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Encyclopedia > Vergil

For other uses see Virgil (disambiguation). There are several important things named Virgil Virgil was the famous Roman poet. ...

Vergil, probably from 1st century AD.
Vergil, probably from 1st century AD.

Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 7019 BCE) known in English as Vergil or Virgil, Latin poet, is the author of the Eclogues, the Georgics, and the Aeneid, this last being an epic poem of twelve books that is called the Roman Empire's national epic. Virgil. ... Virgil. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in Leap years). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC... (Redirected from 19 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Eclogues is one of three major works by the Latin poet Virgil. ... The Georgics, written in 29 BC, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. ... The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ...

Contents


Life

Vergil was born in Cisalpine Gaul. He received his earliest education at 5 years old. Vergil is of Italian ancestry, as he shows in the Aeneid when he says Rome will be of mixed blood. He went to Rome to study rhetoric, medicine, and astronomy, which he soon abandoned for philosophy. City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1...


Early works

In this period, while he was in the school of Siro the Epicurean, Vergil began writing poetry. A group of minor poems attributed to the youthful Vergil survive but most are spurious. One, the Catalepton, consists of fourteen little poems, some of which may be Vergil's, and another, a short narrative poem titled the Culex (the mosquito), was attributed to Vergil as early as the 1st century AD. (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ...


Such dubious poems are sometimes referred to as the Appendix Vergiliana. The Appendix Vergiliana is a collection of writings traditionally ascribed as juvenilia of Vergil, although there are general doubts as to their authorship. ...


In 42 BCE, after the defeat of Julius Caesar's assassins, Brutus and Cassius, the demobilized soldiers of the victors were settled on expropriated land and Vergil's estate near Mantua was confiscated. However, the first of the Eclogues, written around 42 BCE, is taken as evidence that Octavian restored the estate, for it tells how "Tityrus" recovered his land through Octavian's intervention and "Tityrus" is usually identified as Virgil himself. Vergil soon became part of the circle of Maecenas, Octavian's capable agent d'affaires who sought to counter sympathy for Marc Antony among the leading families by rallying Roman literary figures to Octavian's side. After the Eclogues were completed, Vergil spent the years 3729 BCE on the Georgics ("On Farming"), which was written in honor of Maecenas. But Octavian, who had defeated Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE and two years later had the title "Augustus" given him by the Roman senate, was already pressing Vergil to write an epic in praise of his regime. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Marcus Junius Brutus Caepio (85 BC–42 BC), or simply Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Gaius Cassius Longinus may be: Cassius, who helped assassinate Julius Caesar Gaius Cassius Longinus, a 1st century jurist Categories: Ancient Romans ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... Gaius or Cilnius Maecenas (70 - 8 BC) was a confidant and political advisor to Augustus Caesar, as well as an important sponsor of young poets. ... Bust of Marcus Antonius Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N¹) (c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC... (Redirected from 29 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26... The Georgics, written in 29 BC, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. ... The Battle of Actium, 2 September 31 BC, by Lorenzo A. Castro, painted 1672. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC...


Other works

Vergil also wrote the famous verse Georgica which includes the line Sed fugit interea, fugit irreparabile tempus. This particular line also coined the expression tempus fugit which means time flies. Tempus fugit is a latin expression meaning time flies. ...


Composition of the Aeneid

Vergil responded with the Aeneid, which took up his last ten years. The first six books of the epic tell how the Trojan hero Aeneas escapes from the sack of Troy and makes his way to Italy. On the voyage, a storm drives him on to the coast of Carthage where the queen, Dido, welcomes him and before long Aeneas falls deeply in love. But Jupiter recalls Aeneas to his duty and he slips away from Carthage, leaving Dido to commit suicide but not before swearing vengeance. On reaching Cumae, in Italy, Aeneas consults the Cumaean Sibyl, who conducts him through the Underworld and reveals his destiny to him. Aeneas is reborn as the creator of imperial Rome. Walls of the excavated city of Troy (Turkey) This article is about the city of Troy / Ilion as described in the works of Homer, and the location of an ancient city associated with it. ... Aeneas (or Aineias) was a Trojan hero, the son of prince Anchises and the goddess Venus. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy (Turkey) This article is about the city of Troy / Ilion as described in the works of Homer, and the location of an ancient city associated with it. ... A map of the central Mediterranean Sea, showing the location of Carthage (near modern Tunis). ... In Greek and Roman sources Elissa or Dido appears as the founder and first Queen of Carthage in Tunisia. ... Jupiter In Roman mythology, Jupiter (sometimes shortened to Jove) held the same role as Zeus in the Greek pantheon. ... Cumae (Cuma, in Italian) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. ... Michelangelos rendering of the Cumaean Sibyl The Cumaean Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle at Cumae, a Greek colony located near Naples,Italy. ...


