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Encyclopedia > Verdun

Commune of Verdun
Quai de Londres in Verduun
Image File history File links Verdun-quai-londres. ...

Location
Coordinates 49° 9′ 37″ N 5° 23′ 1″ E
Administration
Country France
Region Lorraine
Department Meuse (sous-préfecture)
Arrondissement Verdun
Canton Chief town of 3 cantons
Mayor Arsène Lux
Statistics
Altitude 194 m–330 m
Land area¹ 31.03 km²
Population²
(1999)
19,624
 - Density 633/km² (1999)
Miscellaneous
INSEE/Postal code 55545/ 55100
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
2 Population sans doubles comptes: single count of residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel).
France
Reichsstadt Wirten (de)
Ville libre de Verdun (fr)
Imperial City of Verdun
Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire
? – 1552
Capital Verdun
Government Republic
Historical era Middle Ages
 - Established Uncertain
 - Three Bishoprics
    annexed by France
 
1552
 - Treaty of Westphalia
    recognises annexation
 
1648
For other uses see Verdun (disambiguation)

Verdun (medieval German: Wirten, official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région, northeast France, in the Meuse département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. Population 25,000. Verdun is the most populous commune in Meuse, although it is not the préfecture (capital), which resides in the slightly smaller Bar-le-Duc. Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Location Administration Capital Metz Regional President Jean-Pierre Masseret (PS) (since 2004) Départements Meurthe-et-Moselle Meuse Moselle Vosges Arrondissements 19 Cantons 157 Communes 2,337 Statistics Land area1 23,547 km² Population (Ranked 11th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Meuse is a département in northeast France, named after the Meuse River. ... A subprefecture in Verdun, France Subprefectures (French: sous-préfectures) are the administrative towns of arrondissements in France that do not contain the prefecture for its department. ... The 100 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be translated into English as districts. ... The arrondissement of Verdun is an arrondissement of France, located in the Meuse département, of the Lorraine région. ... The cantons of France are administrative divisions subdividing arrondissements and départements. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... Postal codes were introduced in France in 1972, when La Poste introduced automated sorting. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Rio de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... This page lists English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations, such as and . ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Image File history File links Pavillon_royal_de_France. ... For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Three Bishoprics (French: Trois-Évêchés) were a province of pre-Revolutionary France. ... The Italian War of 1551 (1551–1559), sometimes known as the Habsburg‐Valois War, began when Henry II of France, who had succeeded Francis to the throne, declared war against Charles V with the intent of recapturing Italy and ensuring French, rather than Habsburg, domination of European affairs. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, is the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years War and officially recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Verdun is the name of several communes in France: Verdun, in the Meuse département, site of the Battle of Verdun during World War I. Verdun, in the Ariège département Also part of the name of: Château-Verdun, in the Ariège département Verdun-en-Lauragais... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the 36,568 communes of metropolitan France. ... Location Administration Capital Metz Regional President Jean-Pierre Masseret (PS) (since 2004) Départements Meurthe-et-Moselle Meuse Moselle Vosges Arrondissements 19 Cantons 157 Communes 2,337 Statistics Land area1 23,547 km² Population (Ranked 11th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Meuse is a département in northeast France, named after the Meuse River. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... A subprefecture in Verdun, France Subprefectures (French: sous-préfectures) are the administrative towns of arrondissements in France that do not contain the prefecture for its department. ... Bar-le-Duc is a town in northeastern France, in the Meuse département, of which it is the préfecture (capital). ...


YES SARRRR Verdun (Latin: Verodunum) was founded by the Gauls (as its Celtic name shows; "Dunum" is the Latinized version of a Celtic word meaning oppidum). It has been the seat of the bishop of Verdun since the 4th century, with interruptions. In the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the empire of Charlemagne was divided into three parts. Verdun became part of the middle kingdom Lotharingia, and later of the Holy Roman Empire, in which it was an Imperial Free City. The Bishopric of Verdun formed together with Tull (Toul) and Metz the Three Bishoprics, which where annexed by France in 1552 (recognized in 1648). For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Oppidum (plural oppida) is a Latin word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of ancient Rome. ... The Diocese of Verdun is a territorial subdivision of the Roman Catholic Church in France. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Geopolitical divisions according to the Treaty of Verdun. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Lotharingia (yellow), as established by the Treaty of Verdun, 843, and reduced by the Treaty of Mersen, 870 Lotharingia was a short-lived kingdom in western Europe, the aggregate of territories belonging to Lothair, King of Lotharingia (reigned 855–869), who received it in 855 from his father, Lothair I... This article is about the medieval empire. ... In the Holy Roman Empire, an imperial free city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of... The Diocese of Toul was a Roman Catholic diocese seated at Toul in present-day France. ... The (Roman Catholic) Diocese of Metz is a territorial subdivision of the Catholic church in France. ... The Three Bishoprics (French: Trois-Évêchés) were a province of pre-Revolutionary France. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Birds eye view of Verdun in 1638
Birds eye view of Verdun in 1638
Early map of Verdun, circa 1695
Early map of Verdun, circa 1695

