FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Vibraphone" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Vibraphone
A typical vibraphone. Photo by Nadja von Massow.

The vibraphone, sometimes called the vibraharp or simply the vibes, is a musical instrument in the mallet subfamily of the percussion family. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... “Percussion” redirects here. ...


It is similar in appearance to the xylophone and marimba, although the vibraphone uses aluminum bars instead of the wooden bars of those instruments. The vibraphone also has a sustain pedal similar to that used on a piano. When the pedal is up, the bars are all damped and the sound of each bar is quite short; with the pedal down, they will sound for several seconds. Kulintang a Kayo, a Philippine xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. ... The marimba ( ) is a musical instrument in the percussion family. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... A sustain or sustaining pedal (also damper pedal or loud pedal) is the most commonly used pedal in a modern piano. ...


The most common uses of the vibraphone are within jazz music, where it often plays a featured role, and in the wind ensemble, as a standard component of the percussion section. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... A wind band, also called concert band, symphonic band, or wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of woodwind, brass, percussion instruments, and often string bass. ...

Contents

History

The first musical instrument called "vibraphone" was marketed by the Leedy Manufacturing Company in the United States in 1921. However, this instrument differed in significant details from the instrument now called the vibraphone. The Leedy vibraphone achieved a degree of popularity after it was used in the novelty recordings of "Aloha 'Oe" and "Gypsy Love Song" by vaudeville performer Louis Frank Chiha ("Signor Frisco").[1] now. ...

Former headquarters of J. C. Deagan, Inc. in Chicago, where Henry Schluter invented the vibraphone. Now (2007) home to Century Mallet Instrument Service. Photo by Antonio Serna.
Former headquarters of J. C. Deagan, Inc. in Chicago, where Henry Schluter invented the vibraphone. Now (2007) home to Century Mallet Instrument Service. Photo by Antonio Serna.

This popularity led J. C. Deagan, Inc. in 1927 to ask its Chief Tuner, Henry Schluter, to develop a similar instrument. However, Schluter didn't just copy the Leedy design, he introduced several significant improvements such as making the bars from aluminum instead of steel for a more "mellow" basic tone, adjustments to the dimensions and tuning of the bars to eliminate the dissonant harmonics in the Leedy design (further mellowing the tone), and the introduction of a damper bar controlled by a foot pedal enabling it to be played with more expression.[1] Schluter's design was more popular than the Leedy design, and has become the template for all instruments called vibraphone today. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1360 × 2048 pixel, file size: 180 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1360 × 2048 pixel, file size: 180 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


However, when Deagan began marketing Schluter's instrument in 1928, they called it the vibraharp. As its popularity grew other manufacturers began producing instruments based on Schluter's design, marketed under a variety of names, including Leedy, who marketed their new instrument as the vibraphone and abandoned their old design.


This name confusion continued, even to the present, but over time vibraphone became significantly more popular than vibraharp. By 1974, the Directory of the D.C. Federation of Musicians listed 39 vibraphone players and 3 vibraharp players.[1] As of 2007, the term vibraharp has disappeared except for anachronistic uses. Often, vibraphone is shortened to "vibes", and the two terms are used interchangeably.


The initial purpose of the vibraphone was to add to the large arsenal of percussion sounds used by vaudeville orchestras for novelty effects. This use was quickly overwhelmed in the 1930's by its development as a jazz instrument. As of 2007, it remains primarily, although not exclusively, a jazz instrument. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ...

The DVD Lionel Hampton: Jazz Legend King of the Vibes chronicles the 73 year career of Lionel Hampton, the original jazz vibraphonist.
The DVD Lionel Hampton: Jazz Legend King of the Vibes chronicles the 73 year career of Lionel Hampton, the original jazz vibraphonist.

The popularity of the vibraphone as a jazz instrument can primarily be credited to one man, Lionel Hampton. The story, perhaps apocryphal, is that "Hamp", a drummer at the time, was playing at the NBC radio studios, where he discovered a vibraphone that was kept on hand to play the musical motif identifying the NBC network (g-e-c). After the gig, he spent a considerable amount of time exploring the instrument, and fell in love with it. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Lionel Hampton with George W. Bush Lionel Leo Hampton (April 20, 1908, Louisville, Kentucky – August 31, 2002 New York City), was a jazz bandleader and percussionist. ... Lionel Hampton with George W. Bush Lionel Leo Hampton (April 20, 1908, Louisville, Kentucky – August 31, 2002 New York City), was a jazz bandleader and percussionist. ... This article is about the television network. ...


Later (October 16, 1930), Hampton was recording with Louis Armstrong & His Sebastian New Cotton Club Orchestra, and the studio they were working in happened to have a vibraphone. Hampton showed Armstrong what he could do, and they decided to add vibes to one of the tunes ("Memories of You"), creating the first know jazz recording using the vibraphone. Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ...


After this, Hampton decided to concentrate on the vibraphone, eventually joining the Benny Goodman Quintet, and later leading his own big bands and achieving great popularity. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Manufacturers

The first manufacturer of vibraphones in the modern configuration was J. C. Deagan, Inc., of Chicago, IL, USA (although they called the instruments vibraharps). As the market for vibraphones was proven, first as a vaudeville novelty instrument and then as a jazz instrument, several other manufacturers stepped in to supply the demand. These included the Leedy Manufacturing Company, of Indianapolis, IN, USA, who retained the vibraphone name of their earlier product but abandoned its design in favor of the Henry Schluter innovations, and the Jenco Company, of Decatur, IL, USA, who initially marketed their instruments as "vibrabells". Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... The Indianapolis skyline Indianapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Indiana. ...


