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Encyclopedia > Venice, Italy
Comune di Venezia
Coat of arms of Comune di Venezia
Municipal coat of arms
Country Flag of Italy Italy
Region Veneto
Province Venice (VE)
Mayor Massimo Cacciari (since April 18, 2005)
Elevation 0 m
Area 412 km²
Population
 - Total (as of January 1, 2005) 271.251
 - Density 646/km²
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 45°26′N, 12°19′E
Gentilic Veneziani
Dialing code 041
Postal code 30100
Frazioni Chirignago, Favaro Veneto, Mestre, Marghera, Murano, Burano, Giudecca, Lido, Zelarino
Patron St. Mark the Evangelist
 - Day April 25
Website: www.comune.venezia.it
Venice and its Lagoon a
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Venice in summer, with the Rialto Bridge in the background.

State Party Flag of Italy Italy
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi
Identification #394
Regionb Europe and North America

Inscription History
Formal Inscription 1987
11th Session

a Name as officially inscribed on the World Heritage List
b As classified officially by UNESCO
Image File history File links Venezia-Stemma. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Veneto or Venetia is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... Venice (It. ... Massimo Cacciari (June 5, 1944) is an Italian philosopher and politician, currently mayor of Venice. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Here are a list of area codes in Italy. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... Watchtower of Mestre. ... A shop with boats, Murano Murano is usually described as an island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an archipelago of islands linked by bridges. ... Colourfully painted houses on Burano. ... The Giudecca is an island in the Venetian Lagoon lying immediately south of the central islands, from which it is separated by the Giudecca Canal. ... Lido and the Venetian Lagoon. ... Mark the Evangelist (מרקוס, Greek: Μάρκος) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark and a companion of Peter. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 256 KB) Summary Venice in 2004 summer, photo taken by my brother Martti Mustonen Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Venice (Venetian: Venezsia, Italian: Venezia, Latin: Venetia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). The city is included with Padua (Padova) in the Padua-Venice Metropolitan Area (population 1,600,000). Venice's nicknames include "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Bridges", and "The City of Light." A business sign in Venetian Venet or Venetian is a Romance language spoken by over ten million people, mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Capital City is a 60-minute television show produced by Euston Films that ran for 13 episodes in 1989 on ITV. This drama focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Veneto or Venetia is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Padua, Italy, (It. ...


The city stretches across numerous small islands in the marshy Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic Sea in northeast Italy. The saltwater lagoon stretches along the shoreline between the mouths of the Po (south) and the Piave (north) Rivers. The population estimate of 272,000 inhabitants includes the population of the whole Comune of Venezia; around 62,000 in the historic city of Venice (Centro storico); 176,000 in Terraferma (literally firm land, the areas outside the lagoon), mostly in the large frazione of Mestre and Marghera; and 31,000 live on other islands in the lagoon. The Venetian Lagoon The Venetian Lagoon or the Venetian Riviera is a lagoon off the Adriatic Sea in which the city of Venice is situated. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... Piave (from Latin Plavis ) is a river in north Italy. ... In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic administrative unit of both provinces and regions, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... Watchtower of Mestre. ...


The Venetian Republic was a major sea power and a staging area for the Crusades, as well as a very important center of commerce (especially the spice trade) and art in the Renaissance. The Republic of Venice was a city-state in Venetia in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. ... USMC convoys staging prior to going north into Iraq in March of 2004 A staging area is a temporary location where military units, aircraft and warships plus their matériel are assembled ahead of an attack or invasion. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Spices at the central market of Agadir, Morocco in May 2005 The spice trade has been of major economic importance throughout human history and it particularly helped spur the Age of Exploration. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...

Contents

History

Main article: Republic of Venice

Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Italian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789-1797 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 727 (697)  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000. ...

Origins and History

Location of Venice in Italy and the Venetian Lagoon.

