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Encyclopedia > Veto

The word 'veto' comes from a Latin word and literally means I forbid. It is used to denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of legislation. In practice, the veto can be absolute (as in the U.N. Security Council, whose permanent members can block any resolution) or limited (as in the legislative process of the United States, where two-thirds of Congress can override the President's veto). Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... The United Nations Security Council veto power is a veto power wielded solely by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, enabling them to void any Security Council substantive resolution regardless of the level of general support. ... Membership can refer to: Set membership - comprising part of a set in mathematics Social group membership - in sociology, the process of socialisation aims/results in achieving membership of a social group This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ...


A veto gives power, possibly unlimited, to stop changes, but not to adopt them. The influence that the veto conveys to its holder is therefore directly proportional to the holder's conservatism, broadly defined. The more the holder likes the current state of affairs, the more useful the veto. This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ...


The veto originated with the Roman consuls and tribunes. Either of the two consuls holding office in a given year could block a military or civil decision by the other; any tribune had the power to unilaterally refuse legislation passed by the Roman Senate.[citation needed] Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by several elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Consul (abbrev. ... Ancient Roman Official. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...

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Papal elections

The term veto or exclusion or royal veto might also refer to a form of secular interference in papal conclaves. Certain Catholic monarchs, such of those of France, Austria, and Spain, were acknowledged, tacitly at least, as having the right to exclude a cardinal as a candidate for election. The last time the veto was exercised was by Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary, to exclude Cardinal Mariano Rampolla, in 1903. Rampolla was not elected, and the new pope, Pius X, banned the practice. Secular interference of any kind in a papal election is now forbidden in canon law. [1] In mathematics, inclusion is a partial order on sets. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... Franz Joseph I Franz Joseph (in English also Francis Joseph) (August 18, 1830 - November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and King of Hungary from 1867 until 1916. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Mariano Cardinal Rampolla del Tindaro (Polizzi Generosa, Sicily, August 17, 1843 – December 17, 1913, Rome) was a Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Pope Pius X (1903-1914), pictured in 1904, wearing the 1834 Triple Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI Saint Pius X, né Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 - 20 August 1914) was Pope from 1903 to 1914, succeeding Pope Leo XIII. He was the first pope since the Counter-Reformation Pope... Canon law is the term used for the internal ecclesiastical law which governs various churches, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Communion of churches. ...


See, Jus Exclusivae Jus Exclusivæ[[1]], or papal veto was the right, claimed by three Catholic powers, France, Spain, and Austria, to veto a candidate for the Papacy. ...


Poland

In the constitution of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Poland, there was an institution called the liberum veto. All bills had to pass the Sejm (Parliament) by unanimous consent, and if any legislator voted nay on anything, this not only vetoed that bill but dissolved that legislative session itself. The concept originated in the idea of "Polish democracy", that any Pole of noble extraction was as good as any other, no matter how low or high his material condition might be. It was never exercised in practice under the rule of the strong Polish royal dynasties, but these came to an end in the mid-1600s, and were followed by an elective kingship. As might be expected, the more and more frequent use of this veto power paralyzed the power of the legislature, and, combined with a string of weak figurehead kings, led ultimately to the partitioning and dissolution of the Polish state in the following century. Liberum veto (Latin: free veto) was a parliamentary device in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that allowed any deputy to a Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify all legislation already passed at it. ... Unanimity is a complete agreement by everyone. ...


Switzerland

In Switzerland, the government cannot stop legislation by itself, but 50,000 voters or eight cantons can demand that a law enacted or certain treaties ratified by the Federal Assembly be made subject to a binding popular referendum. When this constitutional rule was introduced in the 19th century, it was widely referred to as the "people's veto". The twenty-six cantons of Switzerland are the states of the federal state of Switzerland. ... The Bundeshaus (Swiss parliament building) The Federal Assembly (in German, Bundesversammlung; in French, Assemblée fédérale; in Italian language, Assemblea federale), is Switzerlands federal parliament. ... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


United Nations

In the United Nations Security Council, the five permanent members (the United States, Russia, the People's Republic of China, France and the United Kingdom) have veto power. If any of these countries votes against a proposal, it is rejected, even if all of the other member countries vote in favour. The UN Security Council Veto Power is a power wielded solely by the 5 permanent members of the UN Security Council, enabling them to void any Security Council resolution regardless of the level of general support. ... “UNSC” redirects here. ...


Westminster Systems

In Westminster Systems and most constitutional monarchies, the power to veto legislation by withholding the Royal Assent is a rarely-used reserve power of the monarch. In practice, the Crown follows the convention of exercising its prerogative on the advice of its chief advisor, the prime minister. The Houses of Parliament in London The Westminster system is a democratic, parliamentary system of government modeled after that of the United Kingdom system, as used in the Palace of Westminster, the location of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... A reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state of a country in certain exceptional circumstances. ...


