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Encyclopedia > Vespasian
Vespasian
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Bust of Vespasian
Reign 1 July 6923 June 79
Full name Caesar Vespasianus Augustus
Born 17 November 9
Falacrina
Died 23 June 79
Rome
Buried Rome
Predecessor Vitellius
Successor Titus
Wife/wives Domitilla (died pre. 69)
Caenis (mistress and de facto wife c. 65–74)
Issue Titus, Domitian, Domitilla
Dynasty Flavian
Father Titus Flavius Sabinus I
Mother Vespasia Polla
Roman imperial dynasties
Flavian dynasty
Vespasian
Children
   Titus
   Domitian
   Domitilla
Titus
Children
   Julia Flavia
Domitian
Children
   1 son, 1 daughter, both died young

Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. Vespasian was the founder of the short-lived, though influential, Flavian dynasty, being succeeded as emperor by his sons Titus and Domitian. He ascended the throne at the end of the tumultuous Year of the Four Emperors. Vespasian's reign is best known for his reforms following the demise of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, the campaign against Judaea, and for starting the construction of the Colosseum. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Emperor Vespasian An old, beginning of the 20th century photo plate. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Year of the four emperors: After Neros death, Galba, Otho and Vitellius all serve as emperor for a short time each before Vespasian takes over. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... AD79 Events June 23 - Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as Roman emperor. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... For other uses, see 9 (disambiguation). ... Falacrina (Latin. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... AD79 Events June 23 - Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as Roman emperor. ... Vitellius, Museo Nazionale della Civiltà Romana, Rome Aulus Vitellius Germanicus (September 24, 15–December 22, 69) was Roman Emperor from April 17 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the four emperors. He was the son of Lucius Vitellius, who had... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Flavia Domitilla Major (Major, Latin for the elder) Flavia Domitilla the Elder or Domitilla the Elder (died before 69) was the wife of the Roman Emperor Vespasian. ... In Greek mythology, Caeneus was originally a Thessalonian woman, Caenis, the daughter of Elatus. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Denarius depicting Flavia Domitilla the Younger Another denarius depicting Flavia Domitilla the Younger Flavia Domitilla the Younger or Flavia Domitilla Minor (Minor, Latin for the younger) was the only daughter to future Roman Emperor Vespasian by his wife Domitilla the Elder. ... The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... See also Titus Flavius Sabinus for other men of this name. ... Vespasia Polla (also known as Vespasia Pollio) was the mother of the Roman Emperor Vespasian, grandmother to Emperors to Titus and Domitian. ... The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Denarius depicting Flavia Domitilla the Younger Another denarius depicting Flavia Domitilla the Younger Flavia Domitilla the Younger or Flavia Domitilla Minor (Minor, Latin for the younger) was the only daughter to future Roman Emperor Vespasian by his wife Domitilla the Elder. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Julia Flavia (17 September 64 - 91) was the only child to the Emperor Titus from his second marriage to the well-connected Marcia Furnilla. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... For other uses, see 9 (disambiguation). ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... AD79 Events June 23 - Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as Roman emperor. ... Flavius was the name of a gens in ancient Rome, meaning blonde. The feminine form was Flavia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... The Year of the four emperors: After Neros death, Galba, Otho and Vitellius all serve as emperor for a short time each before Vespasian takes over. ... AD79 Events June 23 - Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as Roman emperor. ... The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ...

Contents

Family and early career

He was born in Falacrina, in the Sabine country near Reate. His father, Titus Flavius Sabinus, was an equestrian who worked as a customs official in Asia Province and a money-lender on a small scale in Aventicum, where Vespasian lived for some time. His mother, Vespasia Polla, was the sister of a Senator. Falacrina (Latin. ... The Rape of the Sabine Women by Giambologna The tribe of the Sabines (Latin Sabini - singular Sabinus) was an Italic tribe of ancient Italy. ... The city of Reate is believed to be established in approximately 9th century BC by the Sabini. ... See also Titus Flavius Sabinus for other men of this name. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... A customs duty is a tariff or tax on the import or export of goods. ... Roman conquest of Asia minor The Roman province of Asia was the administrative unit added to the late Republic, a Senatorial province governed by a proconsul who was an ex-consul, an honor granted only to Asia and the other rich province of Africa. ... Aventicum was the largest town and capital of Roman Switzerland (Civitas Helvetiorum). ... Vespasia Polla (also known as Vespasia Pollio) was the mother of the Roman Emperor Vespasian, grandmother to Emperors to Titus and Domitian. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


