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Encyclopedia > Verb Agent Object
Linguistic typology
Direct-inverse system
Syntactic pivot
Theta role
Word Order
VO languages
Agent Verb Object
Verb Agent Object
Verb Object Agent
OV languages
Agent Object Verb
Object Agent Verb
Object Verb Agent
Time Manner Place
Place Manner Time

Verb Agent Object (VAO) or Verb Subject Object (VSO) is a term in linguistic typology. It represents one type of languages when classifying languages according to the sequence of these constitutents in neutral expressions: Ate Sam oranges. The word order roughly corresponds to the order of symbols in (non-reverse) Polish notation or the S-expressions of the Lisp programming language. Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ... Morphological typology was developed by brothers Friedrich and August von Schlegel. ... An analytic language (or isolating language) is a language in which the vast majority of morphemes are free morphemes and considered to be full-fledged words. By contrast, in a synthetic language, a word is composed of agglutinated or fused morphemes that denote its syntactic meanings. ... A synthetic language, in linguistic typology, is a language with a high morpheme-to-word ratio. ... A fusional language is a type of synthetic language, distinguished from agglutinative languages by its tendency to squish together many morphemes in a way which can be difficult to segment. ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... Morphology is a subdiscipline of linguistics that studies word structure. ... In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the system used to distinguish between the arguments of transitive verbs and intransitive verbs. ... A nominative-accusative language (or simply accusative language) is one that marks the direct object of transitive verbs distinguishing them from the subject of both transitive and intransitive verbs. ... An ergative-absolutive language (or simply ergative) is one that treats the subject of transitive verbs distinctly from the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of transitive verbs. ... An active language is one where the only argument of an intransitive verb (that is, the subject) is marked sometimes in the same way as the subject of a transitive verb, and some other times in the same way as the direct object of a transitive verb. ... A tripartite language is one that marks the agent, experiencer, and patient verb arguments each in different ways. ... A direct-inverse language is one where morphosyntactic markers vary according to compliance or non-compliance with normal rules governing the neutral order of verb arguments with respect to the position of each on the animacy hierarchy, similar to the way that Indo-European neuters were not originally regarded as... The syntactic pivot is the verb argument around which sentences revolve, in a given language. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Thematic role. ... Word order, in linguistic typology, refers to the order in which words appear in sentences across different languages. ... In linguistics, a VO language is a language in which the verb typically comes before the object. ... In linguistic typology, agent-verb-object (AVO), commonly called subject-verb-object (SVO), is a sentence structure where the agent comes first, the verb second, and the object third. ... In linguistics, an OV language is a language in which the object comes before the verb. ... In linguistic typology, Agent Object Verb (AOV) or Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the agent, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... Object Agent Verb (OAV) or Object Subject Verb (OSV) is one of the permutations of expression used in Linguistic typology. ... Object Verb Agent (OVA) or Object Verb Subject (OVS) is one of the permutations of expression used in linguistic typology. ... Time Manner Place is a term used in linguistic typology to state the general order of adpositional phrases in a languages sentences: yesterday by car to the store. It is common among SOV languages. ... Place Manner Time is a term used in linguistic typology to state the general order of adpositional phrases in a languages sentences: to the store by car yesterday. It would seem that it is common among SVO languages. ... Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ... Polish notation, also known as prefix notation, is a form of notation for logic, arithmetic, and algebra. ... Lisp is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive fully-parenthesized syntax. ...

Examples of languages with VAO word order include the Gaelic branch of the Celtic language family (namely Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx), related Welsh (the only VSO Brythonic language), Ancient Egyptian, Aramaic, Biblical Hebrew, Phoenician, Canaanite, Ge'ez, Classic Maya, Tagalog, Hawaiian, Maori, and Tongan. The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) are one of two major divisions of modern-day Insular Celtic languages (the other being the Brythonic languages). ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... This article refers to the Biblical Hebrew dialect, the Hebrew dialect that flourished around the 6th century BCE and comprises much of the Hebrew Bible The term Biblical Hebrew can also refer to other dialects of Hebrew, all dialects found in the Hebrew Bible, including Archaic Biblical, Biblical and Late... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ... The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, spoken by the ancient Canaanite peoples. ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient language that developed in the Ethiopian Highlands of the Horn of Africa as the language of the peasantry. ... The Classic Maya language is the oldest historically attested member of the Maya language family. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Hawaiian is the ancestral language of the indigenous people of the Hawaiian Islands, the Hawaiians, a Polynesian people. ... Māori (or Maori) is a language spoken by the native peoples of New Zealand and the Cook Islands. ...

Even though Arabic originally had VAO word order, it is now usually more understood with AVO, especially Egyptian Arabic and Moroccan Arabic. The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Egyptian Arabic (Marī, مصري) is part of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family, descended mainly from a medieval dialect of Arabic. ... Moroccan Arabic, also known as Darija, is the language spoken in the Arabic-speaking areas of Morocco, as opposed to the official communications of governmental and other public bodies which use Modern Standard Arabic, as is the case in most Arabic-speaking countries, while a mixture of French and Moroccan...

Inversion into VAO

There are many languages which switch from AVO (Subject Verb Object) order to VAO order with different constructions, usually for emphasis. For example, sentences in English poetry can sometimes be found to have a VAO order; French and Spanish questions may reverse the order of the subject and verb into the VAO order (although this is not required); and Arabic sentences use a AVO order or a VAO order depending on whether the subject or the verb is more important. In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...

Non-VAO languages that use VAO word order in questions include Dutch and many Germanic languages, French, and Spanish. A question is any of several kinds of linguistic expressions normally used by a questioner to request the presentation of information back to the questioner, in the form of an answer, by the audience. ... The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ...

See also



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