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Encyclopedia > Venus (planet)
Venus
Venus

Click image for description Image:Venus-pioneer-uv. ...

Orbital characteristics (Epoch J2000)
Semi-major axis 108,208,926 km
0.723 331 99 AU
Orbital circumference 0.680 Tm
4.545 AU
Eccentricity 0.006 773 23
Perihelion 107,476,002 km
0.718 432 70 AU
Aphelion 108,941,849 km
0.728 231 28 AU
Orbital period 224.700 96 d
(0.615 197 7 a)
Synodic period 583.92 d
Avg. Orbital Speed 35.020 km/s
Max. Orbital Speed 35.259 km/s
Min. Orbital Speed 34.784 km/s
Inclination 3.394 71°
(3.86° to Sun's equator)
Longitude of the
ascending node
76.680 69°
Argument of the
perihelion
54.852 29°
Number of satellites 0
Physical characteristics
Equatorial diameter 12,103.7 km
(0.949 Earths)
Surface area 4.60×108 km2
(0.902 Earths)
Volume 9.28×1011 km³
(0.857 Earths)
Mass 4.8685×1024 kg
(0.815 Earths)
Mean density 5.204 g/cm3
Equatorial gravity 8.87 m/s2
(0.904 gee)
Escape velocity 10.36 km/s
Rotation period -243.0185 d
Rotation velocity 6.52 km/h (at the equator)
Axial tilt 2.64°
Right ascension
of North pole
272.76° (18 h 11 min 2 s) 1
Declination 67.16°
Albedo 0.65
Surface* temp.
min* mean max
228 K 737 K 773 K
(*min temperature refers to cloud tops only)
Atmospheric characteristics
Atmospheric pressure 9.3 MPa
Carbon dioxide ~96.5%
Nitrogen ~3.5%
Sulfur dioxide .015%
Argon .007%
Water vapor .002%
Carbon monoxide .0017%
Helium .0012%
Neon .0007%
Carbonyl sulfide

Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen fluoride In physics, an orbit is the path that an object makes, around another object, whilst under the influence of a source of centripetal force, such as gravity. ... In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time for which celestial coordinates or orbital elements are specified. ... The J2000. ... In geometry, the semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) a applies to ellipses and hyperbolas. ... To help compare distances at different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths starting at 1011 metres (100 million kilometres or 0. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer, symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... The circumference is the distance around a closed curve. ... A terametre (American spelling: terameter) (symbol: Tm) is a unit of length equal to 1012 metres. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 116 days and 1157 days or 3. ... A day is any of several different units of time. ... A Julian year is the length of an average year in the Julian calendar, 365. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... This article is about the unit of time. ... Inclination is one of the six orbital parameters describing the shape and orientation of a celestial orbit and is the angular distance of the orbital plane from the plane of the reference (usually planets equator or the ecliptic), stated in degrees. ... Degree (angle) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Longitude of the ascending node () is one of the orbital elements used to specify the orbit of an object in space. ... The argument of the perihelion is one of the orbital elements describing the orbit of a planet. ... The common noun moon (not capitalized) is used to mean any natural satellite of the other planets. ... The equator is an imaginary line drawn around a planet, halfway between the poles. ... For the geometric term, see diameter. ... Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ... This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. ... (Redirected from 1 E14 m2) To help compare sizes of different areas, here is a list of areas between 100 million km² and 1,000 million (American billion) km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Volume (also called capacity) is a quantification of how much space an object occupies. ... A cubic kilometre (symbol km³) is an SI derived unit of volume. ... Mass is a property of physical objects that, roughly speaking, measures the amount of matter they contain. ... (Redirected from 1 E24 kg) Categories: Orders of magnitude (mass) ... The international prototype, made of platinum-iridium, which is kept at the BIPM under conditions specified by the 1st CGPM in 1889. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... The gram or gramme, symbol g, is a unit of mass, and is defined in the SI system of units as one one-thousandth of a kilogram (i. ... Gravitation is the tendency of masses to move toward each other. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a v-t graph, it is given by the gradient of the tangent to that point In physics, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or time derivative) of velocity. ... g (also gee, g-force or g-load) is a non-SI unit of acceleration defined as exactly 9. ... In physics, for a given gravitational field and a given position, the escape velocity is the minimum speed an object without propulsion, at that position, needs to have to move away indefinitely from the source of the field, as opposed to falling back or staying in an orbit within a... This article is about retrograde motion. ... Axial tilt is an astronomical term regarding the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to its orbital plane. ... Right ascension (RA; symbol α: Greek letter alpha) is the astronomical term for one of the two coordinates of a point on the celestial sphere when using the equatorial coordinate system. ... In astronomy declination (dec) is one of the two coordinates of the equatorial coordinate system, the other being either right ascension or hour angle. ... The albedo is a measure of reflectivity of a surface or body. ... Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of hot and cold; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is the SI unit of temperature, and is one of the seven SI base units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists temperatures between 100 kelvins and 1000 kelvins. ... Atmosphere is the general name for a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass. ... diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure above any area in the Earths atmosphere caused by the weight of air. ... The pascal (symbol Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... General Name, Symbol, Number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 39. ... Water (from the Old English word wæter) is a colorless, tasteless, and odorless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known also as the most universal solvent. ... Carbon monoxide, chemical formula CO, is a colourless, odourless, flammable and highly toxic gas. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 4. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neon, Ne, 10 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 20. ... In chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom. ... Hydrogen chloride, also known under the name HCl, is a highly corrosive and toxic colorless gas that forms white fumes on contact with humidity. ... Hydrofluoric acid is a highly corrosive solution of the chemical compound hydrogen fluoride in water. ...

trace
This article is about the planet. For the Roman mythological figure, see Venus (mythology); for other meanings, see Venus (disambiguation).

