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Encyclopedia > Vernacular
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Vernacular refers to the native language of a country or locality. In general linguistics, it is used to describe local languages as opposed to linguae francae, official standards or global languages. It is sometimes applied to nonstandard dialects of a global language. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Vernacular architecture is a term used to categorise a method of construction which uses locally available resources to address local needs. ... Native Language Music, founded in 1996 by musicians Joe Sherbanee and Theo Bishop, is an independent adult contemporary record company based in Southern California that produces, markets, and distributes premium jazz, world, and new age music. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ...


For instance: in Western Europe up until the 17th century, most scholarly work was written in Latin, so works written in a native language (such as Italian or German) were said to be in the vernacular. A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


The vernacular is also often contrasted with a liturgical language (in Linguistics, the relationship between these "High" and "Low" languages or varieties of a language is referred to as diglossia). For example, until the 1960s, Latin Rite Roman Catholics held masses in Latin rather than in local vernacular language, to this day the Coptic Church holds liturgies in Coptic; though parts of mass are read in Amharic, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church holds liturgies in Ge'ez, etc. The Reformation was spread by the publication of Bibles and other religious writings in the vernacular, and the reforms of the Second Vatican Council permitted the use of vernacular liturgies in Roman Catholicism. A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language. ... In linguistics, diglossia is a situation where, in a given society, there are two (often) closely-related languages, one of high prestige, which is generally used by the government and in formal texts, and one of low prestige, which is usually the spoken vernacular tongue. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article (the Latin Rite), designates the particular Church, within the Catholic Church, which developed in western Europe and northern Africa, when Latin was the language of education and culture, and so also of the liturgy. ... A Medieval Low Mass by a bishop. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, leos and ergon. Leos, meaning the people of God and Ergon meaning the work. ... Coptic is the most recent phase of ancient Egyptian. ... Amharic (አማርኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in Northern Central Ethiopia, where it is the official language. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA: ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ...


Similarly, in Hindu culture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Sanskrit long after its use as a spoken language. With the rise of the bhakti movement from the 1100s onwards, religious works started being created in Tamil, Hindi, Kannada, Telugu and many other Indian languages throughout the different regions of India. For example, the Ramayana, one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit had vernacular versions such as Ramacharitamanasa, a Hindi version of the Ramayana by the 16th century poet Tulsidas, and Kambaramayanam in Tamil by the poet Kamban. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Tamil (Thamizh) is a classical language of the Dravidian language family. ... Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी or हिंदी; IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the official languages of the Union government of India [1][2]. It is part of a dialect continuum of the Indic family, bounded on the northwest and west by Punjabi, Sindhi, Urdu... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Telugu (తెలుగు) is a Dravidian language in origin, primarily spoken in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, where it is the official language. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sri Ramacharit Manas. ... Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी or हिंदी; IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the official languages of the Union government of India [1][2]. It is part of a dialect continuum of the Indic family, bounded on the northwest and west by Punjabi, Sindhi, Urdu... Gosvāmī Tulsīdās (1532-1623; Devanāgarī: तुलसीदास) was an Awadhi poet and philosopher. ... Kamba Ramayanam is a Tamil epic that was written by Kamban during the 9th century. ... Tamil (Thamizh) is a classical language of the Dravidian language family. ... Kambar is one of the greatest Tamil poets. ...

Contents

Vernacular in sociolinguistics

Within the subcategory of sociolinguistics, the term vernacular has been applied to several concepts, leading to confusion among scholars regarding what is actually being referred to. One use of the term, as exemplified by Poplack (1993) and Labov (1972), defines vernacular varieties as casual varieties used spontaneously rather than self-consciously. It could also be described as informal talk used in intimate situations. Linguists consider the vernacular to be the first form of speech acquired by a person. Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-02-04, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


Wolfram and Schilling-Estes (1998) on the other hand define vernacular varieties as nonstandard, local dialects, particularly because of the nonstandard grammatical features that they contain. They also state that there is a continuum between the vernacular and the standard. Wolfram is: the original name for chemical element tungsten. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ... This article is about grammar from a linguistic perspective. ...


Similar approaches have been made to define vernacular culture: Cheshire (1982) sees vernacular culture as a non-standard or counter culture that is expressed through participation in particular activities or clothing styles, whereas Edwards (1992) defines it as a local culture determined by the connectedness to a certain neighbourhood. The Cheshire Plain - photo taken adjacent to Beeston Castle The Cheshire Plain - photo taken towards Merseyside The Cheshire Plain panorama - photo taken from Mid-Cheshire Ridge Cattle farming in the county Black-and-white timbered buildings on Nantwich High Street Cheshire (or, archaically, the County of Chester)[1] is a... John Edwards, a United States Senator from North Carolina and 2004 Vice Presidential running mate of the Democratic Presidential nominee Senator John Kerry. ...