Contents

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 555 pixelsFull resolution (1300 × 902 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 555 pixelsFull resolution (1300 × 902 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1085, 903 KB) Antique map of the village and fortifications of Verdun, France, from “Forces de L’Europe. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1085, 903 KB) Antique map of the village and fortifications of Verdun, France, from “Forces de L’Europe. ...

Verdun in 1819

Norwich Duff visited Verdun in 1819, shortly after the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars. He writes: 'Verdun is prettily situated in a valley surrounded by hills. The River Meuse runs through the town and forms several canals and ditches round the town which is fortified and, I believe, by the great Marshal Vauban. The citadel and [surrounds] are a good deal out of repair and [people] were at work on them. Though there is little to see at Verdun, every part of it felt interesting from the number of our countrymen [ie British prisoners of war] confined here during the war. Verdun is famous for its sweetmeats, sugar plums, confits etc which are said to be the best in France. They made us show our passports [here] it being a fortified town. Admiral Norwich Duff. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ...


Battle of Verdun

Main article: Battle of Verdun

Verdun was the site of the Battle of Verdun in 1916 during World War I. One of the costliest battles of the war, Verdun exemplified the policy of a 'war of attrition' pursued by both sides, which led to an enormous loss of life. Combatants  France  German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 163,000 died. ... Combatants  France  German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 163,000 died. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about the military strategy. ...


After the failure of the Schlieffen Plan in 1914 and the solidifying of the western front, Germany remained on the strategic defensive in the west throughout most of 1915. In the winter of 19151916, German General Erich von Falkenhayn, the chief of the German General Staff (19141916) made plans for a large offensive on the western front that ultimately aimed to break Great Britain, who he believed was Germany's main enemy. Falkenhayn argued that Britain, hidden behind the shield of the French Army, could be met head on and defeated only after this shield was broken. As Falkenhayn recalled it, his so-called Christmas memorandum to Kaiser Wilhelm II envisioned a massive but limited attack on a French position 'for the retention of which the French Command would be compelled to throw in every man they have'. Once the French army had bled to death, Britain could be brought down by Germany's submarine blockade and superior military strength. The logic of initiating a battle not to gain territory or a strategic position but simply to create a self-sustaining killing ground — to bleed the French Army white — pointed to the grimness of military realities in 1916. Alfred Graf von Schlieffen For the French counter-plan, see Plan XVII The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staffs overall strategic plan for victory on the Western Front against France, and was executed to near victory in the first month of World War I; however, a French counterattack... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... The German General Staff, (Großer Generalstab, literally, Great General Staff) was an institution whose rise and development gave the German military a decided advantage over its adversaries. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...


Recent scholarship by Holger Afflerbach and others, however, has questioned the veracity of the Christmas memo. No copy has ever surfaced and the only account of it appeared in Falkenhayn's post-war memoir. His army commanders at Verdun, including the German Crown Prince, denied any knowledge of an attrition strategy. It seems likely that Falkenhayn did not specifically design the battle to bleed the French Army but justified ex-post-facto the motive of the Verdun offensive, despite its failure.


Verdun was the strongest point in pre-war France, ringed by a string of powerful forts, including Douaumont and Vaux. By 1916, the salient at Verdun jutted into the German lines and lay vulnerable to attack from three sides. The historic city of Verdun had been a Gallic fortress before Roman times and later a key asset in wars against Prussia, and Falkenhayn suspected that the French would throw as many men as necessary into its defense. Ironically, France had substantially weakened Verdun's defenses after the outbreak of war, an oversight that would contribute to the removal of Joseph Joffre from supreme command in the summer of 1916. The attack was slated to begin on February 12, then 16, but snow forced repeated postponements. Douaumont is a village and a commune in the Meuse département in France, near Verdun. ... Vaux is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Vaux, in the Allier département Vaux, in the Haute-Garonne département Vaux, in the Moselle département Vaux, in the Vienne département Vaux-Andigny, in the Aisne département Vaux-Champagne, in the... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (12 January 1852 - 3 January 1931) was a Catalan French general who was Commander-in-Chief of the French Army between 1914 and 1916 during World War I. He is most known for regrouping the retreating allied armies to defeat the Germans at the strategically...