Venus, the second planet from the Sun, is named after the Roman goddess Venus. A terrestrial planet, it is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet", as the two are very similar in size and bulk composition. Although all planets' orbits are elliptical, Venus's orbit is the closest to circular, with an eccentricity of less than 1%. Venus is the Roman goddess of love, equivalent to Greek Aphrodite and Etruscan Turan. ... Venus can refer to many things: Venus (planet): the second closest planet to the Sun in our solar system Venus (mythology): the Roman goddess of love. ... A planet (from the Greek πλανήτης, planētēs which means wanderer or more forcefully vagrant, tramp) is an object in orbit around a star that is not a star in its own right. ... A sun is the star at the center of a solar system. ... Roman mythology can be considered as two parts. ... Venus is the Roman goddess of love, equivalent to Greek Aphrodite and Etruscan Turan. ... A terrestrial planet or telluric planet is a planet which is primarily composed of silicate rocks. ... Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ... In physics, an orbit is the path that an object makes, around another object, whilst under the influence of a source of centripetal force, such as gravity. ... In mathematics, an ellipse (from the Greek for absence) is a curve where the sum of the distances from any point on the curve to two fixed points is constant. ... In Euclidean geometry, a circle is the set of all points in a plane at a fixed distance, called the radius, from a fixed point, called the centre. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ...


Because Venus is closer to the Sun than the Earth, it always appears in roughly the same direction from Earth as the Sun (the greatest elongation is 47.8°), so on Earth it can usually only be seen a few hours before sunrise or a few hours after sunset. However, when at its brightest, Venus may be seen during the daytime, making it one of only two heavenly bodies that can be seen both day and night (the other being the Moon). It is sometimes referred to as the "Morning Star" or the "Evening Star", and when it is visible in dark skies it is by far the brightest star-like object in the sky. This diagram shows the elongations (or angle) of the Earths position from the Sun. ... Crust composition Oxygen 43% Silicon 21% Aluminium 10% Calcium 9% Iron 9% Magnesium 5% Titanium 2% Nickel 0. ... The phrase Morning Star can refer to several things. ... Evening Star may be: The planet Venus BR 92220 Evening Star, a BR standard class 9F locomotive and the last steam locomotive to be built by British Railways. ... The Pleiades star cluster A star is any massive gaseous body in outer space, just like the Sun. ...


Venus was known to ancient Babylonians around 1600 BC, and to the Mayan civilization (the Mayans developed a religious calendar based on Venus's motion) and must have been known long before in prehistoric times, given that it is the third brightest object in the sky after the Sun and Moon. Its symbol is a stylized representation of the goddess Venus's hand mirror: a circle with a small cross underneath (Unicode: ♀). Babylon was the capital city of Babylonia in Mesopotamia (in contemporary Iraq, about 70 mi/110 km south of Baghdad). ... Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC Decades: 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC Events and trends Egypt: End of Fourteenth Dynasty The creation of one of the oldest surviving astronomical... The word Maya or maya can refer to: The Maya – a Native American people of southern Mexico and northern Central America the modern Maya people the pre-Columbian Maya civilization the Maya language Maya – a concept in Hindu/Vedic philosophy a state of misperception of reality the inherent force of... Crust composition Oxygen 43% Silicon 21% Aluminium 10% Calcium 9% Iron 9% Magnesium 5% Titanium 2% Nickel 0. ... In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ...


The adjective Venusian is commonly used for Venus, but it is etymologically incorrect. The true adjective coming from Latin, Venereal, is avoided because of its modern association with sexually transmitted diseases. Some astronomers use Cytherean, which comes from Cythera. Other less common adjectives include Venerean and Veneran. Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... Cytherean is an adjective meaning pertaining to Cythera, a small island now part of Greece. ... Kythira, also seen as Kythera, Cythera or Tsirigo, is an island, one of the Ionian Islands. ...


The Chinese, Korean, and Japanese cultures refer to the planet as the Metal Star, based on the Five Elements. In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: 五行; pinyin: ): wood, fire, earth, metal, and water (木, 火, 土, 金, 水; mù, huǒ, tǔ, jīn, shǔi). ...

Contents


Physical characteristics

Atmosphere

Venus has an atmosphere consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and a small amount of nitrogen, with a pressure at the surface about 90 times that of Earth (a pressure equivalent to a depth of 1 kilometre under Earth's oceans). This enormously CO2-rich atmosphere results in a strong greenhouse effect that raises the surface temperature more than 400°C / 752°F above what it would be otherwise, causing temperatures at the surface to reach extremes as great as 500°C / 932°F in low elevation regions near the planet's equator. This makes Venus's surface hotter than Mercury's, even though Venus is nearly twice as distant from the Sun and only receives 25% of the solar irradiance (2613.9 W/m² in the upper atmosphere, and just 1071.1 W/m² at the surface). Owing to the thermal inertia and convection of its dense atmosphere, the temperature does not vary significantly between the night and day sides of Venus despite its extremely slow rotation (less than one rotation per Venerean year; at the equator, Venus's surface rotates at a mere 6.5 km/h or 4.039 mph). Winds in the upper atmosphere circle the planet in only 4 days, helping to distribute the heat. Atmosphere is the general name for a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... Ocean (from Okeanos, a Greek god of sea and water; Greek ωκεανός) covers almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth. ... The greenhouse effect, first discovered by Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier in 1824, is the process by which an atmosphere warms a planet. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Potassium 31. ...


The solar irradiance is so much lower at the surface of Venus because the planet's thick cloud cover reflects the majority of the sunlight back into space. This prevents most of the sunlight from ever heating the surface. Venus's bolometric albedo is approximately 60%, and its visual light albedo is even greater. Thus, despite being closer to the Sun than Earth, the surface of Venus is not as well heated and even less well lit by the Sun. In the absence of any greenhouse effect, the temperature at the surface of Venus would be quite similar to Earth. A common conceptual misunderstanding regarding Venus is the mistaken belief that its thick cloud cover traps heat, as the opposite is actually true. The cloud cover keeps the planet much cooler than it would be otherwise. The immense quantity of CO2 in the atmosphere is what traps the heat by the greenhouse mechanism. A bolometer is a device for measuring incident electromagnetic radiation. ... The albedo is a measure of reflectivity of a surface or body. ...


There are strong 350-kilometre-per-hour winds at the cloud tops, but winds at the surface are very slow, no more than a few kilometres per hour. However, owing to the high density of the atmosphere at Venus' surface, even such slow winds exert a significant amount of force against obstructions. The clouds are mainly composed of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid droplets and cover the planet completely, obscuring any surface details from the human eye. The temperature at the tops of these clouds is approximately −45°C / −113°F. The official mean surface temperature of Venus, as given by NASA, is 464°C / 863.6°F. The minimal value of the temperature, listed in the table, refers to cloud tops — the surface temperature is never below 400°C / 752°F. Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (established 1958) is the government agency responsible for the United States of Americas space program and long-term general aerospace research. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists temperatures between 100 kelvins and 1000 kelvins. ...


