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Encyclopedia > Vertebral artery
Artery: Vertebral artery
Arteries of the neck. The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries and join to form the basilar artery. (Vertebral is centermost of the three vertical arteries.)
The three major arteries of the cerebellum: the SCA, AICA, and PICA. (Vertebrals labeled at bottom.)
Latin arteria vertebralis
Gray's subject #148 578
Source subclavian arteries
Branches Meningeal branches
Posterior spinal
Anterior spinal
PICA
Basilar artery
Vein vertebral vein
MeSH Subclavian+Artery
Dorlands/Elsevier a_61/12156505

The vertebral arteries are branches of the subclavian arteries. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x864, 203 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hyoid bone Subclavian artery Strangling External carotid artery Internal carotid artery Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing... The subclavian artery is a major artery of the upper thorax that mainly supplies blood to the head and arms. ... The basilar artery is one of the arteries which the brain supplies with oxygen-rich blood. ... Image File history File links Diagram of cerebellum blood supply. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The subclavian artery is a major artery of the upper thorax that mainly supplies blood to the head and arms. ... The meningeal branches of vertebral artery (posterior meningeal branch) springs from the vertebral opposite the foramen magnum, ramifies between the bone and dura mater in the cerebellar fossa, and supplies the falx cerebelli. ... The posterior spinal artery (dorsal spinal artery) arises from the vertebral, at the side of the medulla oblongata; passing backward, it descends on this structure, lying in front of the posterior roots of the spinal nerves, and is reinforced by a succession of small branches, which enter the vertebral canal... In human anatomy, the anterior spinal artery is the blood vessel that supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord. ... The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is one of the three main arterial blood supplies for the cerebellum. ... The basilar artery is one of the arteries which the brain supplies with oxygen-rich blood. ... The vertebral vein is formed in the suboccipital triangle, from numerous small tributaries which spring from the internal vertebral venous plexuses and issue from the vertebral canal above the posterior arch of the atlas. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... The subclavian artery is a major artery of the upper thorax that mainly supplies blood to the head and arms. ...

Contents

Cervical

They arise, one on each side of the body, then enter deep to the transverse process of the level of the 6th cervical vertebrae (C6). In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are those vertebrae immediately behind (caudal to) the skull. ...


It then proceeds superiorly, under the transverse process of each cervical vertebra until C1. A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ...


This path is largely parallel to, but distinct from, the route of the carotid artery ascending through the neck. In human anatomy, the carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. ...


At the C1 level the vertebral arteries travel across the posterior arch of the atlas before entering the foramen magnum. For other uses, see Atlas (disambiguation). ... In anatomy, the foramen magum is the large hole through the occipital bone in the base of the skull, through which the medulla oblongata (an extension of the spinal cord) exits the skull vault. ...


Cranial

Inside the skull, the two vertebral arteries join up to form the basilar artery at the base of the medulla oblongata. The basilar artery is one of the arteries which the brain supplies with oxygen-rich blood. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ...


The basilar artery is the main blood supply to the brainstem and connects to the Circle of Willis to potentially supply the rest of the brain if there is compromise to one of the carotids. The basilar artery is one of the arteries which the brain supplies with oxygen-rich blood. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... The circle of Willis (also called the cerebral arterial circle or arterial circle of Willis) is a circle of arteries that supply blood to the brain. ... In human anatomy, the carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. ...


At each cervical level, the vertebral artery sends branches to the surrounding musculature via anterior spinal arteries. In human anatomy, the anterior spinal artery is the blood vessel that supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord. ...


Division into four parts

The vertebral artery may be divided into four parts:


First part

The first part runs upward and backward between the Longus colli and the Scalenus anterior. The Longus colli muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Scalenus anterior (Scalenus anticus) lies deeply at the side of the neck, behind the Sternocleidomastoideus. ...


In front of it are the internal jugular and vertebral veins, and it is crossed by the inferior thyroid artery; the left vertebral is crossed by the thoracic duct also. The internal jugular vein collects the blood from the brain, from the superficial parts of the face, and from the neck. ... The vertebral vein is formed in the suboccipital triangle, from numerous small tributaries which spring from the internal vertebral venous plexuses and issue from the vertebral canal above the posterior arch of the atlas. ... The inferior thyroid artery passes upward, in front of the vertebral artery and Longus colli; then turns medialward behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ganglion resting upon the vessel. ... In human anatomy, the thoracic duct is an important part of the lymphatic system — it is the largest lymphatic vessel in the body. ...


Behind it are the transverse process of the seventh cervical vertebra, the sympathetic trunk and its inferior cervical ganglion. A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... The sympathetic trunk (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) is a bundle of nerve fibers that runs from the base of the skull to the coccyx. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into cervical ganglia. ...


Second part

The second part runs upward through the foramina in the transverse processes of the upper six cervical vertebræ, and is surrounded by branches from the inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion and by a plexus of veins which unite to form the vertebral vein at the lower part of the neck. In anatomy, a foramen is any opening. ... The transverse processes of a vertebra, two in number, project one at either side from the point where the lamina joins the pedicle, between the superior and inferior articular processes. ...