Falkenhayn massed artillery to the north and east of Verdun to precede the infantry advance with intensive artillery bombardment. His attack would hit the French positions on the right bank of the Meuse. Although French intelligence had warned of his plans, these warnings were ignored by the French Command and troop levels in the area remained low. Consequently, Verdun was utterly unprepared for the initial bombardment on the morning of 21 February 1916. German infantry attacks followed that afternoon and met tenacious but ultimately inadequate resistance for the first four days. On 25 February the Germans occupied Fort Douaumont. French reinforcements — now under the leadership of General Pétain — began to arrive and were instantly thrown into "the furnace" (as the battle was called) to slow the German advance, no matter what the cost. Over the next several days, the stubborn defense managed to slow the German advance with a series of bloody counter-attacks. In March, Falkenhayn decided to target the French positions on the left bank of the Meuse as well, broadening the offensive front twofold. Throughout March and April, Le Mort Homme and Hill 304 were under continuous heavy bombardment and relentless infantry attacks. Meanwhile, Pétain organised repeated, small-scale counter-attacks to slow the German advance. He also ensured that the Bar-le-Duc road into Verdun — the only one to survive German shelling — remained open. It became known as La Voie Sacrée ('the Sacred Way') because it continued to carry vital supplies and reinforcements into the Verdun front despite constant artillery attack. The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Douaumont is a village and a commune in the Meuse département in France, near Verdun. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... Bar-le-Duc is a town in northeastern France, in the Meuse département, of which it is the préfecture (capital). ... Voie Sacrée (Sacred Way) is the name given to the road between Bar-le-Duc and Verdun, because of the vital role that it played in the battle. ...


German gains continued in June, but slowly and only after increasingly heavy losses on their side. They attacked the heights on both banks of the river. On 7 June, following almost a week of bitter resistance, Fort Vaux fell to the Germans after a murderous hand-to-hand fight inside the very fort. On 23 June the Germans reached what would become the furthest point of their advance. The line was just in front of Fort Souville, the last stronghold before Verdun itself. Pétain was making plans to evacuate the right bank of the Meuse when the Allies' offensive on the Somme River was launched on 1 July, partly to relieve pressure on the French. The Germans could no longer afford to continue their offensive at Verdun when they were needed so desperately on the Somme. At a cost of some 400,000 German casualties and a similar number of French, the attack was finally called off. Germany had failed to bleed France to death. is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fort Vaux, located in Vaux-Devant-Damloup, Meuse, France, became the second Fort to fall in the Battle of Verdun. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Somme river The Somme River (French Rivière Somme) is a river in Picardy, northern France. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The battle continued, however, from October to the end of the year. French offensives, employing new tactics devised by Pétain's deputy, General Robert Nivelle, regained the forts and territory they had lost earlier. This was the only gleam of hope in an otherwise abysmal landscape. Robert Georges Nivelle (October 15, 1857 - March 22, 1924) was a French military commander during World War I. Born in Tulle, France, to a French father and English mother, Nivelle graduated from the École Polytechnique in 1878 and served in Indochina, Algeria, and China as an artillery officer. ...


Overall, the battle lasted 11 months. Falkenhayn was replaced by Hindenburg as Chief of General Staff. General Nivelle was promoted over the head of General Pétain to replace Generalissimo Joffre as French supreme commander, although he was to hold the post for less than six months. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Robert Georges Nivelle (October 15, 1857 - March 22, 1924) was a French military commander during World War I. Born in Tulle, France, to a French father and English mother, Nivelle graduated from the École Polytechnique in 1878 and served in Indochina, Algeria, and China as an artillery officer. ... Generalissimo Francisco de Miranda Generalissimo or Generalissimus is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to a Field Marshal or Grand Admiral. ... Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (12 January 1852 - 3 January 1931) was a Catalan French general who was Commander-in-Chief of the French Army between 1914 and 1916 during World War I. He is most known for regrouping the retreating allied armies to defeat the Germans at the strategically...

A panoramic view of Verdun in 1919
A panoramic view of Verdun from 2004
A portion of the battlefield today
A portion of the battlefield today

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1813x420, 266 KB) Verdun, France, 1919 CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1919. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2595x500, 338 KB)Please give credit Photo by Harry Puncec I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Verdun_5. ... Image File history File links Verdun_5. ...