The first six books (of "first writing") are modeled on Homer's Odyssey, but the last six are the Roman answer to the Iliad. Aeneas is betrothed to Lavinia, daughter of king Latinus, but Lavinia had already been promised to Turnus, the king of the Rutulians who is roused to war by the Fury, Allecto. The Aeneid ends with a single combat between Aeneas and Turnus, whom Aeneas defeats and kills, spurning his plea for mercy. Bust of Homer in the British Museum For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... The Odyssey (Greek Ὀδυσσεία) is the second of the two great Greek epic poems ascribed to Homer, the first of which is the Iliad. ... The Iliad (Greek Ἰλιάς, Ilias) tells part of the story of the siege of the city of Ilium, i. ... In Roman mythology, Lavinia was the daughter of Latinus and Amata. ... Latinus or Latinos in Greek mythology, in Hesiods Theogony, was the son of Odysseus and Circe who ruled the Tyrsenoi, that is the Etruscans, with his brothers Agrius and Telegonus. ... In Roman mythology, King Turnus of the Rutuli was an ancient king killed by Aeneas. ... In Greek mythology the Erinyes or Eumenides (the Romans called them the Furies) were female personifications of vengeance. ... In Greek mythology the Erinyes (the Romans called them the Furies) were female personifications of vengeance. ...


Vergil travelled with Augustus to Greece, where Vergil caught a fever, which he died of in Brundisium harbor, leaving the Aeneid unfinished, Augustus ordered Vergil's literary executors, Varius and Tucca, to disregard Vergil's own wish that the poem be destroyed and to publish it with as few editorial changes as possible. Incomplete or not, the Aeneid was immediately recognized as a masterpiece. It proclaimed the imperial mission of the Roman Empire but at the same time could pity Rome's victims and feel their grief. Dido and Turnus, who are both casualties of Rome's destiny, are more attractive figures than Aeneas, whose single-minded devotion to his goal may seem almost repellent to the modern reader. However, the virtue that Vergil portrays in Aeneas may be referred to as pietas, roughly translated as piety. It is his duty to the gods, his family and his homeland. Aeneas struggles between doing what he wants to as a man, and doing what he must as a virtuous hero with pietas. Aeneas' inner turmoil, and on many occasions, shortfallings, make him a far more realistic character than the heroes of the older poems such as Odysseus of the Odyssey by Homer. Brundisium (Gr. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... :This article is about the mythological character. ... The Odyssey (Greek Ὀδυσσεία) is the second of the two great Greek epic poems ascribed to Homer, the first of which is the Iliad. ... Bust of Homer in the British Museum For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ...


The text of the Aeneid that we have, is a draft version, and contains faults which Vergil was planning to correct before publication:-

  • Verses which are not a complete line of dactylic hexameter.
  • Future tenses made by adding -s-, for example faxo for faciam. That form is not valid Latin, but is common in Greek and in Osco-Umbrian; it could be that Vergil could speak Osco-Umbrian, at least, well enough to communicate with his farm workers.

Osco-Umbrian is a language which was spoken in central Italy before Latin replaced it as the power of the Romans expanded. ...

Secret meanings in Vergil

In the medieval period, Vergil was considered a herald of Christianity, for his Eclogue 4 verses (Ecl.4 at the Perseus Project) concerning the birth of a boy were re-read to prophesy Christ's nativity. The poem may actually refer to the pregnancy of Octavian's wife Scribonia, who in fact gave birth to a girl. Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as portrayed in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... The Perseus Project is a digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of humanities resources. ...


In the Middle Ages, as Vergil developed into a kind of magus or wizard, manuscripts of the Aeneid were used for divination, the sortes virgilianae, in which a line would be selected at random and interpreted as Old Testament lines were interpreted for arcane meanings, in light of a current situation. (Compare the ancient Chinese I Ching.) This is a kind of bibliomancy. A Magus (plural Magi, from Latin, via Greek μάγος from Old Persian maguÅ¡) was a Zoroastrian astrologer-priest from ancient Persia, from which is derived the terms magic, magician, and also refered to as a sorcerer or wizard. ... Divination is the practice of ascertaining information from supernatural sources. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... Bibliomancy is a form of divination that seeks to know the future by randomly selecting a passage from a book, frequently a sacred text. ...