Surface features

Radar image of the surface of Venus, centered at 180 degrees east longitude
Radar image of the surface of Venus, centered at 180 degrees east longitude

Venus has slow retrograde rotation, meaning it rotates from east to west, instead of west to east as most of the other major planets do. (Pluto and Uranus also have retrograde rotation, though Uranus's axis, tilted at 97.86 degrees, almost lies in its orbital plane.) It is not known why Venus is different in this manner, although it may be the result of a collision with a very large asteroid at some time in the distant past. In addition to this unusual retrograde rotation, the periods of Venus's rotation and of its orbit are synchronized in such a way that it always presents the same face toward Earth when the two planets are at their closest approach (5.001 Venusian days between each inferior conjunction). This may be the result of tidal locking, with tidal forces affecting Venus's rotation whenever the planets get close enough together, or it may simply be a coincidence. Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 144 KB)Original Caption Released with Image: This global view of the surface of Venus is centered at 180 degrees east longitude. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 144 KB)Original Caption Released with Image: This global view of the surface of Venus is centered at 180 degrees east longitude. ... This long range radar antenna (approximately 40m (130ft) in diameter) rotates on a track to observe activities near the horizon. ... This article is about retrograde motion. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 0. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 120 kPa Hydrogen 83% Helium 15% Methane 1. ... An asteroid is a small, solid object in our Solar System, orbiting the Sun. ... A separate article treats the phenomenon of tidal resonance in oceanography. ... The tidal force is a secondary effect of the force of gravity and is responsible for the tides. ...


Venus has two major continent-like highlands on its surface, rising over vast plains. The northern highland is named Ishtar Terra and has Venus's highest mountains, named the Maxwell Montes (roughly 2 km taller than Mount Everest) after James Clerk Maxwell, which surround the plateau Lakshmi Planum. Ishtar Terra is about the size of Australia. In the southern hemisphere is the larger Aphrodite Terra, about the size of South America. Between these highlands are a number of broad depressions, including Atalanta Planitia, Guinevere Planitia, and Lavinia Planitia. With only the exception of Maxwell Montes, all surface features on Venus are named after real or mythological females. Venus's thick atmosphere causes meteors to decelerate as they fall toward the surface, and even large meteors will strike the surface at too low a speed to form an impact crater if they have less than a certain threshold kinetic energy. Because of this, no impact crater smaller than about 3.2 km in diameter can form. The largest continent on the planet Venus. ... Maxwell Montes has the highest point on Planet Venus. ... Everest is the highest mountain on Earth (as measured from sea level). ... James Clerk Maxwell (June 13, 1831–November 5, 1879) was a Scottish physicist, born in Edinburgh. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A burst of meteors A meteor is the visible path of a meteoroid that enters the Earths (or another bodys) atmosphere, commonly called a shooting star or falling star. ... This article is about impact craters, also known as meteor craters. ... Kinetic energy (also called vis viva, or living force) is energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion. ...


Nearly 90% of Venus's surface appears to consist of recently (in the geological sense) solidified basaltic lava, with very few meteorite craters. The oldest features present on Venus seem to be only around 800 million years old, with most of the terrain being considerably younger (though still not less than several hundred million years for the most part). This suggests that Venus underwent a major resurfacing event in the not too distant geological past. The interior of Venus is probably similar to that of Earth: an iron core about 3000 km in radius, with a molten rocky mantle making up the majority of the planet. Recent results from the Magellan gravity data indicate that Venus's crust is stronger and thicker than had previously been assumed. It is theorized that Venus does not have mobile plate tectonics as Earth does, but instead undergoes massive volcanic upwellings at regular intervals that inundate its surface with fresh lava. Other recent findings suggest that Venus is still volcanically active in isolated geological hotspots. Basalt Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock, sometimes porphyritic, and is often both fine-grained and dense. ... Lava is molten rock that a volcano expels during an eruption. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metal Group, Period, Block 8 (VIIIB), 4, d Density, Hardness 7874 kg/m3, 4. ... Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ... Plate tectonics (from the Greek word for one who constructs, τεκτων, tekton) is a theory of geology developed to explain the phenomenon of continental drift, and is currently the theory accepted by the vast majority of scientists working in this area. ... In geology, a hotspot is a location on the Earths surface that has experienced active vulcanism for a long period of time. ...


Venus's intrinsic magnetic field has been found very weak compared to other planets in the solar system. This may be due to its slow rotation being insufficient to drive an internal dynamo of liquid iron. As a result, solar wind strikes Venus's upper atmosphere without mediation. It is thought that Venus originally had as much water as Earth, but that under the Sun's assault water vapor in the upper atmosphere was split into hydrogen and oxygen, with the hydrogen escaping into space owing to its low molecular mass; the ratio of hydrogen to deuterium (a heavier isotope of hydrogen which doesn't escape as quickly) in Venus's atmosphere seems to support this theory. Molecular oxygen is thought to have combined with atoms in the crust (large amounts of oxygen, however, remain in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide). Because of their dryness, Venus's rocks are much harder than Earth's, which leads to steeper mountains, cliffs and other features. Current flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field (M) around the wire. ... Generator redirects here. ... A solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... Water (from the Old English word wæter) is a colorless, tasteless, and odorless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known also as the most universal solvent. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1 (IA), 1, s Density, Hardness 0. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance of one atom in 6500 of hydrogen. ... Isotopes are forms of a chemical element whose nuclei have the same atomic number, Z, but different atomic masses, A. The word isotope, meaning at the same place, comes from the fact that all isotopes of an element are located at the same place on the periodic table. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ...


Venus was once thought to possess a moon, named Neith after the chief goddess of Sais, Egypt, (whose veil no mortal raised), first observed by Giovanni Domenico Cassini in 1672. Sporadic sightings of Neith by astronomers continued until 1892, but these sightings have since been discredited (they were mostly faint stars that happened to be in the right place at the right time) and Venus is now known to be moonless. The common noun moon (not capitalized) is used to mean any natural satellite of the other planets. ... Neith In Egyptian mythology, Neith (also known as Nit, Net and Neit) was a psychopomp, a goddess of war and the hunt and the patron deity of Sais, in the Western Delta. ... Sais was the chief city of the fifth nome of Lower Egypt, located in the western edge of the Nile Delta. ... Giovanni Domenico (Jean-Dominique) Cassini Giovanni Domenico Cassini (June 8, 1625 - September 14, 1712) was an Italian-French astronomer and engineer. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Pleiades star cluster A star is any massive gaseous body in outer space, just like the Sun. ...


