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Encyclopedia > Ventricular system
Brain: Cerebral ventricles
Scheme showing relations of the ventricles to the surface of the brain.
Drawing of a cast of the ventricular cavities, viewed from above.
NeuroNames ancil-192
MeSH Cerebral+Ventricles

The ventricular system is a set of structures in the brain continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord. Image File history File links Gray734. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Italic text // ahh addiing sum spiice iin hurr`` For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Cross-section through cervical spinal cord. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ...

Contents

Components

The system comprises four ventricles:

There are several interconnecting channels leading from these ventricles, though only the first two of the list below are generally considered part of the ventricular system: The ventricular system is a fluid conducting system within the brain. ... The third ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ... The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ...

Name From To
right and left interventricular foramina (Monro) lateral ventricles third ventricle
cerebral aqueduct (Sylvius) third ventricle fourth ventricle
Median aperture (Magendie) fourth ventricle subarachnoid space/pontine cistern
Lateral apertures (Luschka) fourth ventricle subarachnoid space/cisterna magna

Each ventricle contains a choroid plexus that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) used to bathe and cushion the brain and spinal cord within their bony confines. The interventricular foramen (aka the foramen of Monro) joins the lateral ventricles of the brain with the anterior third ventricle. ... The mesencephalic duct, also known as the aqueduct of Sylvius or the cerebral aqueduct, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is within the mesencephalon (or midbrain) and connects the third ventricle in the diencephalon to the fourth ventricle, which is between the pons and cerebellum. ... The Median Aperture of the brain (apertura medialis ventriculi quarte) or Foramen of Magendie is an opening in the hollow nerve tube, connecting the 4th ventricle of the brain with the subarachnoid space The median aperture along with the paired lateral apertures (foramina of Luschka) are the primary routes for... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that contain the brain. ... The Pontine cistern is a considerable space on the ventral aspect of the pons. ... The two lateral apertures (or foramina of Luschka), along with the median aperture, comprise the three openings in the roof of the fourth ventricle. ... The cisterna magna (or cerebellomedullary cistern) is a large cistern between the cerebellum and medulla. ... The choroid plexus is the area on the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ...


==Ventricles

== == == 'There are four cerebral ventricles: the paired lateral ventricles, and midline the third and fourth ventricles. The two lateral ventricles, located within the cerebrum, are relatively large and C-shaped, roughly wrapping around the dorsal aspects of the basal ganglia. It is in the lateral ventricles of the embryo that the successive generation of neurons gives rise to the 6-layered structure of the neocortex, constructed from the inside out during development. Each lateral ventricle extends into the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes via the frontal (anterior), temporal (inferior), and occipital (posterior) horns, respectively. For other articles about other subjects named brain see brain (disambiguation). ... The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... The neocortex (Latin for new bark or new rind) is a part of the brain of mammals. ... The frontal lobe is an area in the brains of vertebrates. ... The temporal lobe is part of the cerebrum. ... The word occipital refers to several areas of the human body in the occiput, the rear of the skull: Occipital bun Occipital lobe Occipital bone Lesser occipital nerve Greater occipital nerve This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same...


The lateral ventricles both communicate via the interventricular foramina with the third ventricle, found centrally within the diencephalon. The third ventricle communicates via the cerebral aqueduct, located within the midbrain, with the fourth ventricle, found within the hindbrain. The three foramina to the subarachnoid space are found here, permitting cerebrospinal fluid produced in the ventricles to surround the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex. The fourth ventricle is also continuous with the central canal, allowing CSF to bathe the inside surface of the spinal cord as well' == == == == The interventricular foramen (aka the foramen of Monro) joins the lateral ventricles of the brain with the anterior third ventricle. ... The diencephalon is the region of the brain that includes the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. ... The mesencephalic duct, also known as the aqueduct of Silvius or the cerebral aqueduct, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is within the mesencephalon (or midbrain) and connects the third ventricle in the thalamus (or diencephalon) to the fourth ventricle, which is between the pons and cerebellum. ... In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain) is the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. ... Hindbrain has been used to describe several structures found in the brains of vertebrates. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that contain the brain. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ...