Outside of the United States, the Premier Drum Company, of London, UK, after experimenting with a variety of aluminum bar instruments more closely related to the glockenspiel that were called variations of “harpaphone”,[1] moved to the production of the Schluter vibraphone design. Bergerault, of Ligueil, France also began manufacturing vibraphones in the 1930’s. Premier Percussion Limited is a Leicestershire-based manufacturer of drums and percussion instruments. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, each manufacturer attracted its own following in various specialties, but the Deagan vibraphones were the models preferred by many of the emerging class of specialist jazz players. Deagan struck endorsement deals with many of the leading players, including Lionel Hampton and Milt Jackson. Lionel Hampton with George W. Bush Lionel Leo Hampton (April 20, 1908, Louisville, Kentucky – August 31, 2002 New York City), was a jazz bandleader and percussionist. ... Milton (Milt) Jackson (January 1, 1923 – October 9, 1999) was an American jazz vibraphonist and one of the most important figures in the hard bop style. ...

The "One-Nighter" vibraphone (old design), the entry-level model in Musser's line. Highly popular for its successful mix of affordability, transportability and decent sound. Photo by Kelly Martin
The "One-Nighter" vibraphone (old design), the entry-level model in Musser's line. Highly popular for its successful mix of affordability, transportability and decent sound. Photo by Kelly Martin

In 1948, the Musser Company was founded by Claire Omar Musser.[2] Musser was an accomplished marimba and xylophone player famous for touring the United States and Europe leading "marimba symphony orchestras". He applied his experience and observations with the current designs of mallet instruments to his eponymous company and the result was a high-quality line of mallet instruments. His vibraphones emerged as quite comparable in quality to Deagan vibraphones and Musser was able to garner a share of the top-end market. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (864x833, 209 KB) Summary A vibraphone. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (864x833, 209 KB) Summary A vibraphone. ... Ludwig-Musser is a drum and percussion instrument manufacturer owned by Conn-Selmer, Inc. ... The marimba ( ) is a musical instrument in the percussion family. ... Kulintang a Kayo, a Philippine xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. ...


The 1960s and 1970s saw a shakeup in the vibraphone market. Leedy and Jenco ceased operations. The Deagan operation was purchased by the Yamaha Corporation. Although Yamaha used the Deagan knowledge to improve their own designs, they discontinued the use of the Deagan name and Deagan model legacy and as of 2007 no visible trace to Deagan remains. The Musser Company was purchased first by Ludwig Drums, and then, through Ludwig, was purchased by Conn-Selmer, Inc. Unlike the fate of Deagan, the Musser brand and model line were retained by the purchasing companies, and Musser vibraphones remain a major force in the vibraphone market. The headquarters of Yamaha Corporation Yamaha redirects here. ... Ludwig-Musser is a drum and percussion instrument manufacturer owned by Conn-Selmer, Inc. ... Conn-Selmer, Inc. ...


This period also saw the emergence of new vibraphone manufacturers. Notable companies include Adams Musical Instruments of Ittervoort, The Netherlands and Ross Mallet Instruments, now owned by Jupiter Band Instruments of Austin, TX, USA. Adams Musical Instruments is a manufacturer of percussion instruments based in the Netherlands. ... Jupiter Band Instruments, Inc. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ...


As of 2007, the vibraphone marketplace is remarkably active, considering the specialty nature of the instrument. The major players include Musser, Yamaha, Adams and Ross. Bergerault, Premier, Studio 49 from Gräfelfing, Germany and the Saito Gakki Company of Japan continue in operation. In addition to the "mass" producers of vibraphones, custom manufacturers, notably vanderPlas Percussion of The Netherlands, are also active.


Range

The standard modern instrument has a range of three octaves, from the F below middle C (F3 to F6 in scientific pitch notation). Larger three-and-a-half or four octave models from the C below middle C are also becoming more common (C3 to F6 or C7). It is generally written at concert pitch, but sometimes some composers (for example, Olivier Messiaen) write parts to sound an octave higher. For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ... In Western music, the expression middle C refers to the note C or Do located exactly between the two staves of the grand staff, quoted as C4 in note-octave notation (also known as scientific pitch notation). ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ...


Construction

The major components of a vibraphone are the bars, resonators, damper pad, motor and a frame to hold them all together. Vibraphones are usually played with mallets.


Bars

Interior of vibes exposed, showing deep arch and tuning marks in bar bottom, resonators, disks, damper bar and pins for holding bars.
Interior of vibes exposed, showing deep arch and tuning marks in bar bottom, resonators, disks, damper bar and pins for holding bars.

Vibraphone bars are made from aluminum, which is the most obvious way to distinguish a vibraphone from the other members of the mallet percussion family. Aluminum for vibraphone bars is normally obtained from standard commercial suppliers. For example, Musser has used the #2024-T4 product from Alcoa.[3] Different alloys of aluminum have slightly different tonal characteristics. Manufacturers must choose their preferred alloy carefully, balancing the tonal characteristics with the ability to obtain supply over the long term. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about the company. ...


Aluminum stock is purchased in long bars of the desired width and thickness, and then cut into the appropriate lengths. Next, holes are drilled through the width of bars at the two so-called "nodal" points. The nodal points are the points near the ends of the bar where the wave-like fundamental vibration of a sounding bar causes little or no movement of the bar itself, theoretically at a proportion of 0.244 from each end of the bar.[3]


The next step in the basic shaping of the bar is to cut a deep arch in the base running between the nodal points. This deep arch is key to the "mellow" sound of the vibraphone (and marimba, which uses the same deep arch) compared to the xylophone, which uses a shallower arch, and the glockenspiel, which has no arch at all. Vibrating rectangular bars have three primary modes of vibration.[3] The deep arch causes these modes to align and create a consonant arrangement of intervals: a fundamental pitch, a pitch two octaves above that, and a third pitch an octave and a major third above the second. For the F3 bar that usually forms the lowest note on a vibraphone, there would be F3 as the fundamental, F5 as the first partial and A6 as the second partial.[3]


Once the bar has obtained its basic shape, it must be fine tuned. Normally, the dimensions and tolerances of the initial bar creation process are set to create a slightly sharp bar. If the bar is flat, its overall pitch structure can be raised by removing material from the ends of the bar. Once this slightly sharp bar is created, the individual tones can be tuned flatter by removing material from specific locations of the bar.[3]


The specific points from which to remove material are the "anti-nodal" points of each vibration mode. These are the points where there is the most movement of the bar. To tune the fundamental mode, the tuning point is in the center of the bar. Scraping material from there will lower the fundamental pitch without lowering the other partials, since these partials have nodal points there. The two outside anti-nodal points for the first partial, which has a 4:1 relation to the fundamental, are just inside the main nodal points and are used to tune that partial.[3] For most vibraphones, only the fundamental and first partial are tuned. The second partial can be tuned using appropriate anti-nodal points from its vibration mode.


