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Encyclopedia > Vesicle

In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. Vesicles store, transport, or digest cellular products and wastes. Cell biology (also called cellular biology or cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline which studies cells. ... The cytosol (as opposed to cytoplasm, which also includes the organelles) is the internal fluid of the cell, and a large part of cell metabolism occurs here. ... A DPPC bilayer simulation Color scheme: PO4 = green, N(CH3)3 = violet, water = blue, terminal CH3 = yellow, O = red, glycol C = brown, chain C = grey In biology and chemistry, a lipid bilayer is a membrane or zone of membrane composed only of lipid. ... Digestion is the process whereby a biological entity processes a substance, in order to chemically convert the substance into nutrients. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... Waste inside a Trash can Waste is unwanted or undesired material left over after the completion of a process. ...


This biomembrane enclosing the vesicle is the same as that of the outer (cellular) membrane. Thus, because of the separation, the intravesicular environment can be made to be different from the cytosolic environment. Vesicles are a basic tool of the cell for organizing metabolism, transport, enzyme storage, as well as being chemical reaction chambers. Many vesicles are made in the Golgi apparatus, but also in the endoplasmic reticulum, or are made from parts of the plasma membrane. Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled with the liberation of energy, and the consequent generation of waste... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = leaven) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... In cell biology, the Golgi apparatus, Golgi body, Golgi complex, or dictyosome is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells, including those of plants and animals (but not most fungi). ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means within the cytoplasm, reticulum means little net) is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells. ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the cell membrane (or plasma membrane) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell. ...


Lysosomes (membrane-bound digestive vesicles) can digest macromolecules (break them down to small compounds) that were taken in from the outside of the cell by an endocytic vesicle. This is the basic way for a cell to feed (except for photosynthesis in plants, which don't have lysosomes). The membrane of the lysosome is impermeable for lysozyme, the enzyme that does the actual digestion, to protect the cell interior from being digested by its own enzyme. Lysosomes are made in the Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes are organelles in eukaryotic cells that contain digestive enzymes to digest macromolecules. ... Leaf. ... Categories: Stub | EC 3. ...


Neurons store neurotransmitters in synaptic vesicles located at presynaptic terminals. Neurons (also spelled neurones or called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... In a neuron, synaptic vesicles, also called neurotransmitter vesicles, store the various neurotransmitters that are released during calcium-regulated exocytosis at the presynaptic terminal into the synaptic cleft of a synapse. ...

Contents

Transport vesicles

Transport vesicles can move molecules between locations inside the cell, e.g., proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, and from there to the outer cell membrane, where they are secreted. They do this by budding off from one compartment and joining to another. The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means within the cytoplasm, reticulum means little net) is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells. ...


Anterograde transport vesicles

These are forward-moving vesicles.


Retrograde transport vesicles

These vesicles move from later to earlier cisterna. This article relates to cell biology. ...


Vesicles can be used as reaction chambers for chemical reactions that could damage the cell if they would occur in the cytosol. For example, peroxisomes are detoxifiers of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a toxic byproduct of cell metabolism. Large storage vesicles are known as vacuoles. Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotes. ... The chemical compound hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a viscous liquid that has strong oxidizing properties and is therefore a powerful bleaching agent that has found use as a disinfectant and (in high concentrations as high test peroxide) as an oxidizer or monopropellant in rockets. ... Vacuoles are large membrane-bound compartments within some eukaryotic cells where they serve a variety of different functions: capturing food materials or unwanted structural debris surrounding the cell, sequestering materials that might be toxic to the cell, maintaining fluid balance (called turgor) within the cell, exporting unwanted substances from the...


Mechanisms

Assembly of a protein coat drives vesicle formation and selection of cargo molecules.


Vesicle coat

The vesicle coat serves to sculpt the curvature of a donor membrane, and to select specific proteins as cargo. It selects cargo proteins by binding to sorting signals. In this way the vesicle coat clusters selected membrane cargo proteins into nascent vesicle buds.


See also:

In chemistry, a micelle (also micella, plural micellae) is a particular grouping of molecules. ...

External links

Organelles of the cell
Chloroplast | Mitochondrion | Centriole | Endoplasmic reticulum | Golgi apparatus | Lysosome | Myofibril | Nucleus | Peroxisome | Ribosome | Vacuole | Vesicle

  Results from FactBites:
 
Biophysical Journal: Early steps of supported bilayer formation probed by single vesicle fluorescence assays (1324 words)
Therefore, bilayer formation via vesicle fusion is expected to depend on the vesicle size and is thought to occur in four steps: single vesicle adsorption, fusion of vesicles on the surface to form larger vesicles, rupture of these vesicles to form bilayer disks on the surface, and final merging of the disks.
It was our goal to directly observe vesicle fusion and rupture events at the single vesicle level to avoid ensemble averaging and to capture the multi-step processes of vesicle fusion, rupture, and extended bilayer formation with sufficient time resolution.
When the effective areal concentration of the fluorescent lipids decreases upon fusion between a labeled vesicle and an unlabeled vesicle, an increase in red TR fluorescence is observed due to the decrease in fluorescence self-quenching (dequenching); however, the green fluorescence for encapsulated CF persists.
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