After prompting from his mother, Vespasian followed his older brother, also called Titus Flavius Sabinus, into public life. He served in the army as a military tribune in Thrace in 36. The following year he was elected quaestor and served in Crete and Cyrene. He rose through the ranks of Roman public office, being elected aedile on his second attempt in 39 and praetor on his first attempt in 40, taking the opportunity to ingratiate himself with the Emperor Caligula. See also Titus Flavius Sabinus for other men of this name. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Thraciae veteris typvs. ... For alternate uses, see Number 36. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Cyrene, the ancient Greek city (in present-day Libya) was the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities in the region and gave eastern Libya the classical name Cyrenaica that it has retained to modern times. ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Events Roman Empire Tigellinus, minister and favorite of the later Roman emperor Nero, is banished for adultery with Caligulas sisters. ... // Definition According to Cicero, Praetor was a title which designated the consuls as the leaders of the armies of the state. ... Events Roman Empire Caligula embarks on a campaign to conquer Britain, and fails miserably. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41), more commonly known by his nickname Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 37 to 41. ...


In the meantime, he married Flavia Domitilla, the daughter of an equestrian from Ferentium. They had two sons, Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. 41) and Titus Flavius Domitianus (b. 51), and a daughter, Domitilla (b. 39). Flavia died before Vespasian became emperor. Thereafter his mistress, Caenis, was his wife in all but name until she died in 74. Flavia Domitilla Major (Major, Latin for the elder) Flavia Domitilla the Elder or Domitilla the Elder (died before 69) was the wife of the Roman Emperor Vespasian. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... This article is about the year 51. ... Denarius depicting Flavia Domitilla the Younger Another denarius depicting Flavia Domitilla the Younger Flavia Domitilla the Younger or Flavia Domitilla Minor (Minor, Latin for the younger) was the only daughter to future Roman Emperor Vespasian by his wife Domitilla the Elder. ... Events Roman Empire Tigellinus, minister and favorite of the later Roman emperor Nero, is banished for adultery with Caligulas sisters. ... In Greek mythology, Caeneus was originally a Thessalonian woman, Caenis, the daughter of Elatus. ... For other uses, see number 74. ...


Upon the accession of Claudius as emperor in 41, Vespasian was appointed legate of Legio II Augusta, stationed in Germania, thanks to the influence of the Imperial freedman Narcissus. For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... Legio II Augusta, or Second Augustan Legion, was a Roman legion, levied by Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus in 43 BC, and still operative in Britannia in 4th century. ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century. ... poop. ... Tiberius Claudius Narcissus ( 1st century AD) was one of the freedmen who formed the core of the civil service under the Roman emperor Claudius. ...


Invasion of Britannia

In 43, Vespasian and the II Augusta participated in the Roman invasion of Britain, and he distinguished himself under the overall command of Aulus Plautius. After participating in crucial early battles on the rivers Medway and Thames, he was sent to reduce the southwest, penetrating through the modern counties of Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset, Somerset, Devon and Cornwall with the probable objectives of securing the south coast ports and harbours along with the tin mines of Cornwall and the silver and lead mines of Somerset. He fought thirty battles, captured twenty oppida (towns, or more probably hill forts, including Hod Hill and Maiden Castle in Dorset), subdued two powerful nations and reduced Vectis (the Isle of Wight), finally setting up a fortress and legionary headquarters at Isca Dumnoniorum. These successes earned him triumphal regalia (ornamenta triumphalia) on his return to Rome. Events Aulus Plautius, with 4 legions, landed on Britain. ... Roman invasion of Britain: Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... Aulus Plautius (lived 1st century) was the first governor of Roman Britain, serving from 43 to 47. ... The River Medway in England flows for 112 km from Turners Hill, in West Sussex, through Tonbridge, Maidstone and the Medway Towns conurbation in Kent, to the River Thames at Sheerness, where it is the latters last tributary. ... The Thames (pronounced //) is a river flowing through southern England, and one of the major waterways in England. ... Hampshire, sometimes historically Southamptonshire or Hamptonshire, (abbr. ... Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... Somerset is a county in the south-west of England. ... “Devonshire” redirects here. ... Cornwall (Cornish: ) is a county in South West England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ... Hod Hill (sometimes Hodd Hill) is one of the largest hill forts in Dorset, England, situated in the Blackmore Vale five miles north east of Blandford Forum. ... Maiden Castle is a hill fort, mostly dating from the Iron Age, situated 2 miles south of Dorchester, in Dorset, England. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... The Isle of Wight is an English island and county, off the southern English coast, to the south of the county of Hampshire. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this articles infobox may require cleanup. ...


