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Encyclopedia > Vibrio cholerae
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Vibrio cholerae
TEM image
TEM image
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Vibrionales
Family: Vibrionaceae
Genus: Vibrio
Species: V. cholerae
Binomial name
Vibrio cholerae
Pacini 1854

Vibrio cholerae is a gram negative bacterium with a curved-rod shape that causes cholera in humans.[1] V. cholerae and other species of the genus Vibrio belong to the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria.  There are two major strains of V. cholerae, classic and El Tor, and numerous other serogroups. Vibrio cholerae. ... Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an imaging technique whereby a beam of electrons is focused onto a specimen causing an enlarged version to appear on a fluorescent screen or layer of photographic film (see electron microscope), or can be detected by a CCD camera. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Genera Allomonas Beneckea Enhydrobacter Listionella Lucibacterium Photobacterium Salinivibrio Vibrio The Vibrionaceae are a family of Proteobacteria, given their own order. ... Vibrio is a genus of bacteria, included in the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Gram-negative bacteria are those that do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining protocol. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Vibrio is a genus of bacteria, included in the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... El Tor is the name given to a particular strain of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. ...


V. cholerae was first isolated as the cause of cholera by Italian anatomist Filippo Pacini in 1854, but his discovery was not widely known until Robert Koch, working independently thirty years later, publicized the knowledge and the means of fighting the disease.[citation needed] This microscope slide, prepared by Pacini in 1854, was clearly identified as containing the cholera bacillus. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Robert Koch For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ...

Contents

Habitat

V. cholerae occurs naturally in the plankton of fresh, brackish, and salt water, attached primarily to copepods in the zooplankton. Coastal cholera outbreaks typically follow zooplankton blooms. This makes cholera a typical zoonosis. Photomontage of plankton organisms This page is about microscopic sea creatures. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Brackish redirects here. ... Annual mean sea surface temperature for the World Ocean. ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Copepods are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat. ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ... An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ... Zoonosis (pronounced as zoo-on-no-sis) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ...


Pathogenesis

V. cholerae colonizes the gastrointestinal tract, where it adheres to villous absorptive cells via pili, and secretes a Binary toxin, called cholera toxin (CT). The two CT subunits are named A and B, and are synthesised in a 1:5 ratio. B subunits bind and internalize A subunits, which are processed to A1. The A1 form catalyses ADP ribosylation from NAD to the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase, thereby activating it. Increased adenylate cyclase activity increases cyclic AMP (cAMP) synthesis causing massive fluid and electrolyte efflux, resulting in diarrhea. For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Villi (singular: villus) are tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine to help absorb nutrients in the lumen. ... The venom of the black widow spider is a potent latrotoxin. ... Drawing of Death bringing the cholera, in Le Petit Journal. ... Adenylate cyclase Adenylate cyclase (EC 4. ... Adenylate cyclase Adenylate cyclase (EC 4. ... Structure of cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3-5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in many biological processes; it is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions which behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a generally unpleasant condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; literally meaning to run through). Acute infectious...


CT is encoded by the ctxAB genes on a specific filamentous bacteriophage. Transduction of this phage is dependent upon bacterial expression of the Toxin Coregulated Pilus (TCP), which is encoded by the V. cholerae pathogenicity island (VPI). VPI is generally only present in virulent strains and is laterally transferred. VPI was originally thought to encode a filamentous phage responsible for transfer. This theory was discredited by a study of 46 diverse V. cholerae isolates which found no evidence of VPI phage production. The generalized transduction phage CP-T1 has been shown to transduce the entire VPI which is then integrated at the same chromosomal location. Also, VPI has been shown to excise and circularize to produce pVPI via a specialised mechanism involving VPI-encoded recombinases. It is not known whether pVPI is involved in CP-T1 transduction or if it is perhaps a component of an alternative VPI mobilization mechanism. A bacteriophage (from bacteria and Greek phagein, to eat) is a virus that infects bacteria. ... Image of bacteriological pili or fimbriae A pilus (Latin; plural : pili) is a hairlike structure on the surface of a cell, especially Gram-negative bacteria, a protein appendage required for bacterial conjugation. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ...


Additionally, it produces two different proteases called chitinase and mucinase. Chitinase is responsible for the ability of Vibrio cholerae to enter copapods. Mucinase is a non-specific protease that assists entry into the human gastro-intestinal tract. Chitinase (barley seed chitinase: PDB 1CNS, EC 3. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and...


Finally, Vibrio cholerae produces what is called a ZOT toxin, termed as "Zona Occludans Toxin". This toxin specifically attacks the zona occludans or "tight" junctions joining epithelial cells.


Treatment

Water and electrolyte replacement are necessary in treating cholera. In some cases, tetracycline may be used. A vaccine is available outside the US, but it is short-lived and not currently recommended by the CDC.[2] Fluoroquinolones such as norfloxacin are used, but resistance has been resported.[3]. Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... CDC is an abbreviation which can mean any of the following: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Communicable Disease Control Community of Democratic Choice, a group of nine Eastern-European states Change data capture, in data warehousing Clock Domain Crossing, or simply clock-crossing in computing Cedar City Regional Airport... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Norfloxacin is an oral broad-spectrum quinoline antibacterial agent used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. ...


References

  1. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0838585299. 
  2. ^ Is a vaccine available to prevent cholera?. CDC Disease Info: Cholera. Retrieved on 2007 January 21.
  3. ^ .Recently Hemendra Yadav reported his findings at A.I.I.M.S.,New Delhi that Ampicillin resistance has again decreased in V.cholerae strains of DelhiKrishna BVS, Patil AB, Chandrasekhar MR (2006). "Fluoroquinolone-resistant Vibrio cholerae isolated during a cholera outbreak in India" 100 (3): 224–26. DOI:10.1016/j.rstmh.2005.07.007. 

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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Vibrio cholerae exports its enterotoxin, whereas the E coli LTs occur primarily in the periplasmic space.
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cholerae produces cholera toxin, the model for enterotoxins, whose action on the mucosal epithelium is responsible for the characteristic diarrhea of the disease cholera.
In 1883, Robert Koch successfully isolated the cholera vibrio from the intestinal discharges of cholera patients and proved conclusively that it was the agent of the disease.
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