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Encyclopedia > Venus
Venus   Astronomical symbol of Venus
Venus
Venus in real color
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 108,942,109 km
0.72823128 AU
Perihelion 107,476,259 km
0.71843270 AU
Semi-major axis 108,208,930 km
0.723332 AU
Eccentricity 0.0068
Orbital period 224.70069 day
0.6151970 yr
Synodic period 583.92 days[1]
Average orbital speed 35.02 km/s
Inclination 3.39471°
3.86° to Sun's equator
Longitude of ascending node 76.67069°
Argument of perihelion 54.85229°
Satellites None
Physical characteristics
Mean radius 6051.8 ± 1.0 km[2]
0.9499 Earths
Flattening < 0.0002[2]
Surface area 4.60×108 km²
0.902 Earths
Volume 9.38×1011 km³
0.857 Earths
Mass 4.8685×1024 kg
0.815 Earths
Mean density 5.204 g/cm³
Equatorial surface gravity 8.87 m/s2
0.904 g
Escape velocity 10.46 km/s
Sidereal rotation
period
243.0185 day
Equatorial rotation velocity 6.52 km/h
Axial tilt 177.36°
North pole right ascension 18 h 11 min 2 s
272.76°[3]
North pole declination 67.16°
Albedo 0.65
Surface temp.
   Kelvin
   Celsius
min mean max
735 K[4][5]
461.85 °C
Apparent magnitude up to -4.6[1]
Angular diameter 9.7" — 66.0"[1]
Adjectives Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean, Venerean
Atmosphere
Surface pressure 9.3 MPa
Composition ~96.5% Carbon dioxide
~3.5% Nitrogen
.015% Sulfur dioxide
.007% Argon
.002% Water vapor
.0017% Carbon monoxide
.0012% Helium
.0007% Neon
trace Carbonyl sulfide
trace Hydrogen chloride
trace Hydrogen fluoride

Venus (pronounced [ˈviːnəs] ) is the second-closest planet to the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It is the brightest natural object in the night sky, except for the Moon, reaching an apparent magnitude of −4.6. Because Venus is an inferior planet from Earth, it never appears to venture far from the Sun: its elongation reaches a maximum of 47.8°. Venus reaches its maximum brightness shortly before sunrise or shortly after sunset, for which reason it is often called the Morning Star or the Evening Star. Venus may refer to: The planet Venus Venus (mythology), the Roman goddess of love, in Greek mythology known as Aphrodite Venus (comics), the Marvel Comics character, based on the above Venus (genus), a genus of clams in the bivalve mollusc family Veneridae Venus BucureÅŸti, a Romanian football team. ... Image File history File links Venus_symbol. ... Image File history File links Venus-real. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time for which celestial coordinates or orbital elements are specified. ... The J2000. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... The semi-major axis of an ellipse In geometry, the term semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) is used to describe the dimensions of ellipses and hyperbolae. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 116 days and 1157 days or 3. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In astronomy, a Julian year is a unit of time defined as exactly 365. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... The Longitude of the ascending node (☊, also noted Ω) is one of the orbital elements used to specify the orbit of an object in space. ... The argument of periapsis (ω) is the orbital element describing the angle between an orbiting bodys ascending node (the point where the body crosses the plane of reference from South to North) and its periapsis (the point of closest approach to the central body), measured in the orbital plane and... A natural satellite or moon is a celestial body that orbits a planet or smaller body, which is called the primary. ... The flattening, ellipticity, or oblateness of an oblate spheroid is the relative difference between its equatorial radius a and its polar radius b: The flattening of the Earth is 1:298. ... In mathematics, a spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ... To help compare sizes of different areas, here is a list of areas between 100 million km² and 1,000 million (American billion) km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... (Redirected from 1 E24 kg) Categories: Orders of magnitude (mass) ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The surface gravity of a Killing horizon is the acceleration, as exerted at infinity, needed to keep an object at the horizon. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and/or direction, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. ... The term g force or gee force refers to the symbol g, the force of acceleration due to gravity at the earths surface. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ... In astronomy, a rotation period is the time an astronomical object takes to complete one revolution around its rotation axis relative to the background stars. ... This article is about retrograde motion. ... In astronomy, axial tilt is the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to a perpendicular to its orbital plane. ... Equatorial Coordinates Right ascension (abbrev. ... In astronomy, declination (abbrev. ... For other uses, see Albedo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... The angular diameter of an object as seen from a given position is the diameter measured as an angle. ... A Venusian is a hypothetical or fictional native inhabitant of the planet Venus. ... Cytherean is an adjective meaning pertaining to Cythera, a small island now part of Greece. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Carbonyl sulfide is a colourless gas at room temperature with an unpleasant odor. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula HF. Together with hydrofluoric acid, it is the principal industrial source of fluorine and hence the precursor to many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers (e. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... The terms inferior planet and superior planet were coined by Copernicus to distinguish a planets orbits size in relation to the Earths. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


Classified as a terrestrial planet, it is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet", because the two are similar in size, gravity, and bulk composition. Venus is covered with an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light; this was a subject of great speculation until some of its secrets were revealed by planetary science in the twentieth century. Venus has the densest atmosphere of all the terrestrial planets, consisting mostly of carbon dioxide, as it has no carbon cycle to lock carbon back into rocks and surface features, nor organic life to absorb it in biomass. It has become so hot that the earth-like oceans that the young Venus is believed to have possessed have totally evaporated, leaving a dusty dry desertscape with many slab-like rocks. The best hypothesis is that the evaporated water vapor has dissociated, and with the lack of a planetary magnetic field, the hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind. The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is 92 times that of the Earth. The inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, their sizes to scale. ... For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ... Planetary science, also known as planetology or planetary astronomy, is the science of planets, or planetary systems, and the solar system. ... Atmospheres redirects here. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... For the thermonuclear reaction involving carbon that helps power stars, see CNO cycle. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ...


Venus's surface has been mapped in detail only in the last 22 years, by Project Magellan. It shows evidence of extensive volcanism, and the sulfur in the atmosphere is taken by some experts to show that there has been some recent volcanism, but it is an enigma as to why no evidence of lava flow accompanies any of the visible caldera. It is also noteworthy that there are a surprisingly low number of impact craters. This demonstrates that the surface is relatively young, approximately half a billion years old. There is no evidence for plate tectonics, possibly because its crust is too strong to subduct without water to make it less viscous, and some suggest that instead Venus loses its internal heat in periodic massive resurfacing events. Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... This article is about impact craters, also known as meteor craters. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Geometry of a subduction zone - insets to show accretionary prism and partial melting of hydrated asthenosphere. ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress. ...


The adjective Venusian is commonly used for items related to Venus, though the Latin adjective is the rarely used Venerean; the now-archaic Cytherean is still occasionally encountered. Venus is the only planet in the Solar System named after a female figure,[a] although two dwarf planetsCeres and Eris—also have female names. A Venusian is a hypothetical or fictional native inhabitant of the planet Venus. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Cytherean is an adjective meaning pertaining to Cythera, a small island now part of Greece. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... Spectral type: G[8] Absolute magnitude: 3. ... Absolute magnitude: −1. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Physical characteristics

Venus is one of the four solar terrestrial planets, meaning that, like the Earth, it is a rocky body. In size and mass, it is very similar to the Earth, and is often described as its 'sister'. The diameter of Venus is only 650 km less than the Earth's, and its mass is 81.5% of the Earth's. However, conditions on the Venusian surface differ radically from those on Earth, due to its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. The mass of the atmosphere of Venus is 96.5% carbon dioxide, with most of the remaining 3.5% composed of nitrogen.[6] The inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, their sizes to scale. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Atmospheres redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


Internal structure

Though there is little direct information about its internal structure, the similarity in size and density between Venus and Earth suggests that it has a similar internal structure: a core, mantle, and crust. Like that of Earth, the Venusian core is at least partially liquid. The slightly smaller size of Venus suggests that pressures are significantly lower in its deep interior than Earth. The principal difference between the two planets is the lack of plate tectonics on Venus, likely due to the dry surface and mantle. This results in reduced heat loss from the planet, preventing it from cooling and providing a likely explanation for its lack of an internally generated magnetic field.[7] The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Geologic provinces of the world (USGS) In geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ...


