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Encyclopedia > Vermont
State of Vermont
Flag of Vermont State seal of Vermont
Flag of Vermont Great Seal of Vermont
Nickname(s): The Green Mountain State
Motto(s): Freedom and Unity
Before Statehood Known as
The Vermont Republic
Official language(s) None
Capital Montpelier
Largest city Burlington
Area  Ranked 45th in the US
 - Total 9,620 sq mi
(24,923 km²)
 - Width 80 miles (130 km)
 - Length 160 miles (260 km)
 - % water 3.8
 - Latitude 42° 44′ N to 45° 1′ N
 - Longitude 71° 28′ W to 73° 26′ W
Population  Ranked 49th in the US
 - Total 608,827
 - Density 65.8/sq mi 
25.41/km² (30th in the US)
 - Median income  $48,508 (19th)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mount Mansfield[1]
4,393 ft  (1,340 m)
 - Mean 1,000 ft  (300 m)
 - Lowest point Lake Champlain[1]
95 ft  (29 m)
Admission to Union  March 4, 1791 (14th)
Governor Jim Douglas (R)
Lieutenant Governor Brian Dubie (R)
U.S. Senators Patrick Leahy (D)
Bernie Sanders (I)
Congressional Delegation List
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4 (DST)
Abbreviations VT US-VT
Website www.vermont.gov
Much of the business of local government in Vermont towns takes place each March during a town Meeting held at a meeting house, such as this one in Marlboro, Vermont.
Much of the business of local government in Vermont towns takes place each March during a town Meeting held at a meeting house, such as this one in Marlboro, Vermont.

Vermont (IPA: /vɜrˈmɒnt/) is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state ranks 45th by total area, and 43rd by land area at 9,250 square miles (24,000 km²), and has a population of 608,827, making it the second least populous state (second only to Wyoming). The only New England state with no coastline along the Atlantic Ocean, Vermont is notable for the Green Mountains in the west and Lake Champlain in the northwest. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Vermont usually refers to the U.S. state of Vermont. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vermont. ... Image File history File links Great_seal_of_Vermont_bw. ... Categories: Stub | U.S. state flags ... The Great Seal of the State of Vermont was designed by Ira Allen. ... This is a list of U.S. state nicknames -- both official and traditional (official state nicknames are in bold). ... Here is a list of state mottos for the states of the United States. ... The state motto as it appears on the Flag of Vermont. ... Flag of Vermont Republic The Vermont Republic was an independent republic that existed from 1777 until it became the state of Vermont—the 14th state of the United States of America—in 1791. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vermont_Republic. ... Image File history File links Map_of_USA_VT.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vermont ... The United States does not have an official language, but English is spoken by about 82% of the population as a native language. ... Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ... Location of Montpelier in Washington County, Vermont Coordinates: , Country State County Washington County Government  - Mayor Mary Hooper Area  - City  10. ... Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and is the shire town of Chittenden County, Vermont. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... This is a complete list of the states of the United States ordered by total area, land area, and water area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... “km” redirects here. ... Map of states populations (2006) This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison) as of July 1, 2006, according to the 2005 estimates of the United States Census Bureau. ... Map of states showing population density This is a list of the 50 U.S. states, ordered by population density. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... This is a list of United States states by elevation. ... Mount Mansfield is the highest mountain in the U.S. State of Vermont. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... The order which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order that the others were admitted to the union This is a list of U.S. states by date of statehood, that is, the date when each U.S. state joined the Union. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... James H. Jim Douglas (born June 21, 1951) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Vermont. ... This is a complete and current List of United States Lieutenant Governors. ... Brian Dubie (born March 9, 1959) is the 85th Lieutenant Governor of Vermont. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Patrick Joseph Leahy (born March 31, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Vermont. ... Bernard Bernie Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is the current big willy floppah junior United States Senator from big blob of brown poo Vermont. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... These are tables of congressional delegations from Vermont to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Map of U.S. time zones with new CST and EST areas displayed This is a list of United States of America States by time zone. ... The Eastern Standard Time Zone is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... The following is a list of abbreviations used by the United States Postal Service. ... U.S. states This is a list of traditional abbreviations for U.S. states and territorries, which were in wide use prior to the U.S. postal abbreviations. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Description: Photograph of Meeting House, Marlboro, Vermont Source: Photograph taken by Jared C. Benedict on 11 September 2004. ... Description: Photograph of Meeting House, Marlboro, Vermont Source: Photograph taken by Jared C. Benedict on 11 September 2004. ... Marlboro, Vermont Marlboro is a town located in Windham County, Vermont. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... The Green Mountains may refer to: The Green Mountains in Vermont in the United States extending into southern Quebec in Canada. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Originally inhabited by Native American tribes (Abenaki, and Iroquois), the territory that is now Vermont was claimed by France but became a British possession after France's defeat in the French and Indian War. For many years, the surrounding colonies disputed control of the area, especially New Hampshire and New York. Settlers who held land titles granted by these colonies were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys militia, which eventually prevailed in creating an independent state. Vermont became the 14th state to join the United States, following a 14-year period during and after the Revolutionary War as the independent Vermont Republic. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Abenaki (also Wabanuok or Wabanaki) are a tribe of Native Americans/First Nations belonging to the Algonquian peoples of northeastern North America. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ... The Green Mountain Boys was historically, the militia of the Vermont Republic. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Flag of Vermont Republic The Vermont Republic was an independent republic that existed from 1777 until it became the state of Vermont—the 14th state of the United States of America—in 1791. ...


It is the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States.[2] The state capital is Montpelier, and the largest city is Burlington. Bottled maple syrup produced in Quebec. ... Location of Montpelier in Washington County, Vermont Coordinates: , Country State County Washington County Government  - Mayor Mary Hooper Area  - City  10. ... Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and is the shire town of Chittenden County, Vermont. ...

Contents

Geography

See also: List of counties in Vermont, List of Vermont county seats, List of towns in Vermont, and List of mountains in Vermont

Vermont is located in the New England region in the eastern United States and comprises 9,614 square miles (24,902 km²), making it the 45th largest state. Of this, land comprises 9,250 square miles (23,955 km²) and water comprises 365 square miles (948 km²), making it the 43rd largest in land area and the 47th in water area. In area, it is larger than El Salvador and smaller than Haiti. The 14 Vermont counties List of Vermont counties: The state of Vermont is broken into 14 counties. ... Addison County - Middlebury Bennington County - Bennington, Manchester Caledonia County - St. ... The state of Vermont has 255 political units, or places. This includes 237 towns, 9 cities, 5 unorganized towns, and 4 gores. ... This is a list of mountains in the state of Vermont. ...

Map of Vermont, showing cities, roads and rivers
Map of Vermont, showing cities, roads and rivers

The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the eastern border of the state with New Hampshire (the river itself is part of New Hampshire).[3] Lake Champlain, the major lake in Vermont, is the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States and separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles (256 km). Its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles (143 km) at the Canadian border; the narrowest width is 37 miles (60 km) at the Massachusetts line. The state's geographic center is Washington, three miles (5 km) east of Roxbury. File links The following pages link to this file: Vermont Categories: National Atlas images | Vermont maps ... File links The following pages link to this file: Vermont Categories: National Atlas images | Vermont maps ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... In a Euclidian space the geographic center, or mean center, is the calculated mean of coordinate values. ... Washington, Vermont Washington is a town located in Orange County, Vermont. ... Roxbury, Vermont Roxbury is a town located in Washington County, Vermont. ...


There are six distinct physiographic regions of Vermont. Categorized by geological and physical attributes, they are the Northeastern Highlands, the Green Mountains, the Taconic Mountains, the Champlain Lowlands, the Valley of Vermont and the Vermont Piedmont.[4]


The origin of the name Green Mountains (French: Verts monts) is uncertain. Some authorities say that they are so named because they have much more forestation than the higher White Mountains of New Hampshire and Adirondacks of New York. Other authorities say that they are so named because of the predominance of mica-quartz-chlorite schist, a green-hued metamorphosed shale. The range forms a north-south spine running most of the length of the state, slightly west of its center. In the southwest portion of the state are the Taconic Mountains; the Granitic Mountains are in the northeast.[5] In the northwest near Lake Champlain is the fertile Champlain Valley. In the south of the valley is Lake Bomoseen. Look up Forestation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... The chlorite ion This discusses some chlorine compounds. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... The Taconic Mountains are part of the Appalachian Mountains, running along the eastern border of New York State, United States. ... Champlain Valley is a region of the United States around Lake Champlain in Vermont and New York. ... Bomoseen Lake is a freshwater lake in the western part of the U.S. state of Vermont. ...

Vermont has 14 counties. Only two—Lamoille and Washington—are entirely surrounded by Vermont territory.

Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year round alpine ecosystems. These include Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state, Killington Peak, the second highest, and Camels Hump the state's third highest. About 77 percent of the state is covered by forest; the rest is covered in meadow, uplands, lakes, ponds and swampy wetlands. Smaller version of Vermont county map (from PD image) File links The following pages link to this file: Vermont List of counties in Vermont Categories: United States government images | Vermont maps ... Smaller version of Vermont county map (from PD image) File links The following pages link to this file: Vermont List of counties in Vermont Categories: United States government images | Vermont maps ... Lamoille County is a county located in the state of Vermont. ... Washington County is a county located in the state of Vermont. ... Mount Mansfield is the highest mountain in the U.S. State of Vermont. ... Killington Peak, with an elevation of 4,241 feet, is the second highest summit in the Green Mountains and is the point with the second highest elevation in the U.S. state of Vermont. ... Camels Hump is Vermonts third highest mountain (and its highest undeveloped peak), but because of its distinctive profile, perhaps the states most recognized mountain. ...


Areas in Vermont administered by the National Park Service include the Appalachian National Scenic Trail and the Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park in Woodstock. The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, generally known as the Appalachian Trail or simply The A.T., is a marked hiking trail in the eastern United States, extending between Springer Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine. ... The Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park near Woodstock, Vermont preserves the site where Frederick Billings established a managed forest and a progressive dairy farm. ... Woodstock, Vermont Woodstock is a town located in Windsor County, Vermont. ...


Cities

Montpelier, capital of Vermont
Burlington, Vermont's largest city
Burlington, Vermont's largest city

Cities (2003 estimated population): A man browses at a bookstore in downtown Montpelier, Vermont (taken Sept. ... A man browses at a bookstore in downtown Montpelier, Vermont (taken Sept. ... Location of Montpelier in Washington County, Vermont Coordinates: , Country State County Washington County Government  - Mayor Mary Hooper Area  - City  10. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 230 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 230 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and is the shire town of Chittenden County, Vermont. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x650, 86 KB) Summary Downtown Historic District, Rutland, Vermont Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rutland City, Vermont List of Registered Historic Places in Rutland County... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x650, 86 KB) Summary Downtown Historic District, Rutland, Vermont Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rutland City, Vermont List of Registered Historic Places in Rutland County... Rutland, Vermont Rutland is a town in Rutland County, Vermont, United States. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Barre is the name of a Town and a City in Vermont: Barre (town), Vermont Barre City, Vermont Also known as Scary Barre. ... The system of local government in use in New England is very different from that found throughout the rest of the United States. ...

Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and is the shire town of Chittenden County, Vermont. ... Rutland is a city in Rutland County, Vermont, in the United States. ... South Burlington, Vermont South Burlington is a city located in Chittenden County, Vermont, in the United States. ... Barre is a city in Washington County, Vermont, in the United States. ... Location of Montpelier in Washington County, Vermont Coordinates: , Country State County Washington County Government  - Mayor Mary Hooper Area  - City  10. ... St. ... Winooski, Vermont Winooski is a city located in Chittenden County, Vermont, at the mouth of the Winooski River. ... Newport City, Vermont Newport is a city located in Orleans County, Vermont. ... Vergennes, Vermont Vergennes is a city located in the northwest quadrant of Addison County, Vermont, in the United States. ...

Largest towns

Although these towns are large enough to be considered cities, they are not incorporated as such. The system of local government in use in New England is very different from that found throughout the rest of the United States. ...


Largest towns (2003 estimated population):

Essex, Vermont Essex is a town in Chittenden County, Vermont, United States. ... Colchester, Vermont Colchester is a town located in Chittenden County, Vermont. ... Bennington (town), Vermont Old Bennington, Vermont Bennington County, Vermont North Bennington, Vermont Bennington (CDP), Vermont This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Downtown Brattleboro, as seen looking across the Connecticut River from New Hampshire Brattleboro is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States. ... Hartford, Vermont Hartford is a town located in Windsor County, Vermont. ... Milton, Vermont Milton is a town located in Chittenden County, Vermont. ...

