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Encyclopedia > Vertebrate
Vertebrates
Fossil range: mid Early Cambrian to Recent
Northern bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus
Northern bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
(unranked) Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Cuvier, 1812
Classes and Clades

See below The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 ± 1. ... Image File history File links Bluefin. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 at Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan, Japan The northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is a species of tuna fish, living in both the Western and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean and extending into the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Classes Hyperotreti Vertebrata Craniata is a type of chordate animal group that contains vertebrates (vertebrata) and hagfish (Hyperotreti). ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ...

Vertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata (within the phylum Chordata), specifically, those chordates with backbones or spinal columns. About 57,739 species of vertebrates have been described. Vertebrates started to evolve about 530 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion, which is part of the Cambrian period (first known vertebrate is Myllokunmingia). Their name derives from the bones of the spinal column (or vertebral column), the vertebrae. Vertebrata is the largest subphylum of chordates, and contains many familiar groups of large land animals. Fish (including lampreys, but traditionally not hagfish, though this is now disputed), amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals (including humans) are vertebrates. Characteristics of the subphylum are a muscular system that mostly consists of paired masses, as well as a central nervous system which is partly located inside the backbone (if one is present). In biology, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank intermediate between phylum and superclass. ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... The Cambrian explosion is the geologically kukko sudden appearance in the fossil record of the ancestors of familiar animals, starting about 542 million years ago (Mya). ... The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 ± 1. ... The Myllokummingia is a primitive, probably agnathid (jawless) fish from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan shales of China thought to be a vertebrate (see external links). ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded, covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey (sometimes also called lamprey eel) is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. ... Genera Eptatretus Myxine Nemamyxine Neomyxine Notomyxine Paramyxine Quadratus This article is about the Hagfish. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... The muscular system is the biological system of an organism that allows it to move. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...


Usually, the defining characteristic of a vertebrate is considered the backbone or spinal cord, a brain case, and an internal skeleton, but the latter do not hold true for lampreys, and the former is arguably present in some other chordates. Rather, all vertebrates are most easily distinguished from all other chordates by having an unequivocal head, that is, sensory organs - especially eyes are concentrated at the fore end of the body and there is pronounced cephalization. Compare the lancelets which have a mouth but no true head, and "see" with their entire back. Look up Backbone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey is a type of fish with a toothed, funnel-like, jawless sucking mouth, with which most species bore into the flesh of other fishes to suck their blood. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... A human eye Eyes are organs of vision that detect light. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Families Asymmetronidae Branchiostomidae The lancelets (subphylum Cephalochordata, and traditionally known as the amphioxus) are a group of primitive chordates. ...

Contents

Taxonomy

Classification after Janvier (1981, 1997), Shu et al. (2003), and Benton ([1]).

  • Superclass Tetrapoda (four-limbed vertebrates)
  • Class Aves (birds)

According to recent molecular analysis Myxini (hagfish) also belong to Vertebrates. Others consider them a sister group of Vertebrates in the common taxon of Craniata. Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth, with which most species bore into the flesh of other fishes to suck their blood. ... Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey (sometimes also called lamprey eel) is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. ... Conodont Conodonts are extinct worm-like forms with distinctive conical or multi-denticulate teeth made of apatite (calcium phosphate). ... Orders Arandaspida Heterostraci Thelodontidae Eriptychiida Astraspida Pteraspidomorphi is an extinct subclass of early jawless fish. ... Thelodonti is an alternative name for the taxon Coelolepida. ... Anaspida are a extinct marine subgroup of the agnatha. ... Galeaspida (galeaspids) are an extinct taxon of jawless marine fish and a subgroup of the Cephalaspidomorphi, which are itself a subgroup of the vertebrate. ... Pituriaspida are an extinct taxon of jawless marine fish and a subgroup of the Cephalaspidomorphi, which are itself a subgroup of the vertebrate. ... Osteostraci (Cephalaspidiformes) are an extinct marine subgroup of the agnatha. ... Classes Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Osteichthyes Gnathostomata is the group of vertebrates with jaws. ... Orders Antiarchi† Arthrodira† Petalichthyda† Phyllolepida† Ptyctodontida† Rhenanida† The Placodermi are armoured prehistoric fishes known from fossils dating from the late Silurian to the end of the Devonian Period. ... Subclasses and Orders See text. ... Orders Climatiiformes Ischnacanthiformes Acanthodiformes Acanthodii (sometimes called spiny sharks) is a class of extinct fishes, having features of both bony fish (Osteichthyes) and cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes). ... Classes Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Osteichthyes are a taxonomic superclass of fish, also called bony fish that includes the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) and lobe finned fish (Sarcopterygii). ... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... Subclasses Coelacanthimorpha - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Tetrapoda Sarcopterygii is traditionally the class of lobe-finned fishes, consisting of lungfish and coelacanths. ... Species Latimeria chalumnae Latimeria menadoensis Coelacanths (pronounced SEE-le-canth, meaning hollow spine in Greek) are lobe_finned fish with the pectoral and anal fins on fleshy stalks supported by bones, and the tail fin divided into three lobes, the middle one of which also has a stalk. ... Families See text. ... For the musical band, see Lungfish (band). ... Subgroups See text Tetrapodomorpha is a clade of vertebrates, consisting of sarcopterygians with a number of features of tetrapods. ... Groups See text. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Extant subgroups Synapsida     Mammalia (mammals) Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards and snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles and alligators)           Aves (birds) The amniotes are a group of vertebrates, comprising the mammals, birds, and various other groups collectively referred to as reptiles. ... Superclasses Anapsida Eurapsida Diapsida Reptilia was an old kingdom or phylum classification that has since been divided into 4 classes. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... Groups Caseasauria Eupelycosauria    Sphenacodontia       Therapsida          (...mammals) Synapsids (fused arch), formerly known as mammal-like reptiles, are a group of amniotes (reptiles and all their ancestors) that developed one hole in their skull (temporal fenestra) behind each eye, about 320 million years ago (Ma) during the late Carboniferous. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... Genera Eptatretus Myxine Nemamyxine Neomyxine Notomyxine Paramyxine Quadratus This article is about the Hagfish. ... Classes Hyperotreti Vertebrata Craniata is a type of chordate animal group that contains vertebrates (vertebrata) and hagfish (Hyperotreti). ...


See also

Invertebrate is a term that describes any animal without a spinal column. ...

Bibliography

References

External links

  • Tree of Life
  • Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates
Wikispecies has information related to:
 The subject of this article has been identified by the Missing Encyclopedic Articles project as being a high priority for expansion.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vertebrate - definition of Vertebrate in Encyclopedia (514 words)
The skeleton of most vertebrates, that is excluding the most primitive ones, consists of a skull, the vertebral column and two pairs of limbs.
The trunk of a vertebrate is hollow and houses the internal organs.
In higher vertebrates the size of the brain relative to the size of the body is larger.
Vertebrate - MSN Encarta (854 words)
Vertebrates make up only about 2 percent of the animal species, and they belong to just 1 of more than 30 phyla, or overall groups, in the animal kingdom.
The only vertebrates that do not have this kind of skeleton are cartilaginous fish, a group that includes sharks, skates, and rays.
A vertebrate's spinal column is held together by strong ligaments, but the faces of adjoining vertebrae are separated by elastic pads called intervertebral disks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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