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Encyclopedia > Verneshot

A verneshot is a hypothetical volcanic eruption event which launches an extremely large rock into a sub-orbital trajectory. This article is about volcanoes in geology. ...

Contents


Connection with mass-extinctions

According to the Department of Marine Geodynamics at GeoMar, Kiel (Morgan et al.)[1], such an event could be triggered by an explosion caused by a mantle plume under a craton in an area of continental rift. Verneshots are one possible cause for extinction level events. An extinction event (also extinction-level event, ELE) is a period in time when a large number of species die out. ...


The four major mass extinctions that may have been caused by verneshots are: An extinction event (also extinction-level event, ELE) is a period in time when a large number of species die out. ...

  • the Frasnian-Fammian extinction event 364 million years ago, killing off 70% of all marine life, linked to the Siljan crater in Sweden and the Pripyat-Dniepr-Donetsk supervolcano in the Ukraine
  • the Permian-Triassic extinction event 251 million years ago, killing off 96% of all life on the planet, linked to the Bedout submarine potential impact crater off the coast of Australia and the supervolcano forming the Siberian Traps
  • the Triassic-Jurassic extinction event 200 million years ago, killing off 20% of species, linked to the Manicouagan crater in Canada and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province supervolcano off the coast of Sierra Leone
  • the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event 65 million years ago, killing off 60% of species, linked to the Chicxulub crater in Mexico and the Deccan Traps supervolcano in India

With these four events, massive volcanic activity over thousands of square miles coincides with an impact event. The verneshot theory is that gas seeps up deep underground in an upwelling of magma like the hotspot which formed Hawaii but on a much larger scale. It is trapped beneath impenetrable rock known as a craton (continental plate rock). As pressure builds up, the gas cracks the craton and blasts out at immense velocity. This gas would poison the atmosphere and cause a massive earthquake, enough to level mountain ranges. The Late Devonian extinction was one of six major extinction events in the history of the Earths biota. ... Siljan, in Dalecarlia in central Sweden, is Swedens sixth largest lake. ... A supervolcano refers to a volcano that produces the largest and most voluminous kinds of eruptions on earth. ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 252 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... Bedout, off the northwestern coast of Australia, is a large depression in the ocean basin approximately 200 km across. ... The Siberian Traps are an igneous rock plateau in Siberia. ... The Triassic-Jurassic extinction event is one of the major extinction events of the Phanerozoic eon, profoundly affecting life on land and in the oceans. ... The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T or KT) extinction event, also known as the KT boundary, was a period of massive extinction of species, about 65. ... Radar topography reveals the 180 kilometer (112 mile) wide ring of the crater (image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech) Chicxulub Crater is an ancient impact crater buried underneath the Yucatan peninsula, with its center located approximately underneath the town of Chicxulub, Yucatán, Mexico. ... The Deccan Traps is a large igneous province located in west-central India and is one of the largest volcanic features on Earth. ... Artists impression of a major impact event. ... This article is about the type of molten rock. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle (R) Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... A craton is an old and stable part of the continental crust that has survived the merging and splitting of continents and supercontinents for at least 500 million years. ... Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998 An earthquake is a trembling or a shaking movement of the Earths surface. ...


The pipe through which the magma and gas had travelled is now empty and collapses. A shockwave at hypersonic velocity would hit the remains of the craton and pulverise them with an explosion equivalent to 120 gigatons of TNT. Twenty billion tons of debris is blasted into the atmosphere while lava fills the hole left behind. The verneshot impactor (the largest lump hurled out) then impacts earth elsewhere. The Chicxulub crater is consistent with such an event with the direction and low angle of impact. However, the velocity would be low compared to an extraterrestrial impactor, so the impactor would mostly survive and although it would be pulverised, it would not be vaporised. Finding rocks from Deccan in Mexico would validate this theory. A gigaton (or gigatonne) is a Metric Unit of mass, equal to 1,000,000,000 (1 billion) Metric tons, 1,000,000,000,000 (1 trillion) kilograms, or 1 quadrillion grams. ...