Continued political career

Vespasian was elected consul for the last two months of 51, after which he withdrew from public life. He came out of retirement in 63 when he was sent as governor to Africa Province. According to Tacitus (ii.97), his rule was "infamous and odious" but according to Suetonius (Vesp. 4), he was "upright and, highly honourable". On one occasion he was pelted with turnips. Vespasian used his time in North Africa wisely. Usually governorships were seen by ex-consuls as opportunities to extort huge amounts of money to regain their wealth that they had spent on their previous political campaigns (usually very expensive!). Corruption was so rife, that it was almost expected that a governor would come back from these appointments with their pockets full. However, Vespasian used his time in North Africa making friends instead of money; something that would be far more valuable in the years to come. During his time in North Africa, he found himself in financial difficulties and was forced to mortgage his estates to his brother. To revive his fortunes he turned to the mule trade and gained the nickname mulio (mule-driver). Returning from Africa, Vespasian toured Greece in Nero's retinue, but lost Imperial favour after paying insufficient attention (some sources suggest he fell asleep) during one of the Emperor's recitals on the lyre, and found himself in the political wilderness. Consul (abbrev. ... This article is about the year 51. ... [edit] Events [edit] By place [edit] Roman Empire Vespasian becomes governor of Africa Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo was restored to command after the Roman debacle at the Battle of Rhandeia, he invaded Armenia and defeated Tiridates II, who accepted Roman sovereignty, Parthia withdrew from the war. ... Roman North Africa The Roman Empire ca. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... A barren of mules. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Great Jewish Revolt

Vespasian sestertius, struck in 71 to celebrate the victory in the Jewish Rebellion. The legend on the reverse says: IVDAEA CAPTA, "Iudaea conquered".

However, in 66, Vespasian was appointed to conduct the war in Iudaea, which was threatening unrest throughout the East. A revolt there had killed the previous governor and routed Licinius Mucianus, the governor of Syria, when he tried to restore order. Two legions, with eight cavalry squadrons and ten auxiliary cohorts, were therefore dispatched under the command of Vespasian to add to the one already there. His elder son, Titus, served on his staff. During this time he became the patron of Flavius Josephus, a Jewish resistance leader turned Roman agent who would go on to write his people's history in Greek. In the end, thousands of Jews were killed and many towns destroyed by the Romans, who successfully re-established control over Iudaea. Vespasian served for a time as procurator for Iudaea; he is remembered by Jews as a fair and humane official, in contrast to the notorious Herod the Great. Image File history File links Sestertius_-_Vespasiano_-_Iudaea_Capta-RIC_0424. ... Image File history File links Sestertius_-_Vespasiano_-_Iudaea_Capta-RIC_0424. ... The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 66 67 68 69 70 - 71 - 72 73 74 75 76 Events The Romans establish a fortress at York (Eboracum), as a base for their northern forces. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (years 66–73 CE), sometimes called The... Iudaea was the name of a Roman province, which extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... This article is about the year 66. ... It has been proposed below that Great Jewish Revolt be renamed and moved to First Jewish-Roman War. ... Iudaea was the name of a Roman province, which extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... Gaius Licinius Mucianus (fl. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... A procurator is the incumbent of any of several current and historical political or legal offices. ... Hordes (Hebrew: , ; Greek: , ; trad. ...