Higher quality vibraphones tend to have "graduated" bars. That is, the lower bars are wider than the higher bars, graduating through a number of steps of decreasing width. This helps to balance the volume of the instrument across the entire range. Vibraphone bars can come in a variety of colors, usually silver or gold, but other colors are available, created by anodizing the bars after fine tuning. This has no effect on the tone of the bars. Bars are also available in matte or glossy finish. Some argue that there are tonal differences due to the finish.[citation needed] The iPod mini has an anodised aluminium surface, and comes in many colours Anodizing or Anodising is a process used to protect aluminium from abrasion and corrosion and to allow it to be dyed in a wide range of colors. ...


Resonators

Resonators are thin-walled tubes, usually made of aluminum but any suitably strong material will do. They are open at one end and closed at the other. Each bar is paired with a resonator whose diameter is slightly wider than the width of the bar, and whose length to the closure is one-quarter of the wavelength of the fundamental frequency of the bar. The resonator for A3 (the lowest A on a vibraphone) is approximately 15 inches long.[3] When the bar and resonator are properly in tune with each other, the vibrating air beneath the bar travels down the resonator and is reflected off the closure at the bottom, then returns back to the top and is reflected back by the bar, over and over, creating a much stronger standing wave and amplifying the fundamental frequency. The resonators, beside raising the upper end of the vibraphone's dynamic range, also affect the overall tone of the vibraphone, since they amplify the fundamental, but not the upper partials.[3]


There is a trade off between the amplifying effect of the resonators and the length of sustain of a ringing bar. Basically, all of the energy in a ringing bar has come from the initial mallet strike, and that energy can go to making the bar ring either louder or longer. This is not an issue with marimbas and xylophones, where the natural sustain time of the wooden bars is short, but vibraphone bars can ring for many seconds after being struck, and this effect is highly desirable in many circumstances. Therefore the resonators in a vibraphone are usually tuned to be slightly off from perfect to create a balance between loudness and sustain.


Another difference in vibraphone resonators is the presence of a rotating disk at the top of each resonator. The disks for a group of resonators are ganged together with a shaft that can be driven from an electric motor to cause the disks to rotate. When the disks are open (standing vertically) the resonators have full function. When the disk are closed (lying horizontally) the vibrating column of air is blocked, reducing the amplification effect. As the disks rotate, this varies the amplitude of the instrument, creating the "vibrato" effect from which the instrument gets its name.


Some argue that calling this effect vibrato is incorrect, saying that vibrato is a variation in pitch, not amplitude. The correct term should be tremolo, a variation in amplitude, and therefore the vibraphone is incorrectly named; it should tremolophone. Others argue, [1] that the common usage of vibrato and tremolo is nowhere near that precise, even among experienced musicians who should presumably know better.


Damper pad

The damper pad is a strip of piano felt, usually about one inch wide and deep, that runs down the middle of the vibraphone. It is attached to hinges on the ends, and a spring assembly and pedal in the middle. When the pedal is up, the spring forces the damper pad up into contact with the bars, muffling any ringing bars. When the pedal is depressed, the damper bar is pulled down, allowing the bars to ring freely.


The damper pad is the source of many maintenance headaches for vibraphone players. The pad must be perfectly level, both left-to-right and front-to-back, in order to contact all of the bars simultaneously. When it is not level, some bars will stop ringing before others, making it difficult to cleanly articulate. After some years of use, the bars can make indentations in the pad where they normally rest, compressing the felt and sometimes causing buzzing as the bars contact the pad. Also, when the bars are struck while the damper pad is up, the pad can transfer the force of the impact into the frame, rattling anything that is loose.


In the early 1990s, vibraphonist John Mark Piper designed a new vibraphone for Musser that, among other innovations, included a water-filled damper pad. Later that decade, custom vibraphone maker Nico van der Plas improved on the idea by using silicone gel as the filling. These pads eliminate impact transference and provide more even dampening. Many vibraphones have been retrofitted with gel pads, although the vast majority of vibraphones still use felt dampers.


Motor

Vibraphones usually have an electric motor and pulley assembly mounted on one side or the other to drive the disks in the resonators. The early vibraphones used motors that were intended to power record player turntables,[1] and had limited or no speed adjustment capabilities. Whatever speed adjustments were possible were made by moving the drive belt among a small number of pulleys (usually three) of varying diameters.


Later, variable speed AC motors became available at reasonable prices. These motors allow the adjustment of the rotating speed via a potentiometer mounted on a control panel near the motor. They typically support rotation rates from about 1 Hz to about a dozen Hz. These motors remained the preferred solution until the 1990s, and even as of 2007 are still the most widely used.


During the 1990s, some manufacturers began using computer-controlled servo stepping motors. These motors allow rotation rates so slow that they approach 0 Hz. The computer control also allows operations that are not possible with an analog motor, such as the ability to synchronize the rotation of the two resonator sets and stop the rotation at a desired state (all open, all closed, all half open, etc.).


Frame

The vibraphone frame offers a number of challenges to designers. It must be sturdy enough to endure the torsional forces created by the damper/spring/pedal assembly and the stresses of repeated transport and playing, while still being light enough for easy transport. Considering the weight of the bars alone, that doesn’t leave much left for the frame. Also, the bars must be securely attached to the frame, but not rigidly. Each bar must have some independent flex in order to ring.