Australia


Since the Statute of Westminster (1931) the Crown of the United Kingdom and its Parliament may not veto or repeal any Act of the Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia on the grounds that is repugnant to the laws and interests of the United Kingdom.[2] Other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations (not to be confused with the Commonwealth of Australia), such as Canada and New Zealand, are likewise affected. However, according to the Australian Constitution(sec. 59), the Queen may veto a bill that has been given royal assent by the Governor-General within one year of the legislation being assented to. [3] The Queen has a similar power in Canada and New Zealand.The Australian Governor-General himself or herself has, in theory, power to veto, or more technically, withhold assent to, a bill passed by both houses of the Australian Parliament, and contrary to the advice of the prime minister.[4] This may be done without consulting the sovereign. This reserve power is however, constitutionally arguable, and it is difficult to foresee an occasion when such a power would need to be exercised. It is possible that a Governor-general might so act if a bill passed by the Parliament was criminal, illegal or in violation of the Constitution.[5] One might argue however, that a government would be hardly likely to present a bill which is so open to rejection. Many of the vice-regal reserve powers are untested, because of the brief constitutional history of the Commonwealth of Australia, and the observance of the convention that the head of state acts upon the advice of his or her chief minister. With regard to the six governors of the states which are federated under the Australian Commonwealth, a somewhat different situation exists. Until the Australia Act 1986, each state was constitutionally dependent upon the British Crown directly. Since 1986 however they are fully independent entities, although the Queen still appoints governors on the advice of the state head of government, the premier. So the Crown or UK Parliament may not veto or overturn any act of a state governor or state legislature. Paradoxically, the states are more independent of the Crown than the federal government and legislature. [6] State constitutions determine what role a governor plays. In general the governor exercises the powers the sovereign would have, including the power to withhold the Royal Assent. ... The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as The Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states all of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom, except for Mozambique and the United Kingdom itself. ... The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 (in full, An Act to constitute the Commonwealth of Australia) is the primary constitutional text of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Parliament House, Canberra The Parliament of Australia is a bicameral parliament consisting of the Queen of Australia, the House of Representatives (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house or house of review). Section 1 of the Constitution of Australia provides that: The legislative power of the Commonwealth shall... A reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state of a country in certain exceptional circumstances. ... The Australia Act of 1986 (No. ... A premier is an executive official of government. ...



United Kingdom


In the United Kingdom, the royal veto was last exercised in 1707 or 1708 by Queen Anne with the Scottish Militia Bill 1708. Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England and Ireland and Queen of Scots on 8 March 1702. ... The Scottish Militia Bill is the usual name given to a bill that was passed by the House of Commons and House of Lords in spring 1708, but was vetoed by Queen Anne. ...


In nations of the Commonwealth where the Westminster System is followed, the reserve power, and therefore the power of withholding the Royal Assent, is generally exercised by the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, usually styled Governor-General or Governor. The nature of the power and how it is exercised may be, and usually is, determined by the legislatures of the nations. The English noun Commonwealth dates originally from the fifteenth century. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ...


United States

The word "veto" does not appear in the United States Constitution. Per U.S. Const., Article I, Section 7 all legislation passed by both houses of Congress must be presented to the President. This presentation is in the President's capacity as head of state. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article One of the United States Constitution Article One of the United States Constitution states the establishment of the legislative branch of the United States government, known as Congress, which includes the House of Representatives and the Senate. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ...


If the President approves of the legislation, he signs it. If he does not approve, he must return the bill, unsigned, within ten days (excluding Sundays) to the house of Congress in which it originated. The President is constitutionally required to state his objections to the legislation in writing, and the Congress is constitutionally required to consider them, and to reconsider the legislation. President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... Look up bill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


If the Congress overrides the veto by a two-thirds majority in each house, it becomes law without the President's signature. Otherwise, the bill fails to become law unless it is presented to the President again and he chooses to sign it. A majority is a subset of a group that is more than half of the entire group. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... John Hancocks signature is one of the most prominent on the United States Declaration of Independence. ...


A bill can also become law without the President's signature if, after it is presented to him, he simply fails to sign it within the ten days noted. But if there are fewer than ten days left in the session before Congress adjourns, and if Congress does so adjourn before the ten days have expired in which the President might sign the bill, then the bill fails to become law. This procedure, when used as a formal device, is called a pocket veto. Look up bill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Session in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pocket veto is a legislative maneuver in American federal lawmaking. ...