Climate

Vermont has a continental moist climate, with warm, humid summers and cold winters, which become colder at higher elevations.[6] It has a Koppen climate classification of Dfb, similar to Minsk, Stockholm and Fargo.[7] Vermont is known for its mud season in spring followed by a generally mild early summer, hot Augusts and a colorful autumn, and particularly for its cold winters. The northern part of the state, including the rural northeastern section (dubbed the "Northeast Kingdom") is known for exceptionally cold winters, often averaging 10 °F (-12 °C) colder than the southern areas of the state. Annual snowfall averages between 60 to 100 inches (150–250 cm) depending on elevation, giving Vermont some of New England's best cross-country and downhill ski areas. The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... Muddy dirt road during Mud Season Mud Season is a term used to denote a time period in late Winter and early Spring. ... The Northeast Kingdom is a term used to describe the northeast corner of the U.S. state of Vermont, comprising Essex County, Orleans County, and Caledonia County. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... // Main article: List of ski areas and resorts This is a list of ski areas and resorts in the United States. ...


In the autumn, Vermont's hills experience an explosion of red, orange and gold foliage displayed on the sugar maple as cold weather approaches. This famous display of color that occurs so abundantly in Vermont is not due so much to the presence of a particular variant of the sugar maple; rather it is caused by a number of soil and climate conditions unique to the area. Binomial name Acer saccharum Marshall The Sugar Maple Acer saccharum is a prominent tree in the hardwood forests of eastern North America. ...


The highest-recorded temperature was 105 °F (41 °C), at Vernon on July 4, 1911; the lowest-recorded temperature was -50 °F (-46 °C), at Bloomfield on December 30, 1933. Vernon, Vermont Vernon is a town located in Windham County, Vermont. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Bloomfield, Vermont Bloomfield is a town located in Essex County, Vermont. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Monthly normal and record high and low temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High °F 59 63 84 91 94 96 101 98 95 87 69 62
Norm High °F 25 31 43 51 64 76 81 78 71 54 36 28
Norm Low °F 4 10 22 30 43 55 60 57 50 33 15 7
Rec Low °F -38 -35 -18 9 24 36 41 38 21 4 -16 -32
Precip (in) 0.61 0.63 0.68 1.99 4.01 4.06 4.07 4.00 3.95 2.48 0.66 0.62
Source: USTravelWeather.com [1]

History

Main article: History of Vermont
Mount Mansfield, at 4,393 feet (1,339 m), is the highest elevation point in Vermont. Other high points are Killington Peak, Mount Ellen, Mount Abraham, and Camel's Hump. The lowest point in the state is Lake Champlain at 95 feet (29 m). The state's average elevation is 1,000 feet (300 m).
Mount Mansfield, at 4,393 feet (1,339 m), is the highest elevation point in Vermont. Other high points are Killington Peak, Mount Ellen, Mount Abraham, and Camel's Hump. The lowest point in the state is Lake Champlain at 95 feet (29 m). The state's average elevation is 1,000 feet (300 m).

Mount Mansfield, at 4,393 feet, is the highest elevation point in Vermont. ... Description: Photograph of Mount Mansfield Source: Photograph taken by Jared C. Benedict on 26 September 2004. ... Description: Photograph of Mount Mansfield Source: Photograph taken by Jared C. Benedict on 26 September 2004. ... Mount Mansfield is the highest mountain in the U.S. State of Vermont. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Killington Peak, with an elevation of 4,241 feet, is the second highest summit in the Green Mountains and is the point with the second highest elevation in the U.S. state of Vermont. ... Mount Ellen is a 4,083-foot (1,244 m) high mountain in Vermont. ... Mount Abraham is the fifth tallest peak in Vermont at 4006 ft. ... Camels Hump is Vermonts third highest mountain (and its highest undeveloped peak), but because of its distinctive profile, perhaps the states most recognized mountain. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ...

Prehistory and pre-Columbian era

Vermont was covered with shallow seas periodically from the Cambrian to Devonian periods. Lower areas of western Vermont were flooded again, as part of the St. Lawrence Valley "Champlain Sea" at the end of the last ice age, when the land had not yet rebounded from the weight of the glaciers. The Champlain Sea was a temporary inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, created by the retreating glaciers during the close of the last ice age. ...


Little is known of the pre-Columbian history of Vermont. The western part of the state was originally home to a small population of Algonquian-speaking tribes, including the Mohican and Abenaki peoples. Between 8500 to 7000 BC, at the time of the Champlain Sea, Native Americans inhabited and hunted in Vermont. From 8th century BC to 1000 BC was the Archaic Period. During the era, Native Americans migrated year-round. From 1000 BC to AD 1600 was the Woodland Period, when villages and trade networks were established, and ceramic and bow and arrow technology was developed. Sometime between 1500 and 1600, the Iroquois drove many of the smaller native tribes out of Vermont, later using the area as a hunting ground and warring with the remaining Abenaki. The population in 1500 is estimated to be around 10,000 people. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Mahicans settled the Hudson River south of the Mohawk River, moved east to Massachusetts, then to Wisconsin. ... The Abenaki (also Wabanuok or Wabanaki) are a tribe of Native Americans/First Nations belonging to the Algonquian peoples of northeastern North America. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ...


Colonial

The first European to see Vermont is thought to have been Jacques Cartier, in 1535. On July 30, 1609, French explorer Samuel de Champlain claimed the area of what is now Lake Champlain, giving to the mountains the appellation of les Monts vert (the Green Mountains). France claimed Vermont as part of New France, and erected Fort Sainte Anne on Isle La Motte in 1666 as part of the fortification of Lake Champlain. This was the first European settlement in Vermont and the site of the first Roman Catholic Mass. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jacques Cartier (disambiguation). ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Statue symbolizing Samuel de Champlain in Ottawa. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... A French fort Fort Ste. ... Isle La Motte, Vermont Isle La Motte is a town located in Grand Isle County, Vermont. ... For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ...


During the latter half of the 17th century, non-French settlers began to explore Vermont and its surrounding area. In 1690, a group of Dutch-British settlers from Albany under Captain Jacobus de Warm established the De Warm Stockade at Chimney Point (eight miles or 13 km west of present-day Addison). This settlement and trading post was directly across Lake Champlain from Crown Point, New York (Pointe à la Chevelure). For other uses, see Albany. ... Addison, Vermont Addison is a town located in Addison County, Vermont. ... Crown Point is a town located in Essex County, New York. ... This article is about the state. ...


In 1731, more French settlers arrived. They constructed a small temporary wooden stockade (Fort de Pieux) on what was Chimney Point until work on Fort St. Frédéric began in 1734. The fort, when completed, gave the French control of the New France/Vermont border region in the Lake Champlain Valley and was the only permanent fort in the area until the building of Fort Carillon more than 20 years later. The government encouraged French colonization, leading to the development of small French settlements in the valley. The British attempted to take the Fort St. Frédéric four times between 1755 and 1758; in 1759, a combined force of 12,000 British regular and provincial troops under Sir Jeffrey Amherst captured the fort. The French were driven out of the area and retreated to other forts along the Richelieu River. One year later a group of Mohawks burnt the settlement to the ground, leaving only chimneys, which gave the area its name. Fort St. ... Jeffrey Amherst, painted by Joshua Reynolds in 1765 Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst (sometimes spelled Geoffrey, or Jeffrey, he himself spelled his name as Jeffery) (January 29, 1717 – August 3, 1797) served as an officer in the British Army. ... The Richelieu River in Quebec, Canada flows about 130 km north to drain Lake Champlain into the St. ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ...


The first permanent British settlement was established in 1724, with the construction of Fort Dummer in Vermont's far southeast under the command of Lieutenant Timothy Dwight. This fort protected the nearby settlements of Dummerston and Brattleboro. These settlements were made by the Province of Massachusetts Bay to protect its settlers on the western border along the Connecticut River. The second British settlement was the 1761 founding of Bennington in the southwest. Categories: US geography stubs | Vermont state parks | Vermont history | American forts ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Dummerston, Vermont Dummerston is a town located in Windham County, Vermont. ... Brattleboro, Vermont Downtown Brattleboro, as seen looking Westerly from Wantastiquet Mountain. ... A map of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ... Bennington (town), Vermont Old Bennington, Vermont Bennington County, Vermont North Bennington, Vermont Bennington (CDP), Vermont This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

The flag adopted by the Vermont Republic served originally as an infantry banner for the Green Mountain Boys, and still serves as the banner for Vermont’s Army and Air National Guard.
The flag adopted by the Vermont Republic served originally as an infantry banner for the Green Mountain Boys, and still serves as the banner for Vermont’s Army and Air National Guard.
The Old Constitution House at Windsor, where the Constitution of Vermont was adopted on July 8, 1777.
The Old Constitution House at Windsor, where the Constitution of Vermont was adopted on July 8, 1777.

During the Seven Years War, locally known as the French and Indian War, some Vermont settlers, including Ethan Allen, joined the colonial militia assisting the British in attacks on the French. Fort Carillon on the New York-Vermont border, a French fort constructed in 1755, was the site of two British offensives under Lord Amherst's command: the unsuccessful British attack in 1758 and the retaking of the following year with no major resistance (most of the garrison had been removed to defend Quebec, Montreal, and the western forts). The British renamed the fort Fort Ticonderoga (which became the site of two later battles during the American Revolutionary War). Following France's loss in the French and Indian War, the 1763 Treaty of Paris gave control of the land to the British. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Flag of Vermont Republic The Vermont Republic was an independent republic that existed from 1777 until it became the state of Vermont—the 14th state of the United States of America—in 1791. ... The Green Mountain Boys was historically, the militia of the Vermont Republic. ... Seal of the National Guard Bureau Seal of the Army National Guard Seal of the Air National Guard Seal of the National Guard Missile Defense The United States National Guard is a component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Old Constitution House in Windsor, Vermont, where the constitution was signed. ... Windsor, Vermont Windsor is a town in Windsor County, Vermont, United States. ... The constitution of the Vermont Republic was Vermonts constitution when it existed as the independent Republic of Vermont from 1777 to 1791. ... This article is about the 1756–1763 war. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... For other uses, see Ethan Allen (disambiguation). ... Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA. The fort controlled both commonly used trade routes between the English-controlled Hudson... This article is about the state. ... The Battle of Carillon was fought at Fort Carillon (later known as Fort Ticonderoga), on the shore of Lake Champlain in what was then the British colony of New York, July 7-July 8, 1758 during the French and Indian War, and resulted in a victory of the French garrison... The Battle of Ticonderoga of 1758 was an engagement of the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years War not so much a battle as an investment. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA. The fort controlled both commonly used trade routes between the English-controlled Hudson... This article is about military actions only. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ...


The end of the war brought new settlers to Vermont. A fort at Crown Point had been built, and the Crown Point Military Road stretched from the east to the west of the Vermont wilderness from Springfield to Chimney Point, making travel from the neighboring British colonies easier. Three colonies, Massachusetts, New York, and New Hampshire, laid claim to the area. The Province of Massachusetts Bay claimed the land on the basis of the 1629 charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The Province of New York claimed Vermont based on the early Dutch Charter to the West India Company for lands west of the Connecticut River, and the identical land granted to the Duke of York (later King James II) in 1664. The Province of New Hampshire also claimed Vermont based upon a decree of George II in 1740. In 1741, George II ruled that Massachusetts's claims in Vermont and New Hampshire were invalid and fixed Massachusetts's northern boundary at its present location. This still left New Hampshire and New York with conflicting claims to the land. Crown Point is a town located in Essex County, New York. ... Springfield is a town in Windsor County, Vermont, United States. ... Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... A map of the Province of New York. ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... A map of the Province of New Hampshire. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ...


