportation in other countries (notably in Italy) [25]. The Rafle du VeldHiv (short in French for the Vélodrome dhivers raid) is the name of the July 16, 1942 raid during which Vichy French police forces arrested 12,884 Jews — including 4,051 children which the Gestapo had not asked for — 5,802 women...


Liberation of France and aftermath

Sigmaringen (September 1944-April 1945)

Further information: [Sigmaringen documentary (ZDF, 2005)]
The Sigmaringen government was based in the city's ancient castle.
The Sigmaringen government was based in the city's ancient castle.

In late summer 1944, following the Allied liberation of France with Operation Overlord in June, and the Liberation of Paris in August, Pétain and his ministers were taken to Germany by the German forces where they established a government in exile at Sigmaringen in September 1944 until April 22, 1945. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 788 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 779 pixel, file size: 221 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Castle of Sigmaringen, ca. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 788 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 779 pixel, file size: 221 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Castle of Sigmaringen, ca. ... Sigmaringen is a city in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg, formerly Hohenzollern, capital of the Sigmaringen district. ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... The Liberation of Paris in World War II took place in late August 1944 after the battle of Normandy. ... Sigmaringen is a city in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg, formerly Hohenzollern, capital of the Sigmaringen district. ...


Sigmaringen had its own radio (Radio-patrie), press (La France, Le Petit Parisien)[26] and hosted the embassies of the Axis powers, Germany, Italy and Japan. The population of the Vichy French enclave was about 6,000 citizens including known collaborationist journalists, writers (Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Lucien Rebatet), actors (Le Vigan) and their families plus 500 soldiers and 700 French SS. Seline redirects here. ... Lucien Rebatet (November 15, 1903, Moras-en-Valloire, Drôme—1972, Moras-en-Valloire) was a French author, journalist and intellectual, an exponent of fascism and virulent antisemite. ...


Épuration légale

Further information: Pursuit of Nazi collaborators

After the liberation, France was swept for a short period with a wave of executions of Collaborationists. Women who were suspected of having romantic liaisons with Nazis, or more often of being Nazi prostitutes, were publicly humiliated by having their heads shaved. Those who had engaged in the black market were also stigmatized as "war profiteers" (profiteurs de guerre), and popularly called "BOF" (Beurre Oeuf Fromage, or Butter Eggs Cheese, because of the products sold at outrageous prices during the Occupation). However, the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF, 1944-46) quickly restablished order, and brought Collaborationists before the courts. Many convicted Collaborationists were then amnestied under the Fourth Republic (1946-54), while some civil servants, such as Maurice Papon, succeeding in holding important functions even under Charles de Gaulle and the Fifth Republic (1958-). Épuration légale (French legal epuration) is the name of a wave of trials which occurred at the Liberation, following the fall of the Vichy regime. ... The pursuit of Nazi collaborators refers to the post-WWII pursuit and apprehension of individuals who were not citizens of the Third Reich at the outbreak of World War II and collaborated with the Nazi regime during the war. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There were several Fourth Republics in the course of history. ... Maurice Papon (September 3, 1910 – February 17, 2007) was a former official of the French Vichy government who collaborated with Nazi Germany in World War II and was in charge of the Paris police during the Paris massacre of 1961. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on October 5, 1958. ...


Three different periods are distinguished by historians:

  • the first phase of popular convictions (épuration sauvage): executions without judgments and shaving of women's heads. Estimations by police prefects made in 1948 and 1952 counted as many as 6,000 executions before the Liberation, and 4,000 afterward.
  • the second phase (legal epuration or épuration légale), which began with Charles de Gaulle's June 26 and 27 1944 ordonnances on epuration (de Gaulle's first ordonnance instituting Commissions of epuration was enacted on August 18, 1943) : judgments of Collaborationists by the Commissions d'épuration, who condemned approximatively 120,000 persons (Charles Maurras, leader of the royalist Action française, condemned to life sentence on January 25, 1945, etc.), including 1.500 death sentences (Joseph Darnand, head of the Milice, and Pierre Laval, head of the French state, were executed after trial on October 4, 1945, Pierre Pucheu was inculpated at the end of 1943, Robert Brasillach, executed on February 6, 1945, etc.) — many of which were later amnestied.
  • the third phase, more lenient towards Collaborationists (the trial of Philippe Pétain or of writer Louis-Ferdinand Céline)

Finally came the period for amnesty and graces (e.g. Jean-Pierre Esteva, Xavier Vallat, creator of the General Commission for Jewish Affairs, René Bousquet, head of French police, etc.) Plaque on the façade of the Prefecture of Police, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the liberation of Paris The Prefecture of Police (French: Préfecture de Police), headed by the Prefect of Police (Préfet de Police), is an agency of the Government of France which provides the police... Charles Maurras (April 20, 1868 Martigues Bouches-du-Rhône France – November 16, 1952) was a French author, poet, and critic. ... The Action Française is a French Monarchist movement and periodical founded by Maurice Pujo and Henri Vaugeois and whose principal ideologist was Charles Maurras. ... Joseph Darnand, wearing the wide beret of the Milice Joseph Darnand (March 19, 1897 – October 10, 1945) was a French pro-Nazi leader and commander of the Vichy French Milice. ... A recruitment poster for the Milice. ... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician and four times Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... Robert Brasillach (March 31, 1909 - February 6, 1945) was a French pro-Nazi author in the Vichy France who was executed for collaboration. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... Seline redirects here. ... The Three Graces, from Sandro Botticellis painting Primavera Uffizi Gallery In Greek mythology, the Charites were the graces. ... Xavier Vallat (1891 - 6 January 1972), French politician, was Commissioner-General for Jewish Questions in the wartime Vichy France Vichy collaborationist government, and was sentenced after World War II to ten years in prison for his part in the persecution of French Jews. ... dfBold textdfdfBold textasdf Headline text adsfsadf == Headline text == asdf ...