It is situated in front of the trunks of the cervical nerves, and pursues an almost vertical course as far as the transverse process of the atlas, above which it runs upward and lateralward to the foramen in the transverse process of the atlas. The transverse processes of a vertebra, two in number, project one at either side from the point where the lamina joins the pedicle, between the superior and inferior articular processes. ...


Third part

The third part issues from the latter foramen on the medial side of the Rectus capitis lateralis, and curves backward behind the superior articular process of the atlas, the anterior ramus of the first cervical nerve being on its medial side; it then lies in the groove on the upper surface of the posterior arch of the atlas, and enters the vertebral canal by passing beneath the posterior atlantoöccipital membrane. For the muscle of the eye, see Lateral rectus muscle The Rectus capitis lateralis, a short, flat muscle, arises from the upper surface of the transverse process of the atlas, and is inserted into the under surface of the jugular process of the occipital bone. ... The posterior atlantoöccipital membrane (posterior atlantoöccipital ligament), broad but thin, is connected above, to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum; below, to the upper border of the posterior arch of the atlas. ...


This part of the artery is covered by the Semispinalis capitis and is contained in the suboccipital triangle—a triangular space bounded by the Rectus capitis posterior major, the Obliquus superior, and the Obliquus inferior. The Semispinalis capitis (Complexus) is situated at the upper and back part of the neck, beneath the Splenius, and medial to the Longissimus cervicis and capitis. ... The suboccipital triangle is a region of the neck bounded by the following three muscles: Rectus capitis posterior major - above and medially Obliquus capitis superior - above and laterally Obliquus capitis inferior - below and laterally It is covered by a layer of dense fibro-fatty tissue, situated beneath the Semispinalis capitis. ... The Rectus capitis posterior major (Rectus capitis posticus major) arises by a pointed tendon from the spinous process of the axis, and, becoming broader as it ascends, is inserted into the lateral part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface of the bone immediately below... The superior oblique muscle, or obliquus oculi superior, is a fusiform muscle in the upper, medial side of the orbit whose primary action is intorsion and whose secondary actions are to abduct (laterally rotate) and depress the eyeball (i. ... The Obliquus oculi inferior (inferior oblique) is a thin, narrow muscle, placed near the anterior margin of the floor of the orbit. ...


The first cervical or suboccipital nerve lies between the artery and the posterior arch of the atlas. The first spinal nerve, the suboccipital nerve exits the spinal cord between the skull and the first cervical vertebra, the atlas. ... In a cervical vertebra, the posterior arch forms about two-fifths of the circumference of the ring: it ends behind in the posterior tubercle, which is the rudiment of a spinous process and gives origin to the Recti capitis posteriores minores. ...


Fourth part

The fourth part pierces the dura mater and inclines medialward to the front of the medulla oblongata; it is placed between the hypoglossal nerve and the anterior root of the first cervical nerve and beneath the first digitation of the ligamentum denticulatum. The dura mater (from the Latin hard mother), or pachymeninx, is the tough and inflexible outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. ... The pia mater has 26 pairs of denticulate ligaments which attach it to the arachnoid and dura maters. ...


At the lower border of the pons it unites with the vessel of the opposite side to form the basilar artery. Position of the pons in the human brain The pons (sometimes pons Varolii after Costanzo Varolio) is a knob on the brain stem. ... The basilar artery is one of the arteries which the brain supplies with oxygen-rich blood. ...


Asymmetry

The left vertebral artery is usually larger and carries more blood.[1] In fluid dynamics, the volumetric flow rate, also volume flow rate and rate of fluid flow, is the volume of fluid which passes through a given volume per unit time (for example gallons per minute or squeaks per parsec). ...


See also

In human anatomy, arcuate foramen, also known as ponticulus posticus (Latin for little posterior bridge), refers to a bony bridge on the atlas (C1 vertebra) that covers the groove for the vertebral artery. ...

References

  1. ^ (2007) "Doppler sonography evaluation of flow velocity and volume of the extracranial internal carotid and vertebral arteries in healthy adults". J Clin Ultrasound 35 (1): 27-33. PMID 17149761. 

Additional images

External links

Vertebral Artery Dissection The State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, better known as SUNY Downstate Medical Center, is an academic medical center and is the only one of its kind in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... A garden sign welcomes residents and visitors to Rogers Park as home of Loyola University Chicago. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM, U of M or U-M) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Georgetown University, incorporated as the The President and Directors of the College of Georgetown, is a private university in the United States, located in Georgetown, a historic neighborhood of Washington, D.C. With roots extending back to March 25, 1634 and founded in its current form on January 23, 1789... Elseviers logo. ... Elseviers logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Vertebral artery - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (725 words)
The vertebral arteries are branches of the subclavian arteries.
In front of it are the internal jugular and vertebral veins, and it is crossed by the inferior thyroid artery; the left vertebral is crossed by the thoracic duct also.
The second part runs upward through the foramina in the transverse processes of the upper six cervical vertebræ, and is surrounded by branches from the inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion and by a plexus of veins which unite to form the vertebral vein at the lower part of the neck.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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