The situation resulted in the New Hampshire Grants, a series of 135 land grants made between 1749 and 1764 by New Hampshire's colonial governor, Benning Wentworth. The grants sparked a dispute with the New York governor, who began granting charters of his own for New Yorker settlement in Vermont. In 1770, Ethan Allen, his brothers Ira and Levi, and Seth Warner recruited an informal militia, the Green Mountain Boys, to protect the interests of the original New Hampshire settlers against the new migrants from New York. When a New York judge arrived in Westminster with New York settlers in March 1775, violence broke out as angry citizens took over the courthouse and called a sheriff's posse. This resulted in the deaths of Daniel Houghton and William French in the "Westminster Massacre." The New Hampshire Grants or Benning Wentworth Grants were land grants made between 1749 and 1764 by the provincial governor of the New Hampshire, Benning Wentworth. ... A land grant is a gift of land made by the government for projects such as roads, railroads, or especially academic institutions. ... Benning Wentworth (1696–1770) was the colonial governor of New Hampshire from (1741-1766). ... Categories: People stubs ... The Green Mountain Boys was historically, the militia of the Vermont Republic. ... Westminster, Vermont Westminster is a town located in Windham County, Vermont. ... In most counties in the United States the local trial courts conduct their business in a centrally located courthouse which may also house the offices of the county treasurer, clerk and recorder and assessor. ...


Independence and statehood

Vellum manuscript of the Constitution of Vermont, 1777. This constitution was amended in 1786, and again in 1793 following Vermont's admission to the federal union in 1791.
Vellum manuscript of the Constitution of Vermont, 1777. This constitution was amended in 1786, and again in 1793 following Vermont's admission to the federal union in 1791.
1790 Act of Congress admitting Vermont to the federal union. Statehood began on March 4, 1791.
1790 Act of Congress admitting Vermont to the federal union. Statehood began on March 4, 1791.
The gold leaf dome of the neoclassical Vermont State House (Capitol) in Montpelier designed by Ammi B. Young and amplified by Thomas Silloway.

In the summer of 1776, the first general convention of freemen of the New Hampshire Grants met in Dorset, Vermont, resolving "to take suitable measures to declare the New Hampshire Grants a free and independent district."[8] On January 18, 1777, representatives of the New Hampshire Grants convened in Westminster and declared the independence of the Vermont.[9] For the first six months of the state's existence, the state was called New Connecticut, after the name of an existing state. During the years prior to acceptance for statehood the legislature met many times at the Cephas Kent tavern in Dorset, Vermont.[10] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (450 × 644 pixel, file size: 236 KB, MIME type: image/png) Vellum manuscript copy of the Constitution of Vermont. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (450 × 644 pixel, file size: 236 KB, MIME type: image/png) Vellum manuscript copy of the Constitution of Vermont. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 2554 KB) Photograph of the Congressional Act authorizing vermonts admission to the union. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 2554 KB) Photograph of the Congressional Act authorizing vermonts admission to the union. ... Download high resolution version (878x648, 95 KB)Front view of the Vermont State House (taken Sept. ... Download high resolution version (878x648, 95 KB)Front view of the Vermont State House (taken Sept. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Metal leaf. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... The Vermont State House The Vermont State House, located in Montpelier, Vermont, is the capitol and seat of government of the U.S. state of Vermont. ... Location of Montpelier in Washington County, Vermont Coordinates: , Country State County Washington County Government  - Mayor Mary Hooper Area  - City  10. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... Dorset, Vermont Dorset is a town in Bennington County, Vermont, United States. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Flag of Vermont Republic The Vermont Republic was an independent republic that existed from 1777 until it became the state of Vermont—the 14th state of the United States of America—in 1791. ... On January 15, 1777 the Republic of New Connecticut (present-day Vermont) declared its indepedence (both from Great Britain and from New York). ... Dorset, Vermont Dorset is a town in Bennington County, Vermont, United States. ...


On June 2, a second convention of 72 delegates met at Westminster, known as the "Westminster Convention." At this meeting, the delegates adopted the name "Vermont" on the suggestion of Dr. Thomas Young of Philadelphia, a supporter of the delegates who wrote a letter advising them on how to achieve admission into the newly independent United States as the 14th state. Notably, at that time the states of Pennsylvania and Connecticut were in a conflict over a separate territory called New Connecticut called the Pennamite-Yankee War and Congress would not approve the disputed name for what then became Vermont.[11] The delegates set the time for a meeting one month later. On July 4, the Constitution of Vermont was drafted during a violent thunderstorm at the Windsor Tavern owned by Elijah West and was adopted by the delegates on July 8 after four days of debate. This was among the first written constitutions in North America and was indisputably the first to abolish the institution of slavery, provide for universal manhood suffrage and require support of public schools. The Windsor tavern has been preserved as the Old Constitution House, administered as a state historic site. Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... The Pennamite-Yankee War (or Wars) is the name given to fighting which occurred in the last half of the eighteenth century between settlers from Connecticut who claimed to own land in the present Luzerne County, Pennsylvania and other settlers from Pennsylvania who laid claim to the same land. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The constitution of the Vermont Republic was Vermonts constitution when it existed as the independent Republic of Vermont from 1777 to 1791. ... The Old Constitution House in Windsor, Vermont, where the constitution was signed. ... North American redirects here. ... The Old Constitution House in Windsor, Vermont, where the constitution was signed. ... This is a list of official historic sites in the U.S. state of Vermont. ...


The Battle of Bennington, fought on August 16, 1777, was a seminal event in the history of the state of Vermont. The nascent republican government, created after years of political turmoil, faced challenges from New York, New Hampshire, Great Britain and the new United States, none of which recognized its sovereignty. The republic's ability to defeat a powerful military invader gave it a legitimacy among its scattered frontier society that would sustain it through fourteen years of fragile independence before it finally achieved statehood as the 14th state in the union in 1791. Combatants Vermont, militiamen/Green Mountain Boys, Massachusetts, New Hampshire Brunswick, British Army troops, Native Americans Commanders John Stark Friedrich Baum Strength 2,000 1,250 Casualties 40 killed, 30 wounded 207 killed, 700 captured The Battle of Bennington :) was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, taking place on August... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


During the summer of 1777, the invading British army of General John Burgoyne slashed southward from Canada to the Hudson River, captured the strategic stronghold of Fort Ticonderoga, and drove the Continental Army into a desperate southward retreat. Raiding parties of British soldiers and native warriors freely attacked, pillaged and burned the frontier communities of the Champlain Valley and threatened all settlements to the south. The Vermont frontier collapsed in the face of the British invasion. The New Hampshire legislature, fearing an invasion from the east, mobilized the state's militia under the command of General John Stark. General John Burgoyne (February 24, 1722 – August 4, 1792) was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. ... For other persons named John Stark, see John Stark (disambiguation). ...


General Burgoyne received intelligence that large stores of horses, food and munitions were kept at Bennington, which was the largest community in the land grant area. He dispatched 2,600 men, nearly a third of his army, to seize the colonial storehouse there, unaware that General Stark's New Hampshire troops were then traversing the Green Mountains to join up at Bennington with the Vermont continental regiments commanded by Colonel Seth Warner, together with the local Vermont and western Massachusetts militia. The combined American forces, under Stark's command, attacked the British column at Hoosick, New York, just across the border from Bennington. General Stark reportedly challenged his men to fight to the death, telling them that: "There are your enemies. They are ours, or this night Molly Stark sleeps a widow!" In a desperate, all-day battle fought in intense summer heat, the army of yankee farmers killed or captured virtually the entire British detachment. General Burgoyne never recovered from this loss and eventually surrendered the remainder of his 6,000-man force at Saratoga, New York, on October 17. Hoosick is a town located in Rensselaer County, New York. ... For the Major League Baseball team, see New York Yankees. ... Saratoga is a town located in Saratoga County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 5,141. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Battles of Bennington and Saratoga are recognized as the turning point in the Revolutionary War because they were the first major defeat of a British army and convinced the French that the Americans were worthy of military aid. Stark became widely known as the "Hero of Bennington", and the anniversary of the battle is still celebrated in Vermont as a legal holiday known as "Bennington Battle Day." Under the portico of the Vermont Statehouse, next to an heroic granite statue of Ethan Allen, there is a brass cannon that was captured from the British troops at the Battle of Bennington. Combatants Vermont, militiamen/Green Mountain Boys, Massachusetts, New Hampshire Brunswick, British Army troops, Native Americans Commanders John Stark Friedrich Baum Strength 2,000 1,250 Casualties 40 killed, 30 wounded 207 killed, 700 captured The Battle of Bennington :) was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, taking place on August... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ...


Vermont continued to govern itself as a sovereign entity based in the eastern town of Windsor for fourteen years. The independent state of Vermont issued its own coinage, called Vermont coppers, from a mint operated by Reuben Harmon in East Rupert (1785-1788)[12] and operated a statewide postal service. Thomas Chittenden, who came to Vermont from Connecticut in 1774, acted as head of state, using the term governor over president. Chittenden governed the nascent republic from 1778 to 1789 and from 1790 to 1791. Chittenden exchanged ambassadors with France, the Netherlands, and the American government then at Philadelphia. In 1791, Vermont joined the federal Union as the fourteenth state–the first state to enter the union after the original thirteen colonies, and a counterweight to slave holding Kentucky, which was admitted to the Union shortly afterward. 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Thomas Chittenden (January 6, 1730 – August 25, 1797) was an important figure in the founding of Vermont. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


Vermont had a unicameral legislature until 1836. For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. For The unicameral, see Nebraska Legislature. ...


An 1854 Vermont Senate report on slavery echoed the Vermont Constitution's first article, on the rights of all men, questioning how a government could favor the rights of one people over another. The report fueled growth of the abolition movement in the state, and in response, a resolution from the Georgia General Assembly authorizing the towing of Vermont out to sea. The mid to late 1850s saw a transition from Vermonters mostly favoring slavery's containment, to a far more serious opposition to the institution, producing the Radical Republican and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens. As the Whig party shriveled, and the Republican Party emerged, Vermont strongly trended in support of its candidates, first on the state level and later for the presidency. In 1860 it voted for President Abraham Lincoln, giving him the largest margin of victory of any state. This strong lean toward the Republican Party has continued until very recently as evidenced by only electing two senators from other parties since the Civil War (Patrick Leahy from the Democratic Party and Bernard Sanders, an independent). The Vermont Senate is the upper house of the Vermont General Assembly, which is the states legislature. ... Frémont (left), 1856 Republican parade banner The Radical Republicans were the remaining faction of American politicians within the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction following an 1864 exodus of pro-Lincoln Republicans into the creation of the National Union Party. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868), was one of the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, representing the state of Pennsylvania. ... GOP redirects here. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Patrick Joseph Leahy (born March 31, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Vermont. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Bernard Bernie Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is the current big willy floppah junior United States Senator from big blob of brown poo Vermont. ...


The Civil War

During the American Civil War, Vermont sent more than 34,000 men into United States service, contributing 18 regiments of infantry and cavalry, three batteries of light artillery, three companies of sharpshooters, two companies of frontier cavalry, and thousands in the regular army and navy, and in other states’ units. Almost 5,200 Vermonters, 15%, were killed or mortally wounded in action or died of disease. Vermonters, if not Vermont units, participated in every major battle of the war. Flag of Vermont During the American Civil War, the State of Vermont continued the military tradition started by the Green Mountain Boys of Revolutionary War fame, contributing a significant portion of their eligible men to the war effort. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... A marksman is mostly to be found in a military context. ... The Frontier Cavalry was a volunteer cavalry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ...


Among the most famous of the Vermont units were the 1st Vermont Brigade, the 2nd Vermont Brigade, and the 1st Vermont Cavalry. The First Vermont Brigade, or Old Brigade was an infantry brigade in the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... The 2nd Vermont Brigade was an infantry brigade in the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... The 1st Regiment, Vermont Volunteer Cavalry (or 1st VVC) was a three years cavalry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ...


A large proportion of Vermont’s state and national-level politicians for several decades after the Civil War were veterans.


The northernmost land action of the war, the St. Albans Raid, took place in Vermont. The St. ...


Postbellum era and beyond

The two decades following the end of the American Civil War (1864-1885) saw both economic expansion and contraction, and fairly dramatic social change. Vermont's system of railroads expanded and were linked to national systems, agricultural output and export soared and incomes increased. But Vermont also felt the effects of recessions and financial panics, particularly the 1873 Panic which resulted in a substantial exodus of young Vermonters. The transition in thinking about the rights of citizens, first brought to a head by the 1854 Vermont Senate report on slavery, and later Lincoln's Gettysburg Address in changing how citizens perceived civil rights, fueled agitation for women's suffrage. The first election in which women were allowed to vote was on December 18, 1880, when women were granted limited suffrage and were first allowed to vote in town elections, and then in state legislative races. Run on the Fourth National Bank, No. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Large-scale flooding occurred in early November 1927. During this incident, 85 people died, 84 of them in Vermont. Another flood occurred in 1973, when the flood caused the death of two people and millions of dollars in property damage. A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ...