Observations and explorations of Venus

Historical observations

Venus is the most prominent astronomical feature in Earth's morning and evening sky (other than the Sun and Moon), and has been known since before recorded history. One of the oldest surviving astronomical documents, from the Babylonian library of Ashurbanipal around 1600 BC, is a 21-year record of the appearances of Venus (which the early Babylonians called Nindaranna). The ancient Sumerians and Babylonians called Venus Dil-bat or Dil-i-pat; in Akkadia it was the special star of the mother-god Ishtar; and in Chinese it is Jīn-xīng (金星), the planet of the metal element. Astronomy is one of the few sciences where amateurs can still play an active role, especially in the discovery and monitoring of transient phenomena. ... The Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa recovered from the library at Nineveh, is a 7th century cuneiform tablet that bears ancient records of the rise times of Venus. ... Babylon was the capital city of Babylonia in Mesopotamia (in contemporary Iraq, about 70 mi/110 km south of Baghdad). ... Assurbanipal in a relief from the north palace at Nineveh There were several Assyrian kings named Assur-bani-pal, also spelled Asurbanipal, Assurbanipal (most commonly), Ashurbanipal and Ashshurbanipal, but the best known was Assurbanipal IV.  Ashurbanipal, or Assurbanipal, (reigned 668 - 627 BCE), the son of Esarhaddon and Naqia-Zakutu... Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC Decades: 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC Events and trends Egypt: End of Fourteenth Dynasty The creation of one of the oldest surviving astronomical... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, (located in present-day Iraq) between Assyria to the northwest and Sumer to the south. ... Ishtar is the Akkadian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess `Ashtart. ... In Chinese alchemy, Metal is one of the Five Elements. ...


Venus was considered the most important celestial body observed by the Maya, who called it Chak ek, "the Great Star", possibly more important even than the Sun. The Mayans monitored the movements of Venus closely and observed it in daytime. The positions of Venus and other planets were thought to influence life on Earth, so Maya and other ancient Mesoamerican cultures timed wars and other important events based on their observations. In the Dresden Codex, the Maya included an almanac showing Venus's full cycle, in five sets of 584 days each (approximately eight years), after which the patterns repeated (since Venus has a synodic period of 583.92 days). The Maya are people of southern Mexico and northern Central America (Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and El Salvador) with some 3,000 years of history. ... The term Ancient American cultures refers to the cultures that developed in the Americas prior to the European colonization that began in the 15th and 16th centuries. ... Maya codices (singular codex) are books written by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, using the Maya hieroglyphic script. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ...


At the half-full phase Venus is at greatest elongation — east of the Sun when an evening star and west of the Sun as a morning star. The precise angle the planet makes with the Sun at this time varies from approximately 45.0° to 47.8° depending on whether Earth and Venus are at perihelion or aphelion. This range is much smaller than that of Mercury because Venus' orbit is far less eccentric than Mercury's. This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure trace Potassium 31. ...


Early Greeks thought that the evening and morning appearances of Venus represented two different objects, calling it Hesperus when it appeared in the western evening sky and Phosphorus when it appeared in the eastern morning sky. They eventually came to recognize that both objects were the same planet; Pythagoras is given credit for this realization. In the 4th century BC, Heraclides Ponticus proposed that both Venus and Mercury orbited the Sun rather than Earth. Pythagoras (582 BC – 496 BC, Greek: Πυθαγόρας) was an Ionian mathematician and philosopher, known best for formulating the Pythagorean theorem. ... (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Gauls sack Rome Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire The Scythians are beginning to be absorbed into the Sarmatian people. ... Heraclides Ponticus (387 - 312 BCE), also known as Heraklides, was a Greek philosopher who lived and died at Heraclea, now Eregli, Turkey. ...

Phases of Venus
Phases of Venus

Because its orbit takes it between the Earth and the Sun, Venus as seen from Earth exhibits visible phases in much the same manner as the Earth's Moon. Galileo Galilei was the first person to observe the phases of Venus in December 1610, an observation which supported Copernicus's then contentious heliocentric description of the solar system. He also noted changes in the size of Venus's visible diameter when it was in different phases, suggesting that it was farther from Earth when it was full and nearer when it was a crescent. This observation strongly supported the heliocentric model. Venus (and also Mercury) is not visible from Earth when it is full, since at that time it is at superior conjunction, rising and setting concomitantly with the Sun and hence lost in the Sun's glare. from http://history. ... from http://history. ... In physics, an orbit is the path that an object makes, around another object, whilst under the influence of a source of centripetal force, such as gravity. ... ... Galileo Galilei (Pisa, February 15, 1564 – Arcetri, January 8, 1642), was a Tuscan astronomer, philosopher, and physicist who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Heliocentric Solar System In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... Conjunction is a term used in positional astronomy and astrology. ...


Venus is brightest when approximately 25% of its disk is illuminated; this typically occurs 37 days both before (in the evening sky) and after (in the morning sky), its inferior conjunction. Its greatest elongations occur approximately 70 days before and after inferior conjunction, at which time it is half full; between these two intervals Venus is actually visible in broad daylight, if the observer knows specifically where to look for it. The planet's period of retrograde motion is 20 days on either side of the inferior conjunction. Infact through a telescope Venus at greatest elongation appears less than half full due to Schröter's effect first noticed in 1793 and shown in 1996 as due to its thick atmosphere. Conjunction is a term used in positional astronomy and astrology. ... Johann Hieronymus Schröter (August 30, 1745 – August 29, 1816) was a German astronomer. ...


On rare occasions, Venus can actually be seen in both the morning (before sunrise) and evening (after sunset) on the same day. This scenario arises when Venus is at its maximum separation from the ecliptic and concomitantly at inferior conjunction; then one hemisphere (Northern or Southern) will be able to see it at both times. This opportunity presented itself most recently for Northern Hemisphere observers within a few days on either side of March 29, 2001, and for those in the Southern Hemisphere, on and around August 19, 1999. These respective events repeat themselves every eight years pursuant to the planet's synodic cycle. The plane of the Ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in Leap years). ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...