Vibraphone frames consist of two end blocks, made of metal, wood or a combination, attached by various support members. The end blocks are normally approximately the same size as the two bars that are at the same end; therefore one block is significantly larger than the other.


The motor is attached to the frame at one end. The hinges for the damper bar are attached at each end, and the spring assembly and the pedal are usually attached in the middle. Two banks of resonator tubes are laid into grooves in the frame so that they straddle the damper bar. The resonators are not firmly fastened to the frame. The ends of the shafts that gang the disks are attached to the drive of the motor via a drive belt similar to an O-ring.


A bed for the bars is made by laying four wooden rails onto pins on the end blocks. Like the resonators, these rails are not firmly attached to the frame. Each rail has a series of pins with rubber spacers that will support the bars. The bars are arraigned into two groups, and a soft cord is passed through the nodal holes in the bars of each group. The bars are laid between the support pins, with the cord hooking the pins. The pins on the outside rails have U-shaped hooks and the cord just rests in the bend. The inside pins have a hook that grasps the cord and holds the bars in place against the force of the damper pad. The two ends of the cord are attached with a spring at one end to provide tension and flex.


The two rows of bars follow the piano convention of white and black keys, with the row nearer to the player corresponding to the white keys. As with the piano, the lower notes are on the player’s left. Unlike the marimba and the xylophone, the two rows of bars are in the same horizontal plane so that the damper bar will come in contact with both rows at the same time.


Frames come in a variety of styles, from functional to ornate, but, except for negatively via squeaks and rattles, they don’t really to contribute to the tonal qualities of the vibraphone. Some frames allow the distance between the bars and the resonators to be adjusted, to compensate for variations in air temperature, pressure and moisture that change the speed of sound and therefore the tuning of the bar/resonator system, but this is more common in marimbas that vibraphones. Other frames allow the adjustment of the height of the bar bed. It’s common to see players who don’t have this capability hunched over their instruments while they play as the standard height of non-adjustable frames is quite a bit too low for men of average height.


Mallets

Typical vibes mallets.
Typical vibes mallets.

Vibraphone mallets usually consist of a rubber ball core wrapped in yarn or cord and attached to a narrow dowel, most commonly made of rattan or birch (other materials, such as nylon, are sometimes used). Mallets suitable for the vibraphone are also generally suitable for the marimba; very few mallets are marketed as specific to one or the other instrument. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ...


The specific mallets used can have a great effect on the tonal characteristics of the sound produced, ranging from a clang of harsh clashes to a mellow ring with no obvious initial attack. Consequently, a dizzying array of mallets is available, offering variations in hardness, head size, weight, shaft length and flexibility.


Classical players must carry a wide range of mallet types to accommodate the changing demands of composers who are looking for particular sounds. Jazz players, on the other hand, since "we don’t know what we’re going to want to play until the second or two that we're there",[4] tend to stick to a single general-purpose mallet type that works well in all dynamic ranges. Often this choice becomes one of the defining items of the player's personal style. Many jazz players alter commercially available mallets to get just the tone they want.


Technique

Vibraphone busker. Notice that the resonators have been removed, presumably to ease transportation. Photo by David Shankbone.
Vibraphone busker. Notice that the resonators have been removed, presumably to ease transportation. Photo by David Shankbone.

The world of vibraphone players can be roughly divided into those who play with two mallets, and those who play with four. In reality the division is not quite so neat. Many players switch between two, three and four mallets depending on the demands of their current musical situations. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... A street musician with accordion in Bremen A performance comprises an event in which generally one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for the benefit of another group of people (the viewer or viewers, or audience). ...


Furthermore, concentrating on the number of mallets a player holds means missing the far more significant differences between the two-mallet and four-mallet playing styles. As of 2007, these differences are not quite as extensive as they were when Gary Burton first introduced the world to the four-mallet style in the 1960s, but they still exist to a large degree. Gary Burton (born on 23 January 1943 in Anderson, Indiana) is a jazz vibraphone player, known for developing the then-innovative technique of playing the instrument with four mallets, rather than the usual two. ...


Two-mallet style

The two-mallet approach to vibes is traditionally linear, playing like a horn. Two-mallet players usually concentrate on playing a single melodic line and rely on other musicians to provide accompaniment. Double stops (two notes played simultaneously) are sometimes used, but mostly as a reinforcement of the main melodic line, similar to the usual use of double stops in solo violin music. In jazz groups, two-mallet vibraphonists are usually considered part of the "front line" with the horn players, contributing solos of their own but contributing very little in the way of accompaniment to other soloists. The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ...


Two-mallet players use several different grips, with the most common being a palms-down grip that is basically the same as the matched grip used by drummers. The mallets are held between the thumb and index finger of each hand, with the remaining three fingers of each hand pressing the shafts into the down-facing palms. Strokes use a combination of wrist movement and fingertip control of the shaft.

Milt Jackson, circa 1980. Note his characteristic palms-inward two-mallet grip. Photo by S M O'Kelly.
Milt Jackson, circa 1980. Note his characteristic palms-inward two-mallet grip. Photo by S M O'Kelly.

Another popular grip is similar to the timpani grip. The mallets are again held between the thumb and index fingers and controlled with the remaining three fingers, but the palms are held vertically, facing inward towards each other. Most of the stroke action comes from the finger-tip control of the shafts. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 631 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1272 × 1208 pixel, file size: 224 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 631 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1272 × 1208 pixel, file size: 224 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Milton (Milt) Jackson (January 1, 1923 – October 9, 1999) was an American jazz vibraphonist and one of the most important figures in the hard bop style. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ...


Passages are usually played hand-to-hand with double-sticking (playing two notes in a row with the same hand) used when convenient in minimizing crossing the hands.