Other historians have distinguished epuration against intellectuals (Brasillach, Céline, etc.), industrials, fighters (LVF, etc.) and civil servants (Papon, etc.).


Philippe Pétain was charged with treason in July 1945. He was convicted and sentenced to death by firing squad, but Charles de Gaulle commuted the sentence to life imprisonment. Most convicts were amnestied a few years later. In the police, collaborators soon resumed official responsibilities. This continuity of the administration was pointed out, in particular concerning the events of the Paris massacre of 1961, executed under the orders of head of the Parisian police Maurice Papon, who was convicted only in 1998 for crimes against humanity. Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Maurice Papon (September 3, 1910 – February 17, 2007) was a former official of the French Vichy government who collaborated with Nazi Germany in World War II and was in charge of the Paris police during the Paris massacre of 1961. ...


The French members of the Waffen-SS Charlemagne Division who survived the war were regarded as traitors. Some of the more prominent officers were executed, while the rank-and-file were given prison terms; some of them were given the option of doing time in Indochina (1946-54) with the Foreign Legion instead of prison.[citations needed] The SS Division Charlemagne and Charlemagne Regiment are collective names used for units of French volunteers in the Wehrmacht and later Waffen-SS during the World War II. The Charlemagne division was not a single military unit but succession of groups of collaborating French volunteers (though the exact nature of... The Indochina War was an almost thirty year war in Vietnam between 1946 and 1975, affecting the three Indochinese nations, namely Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. ... Legionnaire (film) The French Foreign Legion (French: Légion étrangère) is a unique elite unit within the French Army established in 1831. ...


Singer Tino Rossi was detained in Fresnes prison, where, according to Combat newspaper, prison guards asked him for autographs. Pierre Benoit or Arletty were also detained. Collaborationists were brought to the Vélodrome d'hiver, Fresnes prison or the Drancy internment camp. Tino Rossi (April 29, 1907 — September 26, 1983) was a singer and film actor. ... Fresnes Prison (Centre pénitentiaire de Fresnes) is the second largest prison in France, located in the town of Fresnes, Val-de-Marne near the city of Paris. ... Combat (French for fight) was a French newspaper created during the Second World War. ... Pierre Benoit may refer to: Pierre Benoit (1886-1962), a novelist and member of the Académie française Pierre Basile Benoit (1824-1870), former member of the Canadian House of Commons Pierre Benoit, a former mayor of Ottawa This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise... Arletty (born Léonie Bathiat) (15 May 1898 _ 24 July 1992) was a French model, singer, and actress. ... Vélodrome dhiver (Winter Velodrome; shortened to VeldHiv) was a sports facility in Paris. ... Drancy deportation camp was an infamous temporary prison camp in the city of Drancy, north of Paris, France used to hold Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps. ...


Executions without trials and other forms of "popular justice" were harshly criticized immediately after the war, with circles close to Pétainists advancing the figures of 100,000, and denouncing the "Red Terror," "anarchy", or "blind vengeance". Journalist Robert Aron estimated the popular executions to a number of 40,000 in 1960, provoking de Gaulle's surprise, who estimated the real number to be around 10,000, which is the figure today admitted by mainstream historians. Approximatively 9,000 of these 10,000 refer to summary executions in the whole of the country, which occurred during battle. In absolute value (numbers), there have been fewer legal executions in France than in neighboring, and much smaller, Belgium, and fewer internments than in Norway or the Netherlands. The Red Terror was a campaign of mass arrests and deportations targeted against counterrevolutionaries in Russia during the Russian Civil War. ... Anarchy (from Greek: anarchía, no authority) has a popular meaning of disorder[1]. However it has a more precise meaning in political philosophy to describe any human society which exists without a state. ... Robert Aron (May 25, 1898 - April 19, 1975) was a French writer. ...