On April 25, 2000, as a result of the Vermont Supreme Court's decision in Baker v. Vermont, the Vermont General Assembly passed and Governor Howard Dean signed into law H.0847, which provided the state sanctioned benefits of marriage to gay and lesbian couples in the form of civil unions. Controversy over the civil unions bill was a central issue in the subsequent 2000 elections. is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Vermont Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority of the U.S. state of Vermont and is one of seven state courts of Vermont. ... Baker v. ... The Legislature of Vermont is the U.S. state of Vermonts legislative branch, seated at the states capital, Montpelier. ... Howard Brush Dean III (born November 17, 1948) is an American politician and physician from the U.S. state of Vermont, and currently the chairman of the Democratic National Committee, the central organ of the Democratic Party at the national level. ... A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing homosexual couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married heterosexuals (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by couples of differing sexes who do not...

See also: List of forts in Vermont

The following is a list of forts in the U.S. state of Vermont. ...

Demographics

Population

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 85,425
1800 154,465 80.8%
1810 217,895 41.1%
1820 235,981 8.3%
1830 280,652 18.9%
1840 291,948 4.0%
1850 314,120 7.6%
1860 315,098 0.3%
1870 330,551 4.9%
1880 332,286 0.5%
1890 332,422 0.0%
1900 343,641 3.4%
1910 355,956 3.6%
1920 352,428 -1.0%
1930 359,611 2.0%
1940 359,231 -0.1%
1950 377,747 5.2%
1960 389,881 3.2%
1970 444,330 14.0%
1980 511,456 15.1%
1990 562,758 10.0%
2000 608,827 8.2%

The center of population of Vermont is located in Washington County, in the town of Warren [2]. The United [[States Census of 1790 was the first Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1800 was the second Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1810 was the third Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1820 was the fourth Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1830 was the fifth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Sixth Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 — an increase of 32. ... The Seventh Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876 — an increase of 35. ... The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Ninth United States Census was taken in 1870. ... 1880 US Census The United States Census of 1880 was the tenth United States Census. ... The Eleventh United States Census was taken June 1, 1890. ... 1900 US Census The Twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21. ... The Thirteenth United States Census was taken in 1910. ... The Fourteenth United States Census was taken in 1920. ... The Fifteenth United States Census was taken in 1930. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... The Seventeenth United States Census was taken in 1950. ... The Eighteenth United States Census was taken in 1960. ... The Nineteenth United States Census was taken in 1970. ... The Twentieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11. ... The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Center of population is a subject of study in the field of demographics. ... Washington County is a county located in the state of Vermont. ... Warren, Vermont Warren is a town located in Washington County, Vermont. ...


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2005, Vermont has an estimated population of 623,050, which is an increase of 1,817, or 0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 14,223, or 2.3%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 7,148 people (that is 33,606 births minus 26,458 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 7,889 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 4,359 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 3,530 people. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...


Race and gender

Demographics of Vermont (csv)
By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI
AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native — NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
2000 (total population) 98.12% 0.76% 1.05% 1.09% 0.05%
2000 (Hispanic only) 0.83% 0.06% 0.04% 0.02% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 97.95% 0.89% 0.97% 1.24% 0.04%
2005 (Hispanic only) 1.03% 0.06% 0.04% 0.01% 0.00%
Growth 2000–2005 (total population) 2.16% 20.33% -5.49% 16.42% -9.09%
Growth 2000–2005 (non-Hispanic only) 1.94% 21.76% -5.13% 17.31% -2.66%
Growth 2000–2005 (Hispanic only) 26.76% 2.62% -13.81% -39.42% -46.67%
Vermont Population Density Map
Vermont Population Density Map

Vermont's population is: Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the United States Census Bureau and the Federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB), is a self-identification data item in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify. ... Image File history File links Vermont_population_map. ... Image File history File links Vermont_population_map. ...

Among the 50 states and the District of Columbia, Vermont ranks: For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Male sex. ... ...

  • 2nd highest proportion of Whites
  • 2nd oldest median age[13]
  • 41st highest proportion of Asians
  • 49th highest proportion of Hispanics
  • 48th highest proportion of Blacks
  • 29th highest proportion of Native Americans
  • 39th highest proportion of people of mixed race
  • 28th highest proportion of males
  • 24th highest proportion of females

This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Asian can refer to something or someone from Asia. ... Hispanic Americans (Spanish: Hispano Americano) are Americans of Hispanic ethnicity who largely identify with the Hispanic cultural heritage. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The terms multiracial, biracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestors are not of a single race. ... The word male has the following meanings: In biology, it refers to one half of a heterogamous reproduction system, where the female is the other half. ... Female is a sex that denotes an animal which produces egg cells in order to reproduce. ...

Ethnicity and language

The largest ancestry groups are:

Residents of British ancestry (especially English) live throughout most of Vermont. The northern part of the state maintains a significant percentage of people of French-Canadian ancestry. A French American or Franco-American is a citizen of the United States of America of French descent and heritage. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ... German Americans (German Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of ethnic German ancestry and currently form the largest ancestry group in the United States, accounting for 17% of the U.S. population. ... An Italian American is an American of Italian descent and/or dual citizenship. ... Scottish Americans or Scots Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in the northwest European nation of Scotland. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


In the last two decades, the Burlington area has welcomed the resettlement of several refugee communities. These include individuals and families from South East Asia, Bosnia, Sudan, and Tibet. These communities have grown to include non-refugees and in some cases are several generations in the making.


According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 2.54% of the population aged 5 and over speak French at home, while 1.00% speak Spanish [3]. The 22nd United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...


Religion

Religious Distribution[16] of Vermont
Religion Percentage
Christian 67%
    Roman Catholic 38%
    Protestant 29%
        Congregational/United Church of Christ 6%
        Methodist 6%
        Episcopal 4%
        Other Christian 4%
        Baptist 3%
        Other Protestant 2%
        Assemblies of God 1%
        Evangelical 1%
        Seventh-day Adventist 1%
        Non-Denominational 1%
Other Religions 2%
No Religion 22%
Declined to answer 8%

Like many of its neighboring states, Vermont's largest religious affiliation in the colonial period was Congregationalism. In 1776, 63% of affiliated church members in Vermont were Congregationalists. At the time, however, most settlers were not church members because much of the land was wilderness. Only 9% of people belonged to a church at the time. The Congregational United Church of Christ remains the largest Protestant denomination and Vermont has the largest percentage of this denomination of any state.[17] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Roman Catholicism in the United States has grown dramatically over the countrys history, from being a tiny minority faith during the time of the Thirteen Colonies to being the countrys largest profession of faith today. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... For other uses, see Assemblies of God (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      In contemporary usage, the word evangelicalism refers to a collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions typified by an emphasis on the Bible and on evangelism [1]. Evangelical... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the United States denomination known as United Church of Christ. ...


Today more than two-thirds of Vermont residents identify themselves as Christians. The largest single religious body in the state is the Roman Catholic Church. A Catholic Church survey in 1990 reported that 25% of Vermonters were members of the Catholic Church, although more than that self-identify as Catholics. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Over one-fifth of Vermonters identify themselves as non-religious, tying Vermont with Oregon as having the second-highest percentage of non-religious people in the United States. Only Washington State has a higher percentage.


Twenty-four percent of Vermonters attend church regularly. This low is matched only by New Hampshire.[18]


Almost one-third of Vermonters are self-identified Protestants. The largest Protestant denomination in the state is the United Church of Christ, and the second largest is the United Methodist Church, followed by Episcopalians, "other" Christians, and Baptists. Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... This article is about the current Christian denomination based in the United States. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... The American Baptist Churches in the USA (ABCUSA) is a group of Baptist churches within the United States; headquartered in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. ...


Joseph Smith, Jr. and Brigham Young—the first two leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints—were both born in Vermont. Adherents to the Mormon faith, however, do not make up a single percentage point of Vermont's population. A memorial to Joseph Smith, at his birthplace in Sharon, is maintained by the LDS. Joseph Smith redirects here. ... Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ...


The state has 5,000 people of Jewish faith - 3000 in Burlington and 500 each in Montpelier-Barre and Rutland—and four Reform and two Conservative congregations.[19] For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ...


Vermont has the highest concentration of western-convert Buddhists in the country. It is home to several Buddhist retreat centers.[20]


Economy

In 2007, Vermont was ranked 32nd among states in which to do business. It was 30th the previous year.[21]


According to the 2005 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Vermont’s gross state product (GSP) was $23 billion. This places the state 50th among the 50 states. It stood 38th in per capita GSP.[22][23] The per capita personal income was $32,770 in 2004. Gross state product is a measurment of the economic output of a U.S. state or an Australian state. ...


Components of GSP were:[24][25]

  • Government - $3,083 million (13.4%)
  • Real Estate, Rental and Leasing - $2,667 million (11.6%)
  • Durable goods manufacturing - $2,210 million (9.6%)
  • Health Care and Social Assistance - $2,170 million (9.4%)
  • Retail trade - $1,934 million (8.4%)
  • Finance and Insurance - $1,369 million (5.9%)
  • Professional and technical services - $1,276 million (5.5%)
  • Construction - $1,258 million (5.5%)
  • Wholesale trade - $1,175 million (5.1%)
  • Accommodations and Food Services - $1,035 million (4.5%)
  • Information - $958 million (4.2%)
  • Non-durable goods manufacturing - $711 million (3.1%)
  • Other Services - $563 million (2.4%)
  • Utilities - $553 million (2.4%)
  • Transportation and Warehousing - $484 million (2.1%)
  • Educational Services - $478 million (2.1%)
  • Administrative and Waste Services - $436 million (1.9%)
  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting - $375 million (1.6%)
  • Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation - $194 million (.8%)
  • Mining - $100 million (.4%)
  • Management of Companies - $35 million (.2%)

Canada is Vermont's number one external trading partner, followed by Taiwan.[26]


Agriculture

Vermont ranks first nationally in craft breweries per capita.
Vermont ranks first nationally in craft breweries per capita.[27]

Agriculture contributes $2.6 billion,[28] about 12%, directly and indirectly to the state's economy.[29]


Over the past two centuries logging has fallen off as over-cutting and the exploitation of other forests made Vermont's forest less attractive. Loss of farms has had the beneficial effect of allowing Vermont's land and forest to recover. The accompanying lack of industry has allowed Vermont to avoid many of the ill-effects of 20th century industrial busts, effects that still plague neighboring states. Today, most of Vermont's forests consist of second-growth.


Of the remaining industries, dairy farming is the primary source of agricultural income. Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or more properly, an animal husbandry enterprise, raising female cattle, goats, or other lactating animals for long-term production of milk, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale. ...


In the last half of the twentienth century, developers have had plans to build condos and houses on what was relatively inexpensive, open land. Vermont's government has responded with a series of laws controlling development and with some pioneering initiatives to prevent the loss of Vermont's dairy industry. This article refers to a form of housing. ...


In 1947 there were 11,206 dairy farms in the state. In 2003 there were fewer than 1,500, a decline of 80%. The number of cattle had declined by 40%. However, milk production had doubled in the same period due to tripling the production per cow.[30] In 2007, there were 1,087 farms left, down from 1,138 in 2006. While milk production rose, Vermont's market share declined. Within a group of states supplying the Boston-NYC market,[31] Vermont was third with a 10.6% share of the market.[32][33]


An important and growing part of Vermont's economy is the manufacture and sale of artisan foods, fancy foods, and novelty items trading in part upon the Vermont "brand" which the state manages and defends. Examples of these specialty exports include Cabot Cheese, the Vermont Teddy Bear Company, Fine Paints of Europe, Vermont Butter and Cheese Company, several micro breweries, ginseng growers, Burton Snowboards, Lake Champlain Chocolates, King Arthur Flour, and Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream. The Cabot Creamery Cooperative is a American dairy cooperative started in 1919 by farmers in Cabot, Vermont. ... The Vermont Teddy Bear Company is one of the largest producers of teddy bears and the largest seller of teddy bears by mail order and Internet. ... Fine Paints of Europe is the exclusive North American importer of premium quality paints and varnishes which are manufactured in the Netherlands by Wijzonol Bouwverven B.V.. Fine Paints is located in Woodstock, VT, U.S.A. and is generally regarded as the quality and price leader in the North... Burton Snowboards is the worlds leading manufacturer[1] of snowboards with an estimated 30% to 35% marketshare. ... Lake Champlain Chocolates, founded in 1983 in Burlington, Vermont, offers sweet indulgences that capture the essence of Vermont, the tradition of making fine chocolate, and the pride that goes into each bite. ... The King Arthur Flour Company, formerly the Sands, Taylor & Wood Company, is an American miller and retailer of specialty flours, cookbooks, and baked goods. ... Ben & Jerrys is a brand of ice cream, frozen yogurt, sorbet, and ice cream novelty products, manufactured by Ben & Jerrys Homemade Holdings, Inc. ...