Even in the Welsh myth of Taliesin, the goddess Cerridwen is reading from the "Book of Pheryllt"--that is, Vergil. For the studio established by Frank Lloyd Wright, see Taliesin (studio) Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... In Welsh mythology, Ceridwen was a magician, mother of Taliesin, Morfran, and a beautiful daughter. ...


More recently, professor Jean-Yves Maleuvre has proposed that Vergil wrote the Aeneid using a "double writing" system, in which the first superficial writing was intended for national audience and Augustus' needs, while the second one, deeper and hidden, unnoticed before Maleuvre discovered it, reflected Vergil's true point of view and his true historical reconstruction of the past. Maleuvre believes Augustus had Vergil murdered once the epic was finished. Maleuvre's ideas have not met with general acceptance.


Later views of Vergil

Even as the Roman world collapsed, literate men acknowledged that the Christianized Vergil was a master poet, even when they ceased to read him. Gregory of Tours had read Vergil and some other Latin poets, though he cautions us that "We ought not to relate their lying fables, lest we fall under sentence of eternal death." Dante made Vergil his guide to Hell and Purgatory in The Divine Comedy. Vergil is still considered the greatest of the Latin poets. In recent years, Vergil has become a video game character in Devil May Cry and Devil May Cry 3: Dante's Awakening, which are loosely based on Dante's comedy by the use of allusions. Gregory of Tours (c. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ... Vergil from DMC3. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Devil May Cry (デビルメイクライ) is a PlayStation 2 video game series by Capcom. ... In rhetoric, an allusion is the implicit referencing of a related object or circumstance, which has occurred or existed in an external context. ...


Vergil's Name in English

In the Middle Ages "Vergilius" was frequently spelled "Virgilius." There are two explanations commonly given for the alteration in the spelling of Vergil's name. One explanation is based on a false etymology associated with the word virgo (maiden in Latin) due to Vergil's excessively "maiden"-like (parthenias or παρθηνιας in Greek) modesty. Alternatively, some argue that "Vergilius" was altered to "Virgilius" by analogy with the Latin virga (wand) due to the magical or prophetic powers attributed to Vergil in the Middle Ages. In Norman schools (following the French practice) the habit was to anglicize Latin names by dropping their Latin endings, whence "Virgil." In the 19th century, some German-trained classicists in the United States suggested modification to "Vergil," as it is closer to his original name, and is also the traditional German spelling. Modern usage permits both, though the Oxford Style Manual recommends Vergilius to avoid confusion with the 8th-century Irish grammarian Virgilius Maro. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Norman may refer to: The Norman language The Norman people Norman architecture, the Romanesque architecture erected by the Normans. ...


See also

The Vergilius Augusteus is a manuscript from late antiquity, containing the works of the Roman author Virgil, written probably around the 4th century. ... Folio 22r from the Vatican Virgil contains an illustration from the Aeneid of the flight from Troy. ... Folio 14 recto of the Vergilius Romanus contains an author portrait of Virgil. ... Spoiler Warning: Information regarding Vergil that is not available until the end of the first game will be discussed here. ...

List of works

Dates are approximate

The Appendix Vergiliana is a collection of writings traditionally ascribed as juvenilia of Vergil, although there are general doubts as to their authorship. ... The Eclogues is one of three major works by the Latin poet Virgil. ... The Georgics, written in 29 BC, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. ... The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. ...

Sources

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about:

These links above are for sites containing multiple works by Vergil. For sites containing individual Vergil works, see the pages associated with the specific work. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... The Perseus Project is a digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of humanities resources. ... Project Gutenberg (PG) was launched by Michael Hart in 1971 in order to provide a library, on what would later become the Internet, of free electronic versions (sometimes called e-texts) of physically existing books. ...

  • Vergil Quotes

The article above was originally sourced from Nupedia and is open content. Open content, coined by analogy with open source, (though technically it is actually share-alike) describes any kind of creative work including articles, pictures, audio, and video that is published in a format that explicitly allows the copying of the information. ...


 
 

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