The 1980s trials

Many war criminals were judged only in the 1980s: Paul Touvier, Klaus Barbie, Maurice Papon (above-mentioned), René Bousquet, head of French police during the war, and his deputy Jean Leguay (the last two were both convicted for their responsibilities in the July 1942 rafle du Vel'd'hiv, or Vel'd'Hiv raid). Famous Nazi hunters Serge and Beate Klarsfeld spent decades trying to bring them before the courts. A fair number of Collaborationists then joined the OAS terrorist movement during the Algerian War (1954-62). Jacques de Bernonville escaped to Québec, then Brazil. Jacques Ploncard d'Assac became counsellor of Salazar in Portugal. Paul Touvier (April 3, 1915 - July 17, 1996) was the only Frenchman to be convicted of war crimes against humanity. ... Klaus Barbie in Army NCO Uniform. ... dfBold textdfdfBold textasdf Headline text adsfsadf == Headline text == asdf ... Jean Leguay (29 November 1909 — 5 July 1989) was a high ranking French civil servant, accomplice of the Deportation of Jews from France. ... The Rafle du VeldHiv (short in French for the Vélodrome dhivers raid) is the name for the July 16, 1942 raid during which Vichy French police forces arrested 12 884 Jews — including 4, 051 children which the Gestapo had not asked for — 5 802 women... A Nazi hunter is a private individual or group who tracks down and gathers information on former Nazis so that they can be punished for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in the Holocaust. ... Serge (September 17, 1935, Bucharest, Romania) and Beate (February 13, 1939, Berlin, Germany) Klarsfeld, French researchers engaging in Holocaust documentation and anti-Nazi activism. ... OAS may stand for: Old Age Security Oracle Application Server Oral Allergy Syndrome Organisation de larmée secrète Organization of American States Office Automation Systems Option Adjusted Spread Oas, Albay is a municipality in the Philippines. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Jacques Massu Maurice Challe Said Boualam Pierre Lagaillarde Raoul... Jacques de Bernonville (born December 20, 1897 - died April 26, 1972), was a French traitor and senior police officer in the Vichy regime in France infamously known as the man who hunted down resistance fighters during World War II. Count Jacques Dugé de Bernonville was born in Paris, France to... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Salazar is the name of: António de Oliveira Salazar, Prime Minister and Dictator of Portugal from 1932 to 1968 Alberto Salazar, U.S. distance runner Alejandro Salazar, U.S. Soccer player Argenis Salazar, former Major League Baseball shortstop Eliseo Salazar, Chilean racing driver Ken Salazar, U.S. Senator from...


In 1993, former Vichy official René Bousquet was assassinated while he awaited prosecution in Paris following a 1989 complaint for crimes against humanity; he had been prosecuted after the war, but had been acquitted in 1949 [27]. In 1994 former Vichy official Paul Touvier (1915-1996) was convicted of crimes against humanity. Maurice Papon was convicted in 1998, released three years later, and died in 2007. dfBold textdfdfBold textasdf Headline text adsfsadf == Headline text == asdf ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is in need of attention. ... Paul Touvier (April 3, 1915 - July 17, 1996) was the only Frenchman to be convicted of war crimes against humanity. ... Maurice Papon (September 3, 1910 – February 17, 2007) was a former official of the French Vichy government who collaborated with Nazi Germany in World War II and was in charge of the Paris police during the Paris massacre of 1961. ...


Historiographical debates and responsibility of France: the "Vichy Syndrome"

The official point of view of the French government is that the Vichy regime was an illegal government distinct from the French Republic, established by traitors under foreign influence. Indeed, Vichy France eschewed the formal name of France ("French Republic") and styled itself the "French State," replacing the Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité Republican motto, inherited from the 1789 French Revolution, with the reactionary Travail, Famille, Patrie motto. Liberté, égalité, fraternité (French for freedom, equality, brotherhood) is the motto of the French Republic. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ...


While the criminal behavior of Vichy France is acknowledged, this point of view denies any responsibility of the state of France, alleging that acts committed between 1940 and 1944 were unconstitutional acts devoid of legitimacy. The main proponent of this view was Charles de Gaulle himself, who insisted, as did other historians afterwards, on the unclear conditions of the June 1940 vote granting full powers to Pétain, which was refused by the minority of Vichy 80. In particular, coercive measures used by Pierre Laval have been denounced by those historians who hold that the vote did not, therefore, have Constitutional legality (See subsection: Conditions of armistice and 10 July 1940 vote of full powers). The Vichy 80 refers to a minority group of French elected officials who, on July 10, 1940, voted against the constitutional change that dissolved the Third Republic and established the Nazi Germanys puppet state of Vichy France. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval...


Nevertheless, on 16 July 1995, president Jacques Chirac, in a speech, recognized the responsibility of the French State for seconding the "criminal folly of the occupying country," in particular the help of the French police, headed by René Bousquet, which assisted the Nazis in the enactment of the so-called "Final Solution." The July 1942 rafle du Vel'd'hiv is a tragic example of how the French police did the Nazi work, going even further than what military orders demanded (by sending children to Drancy internment camp, last stop before the extermination camps).[28] is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician and a former President of France. ... The National Police (Police Nationale) is one of two national police forces and the main civil law enforcement agency of France, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns. ... dfBold textdfdfBold textasdf Headline text adsfsadf == Headline text == asdf ... The Rafle du VeldHiv (short in French for the Vélodrome dhivers raid) is the name for the July 16, 1942 raid during which Vichy French police forces arrested 12 884 Jews — including 4, 051 children which the Gestapo had not asked for — 5 802 women...