First vernacular grammars

Through metalinguistic publications vernaculars acquired the status of official languages. Between 1437 and 1586 the first grammars of Italian, Spanish, French, German and English were written, though not always immediately published. Definition According to Merriam- Webster Online Dictionary, metalinguistics is a branch of linguistics that deals with the relation between language and other cultural factors in society (http://www. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique status in the constitutions of countries, states, and other territories. ... This article is about grammar from a linguistic perspective. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Italian grammar

Leon Battista Alberti’s Grammatichetta vaticana was written between 1437 and 1441, but not printed until 1908, which is why its influence is debated. Alberti was concerned with showing that dialects also had structures by mapping them onto Latin, whereas his fellow grammarians Giovanni Francesco Fortunio (Regole grammaticali della vulgar lingua, 1516) and Pietro Bembo (Prose della vulgar lingua, 1525) strived to establish a norm dialect that would qualify for becoming the Italian national language. Leone Battista Alberti (February 1404 - 25th April 1472), Italian painter, poet, linguist, philosopher, cryptographer, musician, architect, and general Renaissance polymath . ... Alberti was an illustrious Florentine family, rivals of the Medicis and the Albizzi. ... Pietro Bembo (May 20, 1470 - 18 January 1547), Italian cardinal and scholar. ...


Spanish grammar

The first (contrastive) Spanish grammar by Antonio de Nebrija (Gramática Castellana, 1492) was divided into parts for native and nonnative speakers, pursuing a differenct purpose in each: Books 1-4 describe the Castilian language grammatically in order to facilitate the study of Latin for its Spanish speaking readers. Book 5 contains a phonetical and morphological overview of Castilian for nonnative speakers. Statue of Antonio de Nebrija, outside of the Biblioteca Nacional de España, in Madrid. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...


French grammar

The first (methodical) grammar of French was not written in France but in England and aimed at foreign speakers intending to learn the language. An interest in learning French had already been expressed before John Palsgrave wrote Lesclarcissement de la langue francoyse in 1530 by his contemporaries Alexander Barclay (Here begynneth the introductory to wryte and to pronounce frenche, 1521), Pierre Valence (Introductions in frensshe, 1528) and Giles du Wes (An introducterie for to lerne to rede to prononce and to speke Frenche trewly, 1532-1533). Palgrave’s instructive work was based on literary examples, following the model of Theodorus Gaza’s grammar of Greek (1495). John Palsgrave (around 1480 – 1554) was a priest of Henry VIIIs court. ... Alexander Barclay (c. ... Palgrave (or Palsgrave) is the English title of a Count Palatine (Pfalzgraf) of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Theodorus Gaza (c. ...


German grammar

In Germany, the first grammar evolved from pedagogical works that also tried to create a uniform standard from the many regional dialects. Like Nebrija, Valentin Ickelsamer (Ein Teütsche Grammatica , 1534) stresses the importance of understanding the structure of the national language in order to learn other languages, above all Latin.


English grammar

William Bullokar (Pamphlet for Grammar, 1586) was the first to write a proper English grammar, preceded only by Richard Mulcaster’s general plea for mother tongue education in England, The first part of the elementary, 1582. Bullokar followed leading Latin grammarians in England to prove that English was, like Latin, governed by rules. William Bullokar was a 16th-century printer who devised a 40-letter phonetic alphabet for the English language. ... Richard Mulcaster, one of the greatest British educational visionaries, is known best for his headmasterships and paedegogic writings. ...


First vernacular dictionaries

The first vernacular dictionaries emerged together with vernacular grammars. As can be seen from the section above, many of the new grammars were based on traditional Latin ones, comparing the structure of both languages. This preservation of traditional form does not apply for the new type of dictionaries. Though they kept the macrostructure and elements of the microstructure of old dictionaries, there was more drastic change than in the case of grammars. For other uses of dictionary, see dictionary (disambiguation). ... The notion of macrostructure has been used in several disciplines in order to distinguish large-scale, or global structures, from small-scale, or local structures, that is, microstructures. ... Al-Si microstructure at 40x magnification Microstructure refers of the microscopic description of the individual constituents of a material. ...


Up to the mid-fifteenth century, glosses and dictionaries were mostly bilingual and served the teaching of Latin. For reading and translation of Latin texts, dictionaries would usually display the sequence Latin lemma (unknown) followed by explanatory vernacular expression (known). Dictionaries with reversed order would serve the more active tasks of speaking and writing. Both types were solely concerned with the study of Latin, but at the same time they unintentionally documented the development of vernaculars at a time that these were not considered worth writing about. A gloss (from Koine Greek γλώσσα glossa, meaning tongue) is a note made in the margins or between the lines of a book, in which the meaning of the text in its original language is explained, sometimes in another language. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lemma may refer to: Lemma (mathematics), a proven statement Lemma (logic), a short theorem used in proving a larger theorem Lemma (linguistics), the canonical form of a word shadowing lemma, an animal which exists in only 2 dimensions and eats mathematicians (in Terry Pratchetts Discworld series) This is a...