What this theory doesn't explain:

  • The impact events are associated with layers of extraterrestrial material, such as the iridium of the KT event. This would need to be present in earth's mantle and there is little evidence to support that.
  • The impacts are too small; a verneshot would generate an impactor over a hundred miles across, not the ten mile things that bring about mass extinctions. In short, Chicxulub would be larger than the continental United States if caused by a verneshot.
  • A verneshot could result in smaller impacts, but there'd be dozens of them. We don't see this. Revision of the scale of the verneshot theory may be necessary.

General Name, Symbol, Number Iridium, Ir, 77 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 6, d Density, Hardness 22650 kg/m3, 6. ... A Mantle is a piece of clothing, similar to a robe but open on the front side and often sleeveless. ...

Smaller scale Verneshots

Less dramatic rock eruptions were documented in 2003 after a 1999 Earthquake in central Taiwan[2]. It has also been argued that the Tunguska Event may have been caused by a Verneshot (Tunguska would have been the launchsite not the impact[3]). 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Trees felled by the Tunguska blast. ...


History

In 1865 Jules Verne's novel From the Earth to the Moon introduced the concept of a ballistic projectile escaping the Earth's gravity, from which Morgan et al. derived the name "Verneshot" in their paper theorizing cratonic gas ejection's connection to extinction events. This was in the projectile-naming tradition of John Hunter, whose 47 m expanding hydrogen gun, SHARP, is only a precursor to the "Jules Verne Launcher" with a 3,500 m barrel length, that was designed in the early 1990s[4] for first-stage satellite launch. 1865 is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Engraving from the 1872 Illustrated Edition. ... Ballistics (gr. ... John Hunter is a projectile researcher, who developed the 1994 supergun Super High Altitude Research Project (SHARP) at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. ... The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units (SI: Système International dUnités). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... The Super High Altitude Research Project (SHARP) was a U.S. government project to fire a high-velocity projectile into the atmosphere. ... // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but keeping the same mind-set. ... A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ...


Notes

^  (15 January 2004), J.P. Morgan, T.J. Reston and C.R. Ranero, "Contemporaneous mass extinctions, continental flood basalts, and ‘impact signals’: are mantle plume-induced lithospheric gas explosions the causal link?", Earth and Planetary Science Letters. (First submitted 17 April 2003). For an informal instroduction see Professor Jason Morgan's faculty biography at Cornell University from May 2004: "I became interested in the causes of mass-extinctions, in particular worrying about the 'too-many-coincidences' problem that these periods appear to be associated (if we believe what's published in the mainstream literature) with BOTH extremely rare continental flood basalts and continental rifting, and even rarer 'impact signals' commonly presumed to come from large extraterrestrial bolide impacts. Our recently published Verneshot hypothesis is our best guess on how to explain these coincidences in a self-consistent causal manner." January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


^  2004 M. Cirkovic and R.B. Cathcart, "Geo-Engineering Gone Awry: A New Partial Solution of Fermi’s Paradox", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 57. (See Richard Cathcart's description in The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy, and Spaceflight-section 4.) The article discusses naturally occurring Verneshot panspermia, and artificial Verneshot affecting humanity "adversly"). The probability of artificial Verneshots accidentally causing the End of civilization (resolving the Fermi Paradox) is not calculated. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Panspermia is the hypothesis that the seeds of life are prevalent throughout the universe, and furthermore that life on Earth began by such seeds landing on Earth and propagating themselves. ... The end of civilization or the end of the world are phrases used in reference to human extinction scenarios and related hazards which occur on a global scale. ... Radio telescope observations play a role in researching the Fermi paradox The Fermi paradox is a paradox proposed by physicist Enrico Fermi that questions the probability of finding intelligent extraterrestrial life. ...


^  2003 Huang et al., "Huge rock eruption caused by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan", Geophysical Research Letters 30. 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


^  See the 1994 Charlene Crabb New Scientist article about the "Jules Verne Launcher" (JVL): Shooting at the moon. 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... New Scientist cover - 18 December 2004 New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Verneshot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (853 words)
The verneshot theory is that massive volcanic activity over thousands of square miles coincided with an impact event in the four cases described above.
Revision of the scale of the verneshot theory may be necessary.
The probability of artificial Verneshots accidentally causing the End of civilization (resolving the Fermi Paradox) is not calculated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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