Transits of Venus, when the planet crosses directly between the Earth and the Sun's visible disc, are rare astronomical events. The first time such a transit was observed was on December 4, 1639 by Jeremiah Horrocks and William Crabtree. A transit in 1761 observed by Mikhail Lomonosov provided the first evidence that Venus had an atmosphere, and the 19th-century observations of parallax during its transits allowed the distance between the Earth and Sun to be accurately calculated for the first time. Transits can only occur either in early June or early December, these being the points at which Venus crosses the ecliptic (the orbital plane of the Earth), and occur in pairs at eight-year intervals, with each such pair more than a century apart. The previous pair of transits of Venus occurred in 1874 and 1882, and the current pair is in 2004 and 2012. Image of transit of Venus on June 8th 2004, taken by JN Planetarium,Bangalore,. It isnt copyrighted and was shot by a group of students and astrophysicists(which includes me) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image of transit of Venus on June 8th 2004, taken by JN Planetarium,Bangalore,. It isnt copyrighted and was shot by a group of students and astrophysicists(which includes me) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The most recent transit of Venus when observed from Earth took place on June 8, 2004. ... A sun is the star at the center of a solar system. ... The 2004 transit of Venus A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and the Earth, obscuring a small portion of the Suns disc. ... Deimos transits the Sun, as seen by Mars Rover Opportunity on March 4, 2004 The word transit has two meanings in astronomy: A transit is the astronomical event that occurs when one celestial body appears to move across the face of another celestial body, as seen by an observer at... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... Jeremiah Horrocks (c. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов) (November 19 (November 8, Old Style), 1711 – April 15 (April 4, Old Style), 1765) was a Russian writer and polymath who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. ... Parallax (Greek: παραλλαγή (parallagé) = alteration) is the change of angular position of two stationary points relative to each other as seen by an observer, due to the motion of said observer. ... June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1874 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1882 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2012 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 19th century, many observers stated that Venus had a period of rotation of roughly 24 hours. Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli was the first to predict a significantly slower rotation, proposing that Venus was tidally locked with the Sun (as he had also proposed for Mercury). While not actually true for either body, this was still a reasonably accurate estimate. The near-resonance between its rotation and its closest approach to Earth helped to create this impression, as Venus always seemed to be facing the same direction when it was in the best location for observations to be made. The rotation rate of Venus was first measured during the 1961 conjunction, observed by radar from a 26-meter antenna at Goldstone, California, the Jodrell Bank Radio Observatory in the UK, and the Soviet deep space facility in Evpatoriia. Accuracy was refined at each subsequent conjunction, primarily from measurements made from Goldstone and Evpatoriia. The fact that rotation was retrograde was not confirmed until 1964. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli (March 14, 1835 – July 4, 1910) was an Italian astronomer. ... A separate article treats the phenomenon of tidal resonance in oceanography. ... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) —commonly called the Goldstone Observatory— is located in Californias Mojave Desert (USA). ... The 76m Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory. ... The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: (СССР)  listen?; tr. ... Also Eupatoria or Evpatoria; (Crimean Tatar: Kezlev) town in the Crimea. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Before radio observations in the 1960s, many believed that Venus contained a lush, Earth-like environment. This was due to the planet's size and orbital radius, which suggested a fairly Earthlike situation as well as to the thick layer of clouds which prevented the surface from being seen. Among the speculations on Venus were that it had a junglelike environment or that it had oceans of either petroleum or carbonated water. However, microwave observations in 1956, by C. Mayer et al, indicated a high-temperature source (600 K). Strangely, millimeter-band observations made by A. D. Kuzmin indicated much lower temperatures. Two competing theories explained the unusual radio spectrum, one suggesting the high temperatures originated in the ionosphere, and another suggesting a hot planetary surface. This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1960s. ... Nodding donkey pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 Petroleum (from Latin petra – rock and oleum – oil), crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold, is a thick, dark brown or greenish flammable liquid, which exists in the upper strata of some areas of the Earths crust. ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Appearance

Greatest Eastern Elongation Maximum brightness Stationary, begin retrograde Inferior Conjunction Stationary, resume direct Maximum brightness Greatest Western Elongation Superior Conjunction
March 29th, 2004 46° May 3rd, 2004 May 18th, 2004 June 8th, 2004 June 29th, 2004 July 13th, 2004 August 17th, 2004 45.8° March 31st, 2005
November 3rd, 2005 47.1° December 12th, 2005 December 23rd, 2005 January 13th, 2006 February 3rd, 2006 February 14th, 2006 March 25th, 2006 46.5° October 27th, 2006
June 9th, 2007 45.4° July 14th, 2007 July 25th, 2007 August 18th, 2007 September 7th, 2007 September 23rd, 2007 October 28th, 2007 46.5° June 9th, 2008
January 14th, 2009 47.1° February 20th, 2009 March 5th, 2009 March 27th, 2009 April 15th, 2009 April 29th, 2009 June 5th, 2009 45.9° January 11th, 2010
August 20th, 2010 46° September 27th, 2010 October 7th, 2010 October 29th, 2009 November 16th, 2010 December 2nd, 2010 January 8th, 2011 47° August 16th, 2011
March 27th, 2012 46° April 30th, 2012 May 15th, 2012 June 6th, 2012 June 27th, 2012 July 10th, 2012 August 15th, 2012 45.8° March 28th, 2013
November 1st, 2013 47.1° December 10th, 2013 December 20th, 2013 January 11th, 2014 January 31st, 2014 February 11th, 2014 March 22nd, 2014 46.6° October 25th, 2014
June 6th, 2015 45.4° July 12th, 2015 July 23th, 2015 August 15th, 2015 September 5th, 2015 September 20th, 2015 October 26th, 2015 46.4° June 6th, 2016
January 12th, 2017 47.1° February 18th, 2017 March 2nd, 2017 March 25th, 2017 April 12th, 2017 April 26th, 2017 June 3rd, 2017 45.9° January 9th, 2018
August 17th, 2018 45.9° September 25th, 2018 October 5th, 2018 October 26th, 2018 November 24th, 2018 November 30th, 2018 January 6th, 2019 47° August 14th, 2019
March 24th, 2020 46.1° April 28th, 2020 May 13th, 2020 June 3th, 2020 June 24th, 2020 July 8th, 2020 August 13th, 2020 45.8° March 26th, 2021

Observation by spacecraft

There have been numerous unmanned missions to Venus. Several Russian probes have included a soft landing on the surface, with up to 110 minutes of communication from the surface, all without return.