Geography

About 80% of Venus's surface consists of smooth volcanic plains. Two highland 'continents' make up the rest of its surface area, one lying in the planet's northern hemisphere and the other just south of the equator. The northern continent is called Ishtar Terra, after Ishtar, the Babylonian goddess of love, and is about the size of Australia. Maxwell Montes, the highest mountain on Venus, lies on Ishtar Terra. Its peak is 11 km above Venus's average surface elevation. The southern continent is called Aphrodite Terra, after the Greek goddess of love, and is the larger of the two highland regions at roughly the size of South America. Much of this continent is covered by a network of fractures and faults.[8] Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of land on the planet Earth. ... Topography of Ishar Terra Ishtar Terra is one of two main highland regions on the planet Venus. ... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Maxwell Montes is a mountain massif on the planet Venus, part of which contains the highest point on the planets surface. ... Aphrodite Terra is one of two main highland regions on the planet Venus. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


As well as the impact craters, mountains, and valleys commonly found on rocky planets, Venus has a number of unique surface features. Among these are flat-topped volcanic features called farra, which look somewhat like pancakes and range in size from 20–50 km across, and 100–1000 m high; radial, star-like fracture systems called novae; features with both radial and concentric fractures resembling spiders' webs, known as arachnoids; and coronae, circular rings of fractures sometimes surrounded by a depression. All of these features are volcanic in origin.[9] Tycho crater on Earths moon. ... Venusian arachnoid In astrogeology, an arachnoid is a large structure of unknown origin that have been found only on the surface of Venus. ...


Almost all Venusian surface features are named after historical and mythological women.[10] The only exceptions are Maxwell Montes, named after James Clerk Maxwell, and two highland regions, Alpha Regio and Beta Regio. These three features were named before the current system was adopted by the International Astronomical Union, the body that oversees planetary nomenclature.[11] Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ... A portion of Alpha Regio is displayed in this three-dimensional perspective view of the surface of Venus. ... Beta Regio is a region of the planet Venus known as a volcanic rise. ... IAU redirects here. ...


Cartesian coordinates of physical features on Venus are expressed relative to its prime meridian, defined as the line of longitude passing through a radar-bright spot at the center of the oval feature Eve, which lies to the south of Alpha Regio.[12][13] Location of the Prime Meridian Image:Prime Meridian. ...


Surface geology

Main article: Geology of Venus
Map of Venus, showing the elevated 'continents' in yellow: Ishtar Terra at the top and Aphrodite Terra just below the equator to the right
Map of Venus, showing the elevated 'continents' in yellow: Ishtar Terra at the top and Aphrodite Terra just below the equator to the right

Much of Venus's surface appears to have been shaped by volcanic activity. Overall, Venus has several times as many volcanoes as Earth, and it possesses some 167 giant volcanoes that are over 100 km across. The only volcanic complex of this size on Earth is the Big Island of Hawaii.[9] However, this is not because Venus is more volcanically active than Earth, but because its crust is older. Earth's crust is continually recycled by subduction at the boundaries of tectonic plates, and has an average age of about 100 million years, while Venus's surface is estimated to be about 500 million years old.[9] A global view of Venus made from a mosaic of radar images from the Magellan spacecraft, centred at 90 degrees longitude. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (996x614, 163 KB) Topographic Map of Venus from Pioneer Venus (Mercator Projection). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (996x614, 163 KB) Topographic Map of Venus from Pioneer Venus (Mercator Projection). ... The Island of Hawaii (called the Big Island or Hawaii Island) is a volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean and one of the eight main islands that comprise the U.S. state of Hawaii. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Geometry of a subduction zone - insets to show accretionary prism and partial melting of hydrated asthenosphere. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


Several lines of evidence point to ongoing volcanic activity on Venus. During the Soviet Venera program, the Venera 11 and Venera 12 probes detected a constant stream of lightning, and Venera 12 recorded a powerful clap of thunder soon after it landed. The European Space Agency's Venus Express recorded abundant lightning in the high atmosphere.[14] While rainfall drives thunderstorms on Earth, there is no rainfall on the surface of Venus (though it does rain sulfuric acid in the upper atmosphere that evaporates around 25 km above the surface) One possibility is that ash from a volcanic eruption was generating the lightning. Another intriguing piece of evidence comes from measurements of sulfur dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere, which were found to drop by a factor of 10 between 1978 and 1986. This may imply that the levels had earlier been boosted by a large volcanic eruption.[15] Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander The Venera series of probes was developed by the USSR for the gathering of data from Venus. ... The Venera 11 was an USSR unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus. ... The Venera 12 (Russian: Венера-12) was an USSR unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... For other uses, see Thunder (disambiguation). ... Venus Express is the first Venus exploration mission of the European Space Agency. ... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, The Netherlands. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...

Impact craters on the surface of Venus (image reconstructed from radar data)
Impact craters on the surface of Venus (image reconstructed from radar data)

There are almost 1,000 impact craters on Venus, more or less evenly distributed across its surface. On other cratered bodies, such as the Earth and the Moon, craters show a range of states of erosion, indicating a continual process of degradation. On the Moon, degradation is caused by subsequent impacts, while on Earth, it is caused by wind and rain erosion. However, on Venus, about 85% of craters are in pristine condition. The number of craters together with their well-preserved condition indicates that the planet underwent a total resurfacing event about 500 million years ago.[16] Earth's crust is in continuous motion, but it is thought that Venus cannot sustain such a process. Without plate tectonics to dissipate heat from its mantle, Venus instead undergoes a cyclical process in which mantle temperatures rise until they reach a critical level that weakens the crust. Then, over a period of about 100 million years, subduction occurs on an enormous scale, completely recycling the crust.[9] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1151x910, 1849 KB) Summary Computer generated 3-dimensional perspective view of the crater farm on Venus, consisting of the 37. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1151x910, 1849 KB) Summary Computer generated 3-dimensional perspective view of the crater farm on Venus, consisting of the 37. ...


Venusian craters range from 3 km to 280 km in diameter. There are no craters smaller than 3 km, because of the effects of the dense atmosphere on incoming objects. Objects with less than a certain kinetic energy are slowed down so much by the atmosphere that they do not create an impact crater.[17] The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ...


Atmosphere

Main article: Atmosphere of Venus

Venus has an extremely thick atmosphere, which consists mainly of carbon dioxide and a small amount of nitrogen. The atmospheric mass is 93 times that of Earth's atmosphere while the pressure at the planet's surface is about 92 times that at Earth's surface—a pressure equivalent to that at a depth of nearly 1 kilometer under Earth's oceans. The density at the surface is 65 kg/m³ (6.5% that of water). The enormously CO2-rich atmosphere, along with thick clouds of sulfur dioxide, generates the strongest greenhouse effect in the solar system, creating surface temperatures of over 460 °C.[18] This makes Venus's surface much hotter than Mercury's which has a minimum surface temperature of -220 °C and maximum surface temperature of 420 °C, even though Venus is nearly twice Mercury's distance from the Sun and receives only 25% of Mercury's solar irradiance. Because of the lack of any moisture on Venus, there is almost no relative humidity (no more than 1%) on the surface, creating a heat index of 450 °C to 480 °C. Venus, the second planet from the Sun, has an atmosphere very different from that of Earth. ... Atmosphere is the general name for a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... This article is about the planet. ... Irradiance, radiant emittance, and radiant exitance are radiometry terms for the power of electromagnetic radiation at a surface, per unit area. ...

Cloud structure in Venus's atmosphere, revealed by ultraviolet observations
Cloud structure in Venus's atmosphere, revealed by ultraviolet observations

Studies have suggested that several billion years ago Venus's atmosphere was much more like Earth's than it is now, and that there were probably substantial quantities of liquid water on the surface, but a runaway greenhouse effect was caused by the evaporation of that original water, which generated a critical level of greenhouse gases in its atmosphere.[19] Thermal inertia and the transfer of heat by winds in the lower atmosphere mean that the temperature of Venus's surface does not vary significantly between the night and day sides, despite the planet's extremely slow rotation. Winds at the surface are slow, moving at a few kilometers per hour, but because of the high density of the atmosphere at Venus's surface, they exert a significant amount of force against obstructions, and transport dust and small stones across the surface. This alone would make it difficult for a human to walk through, even if the heat were not a problem.[20] Above the dense CO2 layer are thick clouds consisting mainly of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid droplets.[21][22] These clouds reflect about 60% of the sunlight that falls on them back into space, and prevent the direct observation of Venus's surface in visible light. The permanent cloud cover means that although Venus is closer than Earth to the Sun, the Venusian surface is not as well lit. In the absence of the greenhouse effect caused by the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the temperature at the surface of Venus would be quite similar to that on Earth. Strong 300 km/h winds at the cloud tops circle the planet about every four to five earth days.[23] Image File history File links Venuspioneeruv. ... Image File history File links Venuspioneeruv. ... Volumetric heat capacity (VHC) describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store heat while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase change. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ...