While there are no historical records that deal directly with the origins of Venice, the available evidence has led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice comprised refugees from Roman cities such as Padua, Aquileia, Altino and Concordia who were fleeing successive waves of barbarian invasions[1]. Starting in 166-168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main center in the area, the current Oderzo. The Roman defenses were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years later, by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring was that of the Lombards in 568. This left the Eastern Roman Empire, a small strip of coast in current Veneto, and the main administrative and religious entities were therefore transferred to this remaining dominion. New ports were built, including those at Malamocco and Torcello in the Venetian lagoon. The Byzantine domination of central and northern Italy was largely eliminated by the conquest of the Exarchate of Ravenna in 751 by Aistulf. During this period, the seat of the local Byzantine governor (the "duke", later "doge") was located in Malamocco. Settlement across the islands in the lagoon probably increased in correspondence with the Lombard conquest of the Byzantine territories. In 775-776, the bishopric seat of Olivolo (Helipolis) was created. During the reign of duke Agnello Particiaco (811-827) the ducal seat was moved from Malamocco to the highly protected Rialto (Rivoalto, "High Shore") island, the current location of Venice. The monastery of St. Zachary and the first ducal palace and basilica of St. Mark, as well as a walled defence (civitatis murus) between Olivolo and Rialto were subsequently built here. In 828, the new city's prestige was raised by the theft of the relics of St. Mark the Evangelist from Alexandria, which were placed in the new basilica. The patriarchal seat was also moved to Rialto. As the community continued to develop and as Byzantine power waned, an increasingly anti-Eastern character emerged, leading to the growth of autonomy and eventual independence. Download high resolution version (800x777, 246 KB)A map of the Venetian Lagoon (Laguna Veneta) and the surrounding cities of Venice, Murano, and Lido. ... Download high resolution version (800x777, 246 KB)A map of the Venetian Lagoon (Laguna Veneta) and the surrounding cities of Venice, Murano, and Lido. ... Oderzo is a town in the province of Treviso, Veneto, Italy. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... Agnello Participazio (Angelo Particiaco) was the tenth (traditional) or eighth (historical) Doge of Venice from 811 to 827. ...


Expansion

From the ninth to the twelfth century Venice developed into a city state (an Italian thalassocracy or Repubblica Marinara, the other three being Genoa, Pisa, and Amalfi). Its strategic position at the head of the Adriatic made Venetian naval and commercial power almost invulnerable. The city became a flourishing trade center between Western Europe and the rest of the world (especially the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic world). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (950x1267, 1216 KB)St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (950x1267, 1216 KB)St. ... Piazza San Marco with the Basilica, by Canaletto, 1730, looking just as it does today Plan of the Piazza in 1831 Piazza San Marco, often known in English as St Marks Square, is the principal square of Venice. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. ... The term thalassocracy (from the Greek Θαλασσο-κρατία) refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities. ... The Repubbliche Marinare ( ) is the collectie name of a number of important city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia in the Middle Ages. ... Genoa (Genova [] in Italian - Zena [] in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... This article discusses the Italian city. ... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...


In the 12th century the foundations of Venice's power were laid: the Venetian Arsenal was under construction in 1104; Venice wrested control of the Brenner pass from Verona in 1178, opening a lifeline to silver from Germany; the last autocratic doge, Vitale Michiele, died in 1172. The Porta Magna at the Venetian Arsenal The Venetian Arsenal (Italian: Arsenale di Venezia) is a shipyard and naval depot that played a leading role in Venetian empire-building. ... The Brenner Pass (Italian Passo del Brennero) is a mountain pass that creates a link through the Tyrolean Alps along the current border between the nations of Austria and Italy, one of the principal passes of the Alps. ... Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. ...


The Republic of Venice seized the eastern shores of the Adriatic before 1200, mostly for commercial reasons, because pirates based there were a menace to trade. The Doge already carried the titles of Duke of Dalmatia and Duke of Istria. Later mainland possessions, which extended across Lake Garda as far west as the Adda River, were known as "Terraferma", and were acquired partly as a buffer against belligerent neighbours, partly to guarantee Alpine trade routes, and partly to ensure the supply of mainland wheat, on which the city depended. In building its maritime commercial empire, the Republic acquired control of most of the islands in the Aegean, including Cyprus and Crete, and became a major power-broker in the Near East. By the standards of the time, Venice's stewardship of its mainland territories was relatively enlightened and the citizens of such towns as Bergamo, Brescia, and Verona rallied to the defence of Venetian sovereignty when it was threatened by invaders. Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Italian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789-1797 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 727 (697)  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Map of Istria Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Italian: Istria) is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Lake Garda (Italian Lago di Garda or Benaco) is the largest lake in Italy. ... Adda (anc. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ... Small street (via della Noca) leading to città alta. ... Country Italy Region Lombardy Province Brescia (BS) Mayor Paolo Corsini (since June 10, 2003) Elevation 150 m Area 90 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 192,165  - Density 2,087/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Bresciani Dialing code 030 Postal code 25100 Frazioni Fornaci, Sant... This page is about the city in Italy; for other uses, see Verona (disambiguation). ...