Year of Four Emperors

After the death of Nero in 68, Rome saw a succession of short-lived emperors and a year of civil wars. Galba was murdered by Otho, who was defeated by Vitellius. Otho's supporters, looking for another candidate to support, settled on Vespasian. For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... The forced suicide of emperor Nero, in 68 AD, was followed by a brief period of civil war (the first Roman civil war since Antonys death in 31 BC) known as the Year of the four emperors. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Emperor Otho. ... Vitellius, Museo Nazionale della Civiltà Romana, Rome Aulus Vitellius Germanicus (September 24, 15–December 22, 69) was Roman Emperor from April 17 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the four emperors. He was the son of Lucius Vitellius, who had...


According to Suetonius, a prophecy ubiquitous in the Eastern provinces claimed that from Judaea would come the future rulers of the world. Vespasian eventually believed that this prophecy applied to him, and found a number of omens, oracles, and portents that reinforced this belief. now. ... Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ... Omens or portents are signs encountered fortuitously that are believed to foretell the future. ...


He also found encouragement in Mucianus, the governor of Syria; and, although Vespasian was a strict disciplinarian and reformer of abuses, Vespasian's soldiers were thoroughly devoted to him. All eyes in the East were now upon him. Mucianus and the Syrian legions were eager to support him. While he was at Caesarea, he was proclaimed emperor (July 1, 69), first by the army in Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander, and then by his troops in Iudaea (July 11). Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Year of the four emperors: After Neros death, Galba, Otho and Vitellius all serve as emperor for a short time each before Vespasian takes over. ... Tiberius Julius Alexander ( 1st century AD) was a prominent equestrian governor and general of the Roman Empire. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ...


Nevertheless, Vitellius, the occupant of the throne, had Rome's best troops on his side — the veteran legions of Gaul and the Rhineland. But the feeling in Vespasian's favour quickly gathered strength, and the armies of Moesia, Pannonia, and Illyricum soon declared for him, and made him the de facto master of half of the Roman world. Vitellius, Museo Nazionale della Civiltà Romana, Rome Aulus Vitellius Germanicus (September 24, 15–December 22, 69) was Roman Emperor from April 17 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the four emperors. He was the son of Lucius Vitellius, who had... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ...


While Vespasian himself was in Egypt securing its grain supply, his troops entered Italy from the northeast under the leadership of M. Antonius Primus. They defeated Vitellius's army (which had awaited him in Mevania) at Bedriacum (or Betriacum), sacked Cremona and advanced on Rome. They entered Rome after furious fighting. In the resulting confusion, the Capitol was destroyed by fire and Vespasian's brother Sabinus was killed by a mob. The megalopolis of ancient Rome could never be fed entirely from its own surrounding countryside. ... Marcus Antonius Primus, Roman general, was born at Tolosa in Gaul (nowadays Toulouse in south-west France) about A.D. 30-35. ... Mevania (modern Bevagna), an ancient Roman town and municipium of (Umbria), in the Augustan Regio VI. It lay on the western branch of the Via Flaminia, 13 km (8 mi) WSW of Forum Flaminii where the branches rejoin. ... Cremona is a city in Northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left shore of the Po river in the middle of the Pianura padana (Po valley). ...


On receiving the tidings of his rival's defeat and death at Alexandria, the new emperor at once forwarded supplies of urgently needed grain to Rome, along with an edict or a declaration of policy, in which he gave assurance of an entire reversal of the laws of Nero, especially those relating to treason. While in Egypt he visited the Temple of Serapis, where reportedly he experienced a vision. Later he was confronted by two labourers who were convinced that he possessed a divine power that could work miracles. Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ... Traitor redirects here. ... Serapis can refer to: A series of British ships named HMS Serapis. ... In religion, visions comprise inspirational renderings, generally of a future state and/or of a mythical being, and are believed (by followers of the religion) to come from a deity, directly or indirectly via prophets, and serve to inspire or prod believers as part of a revelation or an epiphany. ... A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by a god in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ...