In 2007 the Venus Express probe discovered that a huge double atmospheric vortex exists at the south pole of the planet.[24][25] The polar vortex is a persistent, large-scale cyclone located near the Earths poles, in the middle and upper troposphere and the stratosphere. ...


Climate

The surface of Venus is effectively isothermal; it retains a constant temperature between day and night and between the equator and the poles.[1][26] The planet's minute axial tilt (less than three degrees, compared with 23 degrees for Earth), also minimizes seasonal temperature variation.[27] The only appreciable variation in temperature occurs with altitude. In 1995, the Magellan probe imaged a highly reflective substance at the tops of Venus's highest mountain peaks which bore a strong resemblance to terrestrial snow. This substance arguably formed from a similar process to snow, albeit at a far higher temperature. Too volatile to condense on the surface, it rose in gas form to cooler higher elevations, where it then fell as precipitation. The identity of this substance is not known with certainty, but speculation has ranged from elemental tellurium to lead sulfide (galena).[28] An isothermal process is a thermodynamic process in which the temperature of the system stays constant; ΔT = 0. ... In astronomy, axial tilt is the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to a perpendicular to its orbital plane. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Galena (disambiguation). ...


The clouds of Venus are capable of producing lightning much like the clouds on Earth.[29] The existence of lightning had been controversial since the first suspected bursts were detected by the Soviet Venera probes. However in 2006–2007 Venus Express clearly detected whistler mode waves, the signatures of lightning. Their intermittent appearance indicates a pattern associated with weather activity. The lightning rate is at least half of that on Earth.[29] Not to be confused with lighting. ... Venus Express is the first Venus exploration mission of the European Space Agency. ... An electromagnetic electron wave is a wave in a plasma which has a magnetic field component and in which primarily the electrons oscillate. ... Word intermittence, intermittency means the quality of being intermittent; subject to interruption or periodic stopping. ...


Magnetic field and core

In 1980, The Pioneer Venus Orbiter found that Venus's magnetic field is both weaker and smaller (i.e. closer to the planet) than Earth's. What small magnetic field is present is induced by an interaction between the ionosphere and the solar wind,[30] rather than by an internal dynamo in the core like the one inside the Earth. Venus's magnetosphere is too weak to protect the atmosphere from cosmic radiation. The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components, launched separately. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... The Dynamo theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as the Earth generates a magnetic field. ... The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet. ... A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object in which phenomena are dominated or organized by its magnetic field. ...


This lack of an intrinsic magnetic field at Venus was surprising given that it is similar to Earth in size, and was expected to also contain a dynamo in its core. A dynamo requires three things: a conducting liquid, rotation, and convection. The core is thought to be electrically conductive, however. Also, while its rotation is often thought to be too slow, simulations show that it is quite adequate to produce a dynamo.[31][32] This implies that the dynamo is missing because of a lack of convection in Venus's core. On Earth, convection occurs in the liquid outer layer of the core because the bottom of the liquid layer is much hotter than the top. Since Venus has no plate tectonics to let off heat, it is possible that it has no solid inner core, or that its core is not currently cooling, so that the entire liquid part of the core is at approximately the same temperature. Another possibility is that its core has already completely solidified. In science and engineering, conductors, such as copper or aluminum, are materials with atoms having loosely held valence electrons. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


Orbit and rotation

Size comparison of terrestrial planets (left to right): Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
Size comparison of terrestrial planets (left to right): Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars

Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 108 million km, and completes an orbit every 224.65 days. Although all planetary orbits are elliptical, Venus is the closest to circular, with an eccentricity of less than 0.01. When Venus lies between the Earth and the Sun, a position known as 'inferior conjunction', it makes the closest approach to Earth of any planet, lying at a distance of about 41 million km.[1] The planet reaches inferior conjunction every 584 days, on average.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x653, 488 KB)Terrestrial planet size comparisons. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x653, 488 KB)Terrestrial planet size comparisons. ... This article is about the planet. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about the planet. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... Elliptical redirects here. ... This article is about the shape and mathematical concept of circle. ... In astrodynamics, under standard assumptions any orbit must be of conic section shape. ...


Venus rotates once every 243 days—by far the slowest rotation period of any of the major planets. A Venusian sidereal day thus lasts more than a Venusian year (243 versus 224.7 Earth days). However, the length of a solar day on Venus is significantly shorter than the sidereal day; to an observer on the surface of Venus the time from one sunrise to the next would be 116.75 days.[33] The Sun would appear to rise in the west and set in the east. At the equator, Venus's surface rotates at 6.5 km/h; on Earth, the rotation speed at the equator is about 1,600 km/h. On a prograde planet like the Earth, the sidereal day is shorter than the solar day. ... Solar time is based on the idea that, when the sun reaches its highest point in the sky, it is noon. ...


If viewed from above the Sun's north pole, all of the planets are orbiting in a counter-clockwise direction; but while most planets also rotate counter-clockwise, Venus rotates clockwise in "retrograde" rotation. The question of how Venus came to have a slow, retrograde rotation was a major puzzle for scientists when the planet's rotation period was first measured. When it formed from the solar nebula, Venus would have had a much faster, prograde rotation, but calculations show that over billions of years, tidal effects on its dense atmosphere could have slowed down its initial rotation to the value seen today.[34][35] This article is about retrograde motion. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ...


A curious aspect of Venus's orbit and rotation periods is that the 584-day average interval between successive close approaches to the Earth is almost exactly equal to five Venusian solar days. Whether this relationship arose by chance or is the result of some kind of tidal locking with the Earth, is unknown.[36] Tidal locking makes one side of an astronomical body always face another, like the Moon facing the Earth. ...


Venus is currently moonless, though the asteroid 2002 VE68 presently maintains a quasi-orbital relationship with it.[37] According to Alex Alemi and David Stevenson of the California Institute of Technology, their recent study of models of the early solar system shows that it is very likely that, billions of years ago, Venus had at least one moon, created by a huge impact event.[38][39] About 10 million years later, according to Alemi and Stevenson, another impact reversed the planet's spin direction. The reversed spin direction caused the Venusian moon to gradually spiral inward[40] until it collided and merged with Venus. If later impacts created moons, those moons also were absorbed the same way the first one was. The Alemi/Stevenson study is recent, and it remains to be seen what sort of acceptance it will achieve in the scientific community. For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... 2002 VE68 (also written 2002 VE68) is an asteroid discovered on November 11, 2002. ... Diagram of generic quasi-satellite orbit A quasi-satellite is an object similar to a planet or satellite of the Sun, however its orbit encompasses its planet and the planets star. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... Artists impression of a major impact event. ... It has been suggested that Tidal friction be merged into this article or section. ...


Observation

Venus as the Evening Star, next to a crescent moon
Venus as the Evening Star, next to a crescent moon
Successive inferior conjunctions of Venus occur about 1.6 Earth years apart and create a pattern of precessing pentagrams, due to a near 13:8 orbital resonance (the Earth orbits nearly 8 times for every 13 orbits of Venus).
Successive inferior conjunctions of Venus occur about 1.6 Earth years apart and create a pattern of precessing pentagrams, due to a near 13:8 orbital resonance (the Earth orbits nearly 8 times for every 13 orbits of Venus).

Venus is always brighter than the brightest stars, with its apparent magnitude ranging from −3.8 to −4.6. This is bright enough to be seen even in the middle of the day, and the planet can be easy to see when the Sun is low on the horizon. As an inferior planet, it always lies within about 47° of the Sun.[41] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 646 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (853 × 792 pixels, file size: 8 KB, MIME type: image/png) The planet Venus orbits 13 times for every orbit of the Earth, creating a pentagrammic pattern of inferior conjunctions, precessing 144 degrees per occurance. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 646 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (853 × 792 pixels, file size: 8 KB, MIME type: image/png) The planet Venus orbits 13 times for every orbit of the Earth, creating a pentagrammic pattern of inferior conjunctions, precessing 144 degrees per occurance. ... Conjunction is a term used in positional astronomy and astrology. ... Precession redirects here. ... A pentagram A pentagram (sometimes known as a pentalpha or pentangle or, more formally, as a star pentagon) is the shape of a five-pointed star drawn with five straight strokes. ... In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when two orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... The terms inferior planet and superior planet were coined by Copernicus to distinguish a planets orbits size in relation to the Earths. ... Sol redirects here. ...