These Horses of Saint Mark are a replica of the Triumphal Quadriga captured in Constantinople in 1204 and carried to Venice as a trophy
These Horses of Saint Mark are a replica of the Triumphal Quadriga captured in Constantinople in 1204 and carried to Venice as a trophy

Venice became an imperial power following the Fourth Crusade, which (under Venetian control and blackmail) seized Constantinople in 1204 and established the Latin Empire; Venice herself carved out a sphere of influence known as the Duchy of the Archipelago. Unfortunately, this seizure of Constantinople would ultimately prove as decisive a factor in ending the Byzantine Empire as the loss of the Anatolian themes after Manzikert. Though the Byzantines recovered control of the ravaged city a half century later, the Byzantine Empire was effectively powerless, and existed as a ghost of its old self until Sultan Mehmet The Conqueror took the city in 1453. Considerable Byzantine plunder was brought back to Venice, including the Winged Lion of St. Mark, symbol of Venice. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... The original Horses of Saint Mark The Triumphal Quadriga or Horses of Saint Mark is a set of Roman or Greek bronze statues of four horses, originally part of a monument depicting a quadriga. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... The Duchy of Naxos and states in the Morea, carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Republic of Venices Duchy of the Archipelago (also called Egeon Pelagos in Greek) was a maritime state created in the Cyclades islands of... Map of Constantinople. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The themata in 950. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 40,000 [1] ~ 15,000 [2] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or The Battle of Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkish forces led by Alp... Mehmed II Mehmed II, also known as Muhammed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; also known as el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Mark the Evangelist (מרקוס, Greek: Μάρκος) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark and a companion of Peter. ...


Situated on the Adriatic Sea, Venice traded with the Byzantine Empire and the Muslem world extensively. During the late thirteenth century, Venice was the most prosperous city in all of Europe. At the peak of its power and wealth, it had 36,000 sailors operating 3,300 ships, dominating Mediterranean commerce. During this time, Venice's leading families vied with each other to build the grandest palaces and support the work of the greatest and most talented artists. The city was governed by the Great Council, which was made up of members of the most influential families in Venice. The Great Council appointed all public officials and elected a Senate of 200 to 300 individuals. The Senate then chose the Council of Ten, a secretive group which held the utmost power in the administration of the city. One member of the great council was elected "doge", or duke, the ceremonial head of the city.


The Venetian governmental structure was similar in some ways to the republican system of ancient Rome, with an elected executive power (the Doge), a senate-like assembly of nobles, and a mass of citizens with limited political power, who originally had the power to grant or withhold their approval of each newly elected Doge. Church and various private properties were tied to military service, though there was no knight tenure within the city itself. The Cavalieri di San Marco was the only order of chivalry ever instituted in Venice, and no citizen could accept or join a foreign order without the government’s consent. Venice remained a republic throughout its independent period and politics and the military were kept completely separate, except when on occasion the Doge personally led the military. War was regarded as a continuation of commerce by other means (hence, the city's early production of large numbers of mercenaries for service elsewhere, and later its reliance on foreign mercenaries when the ruling class was preoccupied with commerce). Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ...

Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo.
Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo.

The chief executive was the Doge (duke), who, theoretically, held his elective office for life. In practice, a number of Doges were forced by pressure from their oligarchical peers to resign the office and retire into monastic seclusion when they were felt to have been discredited by perceived political failure. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1144x1756, 2918 KB) Description Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo in Venice Photo by Evgenia Kononova, 29 April 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1144x1756, 2918 KB) Description Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo in Venice Photo by Evgenia Kononova, 29 April 2004. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century Doges Palace Complex For some thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Republic of Venice was the Doge (Duke). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... Monastery of St. ...

