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Encyclopedia > Venom
Wasp sting, with droplet of venom
Wasp sting, with droplet of venom

Venom (literally, poison of animal origin) is any of a variety of toxins used by animals, for the purpose of defense and hunting. Generally, venom is injected while a other toxins are absorbed by ingestion or through the skin. Image File history File links wasp stinger closeup, venom droplet Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 05:05, Jan 16, 2005 (UTC) This image is now on commons at commons:Image:Waspstinger1658-2. ... Image File history File links wasp stinger closeup, venom droplet Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 05:05, Jan 16, 2005 (UTC) This image is now on commons at commons:Image:Waspstinger1658-2. ... Suborder Apocrita See text for explanation. ... It has been suggested that sting (biology) be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Animalia redirects here. ... “Hunter” redirects here. ...


The animals most widely known to use venom are snakes, some species of which inject venom into their prey through hollow fangs; spiders and centipedes, which also inject venom through fangs; scorpions and stinging insects, which inject venom with a sting (which is a modified egg-laying device - the ovipositor). There are also many caterpillars that have defensive venom glands associated with specialized bristles on the body, known as urticating hairs, some of which can be lethal to humans (e.g., the Lonomia moth). Venom is also found in other reptiles besides snakes such as the gila monster, and mexican beaded lizard. Other insects, such as true bugs [1], also produce venom. However, venom can also be found in some fish, such as the cartilaginous fishes: stingrays, sharks, and chimaeras and the teleost fishes, which include: monognathus eels, catfishes, stonefishes and waspfishes, scorpionfishes and lionfishes, gurnard perches, rabbitfishes, surgeonfishes, scats, stargazers, weevers, carangids, saber-toothed blenny, and toadfish. In fact, recent studies have shown that there are more venomous ray-finned fishes than all other venomous vertebrates combined. Additionally, there are many other venomous animals, including jellyfishes, cone snails, bees, wasps, ants. Some mammals are also venomous, including solenodons, shrews, the slow loris, and the male platypus. The Box jellyfish is widely considered the most venomous creature in the world.[2] blue: sea snakes, black: land snakes Superfamilies and Families Henophidia Aniliidae Anomochilidae Boidae Bolyeriidae Cylindrophiidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Uropeltidae Xenopeltidae Typhlopoidea Anomalepididae Leptotyphlopidae Typhlopidae Xenophidia Acrochordidae Atractaspididae Colubridae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Viperidae A snake is a scaly, limbless, elongate reptile from the order Squamata. ... The visible teeth of a smile. ... Families Suborder Mesothelae     Liphistiidae (primitive burrowing spiders) Suborder Mygalomorphae     Atypidae (atypical tarantula)     Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider)     Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas)     Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula)     Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula)     Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider)     Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider)     Theraphosidae (tarantula) Suborder Araneomorphae     Hypochilidae (lampshade spider)     Filistatidae (crevice weaver)     Sicariidae (recluse spider)     Scytodidae (spitting... Orders and Families See text Centipedess (Class Chilopoda) are fast-moving venomous, predatory, terrestrial arthropods that have long bodies and many jointed legs. ... Superfamilies Pseudochactoidea Buthoidea Chaeriloidea Chactoidea Iuroidea Scorpionoidea See classification for families. ... {{Taxobox | color = pink | name = Insects | fossil_range = Carboniferous - Recent | image = European honey bee extracts nectar. ... The ovipositor is an organ used by some of the arthropods for oviposition, i. ... Caterpillar of the Emperor Gum Moth A caterpillar is the larval form of a lepidopteran (a member of the insect order comprised of butterflies and moths). ... Urtication, or flogging with nettles, is the process of deliberately applying stinging nettles to the skin in order to provoke inflammation or rash. ... Species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 many others The genus Lonomia is a moderate-sized group of fairly cryptic saturniid moths from South America, famous not for the adults, but for their amazingly venomous caterpillars, which are responsible for a few deaths each year, especially in southern Brazil, and the subject... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact title. ... Binomial name Heloderma horridum Wiegmann, 1829 The beaded lizard or Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) is found in Mexico and the southern United States. ... Suborders Archaeorrhyncha Clypeorrhyncha Prosorrhyncha Sternorrhyncha Hemiptera is a large, cosmopolitan order of insects, comprising some 67,500 known species in three suborders. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... For other uses, see Stingray (disambiguation). ... Orders see text Sharks are a group (superorder Selachimorpha) of fish, with a full cartilaginous skeleton, a streamlined body plan with between 5 and 7 gill slits along the sides (most often) or side of the head (the first modified slit is behind the eye and called a spiracle), dermal... Families See text for families, genera and species. ... Superorders Osteoglossomorpha Elopomorpha Clupeomorpha Ostariophysi Protacanthopterygii Sternopterygii Cyclosquamata Scopelomorpha Lampridiomorpha Polymyxiomorpha Paracanthopterygii Polymyxiomorpha Acanthopterygii Teleostei is one of three infraclasses in class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes. ... Species See text. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Synanceia verrucosa Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Image:Sbongebob. ... Genera (many) The scorpionfishes or rockfishes are a family (Scorpaenidae) of mostly marine fish that includes many of the worlds most venomous species. ... Lionfish in Red Sea near Hurghada Lionfish, Peleliu, Palau Lionfish at the Dallas World Aquarium A Lionfish is any of several species of venomous marine fish in the genera Pterois, Parapterois, Brachypterois, Ebosia or Dendrochirus, of the family Scorpaenidae. ... Species See text. ... Genera Acanthurus Ctenochaetus Naso Paracanthurus Prionurus Zebrasoma The Acanthuridae are a family of ray-finned fish that are found in the tropics waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans, especially in association with coral reefs. ... Genera Scatophagus Selenotoca See text for species. ... Genera Astroscopus Genyagnus Gnathagnus Ichthyscopus Kathetostoma Pleuroscopus Selenoscopus Uranoscopus Xenocephalus See text for species. ... Genera Trachinus Echiichtys See text for species. ... Carangidae is a family of fishes which includes the Pompanos and Jacks Pilot fish - Naucrates ductor See also Oily fish Categories: Fish stubs ... Binomial name Aspidontus taeniatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1834 The sabre-toothed blenny, Aspidontus taeniatus, is a species of blenny that imitates the dance of a similarly colored species of cleaner wrasse. ... Genera Subfamily Batrachoidinae Amphichthys Austrobatrachus Barchatus Batrichthys Batrachoides Batrachomoeus Chatrabus Halobatrachus Halophryne Opsanus Perulibatrachus Riekertia Sanopus Tharbacus Triathalassothia Subfamily Porichthyinae Aphos Porichthys Subfamily Thalassophryninae Daector Thalassophryne The toadfish are a type of ray-finned fish often found on the sand and mud bottoms of coastal waters worldwide, notable for somewhat... Classes and Clades See below Male and female Superb Fairy-wren Vertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata (within the phylum Chordata), specifically, those chordates with backbones or spinal columns. ... This article is about jellyfish, the sea creatures. ... Genera Asprella Chelyconus Conus Floraconus Leptoconus The cone snails or cone shells (Conidae) are marine snails found in coral reefs. ... Families Andrenidae Anthophoridae Apidae Colletidae Ctenoplectridae Halictidae Heterogynaidae Megachilidae Melittidae Oxaeidae Sphecidae Stenotritidae This article is about the insect. ... Families See text. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Species Solenodon [Atopogale] cubanus Solenodon paradoxus The family Solenodontidae are nocturnal, burrowing, insectivorous mammals. ... This article is about the animal; see also The Taming of the Shrew for the use of this term to describe a person. ... Species Nycticebus coucang Nycticebus bengalensis Nycticebus pygmaeus The slow lorises are three species of loris and are classified as the genus Nycticebus. ... Binomial name Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Shaw, 1799) Platypus range (indicated by darker shading)[3] The Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is a semi-aquatic mammal endemic to eastern Australia and Tasmania. ... Families see text Jellyfish net enclosure at Ellis Beach, Queensland Box jellyfish are water-dwelling invertebrates belonging to the class Cubozoa, named for their cube-shaped medusae. ...