Cemetery and Memorial

There are many French and German cemeteries throughout the battlefield. The largest is the French National Cemetery and Douaumont ossuary, near Fort Douaumont. Thirteen-thousand crosses adorn the field in front of the ossuary which holds roughly 130,000 unidentified remains brought in off the battlefield. Every year yields more remains which are often placed inside the ossuary's vaults. Ossuary with Cemetery // History During the 300 days lasting fight for Verdun (21 February 1916 - 19 December 1916) approximately 300. ... Douaumont is a village and a commune in the Meuse département in France, near Verdun. ...


Among many revered memorials on the battlefield is the "Bayonet Trench", which marks the location where some dozen bayonets (fixed to rifles) lined up in a row were discovered projecting out of the ground after the war. And below each rifle was the body of a French soldier. It is believed that these belonged to a group of soldiers who had rested their rifles against the parapet of the trench they were occupying when they were killed during a bombardment. The men were buried where they lay in the trench and the rifles left untouched. For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ...


Nearby, the World War I Meuse-Argonne American Cemetery and Memorial is located east of the village and is the final resting place for 14,246 American military Dead, most of whom died in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. The chapel contains a memorial to the 954 American Missing whose remains were never recovered or identified. Combatants United States German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing Georg von der Marwitz Strength American Expeditionary Force German Fifth Army Casualties 26,277 killed 95,786 wounded 122,066 total 28,000 killed 92,250 wounded 120,250 total The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was the final offensive of World War...