In 2001, Vermont produced 275,000 US gallons (1,040,000 L) of maple syrup, about one-quarter of U.S. production. For 2005 that number was 410,000 accounting for 37% of national production.[34]


In 2000, only 3% of the state's working population was still engaged in agriculture.[35]


Wine industry started in Vermont in 1985. There are 14 wineries today.[36]


Manufacturing

IBM, in Essex Junction, is Vermont's largest for-profit employer. It provides 25% of all manufacturing jobs in Vermont. In 2007 it employed 6,800 workers.[37] It is responsible for $1 billion of the state's annual economy.[38] For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ...


Housing

Vermont is the 17th highest state in the nation for mortgage affordability. However, in 41 other states, inhabitants contributed within plus or minus 4% of Vermont's 18.4% of household income to a mortgage.[39]


Housing prices did not rise that much during the early 2000s. As a result, the collapse in real estate values was not that precipitous either. While foreclosure rose significantly in 2007, the state stood 50th (last) in ratio of foreclosure filings to households.[40]


Labor

As of 2006, there were 305,000 workers in Vermont. 11% of these are unionized.[41][42] A 2007 survey claimed that Vermonters were the least satisfied with their job in the whole nation and were the most likely to be making plans to leave.[43]


Insurance

Captive insurance plays an increasingly large role in Vermont's economy. With this form of alternative insurance, large corporations or industry associations form standalone insurance companies to insure their own risks, thereby substantially reducing their insurance premiums and gaining a significant measure of control over types of risks to be covered. There are also significant tax advantages to be gained from the formation and operation of captive insurance companies. According to the Insurance Information Institute, Vermont in 2004 was the world's third-largest domicile for captive insurance companies, following Bermuda and the Cayman Islands.[44] Captive insurance companies are limited purpose insurance companies established with the specific objective of financing risks emanating from their parent group or groups, although they sometimes also insure some of the risks of the parent companys customers. ...


Tourism

Tourism is a large industry in the state. In winter, the ski resorts Stowe, Killington Ski Resort, Mad River Glen, Sugarbush, Stratton, Jay Peak, Okemo, Suicide Six, Mount Snow and Bromley host skiers from around the globe, although their largest markets are the Boston, Montreal and New York metropolitan areas. In the summer, resort towns like Stowe, Manchester, and Woodstock host visitors. Resorts, hotels, restaurants, and shops, designed to attract tourists, employ people year-round. Mount Mansfield is the highest mountain in the U.S. State of Vermont. ... It has been suggested that Sunrise Mountain be merged into this article or section. ... Mad River Glen is a ski area in Fayston, Vermont, United States. ... Species See text Protea or sugarbush is a genus of flowers in the family Proteaceae, consisting of tropical African shrubs. ... Stratton, Vermont Stratton is a town located in Windham County, Vermont. ... Jay Peak Resort is an American ski resort located on Jay Peak, outside the small village of Jay, Vermont in the Green Mountains. ... Okemo Mountain Resort is a ski resort located in Ludlow, Vermont. ... Suicide Six is the name of a ski resort in Woodstock, Vermont. ... Mount Snow is a mountain and ski area in southern Vermont located in the Green Mountains. ... Bromley Mountain is a mountain in the Green Mountains of southern Vermont, United States. ... Stowe, Vermont Stowe, Vermont Stowes ski resort is partly located on Mount Mansfield. ... Manchester, Vermont Manchester is a town located in Bennington County, Vermont. ... Woodstock, Vermont Woodstock is a town located in Windsor County, Vermont. ...

Lake Champlain.
Lake Champlain.

Summer camps contribute to Vermont's tourist economy. Trout fishing, lake fishing, and ice fishing draw outdoor enthusiasts to the state, as does the hiking on the Long Trail. In winter, nordic and backcountry skiers visit to travel the length of the state on the Catamount Trail. Several horse shows are annual events. Vermont's state parks, historic sites, museums, golf courses, and new boutique hotels with spas were designed to attract tourists. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1632 × 1232 pixel, file size: 427 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Matthew Teal, taken by me September 26th 2004. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1632 × 1232 pixel, file size: 427 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Matthew Teal, taken by me September 26th 2004. ... For other uses, see Trout (disambiguation). ... Ice fishing in the Finnish Miljoonapilkki fishing competition. ... The Long Trail is a hiking trail which covers the length of the state of Vermont running north and south 272 miles from the Massachusetts border (near Williamstown) to the Canadian border near North Troy, Vermont. ... The Catamount Trail is a 300+ mile nordic ski trail that spans the length of Vermont, extending from the border with Massachusetts (Readsboro, Vermont) to the Canadian border (North Troy, Vermont). ... A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ...


Quarrying

The towns of Rutland and Barre are the traditional centers of marble and granite quarrying and carving in the U.S. For many years Vermont was also the headquarters of the smallest union in the U.S., the Stonecutters Association, of about 500 members. The first marble quarry in America was on Mount Aeolus overlooking East Dorset.[45] Up the western side of the state runs the "Marble Valley" joining up with the "Slate Valley" that runs from just inside New York across from Chimney Point until it meets the "Granite Valley" that runs west past Barre, home of the Rock of Ages quarry, the largest granite quarry in America. Vermont is the largest producer of slate in the country.[46] Production of dimension stone is the greatest producer of revenues by quarrying. Rutland, Vermont Rutland is a town in Rutland County, Vermont, United States. ... Barre Town, Vermont Barre is a town in Washington County, Vermont, United States. ...


Taxes

Vermont stands 14th highest out of 50 states and the District of Columbia for state and local taxation, with a per capita load of $3,681. The national average is $3,447.[47] However, CNNMoney ranked Vermont highest in the nation based on the percentage of per capita income. The rankings showed Vermont had a per capita tax load of $5,387, 14.1% of the per capita income of $38,306.[48]


Vermont collects personal income tax in a progressive structure of five different income brackets, ranging from 3.6% to 9.5%. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income...


Vermont's general sales tax rate is 6%, which is imposed on sales of tangible personal property, amusement charges, fabrication charges, some public utility charges and some service contracts (some towns impose an additional 1% Local Option Tax). There are 46 exemptions from the tax which include medical items, food, manufacturing machinery, equipment and fuel, residential fuel and electricity, clothing, and shoes. A use tax is imposed on the buyer at the same rate as the sales tax. The buyer pays the use tax when the sellers fails to collect the sales tax or the items are purchased from a source where no tax is collected. The use tax applies to items taxable under the sales tax. Property taxes are imposed for the support of education and municipal services. A sales tax is a consumption tax charged at the point of purchase for certain goods and services. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        A use tax is a type of excise tax levied in the United States. ... Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ...


Vermont does not assess tax on intangible personal property. Vermont does not collect inheritance taxes; however, its estate tax is decoupled from the federal estate tax laws and therefore the state still imposes its own estate tax. Intangible property, also known as incorporeal property, describes something which a person or corporation can have ownership of and can transfer ownership of to another person or corporation, but has no physical substance. ... Personal property is a type of property. ... Inheritance tax, also known in some countries outside the United States as a death duty and referred to as an estate tax within the U.S, is a form of tax levied upon the bequest that a person may make in their will to a living person or organisation. ... Inheritance tax, also known in some countries outside the United States as a death duty and referred to as an estate tax within the U.S, is a form of tax levied upon the bequest that a person may make in their will to a living person or organisation. ...


Government finances

Vermont is the only state in the union not to have a balanced budget requirement.[49] In 2007, Moody's Investors Service gave its top rating of Aaa to the state.[50]


Transportation

Vermont's main mode of travel is by automobile. Individual communities and counties have public transit, but their breadth of coverage is frequently limited. Greyhound Lines services a number of small towns. Two Amtrak trains serve Vermont. The Ethan Allen Express serves Rutland and Fair Haven, while the Vermonter serves Saint Albans, Essex Junction, Waterbury, Montpelier, Randolph, White River Junction, Windsor, Bellows Falls and Brattleboro. This article is about the US bus line. ... The high-speed Acela Express in West Windsor, New Jersey. ... The Ethan Allen Express is an Amtrak train between New York, New York and Rutland, Vermont via Albany, New York. ... Amtraks Vermonter is a 606-mile (975 km) passenger train service between St. ...


For a more detailed explanation see a List of Routes in Vermont. Standard markers for state-maintained (left) and locally maintained (right) Vermont Routes The Vermont Agency of Transportation owns and maintains a network of state highways within Vermont. ...


Major routes

  • Interstate 89 - Runs northwestward from White River Junction to serve both Montpelier and Burlington en route to the Canadian border.
  • Interstate 91 - Runs northward from the Massachusetts border to the Canadian border, connecting Brattleboro, White River Junction, St. Johnsbury, and Newport.
  • Interstate 93 - Has its northern terminus at I-91 in St. Johnsbury and connects the northern part of the state with New Hampshire and points south.
  • U.S. Route 2 - Crosses northern Vermont from west to east and connects the population centers of Burlington, Montpelier, and St. Johnsbury.
  • U.S. Route 4 - Crosses Vermont from west to east and connects the city of Rutland with Killington and White River Junction.
  • U.S. Route 5 - Travels south to north along the eastern border of the state, parallel to I-91 for its entire length in the state.
  • U.S. Route 7 - Travels south to north along the western border of the state. U.S. 7 parallels I-89 from Burlington northward to the Canadian border.
  • U.S. Route 302 - Travels eastward from Montpelier and Barre, through New Hampshire and into Maine.
  • Vermont Route 100 - Runs south to north almost directly through the center of the state, providing a route along the full length of the Green Mountains.

A 2005-6 study ranked Vermont 37th out of the states for "cost-effective road maintenance", a decline of 13 places since 2004-5.[51] Image File history File links I-89. ... Interstate 89 (abbreviated I-89) is an interstate highway in the New England portion of the United States. ... Image File history File links I-91. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 91 Interstate 91 (abbreviated I-91) is an interstate highway in the New England section of the United States. ... Image File history File links I-93. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 93 Interstate 93 (abbreviated I-93) is an interstate highway in the New England section of the United States. ... Image File history File links US_2. ... United States Highway 2 is an east-west United States Highway. ... Image File history File links US_4. ... United States Highway 4 is a United States highway that runs from Portsmouth, New Hampshire to East Greenbush, New York. ... Image File history File links US_5. ... United States Highway 5 is a north-south United States highway. ... Image File history File links US_7. ... Original-style Vermont US 7 shield with embossed features United States Highway 7 is a north-south United States highway that runs for 309 miles (497 km) from northern Vermont to Norwalk, Connecticut. ... Image File history File links US_302. ... U.S. Route 302 is a spur of U.S. Highway 2. ... Image File history File links Vermont_100. ... Vermont Route 100 is a north-south highway that travels the length of the state from Newport in the north (near the Canadian border) to the Massachusetts State Line. ...


Federal data indicates that 16% of Vermont's 2,691 bridges had been rated structurally deficient by the state in 2006.[52] In 2007 Vermont had the sixth worst percentage of structurally deficient bridges in the country.[53]


Local community public and private transportation

  • Addison County has the ACTR (Addison County Transit Resources) out of Middlebury, also serving Bristol and Vergennes.
  • Bennington County features the GME (American Red Cross Green Mountain Express) out of Bennington and the YT (Yankee Trails) running out of Rensselaer, New York.
  • The RCT (Rural Community Transportation) runs out of Saint Johnsbury and services Caledonia, Essex, Lamoille and Orleans Counties.
  • Burlington (home of the University of Vermont) has CCTA (Chittenden County Transportation Authority) and CATS (University of Vermont Campus Area Transportation System).
  • Colchester in Chittenden County is serviced by the SSTA (Special Services Transportation Agency).
  • The Network (Northwest Vermont Public Transit Network, NVPT) running out of Saint Albans, services Franklin and Grand Isle Counties.
  • Stowe, in Lamoille county, is serviced by STS (Stowe Trolley System, Village Mountain Shuttle, Morrisville Shuttle).
  • STS (Stagecoach Transportation Services) out of Randolph in Orange County also serves parts of Windsor County.
  • Rutland County has the Bus (Marble Valley Regional Transit District, MVRTD) out of Rutland.
  • In Washington county the GMTA (Green Mountain Transit Authority) runs out of the capital city, Montpelier.
  • Brattleboro in Windham county is served by the BeeLine (Brattleboro Town Bus). Windham is served, out of West Dover, by the MOOver (Deerfield Valley Transit Association, DVTA).
  • Ludlow (in Windsor County) is served by the LMTS (Ludlow Municipal Transit System). Windsor is also served by Advanced Transit (AT) out of Wilder and the CRT (Connecticut River Transit) out of Springfield, which also serves parts of Windham County.
  • There is ferry service to New York State from Burlington, Charlotte, Grand Isle, and Shoreham. All but the Shoreham ferry are operated by the Lake Champlain Transportation Company.