The player must pay close attention to the use of the damper pedal in order to cleanly articulate and avoid multiple notes ringing unintentionally at the same time. Since the notes ring for some significant fraction of a second when struck with the damper pad up, and ringing bars do not stop ringing immediately when contacted by the pad, a technique called "after pedaling"[5] is necessary. In this technique, the damper pedal is depressed marginally after the note is struck, shortly enough after so that the recently struck note continues to ring, but long enough after so that the previous note has stopped ringing.


Another damper technique is "half pedaling", where the pedal is depressed just enough to remove the spring pressure from the bars, but not enough so the pad has lost contact with the bars. This allows the bars to ring slightly longer than with the pad fully up and can be used to make a medium-fast passage sound more legato without pedaling every note. In musical notation legato indicates that musical notes are played smoothly. ...


Four-mallet style

The four-mallet vibraphone style is multi-linear, like-a-piano. "Thinking like a pianist, arranger, and orchestrator, the vibist approaches the instrument like a piano and focuses on a multi-linear way of playing."[6] In a jazz group, a four-mallet vibraphonist will often be considered part of the rhythm section, usually substituting for piano or guitar, and providing accompaniment for other soloists in addition to soloing herself. Furthermore, the four-mallet style has led to a significant body of unaccompanied solo vibes playing. One notable example is Gary Burton’s performance of "Chega de Saudade (No More Blues)" from his Grammy-winning 1971 album "Alone at Last".[7] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Although some early vibes players made use of four mallets, notably Red Norvo and sometimes Lionel Hampton, the fully-pianistic four-mallet approach is almost entirely the creation of Gary Burton. Many of the key techniques of the four-mallet style, such as multi-linear playing and the advanced dampening techniques describe below, are easily applied to playing with two-mallets and some modern two-mallet players have adapted these devices to their playing, somewhat blurring the distinctions between modern two- and four-mallet players. Red Norvo (31 March 1908- 6 April 1999) was one of jazzs early vibraphonists. ... Lionel Hampton with George W. Bush Lionel Leo Hampton (April 20, 1908, Louisville, Kentucky – August 31, 2002 New York City), was a jazz bandleader and percussionist. ... Gary Burton (born on 23 January 1943 in Anderson, Indiana) is a jazz vibraphone player, known for developing the then-innovative technique of playing the instrument with four mallets, rather than the usual two. ...

Vibraphonist Gary Burton and guitarist Julian Lage. Note the good view of the Burton four-mallet grip.
Vibraphonist Gary Burton and guitarist Julian Lage. Note the good view of the Burton four-mallet grip.

The most popular four-mallet grip for vibraphone is the Burton grip, named for Gary Burton. One mallet is held between the thumb and index finger and the other is held between the index and middle fingers. The shafts cross in the middle of the palm and extend past the heel of the hand. For wide intervals, the thumb often moves in between the two mallets and the inside mallet is held in the crook of the fingers. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gary Burton (born on 23 January 1943 in Anderson, Indiana) is a jazz vibraphone player, known for developing the then-innovative technique of playing the instrument with four mallets, rather than the usual two. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Also popular is the Stevens grip, named for marimbist Leigh Howard Stevens. Many other grips are in use, some variations on the Burton or Stevens, others idiosyncratic creations of individual vibes players. One common variation of the Burton grip places the outside mallet between the middle and ring fingers, instead of between the index and middle.[8] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Vibraphonist Joe Locke's idiosyncratic four-mallet grip. Many vibes players adapt the "standard" grips by varying degrees to suit their personal physiology and musical expression. Photo by Nadja von Massow.

Four-mallet vibists usually play scalar linear passages much the same as two-mallet players, using one mallet from each hand (outside right and inside left for Burton grip), except four-mallet players tend to make more use of double strokes, not only to avoid crossing hands but also to minimize motion between the two bar rows. For example, an ascending E flat major scale could be played L-R-R-L-L-R-R-L, keeping the left hand on the "black" bars and the right hand on the "white". For linear passages with leaps, all four mallets are often used sequentially.[6] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Joseph Paul Locke (born March 18, 1959 in Palo Alto, California, U.S.) - US jazz vibraphonist and composer. ...


Pedaling techniques are at least as important for the four-mallet vibist as for two-mallet players, but the all-or-nothing dampening system of the pedal/pad presents many obstacles to multi-linear playing since each line normally has its own dampening requirements independent of the other lines. To overcome this, four-mallet players use a set of dampening techniques referred to as "mallet dampening", in addition to the pedaling techniques used by two-mallet players. The mallet dampening techniques "are to the vibist as garlic and fresh basil are to the Northern Italian chef"[9] and contribute significantly to expressive four-mallet playing.


Mallet dampening includes "dead strokes" where a player strikes a bar, and then instead of drawing the mallet back, directly presses the head of the mallet onto the bar, causing the ringing to immediately stop. This produces a fairly distinctive "choked" sound and dead strokes are often used just for that particular sound in addition to the dampening aspects.


In hand-to-hand dampening, the vibist plays a note with one mallet, while simultaneously pressing another mallet onto a previously ringing bar. Usually the dampening mallet and the striking mallet are held in different hands, but advanced players can, in some circumstances, use two mallets from the same hand.[10] This is the most powerful of the mallet dampening techniques as it can be used to dampen any note on the instrument while simultaneously striking any other note.[9]


Slide dampening can be used to dampen a note that is physically adjacent to the new note being struck. The player strikes the new note and then controls the rebound of the mallet so that it slides over and onto the note to be dampened.[9] Sometimes slide dampening can make the new note sound "bent" or as if there is a glissando from the dampened note to the ringing one, as the two notes normally ring together for some short period of time. Glissando (plural: glissandi) is a musical term that refers to either a continuous sliding from one pitch to another (a true glissando), or an incidental scale played while moving from one melodic note to another (an effective glissando). ...


Hand dampening (also know as finger dampening[9]) can be used to dampen a white note while striking a nearby black note. As the player strikes a black note with a mallet, she simultaneously presses the heel of her hand or the side of her pinky finger onto the ringing white bar, using the same hand to strike the black note and dampen the white note. Using both hands, it's possible to dampen and strike two notes at once.