As historian Henry Rousso has put it in The Vichy Syndrome (1987), Vichy and the state collaboration of France remains a “past that doesn’t pass.” Historiographical debates are still, today, passionate, opposing conflictual views on the nature and legimity of Vichy’s collaborationism with Nazi Germany in the implementation of the Holocaust. Three main periods have been distinguished in the historiography of Vichy: first the Gaullist period, which aimed at national reconciliation and unity under the figure of Charles de Gaulle, who conceived himself above political parties and divisions; then the 1960s, with Marcel Ophüls's film The Sorrow and the Pity (1971); finally the 1990s, with the trial of Maurice Papon, civil servant in Bordeaux in charge of the “Jewish Questions” during the war, who was convicted after a very long trial (1981-1998) for crimes against humanity. The trial of Papon did not only concern an individual itinerary, but the French administration’s collective responsibility in the deportation of the Jews. Furthermore, his carreer after the war, which led him to be successively prefect of the Paris police during the Algerian War (1954-1962) and then treasurer of the Gaullist UDR party from 1968 to 1971, and finally Budget Minister under president Valéry Giscard d’Estaing and prime minister Raymond Barre from 1978 to 1981, was symptomatic of the quick rehabilitation of former Collaborationists after the war. Critics contend that this itinerary, shared by others (although few had such public roles), demonstrates France’s collective amnesia, while others point out that the perception of the war and of the state collaboration has evolved during these years. Papon’s carreer was considered even more scandalous as he had been responsible, during his function as prefect of police of Paris, for the 1961 Paris massacre of Algerians during the war – which, as with Vichy’s collaboration, France still has difficulties in recognizing its responsibility – and was forced to resign from this position after the “disappearance”, in Paris in 1965, of the Moroccan anti-colonialist leader Mehdi Ben Barka. Marcel Ophüls (born November 1, 1927) is a documentary film maker. ... The Sorrow and the Pity is a two part documentary by Marcel Ophüls that concerns the French resistance and collaboration with the Vichy government and the Nazis during World War II. This 1969 film used interviews of a German officer, collaborators, and resistance fighters from Clermont-Ferrand. ... Maurice Papon (September 3, 1910 – February 17, 2007) was a former official of the French Vichy government who collaborated with Nazi Germany in World War II and was in charge of the Paris police during the Paris massacre of 1961. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Jacques Massu Maurice Challe Said Boualam Pierre Lagaillarde Raoul... UDR may refer to: the Ulster Defence Regiment the Union des Démocrates pour la République, a French political party. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926 in Koblenz, Germany) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... Raymond Barre was born on April 12, 1924 in Saint Denis, the capital of the French island of La Réunion in the Indian Ocean. ... The Paris massacre of 1961 refers to a massacre in Paris on 17 October 1961, during the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62). ... Mehdi Ben Barka (1920 in Rabat – disappeared 1965 in Paris) was a Moroccan politician. ...


The regional newspaper Nice Matin revealed on February 28, 2007, that in more than 1,000 condominium properties on the Côte d'Azur, rules dating to Vichy were still in force. One of these rules, for example, stated that: This article refers to a form of housing. ... The Promenade des Anglais in Nice on the French Riviera at night. ...

"The contractors shall make the following statements: they are of French nationality, are not Jewish, nor married to Jewish in the sense of the laws and ordinances in force" [under Vichy, NDLR]"

The president of the CRIF-Côte d'Azur, a Jewish association group, of course condemned what one of the inhabitants of such a condominium qualified as an "anachronism" with "no consequences." [29] Conseil Représentatif des Institutions juives de France (English: Representative Council of French Jewish Institutions) is an umbrella organization of French Jewish organizations. ...


The "sword & the shield" argument

Today, Vichy supporters continue to maintain the official argument advanced by Pétain and Laval: the state collaboration was supposed to protect the French civilian population from the hardships of the Occupation. After the war, former Collaborationists and "pétainistes" (supporters of Pétain) claimed that while Charles de Gaulle had represented the “sword” of France, Pétain had been the "shield" which protected France.


The common “sword vs. shield” thesis is contradicted by mainstream historical argumentation. First of all, it bypasses the French Resistance, questionably claiming that the alternative was “collaboration in France” and “resistance in London”. This is a clear denial of the engagement of civilians, in particular foreign Jews, who took an active part in the Resistance in France. Far-right leader Jean-Marie Le Pen, founder of the National Front in 1972 and several times accused of Holocaust denial, racial hatred, and negationism, thus declared in the 1960s, when he was actively engaged in the rehabilitation of Collaborationists : Jean-Marie Le Pen Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party, and a candidate for the French presidency. ... The National Front (FN, French: ) is a French Far right, nationalist [1] political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation or appearance... Historical revisionism is the attempt to change commonly held ideas about the past. ...

"Was General de Gaulle more brave than Marshal [ Pétain ] in the occupied zone? This isn't sure. It was much easier to resist in London than to resist in France." [30] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ...

"French Jews vs. foreign Jews": myth or reality?

Although this claim is rejected by the rest of the French population and by the state itself, another myth remains strong today, and is more widespread than this one. This other myth refers to the alleged “protection” by Vichy of French Jews by “accepting” to collaborate in the deportation – and, ultimately, in the extermination – of foreign Jews.


However, this nationalist argument which pretends to legimitate the French state collaboration has been rejected by several historians who are specialists of the subject, among them US historian Robert Paxton, who is widely recognized and whose foreign origin permits a more distant and objective judgment on the matter, and historian of the French police Maurice Rajsfus. Both were called on as experts during the Papon trial in the 1990s. Robert Paxton (b 1932) is a historian who worked on Vichy France. ...


Robert Paxton thus declared, before the court, on 31 October 1997, that "Vichy took initiatives... The armistice let it a breathing space. [31]" Henceforth, on its own Vichy decided, on the domestic plan, to implement the “National Revolution” (“Révolution nationale”). After having designated the alleged responsibles of the defeat (“democracy, parliamentarism, cosmopolitianism, left-wing, foreigners, Jews...”) Vichy put in place, as soon as October 3, 1940, the first “Statute on Jews.” From then on, Jewish people were considered “second-zone citizens [31]”.