Though the people of Venice generally remained orthodox Roman Catholics, the state of Venice was notable for its freedom from religious fanaticism and it enacted not a single execution for religious heresy during the Counter-Reformation. This apparent lack of zeal is contributed to Venice's frequent conflicts with the Papacy. Venice was threatened with the interdict on a number of occasions and twice suffered its imposition. The second, most famous, occasion was on April 27, 1509, by order of Pope Julius II (see League of Cambrai). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1756x1144, 3011 KB) Description View to San Giorgio Maggiore island in Venice from St Marks Campanile. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1756x1144, 3011 KB) Description View to San Giorgio Maggiore island in Venice from St Marks Campanile. ... San Giorgio Maggiore. ... St Marks Campanile is the bell tower of St Marks Basilica in Venice, located in the square (piazza) of the same name. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... For other meanings see Interdict The word interdict usually refers to an ecclesiastical penalty in the Roman Catholic Church. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... The League of Cambrai was a league against Venice formed on December 10, 1508 under the leadership of Pope Julius II. It included, besides the Pope, Louis XII of France, Emperor Maximilian I, and Ferdinand of Aragon. ...


Venetian ambassadors sent home still-extant secret reports of the politics and rumours of European courts, providing fascinating information to modern historians.


Venice began to lose its position as a center of international trade after the end of the Renaissance. However, the Venetian empire was a major exporter of agricultural products and, until the mid eighteenth-century, was a manufacturing center. The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Manufacturing, a branch of industry, is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ...

A map of the historical heart of Venice.
A map of the historical heart of Venice.

Download high resolution version (1220x900, 673 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1220x900, 673 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Modern Venice

After 1070 years, the Republic lost its independence when Napoleon Bonaparte on May 12, 1797, conquered Venice during the First Coalition. The French conqueror brought to an end the most fascinating century of its history: It was during the Settecento (1700s) that Venice became perhaps the most elegant and refined city in Europe, greatly influencing art, architecture, and literature. Napoleon was seen as something of a liberator by the city's Jewish population, although it can be argued they lived with less restrictions in Venice. He removed the gates of the Ghetto and ended the restrictions on when and where Jews could live and travel in the city. Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The name First Coalition (1793–1797) designates the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... Settecento is the Italian word for seven hundred, and is the standard Italian term for the 18th century (not the 17th century, but the years beginning with 17). ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... An aerial shot of Venices Jewish ghetto. ...


Venice became Austrian territory when Napoleon signed the Treaty of Campo Formio on October 12, 1797. The Austrians took control of the city on January 18, 1798. It was taken from Austria by the Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 and became part of Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy, but was returned to Austria following Napoleon's defeat in 1814, when it became part of the Austrian-held Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia. In 1848-1849 a revolt briefly reestablished the Venetian Republic. In 1866, following the Seven Weeks War, Venice, along with the rest of Venetia, became part of Italy. The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Treaty of Pressburg was signed on December 26, 1805 between France and Austria as a consequence of the Austrian defeats by France at Ulm (September 25 - October 20) and Austerlitz (December 2). ... The flag of the Kingdom of Italy was a rectangular version of the flag of the Italian Republic, with Napoleons emblem on the green field. ... The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Italian: ; German: ) (1815 - 1866) was established after the defeat of Napoleon, according to the decisions of the Congress of Vienna (9 June 1815). ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead...


After 1797, the city fell into a serious decline, with many of the old palaces and other buildings abandoned and falling into disrepair, although the Lido became a popular beach resort in the late 19th centuries. Lido and the Venetian Lagoon. ...


Military and naval affairs

Several gondolas docked in Venice.
Several gondolas docked in Venice.
Gondola on Grand Canal beside Rialto Bridge.

By 1303, crossbow practice had become compulsory in the city, with citizens training in groups. As weapons became more expensive and complex to operate, professional soldiers were assigned to help work merchant sailing ships and as rowers in galleys. The company of "Noble Bowmen" was recruited in the later 14th century from among the younger aristocracy and served aboard both war-galleys and as armed merchantmen, with the privilege of sharing the captain's cabin. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 646 KB) photo by Radomil 26. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 646 KB) photo by Radomil 26. ... Gondola in Venice with Daniela Palacios. ... Gondola in Venice with Daniela Palacios. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is hereditary, and split between a small number of families. ...


Though Venice was famous for its navy, its army was equally effective. In the 13th century, most Italian city states already were hiring mercenaries, but Venetian troops were still recruited from the lagoon, plus feudal levies from Dalmatia and Istria. In times of emergency, all males between seventeen and sixty years were registered and their weapons were surveyed, with those called to actually fight being organized into companies of twelve. The register of 1338 estimated that 30,000 Venetian men were capable of bearing arms; many of these were skilled crossbowmen. As in other Italian cities, aristocrats and other wealthy men were cavalrymen while the city's conscripts fought as infantry. The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A mercenary, is a person who takes part in an armed conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that... French Republican Guard - May 8, 2005 celebrations Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ...