Specialty techniques

Pitch bending: This technique allows the pitch of a ringing bar to be smoothly lowered, or "bent", downward, by a half-step or so. To do this, the player replaces one of the normal mallets with a hard-headed mallet such as a hard plastic xylophone mallet or a brass glockenspiel mallet. The player presses the special mallet onto a ringing bar at the nodal point, and then slides the mallet out towards the middle or edge of the bar. This causes the mallet to start vibrating with the bar, adding its weight to the system and slowing the vibration. The player must be very careful in placing the hard mallet onto the bar in order to avoid a rattling as the mallet and bar come into contact.

Matthias Lupri using 2 cello bows on a vibraphone with electronic pickups, Vancouver Jazz Festival 2005.Photo Chris Cameron.
Matthias Lupri using 2 cello bows on a vibraphone with electronic pickups, Vancouver Jazz Festival 2005.
Photo Chris Cameron.

Bowing: In addition to striking the bars with mallets, the bars can be made to sound by drawing the bow of a string instrument along the edges. Since bars are fairly massive compared to strings, better results are obtained by using bows from the larger string instruments, at least a cello bow and often a double bass bow. Often a player will use two bows, one for the white bars and the other for the black. With bowing, the player is able to excite the bars directly to the pure ringing tone and eliminate many of the transient dissonant sounds that are present immediately after a mallet strikes. Image File history File linksMetadata LUPRIbowing. ... Image File history File linksMetadata LUPRIbowing. ... Matthias Lupri- vibraphonist Atlanta Jazz Festival, Photo by Rick Diamond Matthias Albrecht Lupri, jazz vibraphonist/composer (born Germany October 29, 1964) grew up in Kansas and Alberta, Canada. ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...


Five or six mallets: In order to achieve greater density of sound and richer chord voicings, some vibraphonists have experimented with three mallets per hand, either in both hands for a total of six mallets or in just the left hand for a total of five. Results can be interesting, especially five-mallet playing where the left hand "comps" in three note voicings while the right hand plays melodic lines, similar to the popular piano technique.[11] However, the grips tend to lead to limited musical possibilities, with little ability to adjust the interval between the outside and middle mallets and difficulties in playing hand-to-hand lines, and therefore use of five or six mallets is rare. Comping (an abbreviation of accompany) is the art of harmonically, rhythmically, and melodically supporting a jazz soloist with improvised chords. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ...


Other techniques: The vibraphone solo, "Mourning Dove Sonnet," composed by Christopher Deane, utilizes a four mallet grip with two cello (or bass) bows held where the outer mallets would be, with a yarn mallet for the main melodic playing and a plastic mallet for pitch bending in the inner positions.


Solo vibes videos

The large size of the vibraphone and the fast-moving mallets can create a great deal of visual interest during a vibraphone performance. Probably the best way to fully appreciate the capabilities of the vibraphone is to watch and listen to solo (unaccompanied) vibes performances. A number of high-quality solo vibes performances have been made available on the web. Here are some examples:

  • Tony Miceli (at http://www.larrysimprovpage.com/index.php?cont=1): Tony's "Quick and Dirty" videos cover topics of four-mallet technique and include performances of standard tunes such as "Come Rain or Come Shine", "Just Friends" and "Cherokee".

Vic Firth is one of the worlds oldest drum stick manufacturing companies. ... “Blues music” redirects here. ... The Percussive Arts Society (PAS) is an international music service organization promoting percussion education, research, performance and appreciation. ... Manhã De Carnaval is the Portuguese name of a popular song which appeared in the 1959 film Black Orpheus. ... Body and Soul is the title of a popular song written in 1930 by Edward Heyman, Robert Sour, Frank Eyton and John Green. ... Do You Know What It Means to Miss New Orleans is a song written by Eddie DeLange and Louis Alter, which was first heard in the movie New Orleans in 1947, where it was performed by Louis Armstrong and sung by Billie Holiday. ... Come Rain or Come Shine is a popular song written by Harold Arlen with lyrics by Johnny Mercer. ...

Classical music and film scores featuring the vibraphone

Classical

  • Harrison Birtwistle: Endless Parade (for solo trumpet, strings and vibraphone)
  • Pierre Boulez: Le marteau sans maître
  • Benjamin Britten: Spring Symphony (solo chords, with tremolo, introduce each choral stanza in the first movement)
  • Olivier Messiaen: Turangalîla Symphony
  • Olivier Messiaen: Saint-François d'Assise (Saint Francis of Assisi)
  • Olivier Messiaen: Trois Petites liturgies de la Présence Divine (Three small liturgies of the Divine Presence)
  • Olivier Messiaen: La Transfiguration de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ (The Transfiguration of Our Lord Jesus Christ), large 10-part chorus, piano solo, cello solo, flute solo, clarinet solo, xylorimba solo, vibraphone solo, large orchestra (1965-69)
  • Lior Navok: Quintet for Vibraphone and String Quartet
  • Michael Torke: "Saxophone Concerto"

Sir Harrison Paul Birtwistle, CH (born July 15, 1934) is a British composer, widely seen as one of the most significant modern composers from that country. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlɛz/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... Le marteau sans maître (The hammer without master) is a piece of classical music composed by the French composer Pierre Boulez. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... The Spring Symphony is Benjamin Brittens Opus 44. ... Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ... The Turangalîla-Symphonie is a large-scale piece of orchestral music by Olivier Messiaen. ... Saint François dAssise is a French opera in three acts and eight scenes by composer and librettist Olivier Messiaen, written from 1975 to 1983. ... Saint Francis of Assisi (born in Assisi, Italy, ca. ... La Transfiguration de Notre Seigneur Jesus-Christ (The Transfiguration of Our Lord Jesus Christ) is a piece of music that was written between 1965 and 1969 by Olivier Messiaen. ... American composer Michael Torke (born September 21, 1961 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin), studied at the Eastman School of Music and at Yale University, and writes accessible music influenced by jazz and minimalism. ...