During his presidency, Ronald Reagan vetoed a total of 78 spending bills. In 1996, the Congress passed, and President Clinton signed, the Line Item Veto Act of 1996. This act allowed the President to veto individual items of budgeted expenditures from appropriations bills instead of vetoing the entire bill and sending it back to the Congress. However, this line-item veto was immediately challenged by members of Congress who disagreed with it. In 1998, the Supreme Court declared that the line-item veto was unconstitutional. The Court found the language of the Constitution required each bill presented to the President to be either approved or rejected as a whole. An action by which the President might pick and choose which parts of the bill to approve or not approve amounted to the President acting as a legislator instead of an executive and head of state - and particularly as a single legislator acting in place of the entire Congress - thereby violating the Separation of Powers doctrine. (See Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998).) 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Order: 42nd President Term of Office: January 20, 1993–January 20, 2001 Preceded by: George H. W. Bush Succeeded by: George W. Bush Date of birth: August 19, 1946 Place of birth: Hope, Arkansas Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Hillary Rodham Clinton Political party: Democratic Vice... The Line Item Veto Act of 1996 enacted a line-item veto for the Federal Government of the United States, but its effect was brief due to judicial review. ... Look up Act on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Act may refer to: in law, a written document that attests the legality of the transaction. ... Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. ... In government, the line-item veto is the power of an executive to nullify or cancel specific provisions of a bill, usually budget appropriations, without vetoing the entire legislative package. ... Type Bicameralism Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D, since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D, since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Holding The Presidents unilateral striking of portions of legislation passed by Congress pursuant to the Line Item Veto Act was without legal force, because the U.S. Constitution did not authorize the President to enact federal law of which both houses of Congress had not previously approved the text. ...


In 2006, Senator Bill Frist introduced the Legislative Line Item Veto Act of 2006 in the United States Senate. Rather than provide for an actual legislative veto, however, the procedure created by the Act provides that, if the President should recommend rescission of a budgetary line item from a budget bill he previously signed into law - a power he already possesses pursuant to U.S. Const. Art. II - the Congress must vote on his request within ten days. Insomuch as the legislation that be the question of the President's request (or "Special Message," in the language of the bill) will have already been enacted and signed into law, either by this president or a prior president, any action by the Congress would be ordinary legislative action, not any kind of veto - whether line-item or legislative or any other sort. For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... William Harrison Bill Frist, Sr. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is...


In 1982, the Supreme Court had struck down the one-house legislative veto, also on separation of powers grounds and on grounds that the action by one house of Congress violated the Constitutional requirement of bicameralism. The case was INS v. Chadha, concerning a foreign exchange student in Ohio who had been born in Kenya but whose parents were from India. Because he was not born in India, he was not an Indian citizen. Because his parents were not Kenyan citizens, he was not Kenyan. Thus, he had nowhere to go when his student visa expired because neither country would take him, so he overstayed his visa and was ordered to show cause why he should not be deported from the United States. 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A legislative veto exists in governments that separate executive and legislative functions if actions by the executive can be rejected by the legislative. ... It has been suggested that Balance of powers be merged into this article or section. ... INS v. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ...


The Immigration and Nationality Act was one of many acts of Congress passed since the 1930s, which contained a provision allowing either house of that legislature to nullify decisions of agencies in the executive branch simply by passing a resolution. In this case, Chadha's deportation was suspended and the House of Representatives passed a resolution overturning the suspension, so that the deportation proceedings would continue. This, the Court held, amounted to the House of Representatives passing legislation without the concurrence of the Senate, and without presenting the legislation to the President for consideration and approval (or veto). Thus, the Constitutional principle of bicameralism and the separation of powers doctrine were disregarded in this case, and this legislative veto of executive decisions was struck down.


The Presidents of the Continental Congress (1774 - 1781) did not have the power of veto. Nor could the President veto an act of Congress under the Articles of Confederation (1781 - 1789), though he possessed certain recess and reserve powers that were not necessarily available to the predecessor President of Continental Congress. But with the enactment of America's second constitution, the United States Constitution (drafted 1787; ratified 1788; fully effective since 4 March 1789), veto power was conferred upon the person titled "President of the United States." The President of the Continental Congress was the presiding officer of the Continental Congress. ... The Continental Congress is the label given to these two girls that i know. ... The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ...


The presidential veto power was first exercised on April 5, 1792 when George Washington vetoed a bill designed to apportion representatives among the several states. The Congress first overrode a presidential veto - that is, passed a bill into law notwithstanding the President's objections - on March 3, 1845.[citations needed] April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first president of the United States under the U.S. Constitution. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Party State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Most U.S. states also have a provision by which legislative decisions can be vetoed by the governor. In addition, most of these states allow the governor to exercise a line-item veto.

See also: List of United States presidential vetoes
See also: Line-item veto

The word veto does not appear in the United States Constitution, but Article I requires every bill, order, resolution or other act of legislation by the Congress of the United States to be presented to the President of the United States for his approval. ... In government, the line-item veto is the power of an executive to nullify or cancel specific provisions of a bill, usually budget appropriations, without vetoing the entire legislative package. ...

See also

The Power of Veto is an item in the TV Series Big Brother. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Veto - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (948 words)
The legislative veto, by which Congress had nullified certain exercises of powers the body had delegated to the executive branch, was ruled unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in INS v.
The veto power in the United States Constitution was derived from the British method of Royal Assent.
Veto is also the name of a former student society from Delft in the Netherlands.
UN Security Council Veto Power - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1040 words)
The veto system was established to protect the interests of the founding members of the United Nations, which were the countries that won World War II.
Veto." In fact, the Soviet Union was responsible for nearly half of all vetoes ever cast--79 vetoes were used in the first ten years.
The greatest political dustup caused by a veto threat was when France threatened to veto a resolution on the Iraq war.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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