Because they are tasked to defend their hives and food stores, bees synthesize and employ an acidic venom (apitoxin) to cause pain in those that they sting, whereas wasps use a chemically different venom designed to paralyze prey, so it can be stored alive in the food chambers of their young. The use of venom is much more widespread than just these examples, of course. Apitoxin, or honey bee venom, is a bitter colorless liquid. ...


It is important to note the difference between organisms that are "venomous" and "poisonous", two commonly confused terms with regards to plant and animal life. Venomous, as stated above, refers to animals that inject venom into their prey or as a self-defence mechanism. Poisonous, on the other hand, describes plants or animals that are harmful when consumed or touched. One species of bird, the hooded pitohui, although not venomous, is poisonous, secreting a neurotoxin on to its skin and feathers. The slow loris, a primate, blurs the boundary between poisonous and venomous; it has poison secreting patches on the inside of its elbows which it is believed to smear on its young to prevent them from being eaten. However, it will also lick these patches, giving it a venomous bite. This article is about the dangerous substance. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Animalia redirects here. ... Prey can refer to: Look up Prey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A prey animal eaten by a predator in an act called predation. ... Binomial name Pitohui dichrous (Bonaparte, 1850) The Hooded Pitohui (Pitohui dichrous) is a jay-sized endemic New Guinean songbird with black and orange coloration. ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins and ion channels. ... Species Nycticebus coucang Nycticebus bengalensis Nycticebus pygmaeus The slow lorises are three species of loris and are classified as the genus Nycticebus. ...


Snake venom

Main article: Snake venom

Snake venom is produced by glands below the eye and delivered to the victim through tubular or channeled fangs. Snake poisons contain a variety of peptide toxins. Snakes use their venom principally for hunting, though the threat of being bitten serves also as a defense. Snake bites cause a variety of symptoms including pain, swelling, tissue damage, low blood pressure, convulsions, and hemorrhaging (varying by the species of snake). // Snake venom is a highly modified saliva that is produced by special glands. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ...


Doctors treat victims of a venomous bite with antivenin, which is created by dosing an animal such as a sheep, horse, goat, or rabbit with a small amount of the targeted venom. The immune system of the subject animal responds to the dose, producing antibodies against the venom's active molecule, which can then be harvested from the animal's blood and applied to treat envenomation in others. This treatment may be effective for a given person only a limited number of times, however, as that person will ultimately develop antibodies to neutralize the foreign animal antibodies injected into him. Even if that person doesn't suffer a serious allergic reaction to the antivenin, his own immune system can destroy the antivenin before the antivenin can destroy the venom. Though most people never require one treatment of antivenin in their lifetime, let alone several, people who work with snakes or other venomous animals may. Fortunately, these people often develop antibodies of their own against the venom of whatever animals they handle, and thereby are immune without assistance of exogenous antibodies. Antivenin (or antivenom, or antivenene) is a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


See also

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... Schmidt Sting Pain Index or The Justin O. Schmidt Pain Index was created by Justin O. Schmidt, an entomologist. ... Reptiles (e. ... Venomous fish are fish that produce venom. ... The Big Four are the venomous snake species considered to be Indias most dangerous, as together they account for nearly all Indian snakebite fatalities. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...

References

Leo Smith and Ward C. Wheeler. 2006. Venom evolution widespread in fishes: A phylogenetic road map for the bioprospecting of piscine venoms. Journal of Heredity 97(3): 206-217.


  Results from FactBites:
 
SpiderFan.org - Characters : Venom (1485 words)
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