Flow of cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by modified ependymal cells of the choroid plexus found in all components of the ventricular system except for the cerebral aqueduct and the occipital and frontal horns of the lateral ventricles. CSF flows from the lateral ventricles via the foramina of Monro into the third ventricle, and then the fourth ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct in the brainstem. From there it can pass into the central canal of the spinal cord or into the cisterns of the subarachnoid space via three small foramina: the central foramen of Magendie and the two lateral foramina of Luschka. Neuroglia cells of the brain shown by Golgis method. ... The choroid plexus is the area on the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. ... The mesencephalic duct, also known as the aqueduct of Sylvius or the cerebral aqueduct, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is within the mesencephalon (or midbrain) and connects the third ventricle in the diencephalon to the fourth ventricle, which is between the pons and cerebellum. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... ... The two lateral apertures (or foramina of Luschka), along with the median aperture, comprise the three openings in the roof of the fourth ventricle. ...


The fluid then flows around the superior sagittal sinus to be reabsorbed via the arachnoid villi into the venous system. CSF within the spinal cord can flow all the way down to the lumbar cistern at the end of the cord around the cauda equina where lumbar punctures are performed. Arachnoid granulations (and arachnoid villi) are small protrusions of the arachnoid (the thin second layer covering the brain) through the dura (the thick outer layer). ... The cauda equina is a structure within the lower end of the spinal column, that consists of nerve roots and rootlets from above. ... A patient undergoes a lumbar puncture at the hands of a neurologist. ...


The aqueduct between the third and fourth ventricles is very small, as are the foramina, which means that they can be easily blocked, causing high pressure in the lateral ventricles. This is a common cause of hydrocephalus--otherwise known as water in the brain--and is an extremely serious condition due to both the damage caused by the pressure as well as nature of whatever caused the block (possibly a tumour or inflammatory swelling). Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ...


Protection of the brain

The brain and spinal cord are covered by a series of tough membranes called meninges, which protect these organs from rubbing against the bones of the skull and spine. The cerebrospinal fluid within the skull and spine is found between the pia mater and the arachnoid meninges and provides further cushioning. The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ... It has been suggested that temporal fenestra be merged into this article or section. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... [www. ...


Role in disease

Diseases of the ventricular system include abnormal enlargement (hydrocephalus) and inflammation of the CSF spaces (meningitis, ventriculitis) caused by infection or introduction of blood following trauma or hemorrhage. Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Interestingly, scientific study of CAT scans of the ventricles in the late 1970s revolutionized the study of mental illness. Researchers found that patients with schizophrenia had enlarged ventricles compared to healthy subjects. This became the first "evidence" that mental illness was biological in origin and led to a reinvigoration of the study of such conditions via modern scientific techniques. Whether the enlargement of the ventricles is a cause or a result of schizophrenia has not yet been ascertained, however. Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... A cerebral hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ... A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain, i. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Embryology

The structures of the ventricular system are embryologically derived from the centre of the neural tube (the neural canal). Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. ... In the developing vertebrate nervous system, the neural tube is the precursor of the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord. ...


Additional images

External links

References

  • Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Hall WC, Lamantia AS, McNamara JO, Williams SM, Neuroscience (third edition). Sinauer Associates Inc, July 2004. ISBN 0-87893-725-0
  • Edgley S et al, Neuroanatomy from the Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge.

  Results from FactBites:
 
ventricular system: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1561 words)
The ventricular system is a set of structures in the brain continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by modified ependymal cells of the choroid plexus found in all components of the ventricular system except for the cerebral aqueduct and the occipital and frontal horns of the lateral ventricles.
The structures of the ventricular system are embryologically derived from the centre of the neural tube (the neural canal).
Ventricular Rhythm Disturbances (527 words)
Ventricular impulses may retrogradely block in the AV node, and the atria may be dissociated, or a variable ventriculoatrial response may be noted.
Ventricular arrhythmias occur in a wide variety of patients, ranging from the asymptomatic patient with an occasional ectopic (premature) ventricular complexes (PVCs) to the patient with malignant ventricular tachycardia associated with severely compromised left ventricular function.
Ventricular arrhythmias in certain clinical situations are known to be associated with sudden death, and the suppression of such arrhythmias decreases the incidence of sudden death.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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