Venus 'overtakes' the Earth every 584 days as it orbits the Sun.[1] As it does so, it goes from being the 'Evening star', visible after sunset, to being the 'Morning star', visible before sunrise. While Mercury, the other inferior planet, reaches a maximum elongation of only 28° and is often difficult to discern in twilight, Venus is hard to miss when it is at its brightest. Its greater maximum elongation means it is visible in dark skies long after sunset. As the brightest point-like object in the sky, Venus is a commonly misreported 'unidentified flying object'. U.S. President Jimmy Carter reported having seen a UFO in 1969, which later analysis suggested was probably the planet, and countless other people have mistaken Venus for something more exotic.[42] Wikipedia articles with Morning Star, morning star or morningstar in the title include: Morning star (weapon), a spiked mace Morning Star (chief), a Cheyenne leader, also known as Dull Knife The Morning Star, a newspaper published in the U.K. since 1930 The Morning Star (19th century U.S. newspaper... This article is about the planet. ... UFO redirects here. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... In October of 1969 at 7:15 p. ...


As it moves around its orbit, Venus displays phases like those of the Moon: it is new when it passes between the Earth and the Sun, full when it is on the opposite side of the Sun, and a half-phase when it is at its maximum elongations from the Sun. Venus is brightest when it is a thin crescent; it is much closer to Earth when a thin crescent than when gibbous, or full.[41] Planetary phase is the term used to describe the appearance of the illuminated section of a planet. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... In astronomy, a phase of the Moon is any of the aspects or appearances presented by the Moon as seen from Earth, determined by the portion of the Moon that is visibly illuminated by the Sun. ...


Venus's orbit is slightly inclined relative to the Earth's orbit; thus, when the planet passes between the Earth and the Sun, it usually does not cross the face of the Sun. However, transits of Venus do occur in pairs separated by eight years, at intervals of about 120 years, when the planet's inferior conjunction coincides with its presence in the plane of the Earth's orbit. The most recent transit was in 2004; the next will be in 2012. Historically, transits of Venus were important, because they allowed astronomers to directly determine the size of the astronomical unit, and hence of the solar system. Captain Cook's exploration of the east coast of Australia came after he had sailed to Tahiti in 1768 to observe a transit of Venus.[43][44] This article is about the astronomical phenomenon. ... Conjunction is a term used in positional astronomy and astrology. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... British explorer James Cook is most noted for having discovered Australia and Hawaii. ... Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of the French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. ...


A long-standing mystery of Venus observations is the so-called Ashen light—an apparent weak illumination of the dark side of the planet, seen when the planet is in the crescent phase. The first claimed observation of ashen light was made as long ago as 1643, but the existence of the illumination has never been reliably confirmed. Observers have speculated that it may result from electrical activity in the Venusian atmosphere, but it may be illusory, resulting from the physiological effect of observing a very bright crescent-shaped object.[45] The Ashen light is a glow observed on Venus somewhat similar to the phenomenon of Earthshine found on the Moon, though dimmer. ...

Studies of Venus

Early studies

Galileo's discovery that Venus showed phases proved that it orbits the Sun and not the Earth
Galileo's discovery that Venus showed phases proved that it orbits the Sun and not the Earth

Venus was known in the Hindu Jyotisha since early times as the planet Shukra. In the West, before the advent of the telescope, Venus was known only as a 'wandering star'. Several cultures historically held its appearances as a morning and evening star to be those of two separate bodies. Pythagoras is usually credited with recognizing in the sixth century BC that the morning and evening stars were a single body, though he thought that Venus orbited the Earth. When Galileo first observed the planet in the early 17th century, he found that it showed phases like the Moon's, varying from crescent to gibbous to full and vice versa. This could be possible only if Venus orbited the Sun, and this was among the first observations to clearly contradict the Ptolemaic geocentric model that the solar system was concentric and centered on the Earth.[46] Image File history File links Phases-of-Venus. ... Image File history File links Phases-of-Venus. ... Jyotisha (, in Hindi and English usage Jyotish; sometimes called Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and/or Vedic astrology) is the Hindu system of astrology, one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, and regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other... In Hindu astrology, the Navagraha are the nine chief celestial beings: Surya (Sun) Chandra (Moon) Chevaai (Mars) Budhan (Mercury) Guru (Jupiter) Shukran (Venus) Shani (Saturn) Rahu (Head of Demon Snake) Ketu (Tail of Demon Snake). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Planets#Etymology. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; born between 580 and 572 BC, died between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian Greek mathematician[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... Planetary phase is the term used to describe the appearance of the illuminated section of a planet. ... This article is about the historical term. ...


Venus's atmosphere was discovered as early as 1790 by Johann Schröter. Schröter found that when the planet was a thin crescent, the cusps extended through more than 180°. He correctly surmised that this was due to scattering of sunlight in a dense atmosphere. Later, Chester Smith Lyman observed a complete ring around the dark side of the planet when it was at inferior conjunction, providing further evidence for an atmosphere.[47] The atmosphere complicated efforts to determine a rotation period for the planet, and observers such as Giovanni Cassini and Schröter incorrectly estimated periods of about 24 hours from the motions of markings on the planet's apparent surface.[48] Johann Hieronymus Schröter (August 30, 1745 – August 29, 1816) was a German astronomer. ... Scattering is a general physical process whereby some forms of radiation, such as light, sound or moving particles, for example, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more localized non-uniformities in the medium through which it passes. ... Conjunction is a term used in positional astronomy and astrology. ... Giovanni Domenico (Jean-Dominique) Cassini Giovanni Domenico Cassini (June 8, 1625 - September 14, 1712) was an Italian-French astronomer and engineer. ...


Ground-based research

Little more was discovered about Venus until the 20th century. Its almost featureless disc gave no hint as to what its surface might be like, and it was only with the development of spectroscopic, radar and ultraviolet observations that more of its secrets were revealed. The first UV observations were carried out in the 1920s, when Frank E. Ross found that UV photographs revealed considerable detail that was absent in visible and infrared radiation. He suggested that this was due to a very dense yellow lower atmosphere with high cirrus clouds above it.[49] High resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines). ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Frank Elmore Ross (April 2, 1874 – September 21, 1960) was an American astronomer and physicist. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... This article is about cirrus clouds. ...


90% of the surface Venus appears to be recently solid basalt lava. Spectroscopic observations in the 1900s gave the first clues about Venus's rotation. Vesto Slipher tried to measure the Doppler shift of light from Venus, but found that he could not detect any rotation. He surmised that the planet must have a much longer rotation period than had previously been thought.[50] Later work in the 1950s showed that the rotation was retrograde. Radar observations of Venus were first carried out in the 1960s, and provided the first measurements of the rotation period which were close to the modern value.[51] Vesto Melvin Slipher (November 11, 1875 – November 8, 1969) was an American astronomer. ... The Doppler effect is the apparent change in frequency or wavelength of a wave that is perceived by an observer moving relative to the source of the waves. ...


Radar observations in the 1970s revealed details of Venus's surface for the first time. Pulses of radio waves were beamed at the planet using the 300 m radio telescope at Arecibo Observatory, and the echoes revealed two highly reflective regions, designated the Alpha and Beta regions. The observations also revealed a bright region attributed to mountains, which was called Maxwell Montes.[52] These three features are now the only ones on Venus which do not have female names. The Arecibo Observatory is located approximately 9 miles south-southwest from Arecibo, Puerto Rico (near the extreme southwestern corner of Arecibo pueblo). ...


The best radar images obtainable from Earth revealed features no smaller than about 5 km across. More detailed exploration of the planet could only be carried out from space.


Exploration of Venus

The planet Venus has been explored several times. ...

Early efforts

Mariner 2, launched in 1962
Mariner 2, launched in 1962

The first robotic space probe mission to Venus, and the first to any planet, began on February 12, 1961 with the launch of the Venera 1 probe. The first craft of the otherwise highly successful Soviet Venera program, Venera 1 was launched on a direct impact trajectory, but contact was lost seven days into the mission, when the probe was about 2 million km from Earth. It was estimated to have passed within 100,000 km from Venus in mid-May.[53] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1515x1218, 322 KB) Original Caption Released with Image: Mariner 2 was the worlds first successful interplanetary spacecraft. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1515x1218, 322 KB) Original Caption Released with Image: Mariner 2 was the worlds first successful interplanetary spacecraft. ... An artists interpretation of the MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury A robotic spacecraft is a spacecraft with no humans on board, that is usually under telerobotic control. ... Italic textBold text Technicians work on the Ulysses space probe. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Venera 1 Venera 1 diagram On February 12, 1961, 00:34:36 UTC, the first planetary probe was launched to Venus by the Soviet Union. ... Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander The Venera series of probes was developed by the USSR for the gathering of data from Venus. ...