UVM redirects here. ... The Lake Champlain Transportation Company (LCTC or just LCT) provides car and passenger ferry service at three points on Lake Champlain in the United States. ...

Airports

Vermont is served by two commercial airports:

Burlington International Airport (IATA: BTV, ICAO: KBTV) is a public airport serving Burlington, the most populous city in Vermont. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Nickname: Location in Orange County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State County Government  - Mayor Buddy Dyer (D) Area  - City 261. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...

Media

See List of television stations in Vermont. This is a list of broadcast television stations serving cities in the state of Vermont. ...


See List of radio stations in Vermont The Following is a list of stations in Vermont as of 2005: 98. ...


See List of newspapers in Vermont Barre-Montpelier Times Argus - Barre-Montpelier, Vermont Burlington Free Press - Burlington, Vermont Rutland Daily Herald - Rutland, Vermont See also List of newspapers List of newspapers in the United States List of defunct newspapers of the United States List of newspapers in the United States by circulation (List derived from the...


Utilities and communication

  • Broadband coverage as of 2006[54]
    • Total Coverage = 87%
    • Cable = 68%
    • DSL = 69%
    • Wireless Internet Service Provider = 24%

(Above percentages are of population, not of land area.)


Cell phone coverage in the state, generally, outside of the major metropolitan areas is weak due to interference from mountains, the attempt to serve a small rural population living in a large area rendering investment in improvements uneconomical, and environmentalists opposition to towers.[55] Unicel, focusing on rural areas, has better coverage.[56] Unicel is a brand of mobile phone service from Rural Cellular Corporation. ...


In summer of 2007, Verizon Wireless announced that it would purchase Unicel (Rural Cellular) in Vermont and 14 other states for $2.67 billion dollars during the first half of 2008. Some state officials and Unicel subscribers have opposed this purchase.[57]


In May 2007, Vermont passed measures intended to make broadband (3 mbits minimum) together with cellular coverage universally available to all citizens with the intention of having the first e-state in the Union by 2010.[58]


In 2008 Comcast started to extend additional cable access throughout the state.[59] In 2007, 2/3 of all Vermonters had access to cable. At the end of this 2008 initiative, 90% of Vermonters will have access. Comcast Corporation (NASDAQ: CMCSA) is the largest[1] cable television (CATV) company and the second largest Internet service provider in the United States. ...


Law and government

Main article: Government of Vermont

Vermont is represented in the United States Congress by two senators and one representative. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The state is governed by a constitution which divides governmental duties into three branches, typical of a US state: legislative, executive and judicial. All members of the executive and legislative branch serve two-year terms including the governor and 50 senators. There are no term limits for any office. The state capital is in Montpelier. This article is about constitutional law; for the book by Vince Flynn see Term Limits (novel). ...


There are three types of incorporated municipalities in Vermont, towns, cities and villages. Like most of New England, there is slight provision for autonomous county government. Counties and county seats are merely convenient repositories for various government services such as County and State Courts, with several elected officers such as a State's Attorney and Sheriff. All county services are directly funded by the State of Vermont. The next effective governmental level below state government are municipalities. Most of these are towns.[60]


An in-depth evaluation of government ranked Vermont high compared to other states. It ranked highest in "small discrete issues and huge global ones." It performed poorly in the issues in-between and planning for the future.[61]


Political

Main article: Politics of Vermont
See also: United States Congressional Delegations from Vermont and Category:Vermont elections

Vermonters have been known for their political independence. Vermont is one of four states that were once independent (the others being Texas, California, and Hawaii). It has sometimes voted contrarian in national elections. Notably, Vermont is the only state to have voted for a presidential candidate from the Anti-Masonic Party, and Vermont and Maine were the only states to vote against Franklin D. Roosevelt in his second election. Vermont has been represented by socialist Bernie Sanders in the United States House of Representatives during the 1990s and early 2000s and in the U.S. Senate since 2007. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Vermont to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Vermont Republic was the name of what is now the state of Vermont during the 14 years before it joined the United States as the 14th state. ... The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement) was a 19th century minor political party in the United States. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... FDR redirects here. ...


Vermont's unique history and history of independent political thought has led to movements for the establishment of the Second Vermont Republic and other plans advocating secession.[62] In 2007, about 13% of Vermont's population supported Vermont's withdrawal from the Republic. The percentage who supported this in 2005 was 8%.[63][64] Second Vermont Republic (SVR) is a secessionist movement within the U.S. state of Vermont to return the independent status of the Vermont Republic from 1777–91. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ...


Republicans dominated Vermont politics from the party's founding in 1854 until the mid-1970s. Prior to the 1960s, rural interests dominated the legislature. As a result, cities, particularly the older sections of Burlington and Winooski, were neglected and fell into decay. People began to move out to newer suburbs.


In the meantime, many people had moved in from out of state. Much of this immigration included the arrival of more liberal political influences of the urban areas of New York and New England in Vermont.[65] The practical effects of such migration are balanced, however, by the economic changes brought about by tourism and business interests from these same urban areas.[citation needed] Although a greater degree of "socially responsible tourism" can be found in Vermont as opposed to other locales, waves of urban migration from the 1980's onward have resulted in ever-increasing gaps between rich and poor, and a serious class division between full time native Vermonters and "part time residents" has been created.[citation needed]


After the legislature was redistricted under one-person, one-vote, it passed legislation to accommodate these new arrivals. This legislation was the Land Use and Development Law (Act 250) in 1970. The law, which was the first of its kind in the nation, created nine District Environmental Commissions consisting of private citizens, appointed by the Governor, who must approve land development and subdivision plans that would have a significant impact on the state's environment and many small communities. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


As a result of Act 250, Vermont was the last state to get a Wal-Mart (there are four, as of November 2007, but only the Williston store was a newly-built store). Vermont was also the last state to have a Lowe's home improvement store built.[citation needed]


Another case involves the recent controversy over the adoption of civil unions, an institution which grants same-sex couples nearly all the rights and privileges of marriage. In Baker v. Vermont (1999), the Vermont Supreme Court ruled that, under the Constitution of Vermont, the state must either allow same-sex marriage or provide a separate but equal status for them. The state legislature chose the second option by creating the institution of civil union; the bill was passed by the legislature and signed into law by Governor Howard Dean. As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... Matrimony redirects here. ... Baker v. ... The Vermont Constitution is the governing document of the U.S. state of Vermont. ... One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... Howard Brush Dean III (born November 17, 1948) is an American politician and physician from the U.S. state of Vermont, and currently the chairman of the Democratic National Committee, the central organ of the Democratic Party at the national level. ...


Vermont is the home state of the only current member of the United States Congress who does not associate with a political party: Senator Bernie Sanders, who describes his political views as socialist.[citation needed] In the early 1960s many progressive Vermont Republicans and newcomers to the state helped bolster the state's small Democratic Party. Until 1992, Vermont had supported a Democrat for president only once since the party's founding—in Lyndon B. Johnson's 1964 landslide victory against Barry Goldwater. In 1992, it supported Democrat Bill Clinton for president and has voted for Democrats in every presidential election since. Vermont gave John Kerry his fourth-largest margin of victory in 2004. He won the state's popular vote by 20 percentage points over incumbent George W. Bush, taking almost 59% of the vote. Essex County in the state's northeastern section was the only county to vote for Bush. Vermont still remains the only state that President Bush has not visited.[66] Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Bernard Bernie Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is the current big willy floppah junior United States Senator from big blob of brown poo Vermont. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... LBJ redirects here. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Essex County is the county located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Vermont. ...


On the other hand, Republican Governor Douglas won all counties but Windham in the 2006 election. Vermonters are frequent ticket-splitters.[67]


In 2007, when confronted with an allegedly liberal issue, assisted suicide for the terminally ill, the Democratic-controlled House of Representatives rejected the measure by a vote of 82-63.[68]


Minor parties flourish. Rules which eliminate smaller parties from the ballot in most states do not exist in Vermont. As a result, voters often have extensive choices for general elections.


A political issue has been Act 60, which balances taxation for education funding. This has resulted in the town of Killington trying to secede from Vermont and join New Hampshire due to what the locals say is an unfair tax burden.[69][70] In protest against what at least two thirds of voting residents consider unjust treatment from the state of Vermont in tax and tourism development matters, Killington, Vermont voted in March 2004 (and again in March 2005) to pursue secession from Vermont and admission into the state of New Hampshire, which... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ...


A movement favors separating Vermont from the U.S. or making it the 11th province of Canada. Some suggest the state should join Canada due to its liberal policies as opposed to remaining with the U.S.[71][72] Conversely, American liberals praise Vermont for both its current and historial liberal policies.[citation needed]


Taxation

Property taxes are levied by towns based on fair market appraisal. Rates vary from .97% on homesteaded property in Ferdinand, Essex County, to 2.72% on nonresidents property in Barre City.[73] Statewide towns average 1.77% to 1.82% tax rate. To equitably support education, some towns are required by Act 60 to send some of their collected taxes to be redistributed to school districts lacking adequate support.[74] In June 1997, the Vermont legislature passed Act 60, known as the The Equal Educational Opportunity Act. ...


State lotteries

Money from state lotteries supply 2% of the annual expenditures for education.[75][76]


Public health and safety

Vermont was ranked number two in the nation for safety. Crime statistics on violence were used for the criteria.[77] Vermont has some of the least restrictive gun control laws in the country. A permit or license is not required for the purchase or concealed carry of a firearm (including handguns) by any law-abiding citizen.[78][79]


In 2007 Vermont was ranked number one in the nation as the healthiest place to live for the sixth time in seven years. Criteria included low teenage birth rate, strong health coverage, the lowest AIDS rate in the country, and 18 other factors.[80] In 2007, Vermont was ranked among the best five states in the country for preventing "premature death" in people under 75 years of age. The rate of survival was twice that of the five lowest performing states.[81]


In 2007, Vermont was ranked the third safest state for highway fatalities.[82]


In 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency cited Chittenden and Bennington as counties with 70 parts of smog per billion which is undesirable.[83]


Education

Vermont was named the nation's smartest state in 2005 and 2006.[84] In 2006, there was a gap between state testing standards and national which is biased in favor of the state standards by 30%, on average. This puts Vermont 11th best in the nation. Most states have a higher bias.[85]


The state authorized two more pre-K grades to the school system for the benefit of three and four year olds. Entry to these two grades is capped.[86]


According to one study, enrollment in kindergarten through 12th grade has declined by nearly 10 percent during the 1990s. During the same period total staff numbers have increased by more than 20 percent. Per pupil spending grew from $6,073 in 1990 to $13,664 in 2006.[87] A study by the Census Bureau lists Vermont with the fourth highest expenditure per pupil in the country at $11,835 for 2005.[88]


Academies and grammar schools

Vermont's 1777 constitution was the first in English-speaking North America to mandate public funding for universal education. This requirement was first met by elementary-level village schools with sessions held in the cooler months to accommodate farm work. Most schools educated similar numbers of girls and boys. Conditions in these schools varied, and the highest level of instruction was tenth grade. By the end of the eighteenth century, grammar schools, instructing students in English, algebra, geometry, Greek, and Latin, had been established at Bennington, Burlington, Castleton, Middlebury, Montpelier, and Windsor. These grammar schools were of a higher caliber than the smaller villages' schools, and the level of education at some was equivalent to college level.