Early flybys

On February 12, 1961, the Soviet spacecraft Venera 1 was the first probe launched to another planet. An overheated orientation sensor caused it to malfunction, but Venera-1 was first to combine all the necessary features of an interplanetary spacecraft: solar panels, parabolic telemetry antenna, 3-axis stabilization, course-correction engine, and the first launch from parking orbit. February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... From World War II until its breakup, the Soviet Union undertook projects to build rockets, craft, and instruments for war and exploration of space. ... Venera 1 was the first spacecraft to fly by Venus. ... Unmanned space missions are those using remote-controlled spacecraft. ...


The first successful Venus probe was the American Mariner 2 spacecraft, which flew past Venus in 1962. A modified Ranger Moon probe, it established that Venus has no magnetic field and measured the planet's thermal microwave emissions. Conceptual drawing Mariner 2 was the first successful spacecraft in the NASA Mariner program, which began by sending spacecraft to Venus. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Ranger program of unmanned space missions was the first United States attempt to obtain close-up images of the lunar surface. ... Current flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field (M) around the wire. ...


The Soviet Union launched the Zond 1 probe to Venus on April 2, 1964, but it malfunctioned sometime after its May 16 telemetry session. Venera 3MV-1 Zond 1, a member of the Soviet Zond program, was the second Soviet research spacecraft to successfully reach position Venus. ... 2 April is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Early landings

Sketch of Venera-5

On March 1, 1966 the Venera 3 Soviet space probe crash-landed on Venus, becoming the first spacecraft to reach the planet's surface. Its sister craft Venera 2 had failed from overheating shortly before completing its flyby mission. Download high resolution version (656x648, 30 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... Venera 3 was a Venera program space probe that was built and launched by the Soviet Union to explore the surface of Venus. ... Unmanned space missions are those using remote-controlled spacecraft. ... Venera 2 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ...


The descent capsule of Venera 4 entered the atmosphere of Venus on October 18, 1967. The first probe to return direct measurements from another planet, the capsule measured temperature, pressure, density and performed 11 automatic chemical experiments to analyze the atmosphere. It showed 95% carbon dioxide, and in combination with radio occultation data from the Mariner 5 probe, it showed that surface pressures were far greater than expected (75 - 100 atmospheres). Venera 4 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in Leap years). ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mariner 5 was a spacecraft of the Mariner program that carried a complement of experiments to probe Venus atmosphere with radio waves, scan its brightness in ultraviolet light, and sample the solar particles and magnetic field fluctuations above the planet. ...


These results were verified and refined by the Venera 5 and Venera 6 missions on May 16 and 17 of 1969. But thus far, none of these missions had reached the surface while still transmitting. Venera 4's battery ran out while still slowly floating through the massive atmosphere, and Venera 5 and 6 were crushed by high pressure 18 km above the surface. Venera 5 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... Venera 6 was launched from a Tyazheliy Sputnik (69-002C) on January 10 1969 towards Venus to obtain atmospheric data. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ...


The first successful landing on Venus was by Venera 7 on December 15, 1970. It relayed surface temperatures of 457 to 474°C. Venera 8 landed on July 22, 1972. In addition to pressure and temperature profiles, a photometer showed that the clouds of Venus formed a layer, ending over 35 km above the surface. A gamma ray spectrometer analyzed the chemical composition of the crust. Venera 7 lander The Venera 7 was launched as part of the Venera program by the Soviet Union on August 17, 1970. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Venera 8 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Source of image data: Los Alamos National Laboratory The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) uses the gamma-ray part of the spectrum to look for the presence of 20 elements from the periodic table, and is used in the exploration of Mars. ...


Early orbiters

Surface of Venus taken by Venera 9 lander
Surface of Venus taken by Venera 9 lander

The Soviet probe Venera 9 entered orbit on October 22, 1975, becoming the first artificial satellite of Venus. A battery of cameras and spectrometers returned information about the planet's clouds, ionosphere and magnetosphere, as well as performing bistatic radar measurements of the surface. Download high resolution version (996x252, 173 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (996x252, 173 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Venera 9 was a USSR unmanned space mission to Venus. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ...


The 660 kg descent vehicle separated from Venera 9 and landed, taking the first pictures of the surface and analyzing the crust with a gamma ray spectrometer and a densitometer. During descent, pressure, temperature and photometric measurements were made, as well as backscattering and multi-angle scattering (nephelometer) measurements of cloud density. It was discovered that the clouds of Venus are formed in three distinct layers. On October 25, Venera 10 arrived and carried out a similar program of study. A nephelometer is an instrument for measuring suspended particulates in a liquid. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... Venera 10 was a USSR unmanned space mission to Venus. ...


Pioneer Venus

In 1978, NASA sent two Pioneer spacecraft to Venus. The Pioneer mission consisted of two components, launched separately: an Orbiter and a Multiprobe. The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe carried one large and three small atmospheric probes. The large probe was released on November 16, 1978 and the three small probes on November 20. All four probes entered the Venus atmosphere on December 9, followed by the delivery vehicle. Although not expected to survive the descent through the atmosphere, one probe continued to operate for 45 minutes after reaching the surface. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter was inserted into an elliptical orbit around Venus on December 4, 1978. It carried 17 experiments and operated until the fuel used to maintain its orbital position was exhausted and atmospheric entry destroyed the spacecraft in August 1992. 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (established 1958) is the government agency responsible for the United States of Americas space program and long-term general aerospace research. ... The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components, launched separately: an Orbiter and a Multiprobe. ... The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components, launched separately: an Orbiter and a Multiprobe. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components, launched separately: an Orbiter and a Multiprobe. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Further Soviet successes

Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander
Enlarge
Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander

Also in 1978, Venera 11 and Venera 12 flew past Venus, dropping descent vehicles on December 21 and December 25 respectively. The landers carried color cameras and a soil drill and analyzer, which unfortunately malfunctioned. Each lander made measurements with a nephelometer, mass spectrometer, gas chromatograph, and a cloud-droplet chemical analyzer using X-ray fluorescence that unexpectedly discovered a large proportion of chlorine in the clouds, in addition to sulfur. Strong lightning activity was also detected. Download high resolution version (918x385, 51 KB)Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (918x385, 51 KB)Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... The Venera 11 was an USSR unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus. ... The Venera 12 (Russian: Венера-12) was an USSR unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... Mass spectrometry is a technique for separating ions by their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios. ... Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), or simply gas chromatography (GC) is a type of chromatography in which the mobile phase is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or nitrogen, and the stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid on an inert solid support. ... In X-ray fluorescence (XRF) a material is exposed to X-rays with a relatively high energy. ... Multiple cloud-to-ground and cloud-to-cloud lightning strokes are observed during a night-time thunderstorm. ...