The United States exploration of Venus also started badly with the loss of the Mariner 1 probe on launch. The subsequent Mariner 2 mission enjoyed greater success, and after a 109-day transfer orbit on December 14, 1962 it became the world's first successful interplanetary mission, passing 34,833 km above the surface of Venus. Its microwave and infrared radiometers revealed that while Venus's cloud tops were cool, the surface was extremely hot—at least 425 °C, finally ending any hopes that the planet might harbor ground-based life. Mariner 2 also obtained improved estimates of Venus's mass and of the astronomical unit, but was unable to detect either a magnetic field or radiation belts.[54] Launch of Mariner 1 Mariner 1 was the first spacecraft of the Mariner program. ... -1... In astronautics and aerospace engineering, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an orbital maneuver that moves a spacecraft from one orbit to another using the lowest possible delta-v for the specific transfer. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... A radiometer is a device used to measure the radiant flux or power in electromagnetic radiation. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ... Van Allen belts The Van Allen radiation belt is a torus of energetic charged particles around Earth, trapped by Earths magnetic field. ...


Atmospheric entry

The Venera 3 probe crash-landed on Venus on March 1, 1966. It was the first man-made object to enter the atmosphere and strike the surface of another planet, though its communication system failed before it was able to return any planetary data.[55] Venus's next encounter with an unmanned probe came on October 18, 1967 when Venera 4 successfully entered the atmosphere and deployed a number of science experiments. Venera 4 showed that the surface temperature was even hotter than Mariner 2 had measured at almost 500 °C, and that the atmosphere was about 90 to 95% carbon dioxide. The Venusian atmosphere was considerably denser than Venera 4's designers had anticipated, and its slower than intended parachute descent meant that its batteries ran down before the probe reached the surface. After returning descent data for 93 minutes, Venera 4's last pressure reading was 18 bar at an altitude of 24.96 km.[55] Venera 3 Venera-3 on-board medal Venera 3 (Russian:Венера-3) was a Venera program space probe that was built and launched by the Soviet Union to explore the surface of Venus. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Venera 4 Venera 4 landing capsule Venera 4 (Russian:Венера-4) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ...


Another probe arrived at Venus one day later on October 19, 1967 when Mariner 5 conducted a flyby at a distance of less than 4,000 km above the cloud tops. Mariner 5 was originally built as backup for the Mars-bound Mariner 4, but when that mission was successful, the probe was refitted for a Venus mission. A suite of instruments more sensitive than those on Mariner 2, in particular its radio occultation experiment, returned data on the composition, pressure and density of Venus's atmosphere.[56] The joint Venera 4–Mariner 5 data were analyzed by a combined Soviet-American science team in a series of colloquia over the following year, in an early example of space cooperation. is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Mariner 5 was a spacecraft of the Mariner program that carried a complement of experiments to probe Venus atmosphere with radio waves, scan its brightness in ultraviolet light, and sample the solar particles and magnetic field fluctuations above the planet. ... This article is about the planet. ... Mariner 4 (Mariner-Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft used for planetary exploration in a flyby mode and performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface. ... In this July, 1997 still frame captured from video, the bright star Aldebaran has just reappeared on the dark limb of the waning crescent moon in this predawn occultation. ...


Armed with the lessons and data learned from Venera 4, the Soviet Union launched the twin probes Venera 5 and Venera 6 five days apart in January 1969; they encountered Venus a day apart on May 16 and May 17 that year. The probes were strengthened to improve their crush depth to 25 atmospheres and were equipped with smaller parachutes to achieve a faster descent. Since then-current atmospheric models of Venus suggested a surface pressure of between 75 and 100 atmospheres, neither was expected to survive to the surface. After returning atmospheric data for a little over fifty minutes, they both were crushed at altitudes of approximately 20 km before going on to strike the surface on the night side of Venus.[55] Venera 5 Landing of Venera-5 Venera 5 (Russian: Венера-5) was a probe in the Soviet space program Venera for the exploration of Venus. ... Venera 6 Sketch of Venera 6 Venera 6 (Russian:Венера-6) was a Soviet spacecraft, launched from a Tyazheliy Sputnik (69-002C) on January 10 1969 towards Venus to obtain atmospheric data. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Crush depth is the submerged depth at which a submarine will implode due to the surrounding water pressure. ...


Surface science

Venera 7 represented a concerted effort to return data from the planet's surface, and was constructed with a reinforced descent module capable of withstanding a pressure of 180 bar. The module was pre-cooled prior to entry and equipped with a specially reefed parachute for a rapid 35-minute descent. Entering the atmosphere on December 15, 1970, the parachute is believed to have partially torn during the descent, and the probe struck the surface with a hard, yet not fatal, impact. Probably tilted onto its side, it returned a weak signal supplying temperature data for 23 minutes, the first telemetry received from the surface of another planet.[55] The Venera 7 (Russian: Венера-7) was launched as part of the Venera program by the Soviet Union. ... Reefed mainsail on a Bavaria 36 yacht, genoa fully rolled up. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. ...


The Venera program continued with Venera 8 sending data from the surface for 50 minutes, and Venera 9 and Venera 10 sending the first images of the Venusian landscape. The two landing sites presented very different visages in the immediate vicinities of the landers: Venera 9 had landed on a 20 degree slope scattered with boulders around 30–40 cm across; Venera 10 showed basalt-like rock slabs interspersed with weathered material.[57] Venera 8 Venera 8 landing capsule Venera 8 (Russian: Венера-8) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... Venera 9 (Russian: Венера-9) was a USSR unmanned space mission to Venus. ... Venera 10 was a USSR unmanned space mission to Venus. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... Weathering is the decomposition of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the Earths atmosphere. ...

The Pioneer Venus orbiter
The Pioneer Venus orbiter

In the meantime, the United States had sent the Mariner 10 probe on a gravitational slingshot trajectory past Venus on its way to Mercury. On February 5, 1974, Mariner 10 passed within 5790 km of Venus, returning over 4,000 photographs as it did so. The images, the best then achieved, showed the planet to be almost featureless in visible light, but ultraviolet light revealed details in the clouds that had never been seen in Earth-bound observations.[58] Image File history File links Pioneer_Venus_orbiter. ... Image File history File links Pioneer_Venus_orbiter. ... The Mariner 10 probe. ... In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is the use of the gravity of a planet or other celestial body to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft. ... This article is about the planet. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ...


The American Pioneer Venus project consisted of two separate missions.[59] The Pioneer Venus Orbiter was inserted into an elliptical orbit around Venus on December 4, 1978, and remained there for over thirteen years studying the atmosphere and mapping the surface with radar. The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe released a total of five probes which entered the atmosphere on December 9, 1978, returning data on its composition, winds and heat fluxes. The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components, launched separately. ... The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components, launched separately: an Orbiter and a Multiprobe. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components, launched separately: an Orbiter and a Multiprobe. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


Four more Venera lander missions took place over the next four years, with Venera 11 and Venera 12 detecting Venusian electrical storms;[60] and Venera 13 and Venera 14, landing four days apart on March 1 and March 5, 1982, returning the first color photographs of the surface. All four missions deployed parachutes for braking in the upper atmosphere, but released them at altitudes of 50 km, the dense lower atmosphere providing enough friction to allow for an unaided soft landing. Both Venera 13 and 14 analyzed soil samples with an on-board X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and attempted to measure the compressibility of the soil with an impact probe.[60] Venera 14, though, had the misfortune to strike its own ejected camera lens cap and its probe failed to make contact with the soil.[60] The Venera program came to a close in October 1983 when Venera 15 and Venera 16 were placed in orbit to conduct mapping of the Venusian terrain with synthetic aperture radar. The Venera 11 was an USSR unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus. ... The Venera 12 (Russian: Венера-12) was an USSR unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Venera 13 (Russian: Венера-13) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... Venera 14 (Russian: Венера-14) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... A Philips PW1606 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with automated sample feed in a cement plant quality control laboratory X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic secondary (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays. ... Spectrometer A spectrometer is an optical instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials. ... Venera 15 and Venera 16 were two identical spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union. ... Venera 15 and Venera 16 were two identical spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union. ... The surface of Venus, as imaged by the Magellan probe using SAR Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a form of radar in which sophisticated post-processing of radar data is used to produce a very narrow effective beam. ...