External links

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Verdun

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Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Utinam (Latin: If God wills) Citadel Vauban of Besançon Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Franche-Comté Department Doubs (25) Intercommunality Grand Besançon Mayor Jean-Louis Fousseret (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... 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Petite Venise Colmar is a town and commune in the Haut-Rhin département of Alsace, France. ... Kaysersberg (German: Kaisersberg) is a small city in the Alsace, France. ... Konstanz in 1925 seen from the lake Schnetztor, a section of the former city wall Another gate from city wall Shops in Konstanz The Konzilgebäude in Konstanz Konstanz (in English formerly known as Constance) is a university town of around 80,000 inhabitants at the western end of Lake... Landau or Landau in der Pfalz (pop. ... Lemgo is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany with a population of 42. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) Cathedral St. ... Munster is a commune in the Haut-Rhin département, Alsace, France. ... Obernai (French: ; Alsatian: Owernah; German: ) is a town and commune in Alsace, France. ... Rosheim is a small city in the Alsace, France. ... Sarrebourg (German: Saarburg) is a city in Lorraine, France. ... Schaffhausen (German:  , French: Schaffhouse, Italian: Sciaffusa) is a city in northern Switzerland and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 33,527 as of March 31, 2005. ... Schmalkalden is a town in the Kreis (district) of Schmalkalden-Meiningen in the southwestern portion of the German state of Thuringia. ... Sélestat (German: Schlettstadt) is a commune of northeastern France, in the Bas-Rhin département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Soest Soest (pronounced ) is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The city of   (French: Soleure, Italian: Soletta) is the capital of the Canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Toul Toul is a historic fortified town of France, a sous-préfecture of the Meurthe-et-Moselle département. ... Turckheim (German: Türkheim) is a small town and commune in Alsace, France. ... Verden (Aller), or Verden (IPA: ), is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, on the River Aller. ... Warburg is a city in the east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in the district Höxter. ... Wissembourg (German: Weißenburg) is a small town and commune situated on the border between France and Germany, in the Alsace région, approximately 60 km north of Strasbourg. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... Aalen (pronounced ) is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... Biberach is a town in the south of Germany, capital of the district Biberach in Baden-Württemberg. ... Bopfingen is a small historic city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... Bad Buchau Bad Buchau is a little town in the district of Biberach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany with about 4,000 inhabitants. ... Friedrichshafen is a town on the northern side of Lake Constance (Bodensee) in southern Germany, near the borders with Switzerland and Austria. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Dinkelsbühl is a historic city in Bavaria, Germany. ... Dortmund is a city in Germany, located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. ... Esslingen is a city in the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, capital of the District of Esslingen. ... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other articles with similar names, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Friedberg (Friedberg in der Wetterau) is a town near Frankfurt am Main (about 30 km north of Frankfurt) and has about 25,000 inhabitants. ... Gengenbach is a town in the Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany and a famous tourist destination on the western edge of the Black Forest with about 11000 inhabitants. ... Giengen (full name: Giengen an der Brenz) is a historic city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Coordinates: Time zone: CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country: Germany State: Lower Saxony District: Goslar City subdivisions: 12 districts Lord Mayor: Henning Binnewies (SPD) Basic Statistics Area: 92. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... View of the Heilbronn centre of town toward the Wartberg. ... Isny im Allgäu is a city in south-eastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Kaufbeuren is an independent city in the Regierungsbezirk of Schwaben, southern Bavaria. ... Kempten is the capital of Allgäu, a region in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. ... Leutkirch im Allgäu is a German town in Baden-Württemberg. ... famous harbor entrance of Lindau reverse side of the old town hall of Lindau Lindau is a German city and an island in the eastern part of the Lake Constance, the Bodensee. ... Location of the Free City of Lübeck with the German Empire   Capital Lübeck Government Republic History  - Formation 1226  - Abolition April 1, 1937 The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... Memmingen is a town in the Bavarian administrative region Swabia in Germany. ... Mühlhausen is a city in the federal state Thuringia, Germany. ... Mulhouse (French: Mulhouse, pronounced ; Alsatian: Milhüsa; German: Mülhausen) is a town and commune in eastern France close to Swiss and German border. ... Roland statue in Nordhausen Twinning The city is twinned with Bet Shemesh in Israel Charleville-Mézières in France Bochum Ostrów Wielkopolski in Poland Nordhausen is a city of about 45,000 people at the southern border of the Harz mountains, in the state of Thuringia, Germany. ... Nördlingen is a town in the Donau-Ries district, in Bavaria, Germany, with a population of almost 20,000. ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... Offenburg is a city located in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Pfullendorf is a small historic city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Ravensburg, Blaserturm (Trumpeters Tower), Waaghaus (Balance Hall) and Rathaus (Town Hall) Ravensburg is a town in Upper Swabia in Southern Germany, capital of the district of Ravensburg, Baden-Württemberg. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... Reutlingen is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Town Hall Square of Rothenburg A famous street in Rothenburg at Koboldzellersteig and Spittalgasse Town wall of Rothenburg Rothenburg ob der Tauber is a town in the district of Ansbach of Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia), the Franconia region of Bavaria, Germany, well known for its well-preserved medieval old town. ... Map of Germany showing Rottweil Watershed of the Neckar River Watershed of the Rhine River Rottweil is the oldest town in southwestern Germany, in the State of Baden-Württemberg. ... Schwäbisch Gmünd is a town in the eastern part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. ... Schwäbisch Hall (or Hall for short) is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg; it is the capital of the district of Schwäbisch Hall. ... Schweinfurt is a city in the Unterfranken region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the canalized Main, which is here spanned by several bridges, 27 km North-East of Würzburg. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... Ãœberlingen Ãœberlingen is a city in south-western Germany. ... For other uses, see Ulm (disambiguation). ... Wangen im Allgäu is a historic city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Weil der Stadt is a small town with approximately 19,200 inhabitants, located in the Stuttgart Region of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. ... Weissenburg in Bayern (historically also Weißenburg im Nordgau) is a city in Bavaria, Germany. ... Wetzlar is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Lahn-Dill district. ... Bad Wimpfen is a historic spa town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Bad Windsheim is a small historic city in Bavaria, Germany. ... Wormser Dom Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Zell am Harmersbach is a small historic city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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Verdun - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (815 words)
Verdun (German (old): Wirten, official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région, northeast France, in the Meuse département, of which it is a sous-préfecture.
Verdun became part of the middle kingdom Lotharingia, and later of the Holy Roman Empire, in which it was an Imperial Free City.
Consequently, Verdun was utterly unprepared for the initial bombardment on the morning of 21 February 1916.
Battle of Verdun - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1311 words)
The town of Verdun-sur-Meuse was chosen for this "bleeding white" of the French: the town, surrounded by a ring of forts, was an important stronghold that projected into the German lines and guarded the direct route to Paris.
Verdun was poorly defended because artillery guns had been removed from the local fortifications, but good intelligence and a delay in the German attack due to bad weather gave the French time to rush two divisions of 30th Corps, the 72nd and 51st, to the area.
The battle began on 21 February 1916 with a nine-hour artillery bombardment firing 1,000,000 shells by 1,200 guns on a front of 40 km, followed by an attack by three army corps (the 3rd, 7th, and 18th).
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