Venera 13 and Venera 14 carried out essentially the same mission, arriving at Venus on March 1 and March 5, 1982. This time, color camera and soil-drilling/analysis experiments were successful. X-ray fluorescence analysis of soil samples showed results similar to potassium-rich basalt rock. Venera 13 Soviet Venus lander Venera 13 and Venera 14 were a pair of identical probes in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... Venera 13 Soviet Venus lander Venera 13 and Venera 14 were a pair of identical probes in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Basalt Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock, sometimes porphyritic, and is often both fine-grained and dense. ...


On October 10 and October 11, 1983, Venera 15 and Venera 16 entered polar orbits around Venus. Venera 15 analyzed and mapped the upper atmosphere with an infrared Fourier spectrometer. From November 11 to July 10, both satellites mapped the northern third of the planet with synthetic aperture radar. These results provided the first detailed understanding of the surface geology of Venus, including the discovery of unusual massive shield volcanoes such as coronae and arachnoids. Venus had no evidence of plate tectonics, unless the northern third of the planet happened to be a single plate. October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in Leap years). ... 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Venera 15 and Venera 16 were two identical spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union. ... Venera 15 and Venera 16 were two identical spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... The surface of Venus, as imaged by the Magellan probe using SAR Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a form of radar in which sophisticated post-processing of radar data is used to produce a very narrow effective beam. ... Venusian arachnoid In astrogeology, an arachnoid is a large structure of unknown origin that have been found only on the surface of Venus. ...

Vega lander
Vega lander

The Soviet Vega 1 and Vega 2 probes encountered Venus on June 11 and June 15 of 1985. Landing vehicles carried experiments focusing on cloud aerosol composition and structure. Each carried an ultraviolet absorption spectrometer, aerosol particle-size analyzers, and devices for collecting aerosol material and analyzing it with a mass spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, and an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The upper two layers of the clouds were found to be sulfuric acid droplets, but the lower layer is probably composed of phosphoric acid solution. The crust of Venus was analyzed with the soil drill experiment and a gamma ray spectrometer. As the landers carried no cameras on board, no images from surface were returned. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Vega missions also deployed balloon-borne aerostat probes that floated at about 53 km altitude respectively for 46 and 60 hours, traveling about 1/3 of the way around the planet. These measured wind speed, temperature, pressure and cloud density. More turbulence and convection activity than expected was discovered, including occasional plunges of 1 to 3 kilometers in downdrafts. The Vega spacecraft continued to rendezvous with Halley's Comet nine months later, bringing an additional 14 instruments and cameras for that mission. Akron in flight, 2 November 1931 An airship is a buoyant (lighter_than_air) aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ... Comet Halley as taken with the Halley Multicolor Camera on the ESA Giotto mission. ...


Magellan

On August 10, 1990, the US Magellan probe arrived at its orbit around the planet and started a mission of detailed radar mapping. 98% of the surface was mapped with a resolution of approximately 100m. After a four-year mission, Magellan, as planned, plunged into the atmosphere on October 11, 1994, and partly vaporized; some sections are thought to have hit the planet's surface. August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ... This long range radar antenna (approximately 40m (130ft) in diameter) rotates on a track to observe activities near the horizon. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in Leap years). ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...


Recent flybys

Image of Venus in visible light taken by Galileo probe
Image of Venus in visible light taken by Galileo probe

Several space probes en route to other destinations have used flybys of Venus to increase their speed via the gravitational slingshot method. These include the Galileo mission to Jupiter and the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn (two flybys). Rather curiously, during Cassini's examination of the radiofrequency emissions of Venus with its radio and plasma wave science instrument during both the 1998 and 1999 flybys, it saw absolutely no high-frequency radio waves (0.125 to 16 MHz), which are commonly associated with lightning. This is in direct opposition to the findings of the Soviet Venera missions 20 years earlier. It is postulated that perhaps if Venus does have lightning, it might be some type of low-frequency electrical activity, due to the fact that radio signals cannot penetrate the ionosphere at frequencies below about 1 megahertz. An examination by physicist Donald Gurnett of the University of Iowa of radio emissions of Venus by the Galileo spacecraft during its gravity assist flyby in 1990 did reveal what were interpreted at the time to be indicative of lightning. However the Galileo probe was over 60 times as distant to Venus as was Cassini during its flyby, making its observations substantially less significant. To this day it remains a mystery as to whether or not Venus does in fact have lightning in its atmosphere. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot is the use of the motion of a planet to alter the path and speed of an interplanetary spacecraft. ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... This is an artists concept of Cassini during the Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) maneuver, just after the main engine has begun firing. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... Radio frequency, or RF, refers to that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic waves can be generated by alternating current fed to an antenna. ...


Future missions

Venus Express is a mission prepared by the European Space Agency which will study the atmosphere and surface characteristics of Venus from orbit. The nominal mapping mission is planned to start in 2006 and is expected to last for two Venusian days (about 500 Earth days). Venus Express Venus Express is the first Venus exploration mission of the European Space Agency. ... The European Space Agency (ESA; established 1975) is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to exploration of space with currently 16 memberstates. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Future flybys en route to other destinations include the MESSENGER and BepiColombo missions to Mercury. the MESSENGER spacecraft The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) is a NASA mission, launched August 3, 2004, designed to study the characteristics and environment of Mercury from orbit. ... BepiColombo is a European Space Agency (ESA) Cornerstone mission to Mercury. ...