On the international plan, France "believed the war to be finished". Thus, as soon as July 1940, Vichy eagerly negotiated with the German authorities in an attempt to gain a place for France in the Third Reich’s “New Order”. But “Hitler never forgot the 1918 defeat. He always said no.” Vichy’s ambition was doomed from the start [31].


"Antisemitism was a constant theme," recalled Robert Paxton. It even opposed itself, at first, to German plans. “At this period, the Nazis had not yet decided to exterminate the Jews, but to expell them. Their idea was not to make of France an antisemitic country. To the contrary, they wanted to send there the Jews that they expelled” from the Reich [31].


The historical turn took place in 1941-1942, with the defeat on the Eastern Front. The war then became “total”, and in August 1941, Hitler decided on the “global extermination of all European Jews.” This new policy was officially formulated during the January 1942 Wannsee Conference, and implemented in all European occupied countries as soon as spring 1942. France, which praised itself for having remained an independent state (as opposed to other occupied countries) “decided to cooperate. This is the second Vichy. [31]” The first train of deportees left Drancy on 27 March 1942 for Poland--the first in a long series. Eastern Front may refer to one of the following. ... The Wannsee Conference was a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942. ...


“The Nazis needed the French administration... They always complained about the lack of staff." recalled Paxton [31], something which Maurice Rajsfus has also underlined. Although the American historian recognized during the trial that the "civil behaviour of certain individuals" had permitted many Jews to escape deportation, he clearly stated that:

"The French state, itself, has participated to the policy of extermination of the Jews... How can one pretend the reverse when such technical and administrative means have been put to this aim?” [31]

Evoking the French police’s registering of the Jews, as well as Laval’s decision, taken in August 1942 in all independence, to deport children, along with their parents, Paxton added:

"Contrary to preconceived ideas, Vichy did not sacrifice foreign jews in the hope of protecting French Jews. At the summit of the hierarchy, it knew, from the start, that the departure of these last ones was unavoidable. [31]

Paxton then evoked the case of Italy, where deportation of Jewish people had only started after the German occupation — Italy surrendered to the Allies in mid-1943. In particular, in Nice, "Italians had protected the Jews. And the French authorities complained about it to the Germans.[31]


Important figures in the Vichy regime

See Category:French collaborationists

  • Philippe Pétain, head of the "French state" (Vichy)
  • Pierre Laval, prime minister of the "French state"
  • René Bousquet, head of the French police
  • Jean Leguay, delegate of Bousquet in the "free zone", charged with crimes against humanity for his role in the July 1942 Rafle du Vel'd'Hiv
  • Louis Darquier de Pellepoix, Commissionner for Jewish Affairs of the Vichy government
  • Philippe Henriot, State Secretary of Information and Propaganda of Vichy
  • Maurice Papon, head of the Jewish Questions Service in the prefecture of Bordeaux (condemned for crimes against humanity in 1998)
  • Simon Sabiani, head of Doriot's PPF in Marseille
  • Paul Touvier, condemned in 1995 for crimes against humanity for his role as head of the Milice in Lyon
  • Xavier Vallat, Commissionner General for Jewish Questions
  • Marcel Bucard, founder of the Mouvement franciste far-right league and of the Légion des volontaires français contre le bolchévisme (LVF)
  • Marcel Déat, founder of the Rassemblement national populaire (RNP) in 1941
  • Eugène Deloncle, co-founder of La Cagoule right-wing terrorist group in 1935 and then of the fascist Mouvement social révolutionnaire in 1940
  • Jacques Doriot, founder of the Parti Populaire Français (PPF) and member of the LVF
  • Étienne Leandri, wore the Gestapo uniform during the war (participated in the creation of the Gaullist Service d'Action Civique (SAC) in the 1960s

Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician and four times Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... dfBold textdfdfBold textasdf Headline text adsfsadf == Headline text == asdf ... Jean Leguay (29 November 1909 — 5 July 1989) was a high ranking French civil servant, accomplice of the Deportation of Jews from France. ... The Rafle du VeldHiv (short in French for the Vélodrome dhivers raid) is the name for the July 16, 1942 raid during which Vichy French police forces arrested 12 884 Jews — including 4, 051 children which the Gestapo had not asked for — 5 802 women... Louis Darquier de Pellepoix, born in Cahors on December 19, 1897, deceased on August 29, 1980 near Malaga (Spain), was commissionner to Jewish questions under the Vichy Régime. ... Philippe Henriot (January 7, 1889, Reims—June 28, 1944, Paris) was a French politician. ... Maurice Papon (September 3, 1910 – February 17, 2007) was a former official of the French Vichy government who collaborated with Nazi Germany in World War II and was in charge of the Paris police during the Paris massacre of 1961. ... Simon Sabiani was a French politician. ... Paul Touvier (April 3, 1915 - July 17, 1996) was the only Frenchman to be convicted of war crimes against humanity. ... A recruitment poster for the Milice. ... Xavier Vallat (1891 - 6 January 1972), French politician, was Commissioner-General for Jewish Questions in the wartime Vichy France Vichy collaborationist government, and was sentenced after World War II to ten years in prison for his part in the persecution of French Jews. ... Marcel Bucard (December 7, 1895, Saint-Clair-sur-Epte—March 13, 1946, Fort of Châtillon) was a French Fascist politician. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Marcel Déat Marcel Déat (March 7, 1894-January 5, 1955) was a French Fascist and politician prior to and during World War II. Born in Guerigny, Déat became a member of the French Socialist Party in 1914. ... Eugène Deloncle (June 20, 1890, Brest—January 17, 1944, Paris) was a French engineer and Fascist leader, and the adoptive father of Jacques Corrèze. ... This sie is so crap it dont even give u the definition Signed by STAINLESS ... Jacques Doriot Jacques Doriot (September 26, 1898, Bresles, Oise—February 22, 1945, near Mengen, Württemberg) was a French politician prior to and during World War II. He began as a Communist but then turned Fascist. ... Parti Populaire Français (French Popular Party) was a far right political party led by Jacques Doriot before and during World War Two. ... Étienne Leandri (1915-1995) was an intermediary close to Charles Pasqua. ... Created in 1959 by Jacques Foccart, French President de Gaulles spindoctor for African matters, and Charles Pasqua, part of the Gaullist movement, the SAC (Service dAction Civique) had as first aim to counter the terrorist actions of the OAS during the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62). ... Robert Brasillach (March 31, 1909 - February 6, 1945) was a French pro-Nazi author in the Vichy France who was executed for collaboration. ... Seline redirects here. ... Pierre Eugène Drieu La Rochelle (3 January 1893 – 15 March 1945) was a French writer of novels, short stories and political essays, who lived and died in Paris. ... Lucien Rebatet (November 15, 1903, Moras-en-Valloire, Drôme—1972, Moras-en-Valloire) was a French author, journalist and intellectual, an exponent of fascism and virulent antisemite. ... Charles Maurras (April 20, 1868 Martigues Bouches-du-Rhône France – November 16, 1952) was a French author, poet, and critic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pierre-Charles Taittinger (October 4, 1887 – January 22, 1965) was founder of the famous Taittinger champagne house and chairman of the municipal council of Paris in 1943–1944 during the German occupation of France, in which position he played a role during the Liberation of Paris. ...

See also

Collaboration is a process defined by the recursive interaction of knowledge[1] and mutual learning between two or more people working together[2] toward a common goal typically creative in nature. ... The pursuit of Nazi collaborators refers to the post-WWII pursuit and apprehension of individuals who were not citizens of the Third Reich at the outbreak of World War II and collaborated with the Nazi regime during the war. ... Klaus Barbie in Army NCO Uniform. ... The military history of France during World War II covers the period from 1939 until 1940, which witnessed French military participation under the Third Republic, and the period from 1940 until 1945, which was marked by colonial struggles between Vichy France and the Free French Forces under Charles de Gaulle... Organisation Todt Flag Organisation Todt (OT) was a Nazi construction and engineering group during the years of the Third Reich, which enslaved over 1. ... The Armistice of Saint Jean dAcre was an armistice on 14 July 1941 between Britsh forces in the Middle East and Vichy France forces in Syria under General Dentz. ... Polish-French Cadix radio-intelligence team, southern France, 1940-1942. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Armée d l’air de l’Armistice (Vichy France Air Force) was the Air Force of Vichy France. ... The military history of France during World War II covers the period from 1939 until 1940, which witnessed French military participation under the Third Republic, and the period from 1940 until 1945, which was marked by colonial struggles between Vichy France and the Free French Forces under Charles de Gaulle... Italy occupied a small section of south-east France during World War Two, during the time of the Vichy Government under German Control. ... François Mitterrand and Helmut Kohl in Verdun in 1984 The Franco-German Cooperation or Franco-German Partnership or Amitié franco-allemande are terms to describe the high collaboration between the countries of France and Germany in the post-1945 world. ... Léon Blum Édouard Daladier The Riom Trial (February 19, 1942 - May 21, 1943) was an attempt by the regime of Vichy France headed by Marshall Pétain to prove that the leaders of the French Third Republic (1870-1940), and particularly the leaders of the Popular Front government elected... The Vichy 80 refers to a minority group of French elected officials who, on July 10, 1940, voted against the constitutional change that dissolved the Third Republic and established the Nazi puppet state of Vichy France. ... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... Belarusian partisan fighters behind German front lines in Belarus in 1943 Occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany. ... Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany. ... German soldiers raising the Swastika over the Acropolis. ... Starting with the invasion of April 9, 1940, Norway was under military occupation of German forces and civil rule of a German commissioner in collaboration with a Pro-German puppet government. ...