With the emergence of monolingual dictionaries vernaculars arrived at their breakthrough. The gradual formation of nation states and the growing importance of national languages (that are briefly explained in the section Early Vernacular Studies) led to the publication of multilingual vernacular dictionaries in various combinations. The term multilingualism can refer to rather different phenomena. ...


Some early bilingual vernacular dictionaries include:


Italian/French


- Nathanael Duez : Dittionario italiano e francese/Dictionnaire italien et François, Leiden, 1559-1560


- Gabriel Pannonius: Petit vocabulaire en langue françoise et italienne, Lyon, 1578


- Jean Antoine Fenice : Dictionnaire fraçois et italien, Paris, 1584


Italian/English


- John Florio : A Worlde of Words, London, 1598 Giovanni Florio (1553 – ?1625), English writer, was born in London about 1553. ...


- John Florio: Queen Anna’s New World of Words, London, 1611 Giovanni Florio (1553 – ?1625), English writer, was born in London about 1553. ...


Italian/Spanish


- Cristobal de las Casas: Vocabulario de las dos lenguas toscana y castellana, Sevilla, 1570


- Lorenzo Franciosini: Vocabulario italiano e spagnolo/ Vocabulario espanol e italiano, Roma, 1620.


Some early monolingual vernacular dictionaries:


Italian


- Francesco Alunno: Le richezze della lingua volgare, 1543


- Francesco Alunno: La fabbrica del mondo, 1548


- Giacomo Pergamini: Il memoriale della lingua italiana, 1602


- Accademia della Crusca: Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, 1612 The Accademia della Crusca is an Italian institution that brings together scholars and experts in Italian linguistics and philology. ...


Spanish


- Sebastián de Covarrubias Orozco: Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española, 1611


French


- Maurice de la Porte: Epitheta, 1571


- Jean Nicot: Thresor de la langue fracoyse, tant ancienne que moderne, 1606 Jean Nicot (1530 - 1600) was a French diplomat and scholar. ...


- Pierre Richelet : Dictionnaire françois contenant les mots et les choses, 1680


- Académie française : Dictionnaire de l’Académie française, 1694 The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... The Dictionnaire de lAcadémie française is the official dictionary of the French language. ...


German


- Georg Heinisch: Teütsche Sprache und Weißheit, 1616


- Johann Christoph Adelung : Versuch eines vollständigen grammatisch-kritischen Wörterbuches Der Hochdeutschen Mundart, 1774-1786 Johann Christoph Adelung (8 August 1732 - 10 September 1806) was a German grammarian and philologist. ...


Language can blur into vernacular architecture, where the local vernacular is sometimes reflected in the form of the styles of naive/vernacular typography & hand lettering seen on signs and shopfronts. Similarly the word may be used to describe local craft - e.g. "vernacular ceramic wares". Vernacular architecture is a term used to categorise a method of construction which uses locally available resources to address local needs. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ...


In literature, it may apply to works that have been written to emulate the everyday speech of the middle class or the working class. Sometimes, this means that slang and colloquial speech is included. Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ... A colloquialism is an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ...


Such material may also use different rules of grammar and punctuation than other writings, both academic and literary. Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ...


In the Three Stooges' film short Disorder in the Court, the prosecuting attorney admonishes Curly, who his holding a Derby hat, for using slang while on the witness stand. He asks Curly to "Please drop the vernacular", whereby Curly points at the hat and responds, "Vernacular? That's a Derby." Moe Howard, Curly Howard and Larry Fine The Three Stooges were an American vaudeville and comedy act in the early to mid 20th century. ... Disorder in the Court is a 1936 short-subject comedy film starring the Three Stooges (Moe, Larry, and Curly). ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Vernacular Architecture of the World - Great Buildings Online (760 words)
Danish Vernacular House, by Vernacular, at Denmark, --.
Norwegian Farmhouse, by Vernacular, at Norway, 1200 to 1900.
Norwegian Storehouse, by Vernacular, at Norway, 1200 to 1900.
Vernacular - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (308 words)
The vernacular is the native language of a country or locality.
The vernacular is also often contrasted with a liturgical language (in Linguistics, the relationship between these "High" and "Low" languages or varieties of a language is referred to as diglossia).
Language can blur into vernacular architecture, where the local vernacular is sometimes reflected in the form of the styles of naive/vernacular typography and hand lettering seen on signs and shopfronts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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