Film scores

Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... More is a film directed by Barbet Schroder, released in 1969 starring Mimsy Farmer and Klaus Grunberg, dealing with heroin addiction on the island of Ibiza. ... Benoît Charest was born in 1964 in Canada. ... Les Triplettes de Belleville is an award-winning 2003 animated feature film written and directed by Sylvain Chomet. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses of the word, see Vertigo. ... Yann Tiersen (born June 23, 1970) is a French Avant-Garde/New Age Musician and composer known for his versatility, minimalist compositions, and virtuosity as a multi-instrumentalist. ... For other uses, see Amélie (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Williams, see John Williams (disambiguation). ... A film score is the background music in a film, generally specially written for the film and often used to heighten emotions provoked by the imagery on the screen or by the dialogue. ... Catch Me If You Can is a 2002 motion picture set in the 1960s. ...

Television themes

Frasier was an American sitcom starring Kelsey Grammer as psychiatrist Dr. Frasier Crane. ... Sex and the City is a popular American cable television program. ...

Popular music featuring the vibraphone

The Beach Boys are an American rock and roll band. ... Don Van Vliet (born Don Glen Vliet on January 15, 1941, in Glendale, California, USA) is a musician and visual artist, best known by the pseudonym Captain Beefheart. ... Safe as milk is a Norwegian music festival in Haugesund. ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... Freak Out!, released June 27, 1966 on MGM/Verve Records, is the debut album of The Mothers of Invention, led by Frank Zappa. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Ingenue is the second solo album by k. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... A Saucerful of Secrets is the second album by rock band Pink Floyd, and arguably one of the first progressive rock albums. ... Sufjan Stevens (IPA pronunciation: ) (born July 1, 1975) is an American singer-songwriter and musician from Petosky, Michigan. ... Illinois (pronounced or ill-i-NOY), also known as Come on feel the Illinoise, is a 2005 concept album by American songwriter Sufjan Stevens, with songs referencing places and people related to the U.S. state of Illinois. ... George Ivan Morrison OBE (generally known as Van Morrison) (born August 31, 1945) is a singer-songwriter from Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... For the Charles Mingus album, see Astral Weeks (Charles Mingus album). ... For other uses, see Supremes (disambiguation). ... I Hear a Symphony is a 1965 hit song recorded by The Supremes for the Motown label. ... Motown Records, Inc. ...

Jazz featuring the vibraphone

Gary Burton (born on 23 January 1943 in Anderson, Indiana) is a jazz vibraphone player, known for developing the then-innovative technique of playing the instrument with four mallets, rather than the usual two. ... Armando Anthony Chick Corea (born June 12, 1941) is a multiple Grammy Award winning American jazz pianist/keyboardist and composer. ... Bobby Hutcherson (born January 27, 1941 in Los Angeles) is a jazz vibraphone and marimba player. ... Grant Green Grant Green (June 6, 1935, St. ... Idle Moments is a 1963 jazz album by Grant Green, also featuring Joe Henderson on tenor saxophone, Bobby Hutcherson on vibes, Duke Pearson on piano, Bob Cranshaw on bass, and Al Harewood on drums. ... Milton (Milt) Jackson (January 1, 1923 – October 9, 1999) was an American jazz vibraphonist and one of the most important figures in the hard bop style. ... Contemporary jazz Vibist, Jerry Tachoir. ... Contemporary jazz Vibist, Jerry Tachoir. ... Spyro Gyra is an American jazz fusion band that was originally formed in the early 1970s. ... Dave Samuels was a vibraphone player who worked with various jazz and fusion artists, such as Spyro Gyra. ...