Vespasian as emperor

Leaving the war in Judaea to his son Titus, Vespasian arrived at Rome in 70. He at once devoted his energies to repairing the evils caused by civil war. He restored discipline in the army, which had become utterly demoralized under Vitellius. With the cooperation of the Senate, he put the government and its finances on a sound footing. This article is about the year 70. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


He renewed old taxes and instituted new ones, increased the tribute of the provinces, and kept a watchful eye upon the treasury officials. The Latin saying "Pecunia non olet" ("Money does not smell") may have been created when he had introduced a urine tax on public toilets. By his own example of simplicity of life—he caused something of a scandal when it was made known he took his own boots off—he put to shame the luxury and extravagance of the Roman nobles and initiated a marked improvement in the general tone of society in many respects. Pecunia non olet (Latin for money does not smell) is a Latin saying. ... Urine Tax was a tax levied by the Roman emperor Nero in the first century C.E. upon the collection of urine. ...


As censor, he reformed the Senatorial and Equestrian orders, removing unfit and unworthy members and promoting good and able men, among them Gnaeus Julius Agricola. At the same time, he made it more dependent upon the Emperor, by exercising an influence upon its composition. He altered the constitution of the Praetorian Guard, in which only Italians were enrolled into its nine cohorts. Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... Gnaeus Julius Agricola (July 13, 40 - August 23, 93) was a Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... A cohort was a sub-division of the Roman infantry, originally of a Roman legion, consisting of 480 men, itself divided in 6 centurias commanded each by a centurion. ...


In 70, a formidable rising in Gaul, headed by Gaius Julius Civilis, was suppressed by Vespasian's brother-in-law, Quintus Petillius Cerialis, and the German frontier made secure. The Jewish War was brought to a close by Titus's capture of Jerusalem. In the following year, the joint triumph of Vespasian and Titus, was memorable as the first occasion on which a father and his son were thus associated together in the Western world. The temple of Janus was closed (the signal that Rome was not at war) and the Roman world had peace for the remaining nine years of Vespasian's reign. "The peace of Vespasian" became a proverb. This article is about the year 70. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaius Julius Civilis was the leader of the Batavian rebellion against the Romans in 69 AD. By his name, it can be told that he (or one of his male ancestors) was made a Roman citizen (and thus, the tribe a Roman vassal) by either Augustus Caesar or Caligula. ... Quintus Petilius Cerialis Caesius Rufus (born around 30 AD) was a Roman general of the 1st century. ... It has been proposed below that Great Jewish Revolt be renamed and moved to First Jewish-Roman War. ... The Destruction of Jerusalem (specifically, the Second Destruction of Jerusalem) was the culmination of the successful campaign of Titus Flavius against Judea after an unsuccessful attack four years prior by Cestius Gallus. ... Roman bust of Janus, Vatican In Roman mythology, Janus was the god of gates, doors, doorways, beginnings, and endings. ... For the music piece by Steve Reich see Proverb (Reich) Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 78 Agricola went to Britain, and both extended and consolidated the Roman dominion in that province, pushing his way into what is now Scotland. In the following year Vespasian died, on June 23 of an intestinal inflammation which led to excessive diarrhea. For other uses, see number 78. ... Agricola can refer to a number of different topics and people,ha hja ha including: andrew is a turd The surname Agricola was often used as a Latin translation of one of these Germanic surnames: Bauer, Schneider, Schnitter, Hausmann, Huusman, Huysman, Huysmein. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 191 days remaining. ...


Views on Vespasian

The neutrality of this article or section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

The avarice with which both Tacitus and Suetonius stigmatize Vespasian seems really to have been an enlightened economy, which, in the disordered state of the Roman finances, was unnecessarily exaggerated. Rome needed a moneylender's son at this juncture who was as capable of operating a business as he was an Imperial administration. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


Vespasian could be liberal to impoverished Senators and equestrians and to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity. He was especially generous to men of letters and rhetors, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as 1,000 gold pieces a year. Quintilian is said to have been the first public teacher who enjoyed this imperial favor. Rhetoric (from Greek ρητωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar). ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ...