References

  1. ^ Jean-Pierre Azéma, De Munich à la Libération, Le Seuil, 1979, p.82 ISBN 2-02-005215-6
  2. ^ French: L'Assemblée Nationale donne les plein pouvoirs au gouvernement de la République, sous l'autorité et la signature du maréchal Pétain, à l'effet de promulguer par un ou plusieurs actes une nouvelle Constitution de l'Etat français. Cette Constitution doit garantir les droits du travail, de la famille et de la patrie. Elle sera ratifiée par la nation et appliquée par les Assemblées qu'elle aura créées.
  3. ^ French: Pétain: "J'entre aujourd'hui dans la voie de la collaboration..."
  4. ^ French court strikes blow against fugitive Nazi, The Guardian, March 3, 2001
  5. ^ Maurice Rajsfus, Drancy, un camp de concentration très ordinaire, Cherche Midi éditeur (2005).
  6. ^ Aincourt, camp d’internement et centre de tri
  7. ^ Saline royale d'Arc et Senans (25) - L'internement des Tsiganes
  8. ^ Listes des internés du camp des Milles 1941
  9. ^ Christoph Buchheim, 'Die besetzten Lander im Dienste der Deutschen Kriegswirtschaft', VfZ, 32, (1984), p. 119
  10. ^ a b See Reggiani, Alexis Carrel, the Unknown: Eugenics and Population Research under Vichy, French Historical Studies, 2002; 25: 331-356
  11. ^ Gwen Terrenoire, "Eugenics in France (1913-1941) : a review of research findings", Joint Programmatic Commission UNESCO-ONG Science and Ethics, 2003) [1]
  12. ^ Quoted in Andrés Horacio Reggiani. Alexis Carrel, the Unknown: Eugenics and Population Research under Vichy (French historical studies, 25:2 Spring 2002) [2], p. 339. Also quoted in French by Didier Daeninckx in Quand le négationnisme s’invite à l’université., on Amnistia.net website, [3], URL consulted on January 28, 2007
  13. ^ Quoted in Szasz, Thomas. The Theology of Medicine New York: Syracuse University Press, 1977.
  14. ^ French: « ce fichier se subdivise en fichier simplement alphabétique, les Juifs de nationalité française et étrangère ayant respectivement des fiches de couleur différentes, et des fichiers professionnels par nationalité et par rue. »
  15. ^ Giorgio Agamben, "Non à la biométrie", published in Le Monde on December 5, 2005 (French). Available here.
  16. ^ Maurice Rajsfus, La Police de Vichy — Les forces de l'ordre françaises au service de la Gestapo, 1940/1944, Le Cherche Midi éditeurs, 1995 (page 106-107) (French)
  17. ^ Maurice Rajsfus, La Police de Vichy. Les Forces de l'ordre françaises au service de la Gestapo, 1940/1944, Le Cherche Midi éditeur, 1995. Chapter XIV, "La Bataille de Marseille, pp.209–217. (French)
  18. ^ Stanley Hoffmann, « La droite à Vichy », in Essais sur la France, Le Seuil, 1974
  19. ^ Jean-Pierre Azéma, Olivier Wieviorka, Vichy 1940-44,Perrin, 2004, ISBN 2-262-02229-1, p.234
  20. ^ / Canada's diplomatic relationships with Vichy: Foreign Affairs Canada.
  21. ^ / Australia's diplomatic relationships with Vichy: French embassy in Australia
  22. ^ a b c When the US wanted to take over France, Annie Lacroix-Riz, in Le Monde diplomatique, May 2003 (English, French, etc.)
  23. ^ a b c d e Extraits de l’entretien d’Annie Rey-Goldzeiguer [1 avec Christian Makarian et Dominique Simonnet, publié dans l’Express du 14 mars 2002], on the LDH website (French)
  24. ^ Azéma, Jean-Pierre and Bédarida, François (dir.), La France des années noires, 2 vol., Paris, Seuil, 1993 [rééd. Seuil, 2000 (Points Histoire)
  25. ^ a b c Le rôle du gouvernement de Vichy dans la déportation des juifs, notes taken during a conference of Robert Paxton at Lyon on November 4, 2000 (French)
  26. ^ Sigmaringen, Jean-Paul Cointet, Perrin, 2003, ISBN 2-262-01823-5
  27. ^ René Bousquet devant la Haute Cour de Justice (French)
  28. ^ En 1995, la reconnaissance des « fautes commises par l'Etat » in Le Monde, 26 January 2005 (French)
  29. ^ Nice Matin, 28 February 2007 (subscription only) - The news is taken up by L'Humanité on 1st March 2007, Des immeubles niçoisà l’heure de Vichy (French)
  30. ^ Le Pen, son univers impitoyable, Radio France Internationale, September 1, 2006 (French)
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i L'Humanité, 1st November 1997 Robert Paxton donne une accablante leçon d’histoire (Robert Paxton gives a damning lesson of history (French)

The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... French Historical Studies is the quarterly journal of the Society for French Historical Studies (SFHS), one of the two primary historical societies devoted to the study of French history headquartered in the United States. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... French Historical Studies is the quarterly journal of the Society for French Historical Studies (SFHS), one of the two primary historical societies devoted to the study of French history headquartered in the United States. ... Didier Daeninckx (born April 27, 1949) is a French author, best known for his romans noir. ... Thomas Szasz. ... Giorgio Agamben (born 1942) is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the Università IUAV di Venezia. ... Le Monde is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme (EC 1. ... Robert Paxton (b 1932) is a historian who worked on Vichy France. ... Le Monde is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ... Radio France Internationale logo Radio France Internationale (RFI) was created in 1975 as part of Radio France by the Government of France to serve as a broadcast vehicle for French Equatorial Africa. ... LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ...