Notable vibraphone performers

Vibraphonists Bobby Hutcherson and Joe Locke performing at the 2007 JazzBaltica Festival in Salzau (North Germany, July 01, 2007). Photo by Nadja von Massow.
Vibraphonists Bobby Hutcherson and Joe Locke performing at the 2007 JazzBaltica Festival in Salzau (North Germany, July 01, 2007). Photo by Nadja von Massow.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bobby Hutcherson (born January 27, 1941 in Los Angeles) is a jazz vibraphone and marimba player. ... Joseph Paul Locke (born March 18, 1959 in Palo Alto, California, U.S.) - US jazz vibraphonist and composer. ... Peter Appleyard (born August 26, 1928) is a Canadian Jazz vibraphonist. ... Roy Ayers (born September 10, 1940, Los Angeles) is a funk, soul and jazz vibraphone player. ... The Funk Brothers were the house band at Detroits Motown Records from 1959 to 1972, when the company moved to Los Angeles. ... Gary Burton (born on 23 January 1943 in Anderson, Indiana) is a jazz vibraphone player, known for developing the then-innovative technique of playing the instrument with four mallets, rather than the usual two. ... 1957 Teddy Charles LP Teddy Charles (born Theodore Charles Cohen) April 13, 1928 in Chicoppe Falls, Massachusetts was a jazz pianist and drummer who switched to vibraphone. ... John Cocuzzi (born 1964) is an American jazz, blues, and swing musician who specializes in vibraphone and piano, as well as drums. ... Eddie Costa is an American jazz pianist based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Bobby Darin (born Walden Robert Bobby Cassotto, 14 May 1936-December 20, 1973) was one of the most popular American big band performers and rock and roll teen idols of the late 1950s. ... Mike Tree Frog Dillon Mike Dillon (born Denton, Texas, USA) is a percussionist and vibraphonist. ... Lars Erstrand is a world famous Swedish vibraphonist, born in 1936. ... Victor Stanley Feldman (April 7, 1934 in Edgware, Middlesex – May 12, 1987, in Los Angeles, California, USA) was a British jazz musician. ... Terry Gibbs (1924 - ) is an American jazz vibraphonist and band leader. ... Lionel Hampton with George W. Bush Lionel Leo Hampton (April 20, 1908, Louisville, Kentucky – August 31, 2002 New York City), was a jazz bandleader and percussionist. ... Stefon Harris is an American jazz vibraphonist, considered one of the most promising young jazz musicians today. ... Edward Tubby Hayes (1935-1973} was a British jazz tenor saxophone player. ... Bobby Hutcherson (born January 27, 1941 in Los Angeles) is a jazz vibraphone and marimba player. ... Milton (Milt) Jackson (January 1, 1923 – October 9, 1999) was an American jazz vibraphonist and one of the most important figures in the hard bop style. ... Film still from A Study in Brown Reg Kehoe and his Marimba Queens was a marimba-based musical group active from the late 1930s to the mid-1950s. ... Joseph Paul Locke (born March 18, 1959 in Palo Alto, California, U.S.) - US jazz vibraphonist and composer. ... Matthias Lupri- vibraphonist Atlanta Jazz Festival, Photo by Rick Diamond Matthias Albrecht Lupri, jazz vibraphonist/composer (born Germany October 29, 1964) grew up in Kansas and Alberta, Canada. ... Steps Ahead (originally known as Steps) is a jazz fusion group and the brainchild of vibraphonist Mike Mainieri. ... Dan McCarthy is a Canadian jazz vibraphone player, often crossing over into the world of pop and folk with his music. ... Elf Power is a psychedelic indie rock band. ... Of Montreal is an American indie pop band formed in Athens, Georgia, fronted by Kevin Barnes. ... Jaga Jazzist is an experimental jazz band that rose to prominence when the BBC named their fourth album, The Stix (Ninja Tune/Smalltown Supersound), the best jazz album of 2002. ... The Salsoul Orchestra, a classical orchestra conducted by Vincent Montana Jr. ... Steve Nelson is a common name that refers to many people The New England Patriots American football player Steve Nelson The vibraphonist Steve Nelson The disc jockey and radio producer Steve Nelson The singer songwriter Steve Nelson (stevenelsonmusic. ... Red Norvo (31 March 1908- 6 April 1999) was one of jazzs early vibraphonists. ... David Samuel Pike (born March 23, 1938 in Detroit) is a jazz vibraphone player. ... Tito Puente, Sr. ... Dr. Steve Raybine is a vibraphonist performing and teaching in Omaha, Nebraska. ... Orphy Robinson is a vibraphone and marimba player and composer from London, UK specialising in jazz, fusion, and funk. ... Dave Samuels was a vibraphone player who worked with various jazz and fusion artists, such as Spyro Gyra. ... Contemporary jazz Vibist, Jerry Tachoir. ... Cal Tjader (July 16, 1925–May 5, 1982) was an American Latin jazz musician. ... James Westfall is a jazz vibraphonist born in Houston, Texas. ...

Vibraphone recordings

  • Vibraphone Orchestra.ogg

    Footage from the early 1940s of an orchestra of marimbists and a vibraphonist. (16.1 MB, ogg/Theora format).


    Vibraphone Orchestra, early 1940s. ... Vibraphone Orchestra, early 1940s. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

See also

Most orchestral glockenspiels are mounted in a case. ... This postcard from 1906 illustrates the method of early lithophone performances in Luray Caverns, Virginia, United States A lithophone is a musical instrument consisting of a plurality of rocks or pieces of rock, in which musical notes are sounded by striking one or more of the rocks in combination (harmony... The marimba ( ) is a musical instrument in the percussion family. ... The marimbaphone is a tuned percussion instrument. ... Generally speaking, a metallophone is any musical instrument consisting of tuned metal bars which are struck to make sound, usually with a mallet. ... Kulintang a Kayo, a Philippine xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f The Vibraphone: A Summary of Historical Observations with a Catalog of Selected Solo and Small-Ensemble Literature; by Harold Howland; Percussionist, volume 13, no. 2, Summer 1977
  2. ^ Musser History, http://www.ludwig-drums.com/content/musser_history.php
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Acoustics of Bar Percussion Instruments; James L. Moore, Ph.D.; Permus Publications
  4. ^ Gary Burton Mallet Demo (video), http://www.vicfirth.com/artists/burton.html
  5. ^ Ed Saindon, Technical Considerations (video), http://www.vicfirth.com/artists/saindon.html
  6. ^ a b Ed Saindon, Sound Development and Four-Mallet Usage for Vibes, http://www.vicfirth.com/artists/saindon/saindon_article.pdf
  7. ^ Gary Burton Biography, http://www.garyburton.com/bio.html
  8. ^ Tony Miceli, The Miceli Stoned Grip (video), http://www.larrysimprovpage.com/index.php?vids=4&cont=1
  9. ^ a b c d The Vibes Real Book, Arthur Lipner, MalletWorks Music, 1996
  10. ^ Do You Know What It Means (to Miss New Orleans) (video), Ed Saindon, http://www.vicfirth.com/artists/saindon.html
  11. ^ Ed Saindon, demonstration
  • Introduction to Jazz Vibes; by Gary Burton; Creative Music; 1965.
  • Vibraphone Technique: Dampening and Pedaling; by David Friedman; Berklee Press Publications; 1973.
  • Contemporary Mallet Method - An Approach to the Vibraphone and Marimba; by Jerry Tachoir: Riohcat Music; 1980

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vibraphone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (885 words)
The vibraphone, sometimes called the vibraharp or simply the vibes, is a musical instrument in the percussion family.
It is similar in appearance to the xylophone, although the vibraphone uses metal bars instead of the wooden bars on the xylophone.
The vibraphone was invented in the United States in 1921.
Vibraphone (225 words)
The vibraphone is a descendent of the African xylophone, of the marimba found in Guatemala and Mexico and of instruments of the gamelan
The vibraphone also has a sustain pedal like a piano that when depressed allows the notes to ring until the pedal is lifted again.
The vibraphone originally got its name because it has a motor that turns metal discs, called pulsators, located under the bars at the openings of the resonators or tubes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m