Pliny the Elder's work, the Natural History, was written during Vespasian's reign, and dedicated to Vespasian's son Titus. Some of the philosophers who talked idly of the good times of the Republic, and thus indirectly encouraged conspiracy, provoked Vespasian into reviving the obsolete penal laws against this profession. However, only one, Helvidius Priscus, was put to death, and he had affronted the Emperor by studied insults. "I will not kill a dog that barks at me," were words expressing the temper of Vespasian. Vespasian was indeed noted for mildness. He was also noted for loyalty to the people, for example, much money was spent on public works and the restoration and beautification of Rome: a new forum, the Temple of Peace, the public baths and the Colosseum. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Helvidius Priscus, Stoic philosopher and statesman, lived during the reigns of Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ...


Interesting note on the fame of its avarice is that in modern Italian language (2000 years after), the urinals are called "vespasiano", probably in reference to a tax the emperor placed on urine collection (useful due to its ammoniac content, see Pay toilet) A freestanding, coin-operated pay toilet stall in Paris. ...


In later literature

  • Marcus Didius Falco novels
  • Edward Rutherfurd's historical fiction novel Sarum contains an account of one the protagonists' (a Celtic chief) meeting Vespasian during his campaign through southern Britiannia.
  • In Simon Scarrow's Cato Series Vespasian, as legate under Aulus Plautius, is a regular secondary character.

Marcus Didius Falco is an endearing character in the novels of Lindsey Davis. ... Edward Rutherfurd is the author of a series of books chronicling the history of settlements through their development. ... Sarum could be Salisbury, or New Sarum, in Wiltshire, England Old Sarum, a settlement some way away from modern Salisbury A book by Edward Rutherfurd This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... UK based graduate who did a masters degree at the University of East Anglia after a spell at the Inland Revenue, and then went into teaching. ...

Sources

The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... The Histories (Latin: Historiae) is a book by Tacitus, written c. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ...

Further reading

  • Barbara Levick, Vespasian (Roman Imperial Biographies), Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0-415-16618-7 (hbk). ISBN 0-415-33866-2 (pbk, 2005)

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • Media related to Vespasianus from Wikimedia Commons.
  • Life of Vespasian (Suetonius; English translation and Latin original)
  • Biography on De Impertoribus Romanis.
  • Vespasian entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
Preceded by
Flavian Dynasty
69–96
Succeeded by
Titus
Preceded by
Vitellius
Roman Emperor
69–79
Succeeded by
Titus
Preceded by
Vitellius
Year of Four Emperors
68–69
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Fabius Valens and Arrius Antoninus
Consul of the Roman Empire
7072
Succeeded by
Domitian and Lucius Valerius Catullus Messallinus
Preceded by
Domitian and Lucius Valerius Catullus Messallinus
Consul of the Roman Empire together with Titus
7477
Succeeded by
Decimus Iunius Novius Priscus Rufus and Lucius Ceionius Commodus
Preceded by
Decimus Iunius Novius Priscus Rufus and Lucius Ceionius Commodus
Consul of the Roman Empire together with Titus
79
Succeeded by
Titus and Domitian
Suetonius' Lives of the Twelve Caesars, or de vita Caesarum
Julius Caesar  •  Augustus  •  Tiberius  •  Caligula  •  Claudius  •  Nero  •  Galba •  Otho •  Vitellius  •  Vespasian  •  Titus  •  Domitian

  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman Emperors - DIR Vespasian (2523 words)
Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla.
Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight.
Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period.
Vespasian - LoveToKnow 1911 (1093 words)
VESPASIAN, in full Titus Flavius Vespasianus, Roman emperor A.D. 70-79, was born on the 18th of November, A.D. 9, in the Sabine country near Reate.
Vespasian, who had a strong vein of superstition, was made to believe that he was himself to fulfil this expectation, and all manner of omens and oracles and portents were applied to him.
Vespasian could be liberal to impoverished senators and knights, to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity, and especially to men of letters and of the professor class, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as £boo a year.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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