The Soviet Union had not finished with Venus, and in 1985 it took advantage of the opportunity to combine missions to Venus and Comet Halley, which passed through the inner solar system that year. En route to Halley, on June 11 and June 15, 1985 the two spacecraft of the Vega program each dropped a Venera-style probe (of which Vega 1's partially failed) and released a balloon-supported aerobot into the upper atmosphere. The balloons achieved an equilibrium altitude of around 53 km, where pressure and temperature are comparable to those at Earth's surface. They remained operational for around 46 hours, and discovered that the Venusian atmosphere was more turbulent than previously believed, and subject to high winds and powerful convection cells.[61][62] Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, more generally known as Halleys Comet after Edmond Halley, is a comet that can be seen every 75-76 years. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... An aerobot is an aerial robot, usually used in the context of an unmanned space probe. ... A convection cell is a phenomenon of fluid dynamics which occurs in situations where there are temperature differences within a body of liquid or gas. ...


Manned Venus flyby

Main article: Manned Venus Flyby

A manned Venus flyby mission, using Apollo program hardware, was proposed in the late 1960s.[63] The mission was planned to launch in late October or early November of 1973, and would have used a Saturn V to send three men to fly past Venus in a flight lasting approximately one year. The spacecraft would have passed approximately 5,000 kilometres from the surface of Venus about four months later. As part of the Apollo Applications Program, in 1967 NASA studied the possibility of carrying out a manned flyby of Venus using hardware derived from the Apollo program. ... The Apollo program was a human spaceflight program undertaken by NASA during the years 1961 – 1975 with the goal of conducting manned moon landing missions. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ...


Radar mapping

Magellan topographical map of Venus
Magellan topographical map of Venus

The United States' Magellan probe was launched on May 4, 1989 with a mission to map the surface of Venus with radar.[11] The high-resolution images it obtained during its 4½ years of operation far surpassed all prior maps and were comparable to visible-light photographs of other planets. Magellan imaged over 98% of Venus's surface by radar and mapped 95% of its gravity field. In 1994, at the end of its mission, Magellan was deliberately sent to its destruction into the atmosphere of Venus in an effort to quantify its density. Venus was observed by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft during flybys on their respective missions to the outer planets, but Magellan would otherwise be the last dedicated mission to Venus for over a decade. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (656x656, 343 KB) Summary Beneath Venus Clouds If the thick clouds covering Venus were removed, how would the surface appear? Using an imaging radar technique, the Magellan spacecraft was able to lift the veil from the Face of Venus and produce... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (656x656, 343 KB) Summary Beneath Venus Clouds If the thick clouds covering Venus were removed, how would the surface appear? Using an imaging radar technique, the Magellan spacecraft was able to lift the veil from the Face of Venus and produce... Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ... Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ... Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... Cassini-Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ...


Current and future missions

The Venus Express probe was designed and built by the European Space Agency. Launched on November 9, 2005 by a Russian Soyuz-Fregat rocket procured through Starsem, it successfully assumed a polar orbit around Venus on April 11, 2006.[64] The probe is undertaking a detailed study of the Venusian atmosphere and clouds, and will also map the planet's plasma environment and surface characteristics, particularly temperatures. Its mission is intended to last a nominal 500 Earth days, or around two Venusian years.[64] One of the first results emerging from Venus Express is the discovery that a huge double atmospheric vortex exists at the south pole of the planet.[64] Venus Express is the first Venus exploration mission of the European Space Agency. ... ESA redirects here. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soyuz rocket on launch pad. ... Starsem is a European-Russian company that was created in 1996 to commercialise the Soyuz launcher. ... A polar orbit is an orbit in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet orbiting on each revolution. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... The polar vortex is a persistent, large-scale cyclone located near the Earths poles, in the middle and upper troposphere and the stratosphere. ...


NASA's MESSENGER mission to Mercury performed two flybys of Venus in October 2006 and June 2007, in order to slow its trajectory for an eventual orbital insertion of Mercury in 2011. MESSENGER collected scientific data on both those flybys.[65] The European Space Agency (ESA) will also launch a mission to Mercury, called BepiColombo, which will perform two flybys of Venus in August 2013 before it reaches Mercury orbit in 2019.[66] This article is about the NASA space mission. ... ESA redirects here. ... BepiColombo is a joint Cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to the planet Mercury. ...


Future dedicated missions to Venus are planned. Japan's aerospace body JAXA is planning to launch its Venus climate orbiter, the PLANET-C, in 2010.[67] Under its New Frontiers Program, NASA has proposed a lander mission called the Venus In-Situ Explorer to land on Venus to study surface conditions and investigate the elemental and mineralogical features of the regolith, equipped with a core sampler to drill into the surface to study pristine rock samples not weathered by the very harsh surface conditions of the planet. Other proposed Venus exploration concepts include rovers, balloons, and Venus airplane concepts. The Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is Japans aerospace agency. ... PLANET-C, also known as Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), is a planned Japanese unmanned spacecraft to explore Venus. ... NASAs New Frontiers Program is a series of medium-cost (not to exceed 700 million), highly focused scientific space missions. ... The venus in-situ explorer will be a space probe designed to land and perform experiments on Venus. ... Regolith (Greek: blanket rock) is a layer of loose, heterogeneous material covering solid rock. ... The planet Venus has been explored several times. ... An aerobot is an aerial robot, usually used in the context of an unmanned space probe. ...


Venus in human culture

Historic understanding

The Maya Dresden Codex, which calculates Venus's appearances
The Maya Dresden Codex, which calculates Venus's appearances

As one of the brightest objects in the sky, Venus has been known since prehistoric times and as such has gained an entrenched position in human culture. It is described in Babylonian cuneiformic texts such as the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, which relates observations that possibly date from 1600 BC.[68] The Babylonians named the planet Ishtar (Sumerian Inanna), the personification of womanhood, and goddess of love. The Ancient Egyptians believed Venus to be two separate bodies and knew the morning star as Tioumoutiri and the evening star as Ouaiti. Likewise believing Venus to be two bodies, the Ancient Greeks called the morning star Φωσφόρος, Phosphoros (Latinized Phosphorus), the "Bringer of Light" or Ἐωσφόρος, Eosphoros (Latinized Eosphorus), the "Bringer of Dawn". The evening star they called Hesperos (Latinized Hesperus) (Ἓσπερος, the "star of the evening"), but by Hellenistic times, they realized the two were the same planet. Hesperos would be translated into Latin as Vesper and Phosphoros as Lucifer ("Light Bearer"), a poetic term later used to refer to the fallen angel cast out of heaven.[b] The Romans would later name the planet in honor of their goddess of love, Venus, whereas the Greeks used the name of her Greek counterpart, Aphrodite (Phoenician Astarte). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (325x676, 320 KB) Maya civilization- image from the Dresden Codex (page 9). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (325x676, 320 KB) Maya civilization- image from the Dresden Codex (page 9). ... Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (from the 1880 Förstermann edition) Maya codices (singular codex) are folding books stemming from the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, written in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican paper, made from the inner bark of certain trees, the main being the wild fig tree or... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Cuneiform redirects here. ... The Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa[1] recovered from the library at Nineveh, is a 7th century cuneiform tablet that bears ancient records of the rise times of Venus, its first and last visibility on the horizon before or after sunrise and sunset[2]. Several dates for the original observations have... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Inanna (DINANNA ) is the Sumerian goddess of sexual love, fertility, and warfare. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Henry Longfellow wrote an epic poem called The Wreck of the Hesperus. ... For other uses, see Hesperus (disambiguation). ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Vesper can refer to Hesperus, a Greek mythological figure Vesper Lynd, a fictional character of Ian Flemings James Bond novel Casino Royale Vesper, Saskatchewan, formerly a village Southwest of Swift Current, Saskatchewan Vesper (cocktail), a Martini style Alcoholic beverage recipe created by Ian Fleming Vesper or Shaken, not stirred... This article is about the star or fallen angel. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Birth of Venus, by Sandro Botticelli c. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ...


To the Hebrews it was known as Noga ("shining"), Helel ("bright"), Ayeleth-ha-Shakhar ("deer of the dawn") and Kochav-ha-'Erev ("star of the evening"). This article is about the Hebrew people. ...


Venus was important to the Maya civilization, who developed a religious calendar based in part upon its motions, and held the motions of Venus to determine the propitious time for events such as war. They named it Noh Ek', the Great Star, and Xux Ek', the Wasp Star. The Maya were aware of the planet's synodic period, and could compute it to within a hundredth part of a day.[69] This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ...


The Maasai people named the planet Kileken, and have an oral tradition about it called The Orphan Boy.[70] Language(s) Maa (ɔl Maa) Religion(s) Monotheism including Christianity Related ethnic groups Samburu The Masai are an indigenous African ethnic group of semi-nomadic people located in Kenya and northern Tanzania. ... Kileken The African Massai people have a myth about the planet Venus which is called The Orphan Boy. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ...