Bibliography

English

  • Henry Rousso, Arthur Goldhammer (preface by Stanley Hoffmann). The Vichy Syndrome: History and Memory in France since 1944. Harvard University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-674-93539-X (Original first ed. 1987)
  • Richard H. Weisberg. Vichy Law and the Holocaust in France. New York University Press. 1998. ISBN 0-8147-9336-3
  • Robert Gildea. 2002. Marianne in Chains: Daily Life in the Heart of France During the German Occupation. Picador. ISBN 0-312-42359-4.
  • Julian T. Jackson. France: The Dark Years, 1940-1944. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2001. ISBN 0-19-820706-9.
  • Simon Kitson, The Hunt for Nazi Spies: Fighting Espionage in Vichy France, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2007
  • Megan Koreman. The Expectation of Justice: France, 1944-1946. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. 1999.
  • William Langer, Our Vichy gamble, Alfred Knopf, New York, 1947.
  • George E. Melton. Darlan: Admiral and Statesman of France, 1881-1942. Westport, CT: Praeger. 1998. ISBN 0-275-95973-2. (defending the collaborator)
  • Henri Michel, Vichy, année 40, Robert Laffont, Paris, 1967.
  • Général Albert Merglen, Novembre 1942: La grande honte, L'Harmattan, Paris 2000, ISBN 2-7384-2036-2
  • Robert O. Paxton, Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940-1944 (London, 1972) [new edition, 2000: ISBN 0-231-12469-4]
  • John F. Sweets, "Choices in Vichy France : The French Under Nazi Occupation" (New York, 1986), translated into French as, "Clermont-Ferrand à l’heure allemande" (Paris, 1996)
  • Martin Thomas, The French Empire at War, 1940-45, Manchester University Press, 1998, paperback 2007.
  • Isaac Levendel. Not the Germans alone: A son's search for the truth of Vichy. North Western University Press. 2001. ISBN 0-8101-1843-2

Henry Rousso (born 1954 in Cairo) is a contemporary French Historian specializing in World War II France. ... Stanley Hoffmann is a teacher at Harvard University int the United States of America. ... Robert Gildea is a professor of modern French history at the University of Oxford and is the author of several influential books on 20th century French history. ... Picador is an imprint of Macmillan Publishers, a publisher owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... Julian T. Jackson (born 1954) is a prominent British Historian. ... Simon Kitson, (born 1970), British Historian Born in Nailsworth, Gloucestershire, Kitson was educated at King Edwards School, Bath, doing his undergraduate studies at the University of Ulster and his post-graduate studies at the University of Sussex, under the supervision of Professor Roderick Kedward. ... Robert Paxton (b 1932) is a historian who worked on Vichy France. ... John F. Sweets (1945 - ) American historian of modern French history specializing in the Vichy France era, the French Resistance, and occupied France. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

French

  • Jean-Pierre Azéma & François Bedarida,Vichy et les Français, Paris, Fayard, 1996.
    • Le régime de Vichy et les Français (dir. Jean-Pierre Azéma & François Bédarida, Institut d'histoire du temps présent), Fayard, 1992, ISBN 2-213-02683-1
  • Yves Maxime Danan, La vie politique à Alger, de 1940 à 1944, L.G.D.J., Paris 1963.
  • François-Georges Dreyfus, Histoire de Vichy, Éditions de Fallois, 2004, ISBN 2-87706-489-1
  • Simon Kitson, Vichy et la chasse aux espions nazis, Autrement, Paris, 2005, ISBN 2-74670588-5
  • Maurice Rajsfus, La police de Vichy, Les forces de l'ordre françaises au service de la Gestapo 1940-1944, Le Cherche Midi, 1995 ISBN 2-86274-358-5
    • La Libération inconnue, à chacun sa résistance, 2004
    • Drancy, un camp de concentration très ordinaire, 1941-1944. Le Cherche-midi Editeur, 2005. ISBN 2862744352
    • Des Juifs dans la collaboration, L'U.G.I.F. 1941-1944, preface by Pierre Vidal-Naquet, EDI, 1980 ISBN 2-851-39057-0

Jean-Pierre Azéma, born in 1937, is a French historian , and the son of the Réunionese poet Jean-Henri Azéma. ... Simon Kitson, (born 1970), British Historian Born in Nailsworth, Gloucestershire, Kitson was educated at King Edwards School, Bath, doing his undergraduate studies at the University of Ulster and his post-graduate studies at the University of Sussex, under the supervision of Professor Roderick Kedward. ... Pierre Vidal-Naquet (1930, Paris) is a French historian, teacher at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS). ...

Films

Marcel Ophüls (born November 1, 1927) is a documentary film maker. ... The Sorrow and the Pity is a two part documentary by Marcel Ophüls that concerns the French resistance and collaboration with the Vichy government and the Nazis during World War II. This 1969 film used interviews of a German officer, collaborators, and resistance fighters from Clermont-Ferrand. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Vichy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1827 words)
Vichy (Occitan: Vichèi) is a French commune, situated in the département of Allier and the région of Auvergne.
It was the capital of Vichy France during the World War II Nazi German occupation from 1940 to 1944.
In 1527, Bourbonnais was acquired by the Crown of France.
Vichy France - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3866 words)
Vichy France, or the Vichy regime was the de facto French government of 1940-1944 during the Nazi Germany occupation of World War II.
Vichy France was established after France surrendered to Germany in 1940, and took its name from the government's administrative centre in Vichy, southeast of Paris (which remained the official capital, to which Pétain always intended to return the government when this became possible).
Within France, the Second World War and the Vichy Regime were intertwined with an internal civil war; one faction opposed the Communist and Republican elements of society, while reactionary elements supported a fascist or similar regime in the mould of Francisco Franco's.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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