By the middle nineteenth century, an expansion in settlement and the population of the state, coupled with increased prosperity, brought grammar schools to all corners of Vermont. Even the most remote Northeast Kingdom had established high-school-level instruction in Brownington, Craftsbury, Danville, Hardwick, and Newport. Many of these established grammar schools and academies, though not entirely public, received funds from area town governments in exchange for education of their students. As a system of public funding for primary and secondary education took root, many of these schools became municipal public schools. Several remained private, becoming private high-school-level academies, and several become colleges; the Orange County Grammar School became Vermont Technical College, the Rutland County Grammar School became Castleton State College, the Lamoille County Grammar School became Johnson State College, and the Addison County Grammar School became Middlebury College. The Vermont Technical College The Vermont Technical College (VTC) is a public technological institute located in the village of Randolph Center, Vermont (in the town of Randolph, Vermont). ... Castleton State College is a public liberal arts college located at Castleton in the U.S. state of Vermont. ... Johnson State College is a public college located in Johnson, Vermont. ... Middlebury College is a small, private liberal arts college located in the rural town of Middlebury, Vermont, United States. ...


Educating teachers

In the 1860s a shortage of qualified teachers brought the establishment of state "normal schools," a term based on the French term école normale – a school to train teachers. The grammar schools at Castleton, Johnson, and Randolph Center became normal schools, additional normal schools were established in Concord and Lyndonville. Additional post secondary schools instructing students to become teachers were called seminaries. While several were nominally associated with Protestant churches, none were seminaries in the sense of training ministers. These seminars also graduated teachers to staff Vermont's growing number of primary and secondary schools.


The one-room school house

The one-room school house, born of small multi-age rural populations, continued well into the twentieth century. Rural towns without a single central village often built two to a half-dozen school houses across their terrain. Much of this came from a lack of transportation and a need for students to return home by mid afternoon for farm chores. By 1920 all public schools, including the one-room school houses, were regulated by the state government. In the early 1930s state legislation established a review and certification program similar to accreditation. Schools were issued regulations about teacher education and curriculum. Education quality in rural areas was maintained through a program called Vermont Standard Schools. Rural school houses meeting certification requirements displayed a green and white plaque with the Vermont coat of arms and the words "Vermont Standard School."


Higher education

During the period of the Vermont Republic several towns on the east side of the Connecticut River were part of Vermont. This included Hanover, and Dartmouth College. Statehood brought about establishment of the Connecticut River as a natural border. Having lost Dartmouth College, Ira Allen established the University of Vermont (UVM) in 1791 to complement the smaller college at Castleton. By the mid-twentieth century all but one of the state normal schools, and many of the seminaries, had become four-year colleges of liberal arts and sciences. Experimentation at the University of Vermont by George Perkins Marsh, and later the influence of Vermont born philosopher and educator John Dewey brought about the concepts of electives and learning by doing. Today Vermont has five colleges within the Vermont State Colleges system, UVM, fourteen other private, degree-granting colleges, including Middlebury College, a private, co-educational liberal arts college founded in 1800, Champlain College, a Burlington college founded in 1878, the Vermont Law School at Royalton, and Norwich University, the oldest private military college in the United States and birthplace of ROTC, founded in 1819. Flag of Vermont Republic The Vermont Republic was an independent republic that existed from 1777 until it became the state of Vermont—the 14th state of the United States of America—in 1791. ... UVM redirects here. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... The Vermont State Colleges (VSC) is the U.S. state of Vermonts system of public colleges. ... UVM redirects here. ... Middlebury College is a small, private liberal arts college located in the rural town of Middlebury, Vermont, United States. ... Champlain College is a private college located in Burlington, Vermont. ... Oakes Hall, Vermont Law School Vermont Law School is a private law school located in South Royalton, Vermont (a village of Royalton, Vermont). ... Norwich University (NU) is a private university located in Northfield, Vermont. ... The Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) is a training program of the United States armed forces present on college campuses to recruit and educate commissioned officers. ...


Sports

The largest professional franchise is the Vermont Lake Monsters, a single-A minor league baseball of the Washington Nationals, based in Burlington. They were named the Vermont Expos prior to 2006.[89] The logo of the Vermont Lake Monsters is Champ, the legendary sea monster of Vermonts Lake Champlain. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... Major league affiliations National League (1969–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 42 Name Washington Nationals (2005–present) Montreal Expos (1969-2004) Other nicknames The Nats Ballpark Nationals Ballpark (2008–present) RFK Stadium 2005-2007 Hiram Bithorn Stadium[3] (San Juan) (2003-2004) Olympic Stadium (Montreal) (1977... Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and is the shire town of Chittenden County, Vermont. ...


The Vermont Frost Heaves, the 2007 national champions, are a franchise of the American Basketball Association (Blue Conference), and have been based in Barre and Burlington since the fall of 2006. The Vermont Frost Heaves are Vermonts professional basketball team. ... For information on the original league that lasted until 1976, see American Basketball Association (1967-1977). ... Barre is a city in Washington County, Vermont, in the United States. ... Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and is the shire town of Chittenden County, Vermont. ...


Vermont is home to a semi-professional football team, the Ice Storm,[90] based in South Hero.[91] It plays its home games at the Colchester High School stadium. It is a member of the Empire Football League. South Hero, Vermont South Hero is a town located in Grand Isle County, Vermont. ... The Empire Football League (EFL) is a Semi-Pro American Football League that operates franchises based primarily in New York and Pennsylvania. ...


The Vermont Voltage is a USL Premier Development League soccer club that plays in St. Albans. The Vermont Voltage are a USL Premier Development League, club that play in St. ... The USL Premier Development League (PDL) is the amateur league of the United Soccer Leagues in the United States and Canada, forming part of the American Soccer Pyramid. ... St. ...


Cultural pursuits

Vermont festivals include the Vermont Maple Festival, Festival on the Green [4], the Enosburg Falls Dairy Festival, the Apple Festival (held each Columbus Day Weekend), the Marlboro Music Festival, and the Vermont Mozart Festival. The Vermont Symphony Orchestra is supported by the state and performs throughout the area. The Poetry Society of Vermont publishes a literary magazine called The Green Mountain Troubadore which encourages submissions from members of various ages. Every year they hold various contests - one being for high school age young people. The Brattleboro-based Vermont Theatre Company presents an annual summer Shakespeare festival. Brattleboro also hosts the summertime Strolling of the Heifers parade which celebrates Vermont's unique dairy culture. Montpelier is home to the annual Green Mountain Film Festival. The Marlboro Music School and Festival is a retreat for advanced classical training and musicianship held for seven weeks each summer in Marlboro, Vermont. ... The Vermont Mozart Festival is a popular series of indoor and outdoor concerts presented annually at sites throughout the state of Vermont. ... The Vermont Symphony Orchestra (VSO) is a symphony orchestra based in, and supported by, the American state of Vermont. ... Green Mountain Film Festival logo by Edward Koren. ...


In the Northeast Kingdom, the Bread and Puppet Theatre holds weekly shows in Glover in a natural outdoor amphitheater. The Bread and Puppet Theatre is located in Glover, Vermont, in the Northeast Kingdom. ...


One of Vermont's best known musical exports was the group Phish, whose members met while attending school in Vermont and played its final concert in the state. This article is about the band. ...


State symbols

The hermit thrush is Vermont's state bird.

State symbols include: Vermonts state song is These Green Mountains, composed by Diane Martin and arranged by Rita Buglass Gluck. ... Hermit Thrush public domain from USFWS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hermit Thrush public domain from USFWS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Catharus guttatus (Pallas, 1811) The Hermit Thrush, Catharus guttatus, is a medium-sized thrush. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Vermont is distinct for being among only three U.S. states with both a state seal and a coat of arms. Vermont is the only U.S. state to have a heraldically correct blazon describing its coat of arms. Each state in the United States (except New Jersey) has a state song, selected by the state legislature as a symbol of the state. ... These Green Mountains is the official state song of Vermont. ... Moonlight in Vermont is a popular song. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Catharus guttatus (Pallas, 1811) The Hermit Thrush, Catharus guttatus, is a medium-sized thrush. ... This is a list of U.S. state flowers: External link Juelies State Flower Garden of Gifs See also Lists of U.S. state insignia Categories: Lists of flowers | U.S. state insignia ... For other uses, see Clover (disambiguation). ... This is a list of official U.S. state fish: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia Categories: U.S. state insignia ... This article is about the species of fish. ... Binomial name (Mitchill, 1818) Subspecies S. v. ... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: U.S. state insignia | Lists of plants | Trees ... Binomial name Acer saccharum Marshall The Sugar Maple Acer saccharum is a prominent tree in the hardwood forests of eastern North America. ... The Morgan is one of the first horse breeds developed in the United States. ... Binomial name (Schreber, 1782) Synonyms Rana pipiens The Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens[1][2], previously Rana pipiens) is a species of Leopard frog from the true frog family native to parts of Canada and United States. ... Binomial name (Schneider, 1783) Subspecies - Eastern Painted Turtle - Southern Painted Turtle - Midland Painted Turtle - Western Painted Turtle Painted Turtle is also the name of an imprint of Wayne State University Press. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... For the manga anthology series, see Petit Apple Pie. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids, see Drinking. ... A glass of cows milk. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Pallas, 1776) Beluga range This article is about the whale. ... The Great Seal of the State of Vermont was designed by Ira Allen. ... The Coat of arms of Vermont was first used in 1821. ... This is an article about Heraldry. ...


Notable Vermonters

Vermont is the birthplace of former presidents Calvin Coolidge and Chester A. Arthur. John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ...


The list of famous people from Vermont is an incomplete, alphabetized list of famous people who at one point called Vermont their home. Over the years, Vermont has been called home by many people whose names were familiar outside of the state. ...


Notable fictional Vermonters

Simon Legree menaces Uncle Tom Uncle Toms Cabin (ISBN 0553212184) is a novel by American novelist Harriet Beecher Stowe which treats slavery as a central theme. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ... George Robert Bob Newhart (born September 5, 1929 in Oak Park, Illinois) is an American stand-up comedian and actor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the album by rock band Northstar, see Pollyanna (album). ...