Venus is important in many Australian aboriginal cultures, such as that of the Yolngu people in Northern Australia. The Yolngu gather after sunset to await the rising of Venus, which they call Barnumbirr. As she approaches, in the early hours before dawn, she draws behind her a rope of light attached to the Earth, and along this rope, with the aid of a richly decorated "Morning Star Pole", the people are able to communicate with their dead loved ones, showing that they still love and remember them. Barnumbirr is also an important creator-spirit in the Dreaming, and "sang" much of the country into life. Many of the Australian Aboriginal cultures have a strong element of astronomy. ... For Yolngu language see Yolngu Matha. ... Dreaming is a common term among Indigenous Australians for a personal, or group, creation story and for the mythological time of creation, as well as for the places where the creation spirits now lie dormant in the land. ...

In western astrology, derived from its historical connotation with goddesses of femininity and love, Venus is held to influence those aspects of human life. In Indian Vedic astrology, Venus is known as Shukra, meaning "clear, pure" or "brightness, clearness" in Sanskrit. One of the nine Navagraha, it is held to affect wealth, pleasure and reproduction; it was the son of Bhrgu and Ushana, preceptor of the Daityas, and guru of the Asuras. Early Chinese astronomers called the planet Tai-pe, or the "beautiful white one". Modern Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese cultures refer to the planet literally as the gold star (Chinese: 金星), based on the Five elements. Lakotan spirituality refers to Venus as the daybreak star, and associates it with the last stage of life and wisdom. Image File history File links Venus_symbol. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... In Hindu astrology, the Navagraha are the nine chief celestial beings: Surya (Sun) Chandra (Moon) Chevaai (Mars) Budhan (Mercury) Guru (Jupiter) Shukran (Venus) Shani (Saturn) Rahu (Head of Demon Snake) Ketu (Tail of Demon Snake). ... Sage Bhrigu approached by other sages, as part of Sri Venkatachala Mahatyam The Bhrigus, also known as Bhargavas, are a clan of sages descending from the ancient fire-priest Bhrigu. ... Ushna (उशना) or Yat (याट) was a brave king in Yadava Vansh born after three generations of Maharaja Shashabindu, who was born after six generations of Yadu. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ...


The astronomical symbol for Venus is the same as that used in biology for the female sex: a circle with a small cross beneath.[71] The Venus symbol also represents femininity, and in Western alchemy stood for the metal copper.[71] Polished copper has been used for mirrors from antiquity, and the symbol for Venus has sometimes been understood to stand for the mirror of the goddess.[71][72] Chinese Celestial symbols on an antique bronze mirror Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent various celestial objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In some cultures, makeup is associated with femininity. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...


Perhaps the strangest appearance of Venus in literature is as the harbinger of destruction in Immanuel Velikovsky's Worlds in Collision (1950). In this intensely controversial book, Velikovsky argued that ancient references to Venus indicated that the planet had played a role in catastrophic events in the solar system within the past few thousand years. Scientists rejected Velikovsky's wild hypothesis, though his books were popular for a number of years.[73]


In fiction

Main article: Venus in fiction

Venus's impenetrable cloud cover gave science fiction writers free rein to speculate on conditions at its surface; all the more so when early observations showed that it was very similar in size to Earth and possessed a substantial atmosphere. The planet was frequently depicted as warmer than Earth, but still habitable by humans.[74] The genre reached its peak between the 1930s and 1950s, at a time when science had revealed some aspects of Venus, but not yet the harsh reality of its surface conditions. Robert Heinlein's Future History series had a Venus inspired by the chemist Svante Arrhenius's prediction of a steamy carboniferous swamp upon which the rain dripped incessantly. It probably inspired Henry Kuttner to the subsequent depiction given in his novel Fury. Ray Bradbury's short stories The Long Rain and All Summer in a Day also depicted Venus as a habitable planet with incessant rain. Other works, such as C. S. Lewis's 1943 Perelandra or Isaac Asimov's 1954 Lucky Starr and the Oceans of Venus, drew from a vision of a Cambrian-like Venus covered by a near planet-wide ocean filled with exotic aquatic life.[74] In science fiction stories of the 1920s-1960s, the planet Venus was frequently described as a tropical planet, hot and misty, covered with jungle, swamps, and oceans. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Understanding planetary habitability is partly an extrapolation of the Earths conditions, as it is the only planet currently known to support life. ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Universe was a 1941 story from Heinleins Future History series (shown here in the 1951 Dell edition). ... Svante August Arrhenius (February 19, 1859 – October 2, 1927) was a Swedish chemist and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry. ... The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Henry Kuttner (April 7, 1915 - February 4, 1958) was a science fiction author born in Los Angeles, California. ... Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22, 1920) is an American literary, fantasy, horror, science fiction, and mystery writer best known for The Martian Chronicles, a 1950 book which has been described both as a short story collection and a novel, and his 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451. ... The Long Rain is a short story by science fiction author Ray Bradbury. ... All Summer in a Day is a short story by science fiction author Ray Bradbury. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... Perelandra (also titled Voyage to Venus in a later edition published by Pan Books) is the second book in the Space Trilogy of C. S. Lewis. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Lucky Starr is the hero of a series of books by Isaac Asimov, using the pen name Paul French. Intended for juveniles, the books were written in the middle of the cold war and the series shows traces of this, both in educational intent and in the nature of the... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ...


Findings from the first missions to Venus showed the reality to be very different, and brought this particular genre to an end,[75] a passing which Brian Aldiss and Harry Harrison marked with their 1968 anthology Farewell Fantastic Venus. However, as scientific knowledge of Venus advanced, so science fiction authors endeavored to keep pace, particularly by conjecturing human attempts to terraform Venus.[76] Arthur C. Clarke's 1997 novel 3001: The Final Odyssey, for example, postulates humans lowering Venus's temperature by steering cometary fragments to impact its surface. A terraformed Venus is the setting for a number of diverse works of fiction that have included Star Trek, Exosquad and the manga Venus Wars. Brian Wilson Aldiss, OBE, (born August 18, 1925 in East Dereham, Norfolk) is a prolific English author of both general fiction and science fiction. ... At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Harry Harrison (born Henry Maxwell Dempsey, March 12, 1925 in Stamford, Connecticut) is an American science fiction author who has lived in many parts of the world including Mexico, England, Denmark and Italy. ... Farewell Fantastic Venus is a science fiction anthology edited by Brian Aldiss and Harry Harrison. ... Artists conception of a terraformed Venus. ... Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008), was a British science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which led also to the film of the same name... 3001: The Final Odyssey (1997) is a science fiction novel by Arthur C. Clarke, fourth and final book in the Space Odyssey series. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... Artists conception of a terraformed Mars in three stages of development. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... For other uses, see Exosquad (disambiguation). ... The Venus Wars (or Vinasu Senki in Japanese) is a 1989 science fiction film anime film. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Goddesses such as Gaia and Terra were named after the Earth, and not vice versa.
  2. ^ Jerome translated Septuagint heosphoros and Hebrew helel as lucifer, in Isaiah 14:12.

Look up Gaia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Terra may mean: Terra (mythology), a primeval Roman goddess, also known as Tellus, the Greek equivilent being Gaia Terra is the Latin name for the planet Earth, commonly used in science fiction as the name of Earth, instead of Earth eg: Holy Terra, the name of Earth in the fictional... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ...

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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aerial View of Moffett Field and NASA Ames Research Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Worlds in Collision book cover. ...

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Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1274, 113 KB) Original caption released with image This is a montage of planetary images taken by spacecraft managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA. Included are (from top to bottom) images of Mercury, Venus, Earth (and Moon), Mars...