Cultural references

  • Until it was penetrated by probes, Venus's opaque cloud layer gave science fiction writers free reign in imagining the planet's surface, and they frequently imagined it to be Earthlike. Venus was the home planet of the Mekon, arch-enemy of the 1950s comic book hero Dan Dare, and was the site of a second garden of Eden in C. S. Lewis's novel Perelandra. In Olaf Stapledon's epic Last and First Men, Venus is an oceanic idyll where humans evolve the power of flight. In the military sf classic Clash by Night by Henry Kuttner (writing as Lawrence O'Donnell), underwater city-states hire mercenary companies and their battleships to fight their wars on the surface.
  • Many science-fiction movies and serials of the '50s and '60s, such as Abbott and Costello Go to Mars and Space Patrol, have used Venus's namesake goddess and her domain to contrive planetary populations of nubile women welcoming (or attacking) all-male astronaut crews.
  • The Lovecraft short story 'In the walls of Eryx', takes place on Venus.
  • A more scientifically accurate depiction of the planet is offered in Ben Bova's novel Venus (2000, ISBN 031287216X), although its literary merits are debatable.
  • A presumably terraformed Venus was the setting of one episode of the anime Cowboy Bebop. In the show Venus was revealed to be an arid but habitable world. Much of the population lived in floating cities in the sky. In the cartoon Exosquad, terraformed Venus was portrayed as one of the three habitable planets in the solar system (the others being Earth and Mars).
  • Venus is also the location of several Starfleet Academy training facilities and terraforming stations in the fictional Star Trek universe, and it is briefly mentioned in Arthur C. Clarke's 3001: The Final Odyssey.
  • In Jacqueline Susann's Yargo, Venus is inhabited by bees that are as big as horses.
  • There are some religious sects who believe that Hell may be located on Venus. Its extremely high surface temperature and impenetrable cloud cover cause people to believe that the fires of Hell burn on the surface, obscured from our earthly view.
  • In the mythology of Middle-earth, by J.R.R. Tolkien, Venus is the Star of Eärendil. The star was created when Eärendil the Mariner was set in the sky on his ship, with a Silmaril bound to his brow. In fact, Tolkien chose the name directly from the ancient Old English word for the planet Venus.

Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The Mekon was the arch-enemy of the British comic book hero Dan Dare, first appearing in 1950 in the Eagle comic. ... Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the... The return of the original Dan Dare in 1989 Dan Dare - Pilot of the Future is a classic British science fiction comic hero, created by Frank Hampson in 1950. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar mostly resident in England. ... Perelandra (also titled Voyage to Venus in a later edition published by Pan Books) is the second book in the Space Trilogy of C. S. Lewis. ... William Olaf Stapledon (1886-1950) was a British philosopher and author of several influential works of science fiction. ... Last and First Men is a science fiction novel written in 1930 by the British author Olaf Stapledon. ... This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1960s. ... Abbott and Costello is the name of a legendary American comedy duo made up of Bud Abbott and Lou Costello. ... Space Patrol was an old-time radio science fiction serial aimed at juvenile audiences. ... H. P. Lovecraft Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890–March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy and horror fiction, noted for giving horror stories a science fiction framework. ... Benjamin William Bova (born November 8, 1932) is an American science fiction author and editor. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Artists conception of a terraformed Mars in three stages of development. ... Cowboy Bebop (Japanese: カウボーイビバップ, but most often written in English, even in Japan) is a 26 episode Japanese anime TV series by Shinichiro Watanabe that initially ran starting in 1998. ... Phaeton, leader of the Neosapiens Exosquad was a science fiction cartoon that ran on the USA network from September 1993 to May 1994. ... The official logo of Starfleet Academy, circa 2370. ... The Enterprise boldly going where no man had gone before. ... Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (born December 16, 1917) is a British author and inventor, probably most famous for his science fiction novel 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... 3001: The Final Odyssey (1997) is a science fiction novel by Arthur C. Clarke, fourth and final book in the Space Odyssey series. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | 1918 births | 1974 deaths | American writers | Novelists | Stub ... Yargo is a science fiction romance novel by Jacqueline Susann. ... Medieval illustration of the Mouth of Hell Hell is a place of torment and pain. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... For the Anglo-Saxon name, see Earendel. ... The Silmarils are fictional artifacts from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...

See also

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... List of artificial objects on Venus. ... This is a list of mountains on the planet Venus. ... This is a list of named craters on Venus. ... The 2004 transit of Venus A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and the Earth, obscuring a small portion of the Suns disc. ... Venus is the Roman goddess of love, equivalent to Greek Aphrodite and Etruscan Turan. ... In traditional Western astrology, the planets have the significances listed below. ...

References

  • Arnett, Bill (2005). Venus. Retrieved March 27, 2005.
  • European Space Agency (2005). Venus Express overview. Retrieved March 27, 2005.
  • Grayzeck, Ed (2004). Venus Fact Sheet. NASA. Retrieved March 27, 2005.
  • Grieger, Bjoern (2004). Picture “Real Venus”. Retrieved March 27, 2005.
  • The Maya Astronomy Page (2002). Venus. Retrieved March 27, 2005.
  • Mitchell, Don P. (2004). The Soviet Exploration of Venus. Retrieved March 27, 2005.
  • Rosenthal, David. (2003). THE SOUTHERNMOST RISE OF VENUS AT UXMAL, 1997. Retrieved March 27, 2005.
  • Vienna University of Technology (2004). Venus Three-Dimensional Views. Retrieved March 27, 2005.
  • Mallama, A. (1996). "Schroeter's Effect and the twilight model for Venus". Journal of the British Astronomical Association 106 (1): 16–18. [1]


The European Space Agency (ESA; established 1975) is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to exploration of space with currently 16 memberstates. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (established 1958) is the government agency responsible for the United States of Americas space program and long-term general aerospace research. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Venus (planet) (9883 words)
Venus was known to ancient Babylonians around 1600 BC, and to the Mayan civilization (the Mayans developed a religious calendar based on Venus's motion) and must have been known long before in prehistoric times, given that it is the third brightest object in the sky after the Sun and Moon.
Venus (and also Mercury) is not visible from Earth when it is full, since at that time it is at superior conjunction, rising and setting concomitantly with the Sun and hence lost in the Sun's glare.
Venus is brightest when approximately 25% of its disk is illuminated; this typically occurs 37 days both before (in the evening sky) and after (in the morning sky), its inferior conjunction.
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Venus (planet) (1555 words)
It is a terrestrial planet, very similar in size and bulk composition to Earth; it is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" as a result of this similarity.
Venus has an atmosphere consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and a small amount of nitrogen, with a pressure at the surface about 90 times that of Earth (a pressure equivalent to a depth of 1 kilometer under Earth's ocean).
Venus was the most important celestial body observed by the Maya, who called it Chak ek, "the Great Star", and considered it a representation of Quetzalcoatl; they apparently did not worship any of the other planets.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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