See also

Mount Mansfield, at 4,393 feet, is the highest elevation point in Vermont. ... Vermont is a state in the United States. ... Early history (1910-1950) Recent history (1950-1990) Scouting in Vermont today In the Boy Scouts of America, all of the state of Vermont is located in the Green Mountain Council, which is divided into the following districts: Ethan Allen District Calvin Coolidge District Indian Lakes District Iroquois District Maple... Second Vermont Republic (SVR) is a secessionist movement within the U.S. state of Vermont to return the independent status of the Vermont Republic from 1777–91. ... Map of the 14 counties of the State of Vermont The United States Census Bureau has defined one Combined Statistical Area (CSA),[1] one Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA),[2] and five Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs)[3] in the State of Vermont. ... The Vermont State Colleges (VSC) is the U.S. state of Vermonts system of public colleges. ... The “Vermont State Police” (VSP) is the state police agency for the state of Vermont, which has jurisdiction anywhere in the state. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 8, 2006.
  2. '^ US Department of Agriculture - Economic Research Service. Table 44--U.S. maple syrup production and value, by state, calendar years. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  3. ^ VERMONT v. NEW HAMPSHIRE, 289 U.S. 593 (1933)
  4. ^ Academics Content Server at Saint Michael's. The Physiographic Regions of Vermont. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  5. ^ Google Books
  6. ^ http://academics.smcvt.edu/vtgeographic/textbook/weather/weather_and_climate_of_vermont.htm accessed September 15, 2007
  7. ^ http://vermont.wedding.net/geography.html accessed September 15, 2007
  8. ^ Esther Munroe Swift, Vermont Place-Names: Footprints in History Picton Press, 1977
  9. ^ Second Vermont Republic. Vermont's Declaration of Independence (1777). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  10. ^ Esther Munroe Swift, Vermont Place-Names: Footprints in History Picton Press, 1977
  11. ^ Esther Munroe Swift, Vermont Place-Names: Footprints in History Picton Press, 1977
  12. ^ Margaret Bucholt Manchester and the Mountains Chamber of Commerce An Insider's Guide to Southern Vermont, Penguin, 1991
  13. ^ 40.7 in 2005, US Census Community Survey
  14. ^ People who chose not to give an ethnic background
  15. ^ http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/50000.html accessed October 4, 2007
  16. ^ The Graduate Center, CUNY. American Religious Identification Survey. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  17. ^ Adherents.com. Religion in Vermont. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  18. ^ Sullivan, Will (June 11, 2007). A New Shade of Granit. US News and World Report. 
  19. ^ 2001 Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia
  20. ^ http://www.boston.com/news/local/vermont/articles/2005/02/23/green_mountains_good_karma/ Buddhist retreat centers
  21. ^ Gram, David (July 14, 2007). Forbes ranks Vt. 30th (sic) for business. Burlington Free Press. 
  22. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._states_by_GDP_per_capita_%28nominal%29
  23. ^ Rankings tend to favor higher cost of living areas and downrate lower cost of living areas
  24. ^ Percentages may not add up to exactly 100% because of rounding
  25. ^ Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State
  26. ^ Creaser, Richard (October 24, 2007). Illuzi learns about economy of Taiwan during visit. the Chronicle. 
  27. ^ Craft Brewing Industry Statistics
  28. ^ Figure includes the possible economic affect on all other areas in addition to Agriculture. This explains the wide variance with the figure in GSP above
  29. ^ Vermont Sustainable Agriculture Council. Vermont's Agriculture: Generating Wealth from the Land. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  30. ^ http://www.vermontdairy.com/dairy_industry/farms/numbers
  31. ^ called "federal order one"
  32. ^ New York has 44.9%, Pennsylvania has 32.9%
  33. ^ Dunbar, Bethany (November 14, 2007). Vermont Milk Commission takes a look at hauling costs. the Chronicle. 
  34. ^ ((cite web | author = Vermont Maple Sugar Makers Assoc. | title=Maple Facts |url=http://www.vermontmaple.org/maplefacts.html | access date = 2007-04-08))
  35. ^ Liz Halloran (2007). Vermont's War. US News and World Report, January 22, page 45. 
  36. ^ Curran, John (July 29, 2007). Winemakers hope new state council will help them grow. Burlington Free Press. 
  37. ^ America's Career Infonetaccessed February 3, 2008
  38. ^ The Burlington Free Press, February 28, 2007,page 8C, "IBM:Enriching economy for 50 years."
  39. ^ Vermont Business Roundtable. Housing Prices, Availability, and Affordability in Vermont. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  40. ^ Braithwaite, Chris (December 19, 2007). Vermont weathers mortgage storm. the Chronicle. 
  41. ^ Unions Shrink Even in NY, Data Show
  42. ^ A separate study shows over 325,000 workers in 2000!http://www.bishca.state.vt.us/hcadiv/Data_Reports/healthinsurmarket/SurveyVTFamilyHealth2000/DataTables126_146/128_WorkingStatewideOfferFirm.PDF
  43. ^ Salary.com Job salaries- Performance reviews- Compensation software
  44. ^ Insurance Information Institute. Captives & Other Risk-Financing Options. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  45. ^ VirtualVermont.com
  46. ^ ApartmentLinks.com
  47. ^ DatabankUSA,AARP Bulletin, April 2007, compiled from figures from the US Census
  48. ^ Tax-Friendly Places 2007 | 8 | CNNMoney.com
  49. ^ State Balanced Budget Requirements: Provisions and Practice
  50. ^ Burlington Free Press, February 6, 2007, Business, page 7A, Moody's gives highest bond rating to Vermont.
  51. ^ Microsoft Word - ps360final.doc
  52. ^ (August 4, 2007) State to inspect bridges similar to Minn. span. Burlington Free Press.  page 1B
  53. ^ Creaser, Richard (November 14, 2007). The bridges of Orleans County await repair. the Chronicle. 
  54. ^ Burlington Free Press.com | Top Stories
  55. ^ Cell Service in Vermont: Can't hear the tourist for the trees | Vermont Business Magazine | Find Articles at BNET.com
  56. ^ Techdirt: Vermont's Muni Broadband Plan Sounds Half Right
  57. ^ Save Unicel
  58. ^ A Synopsis of the extent of the measure to extend broadband
  59. ^ Bnet Business Network accessed February 21, 2008
  60. ^ town offices
  61. ^ Pew Report 2008 accessed March 26, 2008
  62. ^ These relatively small political movements are similar in nature to those found in California, Hawaii, Louisiana, and Texas; although the historical contexts are variant.
  63. ^ Second Vermont Republic
  64. ^ In Vermont, nascent secession movement gains traction - Boston.com
  65. ^ The World. Rise of the Democratic Party. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  66. ^ Activists in Vermont town want Bush, Cheney subject to arrest - CNN.com
  67. ^ Vermont General Elections. For Governor. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  68. ^ It's sudden death in Vermont for assisted suicide proposal
  69. ^ Killington Secession Not Too Popular in VT | New Hampshire Public Radio
  70. ^ CNN.com - Killington residents vote to secede from Vermont - Mar. 4, 2004
  71. ^ http://www.vermontcanada.org/reasons.html Vermont Canada retrieved on June 6, 2007
  72. ^ http://baheyeldin.com/canada/state-of-vermont-wants-to-join-canada.html retrieved on June 6, 2007
  73. ^ http://www.vermontproperty.com/newsltr/2005effectivetaxrates.pdfPDF (111 KiB)
  74. ^ Laws & Regulations : Act 60 Links & Resources
  75. ^ Vermont Lottery - FAQ's
  76. ^ Lawmakers faced with thorny choices: Rutland Herald Online
  77. ^ Morgan Quitno Press
  78. ^ Selected Vermont laws governing the use and possession of firearms
  79. ^ Brady Campaign on Vermont gun laws
  80. ^ Healthiest States 2007 - AOL Money & Finance
  81. ^ South Lags In Report Card on Health Care - AOL Body
  82. ^ Vermont information Times Daily, retrieved on 2007-10-14
  83. ^ Overberg, Paul,Hundreds of counties would fail smog standards,USA Today, June 22, 2007
  84. ^ Walsh, Molly (June 8, 2007). Vermont doing better than most. Burlington Free Press. 
  85. ^ King, Ledyard (June 8, 2007). State tests put image ahead of performance. Burlington Free Press. 
  86. ^ McClaughry, John (June 13, 2007). Pending: a 15-year public school system. the Chronicle. 
  87. ^ http://www.vermonttiger.com/content/files/vpeex_summary.pdf retrieved July 9, 2007
  88. ^ http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/education/010125.html accessed September 15, 2007
  89. ^ Lake Monsters website
  90. ^ Vermont Ice Storm Home Page
  91. ^ The term "semi-pro" is somewhat misleading since League rules prohibit paying team members. In fact, members pay to play.
  92. ^ Book review

is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up article in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Albers, Jan. Hands on the Land: A History of the Vermont Landscape. MIT Press: 2000. ISBN 0-262-01175-1.
  • Allen, Ira [1798] (1969). The natural and political history of the State of Vermont, one of the United States of America. Charles E. Tuttle Company. ISBN 0-8048-0419-2. 
  • Bryan, Frank, and John McClaughry. "The Vermont Papers: Recreating Democracy on a Human Scale." Chelsea Green Publishing: 1989. ISBN 0-930031-19-9.
  • Cohen, David Elliot, and Rick Smolan. Vermont 24/7. DK Publishing: 2004. ISBN 0-7566-0086-3.
  • Coffin, Howard. Full Duty: Vermonters in the Civil War. The Countryman Press: 1995. ISBN 0-88150-349-5.
  • Doyle, William T. "The Vermont Political Tradition and Those Who Helped Make It." Doyle Publisher: 1987. ISBN 0-9615486-1-4.
  • Duffy, John J., et al. Vermont: An Illustrated History. American Historical Press: 2000. ISBN 1-892724-08-1.
  • Duffy, John J., et al. The Vermont Encyclopedia. University Press of New England: 2003. ISBN 1-58465-086-9.
  • Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of Vermont. Vermont: A guide to the Green Mountain State. Houghton Mifflin: 1937.
  • Grant, Kim, et al. Vermont: An Explorer's Guide. The Countryman Press: 2002. ISBN 0-88150-519-6.
  • Klyza, Christopher McGrory, and Stephen C. Trombulak. The Story of Vermont: A Natural and Cultural History. University Press of New England: 1999. ISBN 0-87451-936-5.
  • Potash, P. Jeffrey, et al. Freedom and Unity: A History of Vermont. Vermont Historical Society: 2004. ISBN 0-934720-49-5.
  • Meeks, Harold A. Vermont's Land and Resources, The New England Press: 1968. ISBN 0-933050-40-2.
  • Hunter, Preston. "Religion in Vermont". Adherents.com.
  • Rodgers, Steve. Country Towns of Vermont. McGraw-Hill: 1998. ISBN 1-56626-195-3.
  • Sherman, Joe. Fast Lane on a Dirt Road: A Contemporary History of Vermont. Chelsea Green Publishing Company: 2000. ISBN 1-890132-74-8.
  • Sletcher, Michael. New England. Westport, CT, 2004.
  • Vermont Atlas & Gazetteer. DeLorme: 2000. ISBN 0-89933-322-2.
  • Van de Water, Frederic Franklyn (1974). The Reluctant Republic: Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. ISBN 0-914378-02-3. 

Categories: People stubs ... Poster advertising a Federal Writers Project publication. ... WPA Graphic The Works Progress Administration (later Work Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created on May 6, 1935 by Presidential order (Congress funded it annually but did not set it up). ...

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Maps and Demographics

  • USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Vermont
  • Earthquake facts, Vermont
  • "Vermont QuickFacts" U.S. Census Bureau.

Tourism & recreation

  • Vermont Department of Tourism and Marketing


Culture & history

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  • Radio Free Vermont


Preceded by
Rhode Island
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on March 4, 1791 (14th)
Succeeded by
Kentucky

Coordinates: 44° N 72.7° W Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Federal districts are subdivisions of a federal system of government. ... ... An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... Motto Samoa, Muamua Le Atua(Samoan) Samoa, Let God Be First Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner, Amerika Samoa Capital Pago Pago; Fagatogo (seat of government) Official languages English, Samoan Government  -  Governor Togiola Tulafono United States unincorporated territory  -  Treaty of Berlin 1899   -  Deed of Cession of Tutuila 1900   -  Deed of Cession... Anthem: Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi(Chamorro) Satil Matawal Pacifiko(Carolinian) Capital Saipan Official languages English, Chamorro, Carolinian Government Presidential representative democracy  -  Governor Benigno R. Fitial  -  Lt. ... For the board game, see Puerto Rico (board game). ... Motto United in Pride and Hope Anthem Virgin Islands March Capital (and largest city) Charlotte Amalie Official languages English Government  -  Head of State George W. Bush  -  Governor John de Jongh Organized, unincorporated territory  -  Revised Organic Act 22 July 1954  Area  -  Total 346. ... The flag of the United States is used for all of the United States Minor Outlying Islands The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1, consists of nine insular United States possessions: All of these islands are in the Pacific Ocean except Navassa Island... Bajo Nuevo Bank, also called the Petrel Islands, is located in the western United States and Jamaica. ... Baker Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°13′N 176°31′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Howland Island Howland Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°48′N 176°38′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Jarvis Island (formerly also known as Bunker Island[1]) is an uninhabited 4. ... Johnston Atoll is a 130 km² atoll in the North Pacific Ocean at 16°45′N 169°30′W, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands. ... The flag of the US is used for Kingman Reef Kingman Reef Kingman Reef—NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kingman Reef is a one-square-kilometer tropical coral reef located in the North Pacific Ocean, roughly half way between Hawaiian Islands and American Samoa at 6°24... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ... Navassa Island map from The World Factbook Navassa Island - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Navassa Island (La Navase in French, Lanavaz in Haitian Kreyòl) is a small, uninhabited island in the Caribbean Sea. ... Palmyra Atoll - Landsat Image N-03-05_2000 (1:50,000) Palmyra Atoll - Marplot Map (1:50,000) Orthographic projection over Palmyra Atoll Palmyra Atoll, is an incorporated atoll administered by the United States government. ... Serranilla Bank is a western Caribbean island located about 210 miles north-northeast of Nicaragua. ... USGS Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite image of Wake Island. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Vermont | Real Estate | Hotels | Bed and Breakfasts | Vacations | Travel and More (0 words)
Vermont is a leader in protecting the environment, a top producer of U.S. Olympic skiers and riders, and a state consistently rated one of the safest in the nation.
Vermonters are resourceful; the state made a conscious decision in the mid-20th century to market itself as a tourist destination.
Vermonters don’t tolerate pollution or its dirty little cousin, littering.
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Vermont forestry experts back up the prediction that a good foliage season is on the way.
Vermont’s foliage season typically begins in earnest in mid September in northern Vermont and at higher elevations and progresses steadily southward and to lower elevations through mid to late October.
It is important to remember that Vermont’s small size makes it easy for travelers to explore the countryside and experience every color stage while discovering the many different regions of the state.
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