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This article is about the Solar System. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about the planet. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about the planet. ... Spectral type: G[8] Absolute magnitude: 3. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... Absolute magnitude: −1. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... A natural satellite or moon is a celestial body that orbits a planet or smaller body, which is called the primary. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... The relative sizes of and distance between Mars, Phobos, and Deimos, to scale : Phobos (top) and Deimos (bottom). ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... The Saturnian system (photographic montage) Moons of Saturn (photographic montage) Saturn has 60 confirmed natural satellites, plus three hypothetical moons. ... Uranus has twenty-seven known moons. ... Neptune (top) and Triton (bottom), 3 days after the Voyager 2 flyby. ... Hubble image of the Plutonian system Pluto has three known moons. ... Dysnomia (officially designated (136199) Eris I Dysnomia) is a moon of the dwarf planet Eris. ... A Small Solar System Body (SSSB) is a term defined in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union to describe objects in the Solar System that are neither planets nor dwarf planets: [1] This encompasses: all minor planets apart from the dwarf planets, : the classical asteroids, (except for 1 Ceres, the... Meteor redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... 243 Ida and its moon Dactyl An asteroid moon is an asteroid that orbits another asteroid. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... The centaurs are a class of icy planetoids that orbit the Sun between Jupiter and Neptune, named after the mythical race of centaurs. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... The Kuiper belt, derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. ... Eris, the largest known scattered disc object (center), and its moon Dysnomia (left of center). ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... Artists rendering of the Oort cloud and the Kuiper Belt. ... Astronomical objects are significant physical entities, associations or structures which current science has confirmed to exist in space. ... Below is a list of solar system objects with diameter >500km: The Sun, a spectral class G2 star Mercury Venus Earth Moon Mars Jupiter Io Europa Ganymede Callisto complete list of Jupiters natural satellites Saturn Tethys Dione Rhea Titan Iapetus complete list of Saturns natural satellites Uranus Ariel... It has been suggested that Planetary-size comparison be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of solar system objects by mass, in decreasing order. ... Venus, the second planet from the Sun, has an atmosphere very different from that of Earth. ... A global view of Venus made from a mosaic of radar images from the Magellan spacecraft, centred at 90 degrees longitude. ... This is a list of terrae, or major landmasses, on Venus. ... Venusian arachnoid In astrogeology, an arachnoid is a large structure of unknown origin that have been found only on the surface of Venus. ... Baltis Vallis is a sinuous channel on Venus ranging from one to three kilometers wide and more than 6,800 kilometers long, slightly longer than the Nile and the longest known channel of any kind in the solar system. ... This is a list of named craters on Venus. ... Lakshmi Planum is named after Laksmi, the Hindu goddess of wealth. ... This is a list of dune fields not on Earth which have been given official names by the International Astronomical Union. ... A portion of Alpha Regio is displayed in this three-dimensional perspective view of the surface of Venus. ... Aphrodite Terra is one of two main highland regions on the planet Venus. ... Beta Regio is a region of the planet Venus known as a volcanic rise. ... Topography of Ishar Terra Ishtar Terra is one of two main highland regions on the planet Venus. ... Sedna Planitia is a large lowland area of Venus. ... This is a list of montes (mountains, singular mons) on the planet Venus. ... Abeona Mons is a mountain on Venus named after the goddess Abeona. ... Anala Mons is a mountain on Venus. ... Ciuacoatl Mons is a mountain on Venus. ... Maat Mons is displayed in this three-dimensional perspective view of the surface of Venus. ... Maxwell Montes is a mountain massif on the planet Venus, part of which contains the highest point on the planets surface. ... Sapas Mons is located in the Atla Regio region of Venus. ... Theia Mons is a large shield volcano on Venus named after a great Titaness. ... Maat Mons is displayed in this three-dimensional perspective view of the surface of Venus, with the vertical scale multiplied by 22. ... A pancake dome is an unusual type of volcano found on the planet Venus. ... The original scalloped margin dome: The Tick A scalloped margin dome is a volcanic dome that has experienced collapse and mass wasting such as landslides on its perimeter. ... This is a list of named coronae on Venus. ... Artemis Corona is a corona found in the Aphrodite Terra continent, on the planet Venus. ... Nightingale Corona is a corona found on the planet Venus. ... Image File history File links Venus-real. ... The planet Venus has been explored several times. ... List of artificial objects on Venus. ... Venera 7 lander Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander The Venera (Russian: Венера; formerly, sometimes referred to as Venusik in the West) series of probes was developed by the USSR to gather data from Venus. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components, launched separately: an Orbiter and a Multiprobe. ... Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ... A Venus-crosser asteroid is an asteroid whose orbit crosses that of Venus. ... Venus The colonization of Venus has been a subject of much speculation and many works of science fiction since before the dawn of spaceflight, and is still much discussed. ... Cytherean is an adjective meaning pertaining to Cythera, a small island now part of Greece. ... In science fiction stories of the 1920s-1960s, the planet Venus was frequently described as a tropical planet, hot and misty, covered with jungle, swamps, and oceans. ... For other uses, see Hesperus (disambiguation). ... Neith is the name given to an object first sighted by Giovanni Cassini, which he believed to be a moon of Venus. ... The phases of Venus can be seen without a telescope by those with exeptionally acute eye-sight. ... Artists conception of a terraformed Venus. ... This article is about the astronomical phenomenon. ... The planet Venus has been explored several times. ... Venera 1 Venera 1 diagram On February 12, 1961, 00:34:36 UTC, the first planetary probe was launched to Venus by the Soviet Union. ... -1... Venera 3MV-1 Zond 1, a member of the Soviet Zond program, was the second Soviet research spacecraft to successfully reach position Venus. ... Venera 2 Venera 2 (Russian: Венера-2) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... Mariner 5 was a spacecraft of the Mariner program that carried a complement of experiments to probe Venus atmosphere with radio waves, scan its brightness in ultraviolet light, and sample the solar particles and magnetic field fluctuations above the planet. ... The Mariner 10 probe. ... The Venera 11 was an USSR unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus. ... The Venera 12 (Russian: Венера-12) was an USSR unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus. ... Venera 13 (Russian: Венера-13) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... Venera 14 (Russian: Венера-14) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo and Inertial Upper Stage being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... Cassini-Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ... This article is about the NASA space mission. ... Venera 9 (Russian: Венера-9) was a USSR unmanned space mission to Venus. ... Venera 10 was a USSR unmanned space mission to Venus. ... The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components, launched separately. ... Venera 15 and Venera 16 were two identical spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union. ... Venera 15 and Venera 16 were two identical spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union. ... Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ... Venus Express is the first Venus exploration mission of the European Space Agency. ... Venera 3 Venera-3 on-board medal Venera 3 (Russian:Венера-3) was a Venera program space probe that was built and launched by the Soviet Union to explore the surface of Venus. ... Venera 4 Venera 4 landing capsule Venera 4 (Russian:Венера-4) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... Venera 5 Landing of Venera-5 Venera 5 (Russian: Венера-5) was a probe in the Soviet space program Venera for the exploration of Venus. ... Venera 6 Sketch of Venera 6 Venera 6 (Russian:Венера-6) was a Soviet spacecraft, launched from a Tyazheliy Sputnik (69-002C) on January 10 1969 towards Venus to obtain atmospheric data. ... The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components, launched separately. ... A lander is a type of spacecraft which descends to come to rest on the surface of an astronomical body. ... The Venera 7 (Russian: Венера-7) was launched as part of the Venera program by the Soviet Union. ... Venera 8 Venera 8 landing capsule Venera 8 (Russian: Венера-8) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... Venera 9 (Russian: Венера-9) was a USSR unmanned space mission to Venus. ... Venera 10 was a USSR unmanned space mission to Venus. ... The Venera 11 was an USSR unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus. ... The Venera 12 (Russian: Венера-12) was an USSR unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus. ... Venera 13 (Russian: Венера-13) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... Venera 14 (Russian: Венера-14) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... PLANET-C, also known as Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), is a planned Japanese unmanned spacecraft to explore Venus. ... BepiColombo is a joint Cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to the planet Mercury. ... The Venus Entry Probe (VEP) probe is a proposed European Space Agency space probe to Venus. ... The Venera-D (Russian: Венера-Д;) probe is a proposed Russian space probe to Venus to be launch around 2013, whose prime purpose is to make remote-sensing observations around the planet Venus in a manner similar to that of the U.S. Magellan spacecraft in the 1990s, but with the... Venus The colonization of Venus has been a subject of much speculation and many works of science fiction since before the dawn of spaceflight, and is still much discussed. ... List of artificial objects on Venus. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Venus Introduction (2376 words)
Venus, the jewel of the sky, was once know by ancient astronomers as the morning star and evening star.
The interior characteristics of Venus are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by Magellan and prior spacecraft.
This beautiful image of Venus is a mosaic of three images acquired by the Mariner 10 spacecraft on February 5, 1974.
Transit of Venus (668 words)
On June 8, 2004, observers around much of the world saw Venus drift across the face of the sun as Venus passed between the sun and earth.
A transit of Venus is so rare that, up to June 8, 2004, no human then alive had witnessed this celestial event.
"Transit of Venus dot org" will guide you to instructions for safe viewing; interactive education and hands-on activities; global observing programs for students; background information and tutorials; insights into historical endeavors and the adventures of explorers; the role of spacecraft and the search for extra-solar planets; and miscellaneous items relating to the transit of Venus.
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