By 1450, more than 3,000 Venetian merchant ships were in operation, and most of these could be converted when necessary into either warships or transports. The government required each merchant ship to carry a specified number of weapons (mostly crossbows and javelins) and armor; merchant passengers were also expected to be armed and to fight when necessary. A reserve of some 25 (later 100) war-galleys was maintained in the Arsenal. Galley slaves did not exist in medieval Venice, the oarsmen coming from the city itself or from its possessions, especially Dalmatia. Those from the city were chosen by lot from each parish, their families being supported by the remainder of the parish while the rowers were away. Debtors generally worked off their obligations rowing the galleys. Rowing skills were encouraged through races and regattas. 15th century French soldier wearing a hauberk, armed with a crossbow/arbalest and resting on a pavise. ... Reconstruction of a post-Marian pilum A Roman coin showing Antoninianus of Carinus holding pilum and globe. ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... The Porta Magna at the Venetian Arsenal The Venetian Arsenal (Italian: Arsenale di Venezia) is a shipyard and naval depot that played a leading role in Venetian empire-building. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... A regatta is a boat race or series of boat races. ...


Early in the 15th century, as new mainland territories were expanded, the first standing army was organized, consisting of condottieri on contract. In its alliance with Florence in 1426, Venice agreed to supply 8,000 cavalry and 3,000 infantry in time of war, and 3,000 and 1,000 in peacetime. Later in that century, uniforms were adopted that featured red-and-white stripes, and a system of honors and pensions developed. Throughout the 15th century, Venetian land forces were almost always on the offensive and were regarded as the most effective in Italy, largely because of the tradition of all classes carrying arms in defense of the city and official encouragement of general military training. Condottieri (singular condottiere or condottiero) were mercenary leaders employed by Italian city-states from the late Middle Ages until the mid-sixteenth century. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ...


The command structure in the army was different from that in the fleet. By ancient law, no nobleman could command more than twenty-five men (to prevent against sedition by private armies), and while the position of Captain General was introduced in the mid-14th century, he still had to answer to a civilian panel of twenty "wise men". Not only was efficiency not degraded, this policy saved Venice from the military takeovers that other Italian city states so often experienced. A civilian commissioner (not unlike a commissar) accompanied each army to keep an eye on things, especially the mercenaries. The Venetian military tradition also was notably cautious; they were more interested in achieving success with a minimum expense of lives and money than in the pursuit of glory. Sedition is a term of law to refer to covert conduct such as speech and organization that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Commissar is the English translation of an official title (комисса́р) used in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution and in the Soviet Union, as well as some other Communist countries. ...


Transport

Venice is world-famous for its canals. It is built on an archipelago of 122 islands formed by about 150 canals in a shallow lagoon. The islands on which the city is built are connected by about 400 bridges. In the old center, the canals serve the function of roads, and every form of transport is on water or on foot. In the 19th century a causeway to the mainland brought a railway station to Venice, and an automobile causeway and parking lot was added in the 20th century. Beyond these land entrances at the northern edge of the city, transportation within the city remains, as it was in centuries past, entirely on water or on foot. Venice is Europe's largest urban carfree area, unique in Europe in remaining a sizable functioning city in the 21st century entirely without motorcars or trucks. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 752 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Venice ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 752 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Venice ... For other bridges of this name, see Bridge of Sighs (Cambridge) and Bridge of Sighs (Oxford). ... The Bridge of Sighs in Venice at night The Bridge of Sighs or Ponte dei Sospiri is one of many bridges in Venice. ... The Canal du Midi, Toulouse, France Canals are man-made channels for water. ... The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Karl Benzs Velo (vélo means bicycle in French) model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race 2005 MINI Cooper S. An automobile (also motor car or simply car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... Venice (J.H. Crawford) Auto-free zones are also known as car-free zones and pedestrianised zones. ...

Two vaporetti approach each other on the Canale Grande.
Two vaporetti approach each other on the Canale Grande.

The classical Venetian boat is the gondola, although it is now mostly used for tourists, or for weddings, funerals, or other ceremonies. Most Venetians now travel by motorised waterbuses ("vaporetti") which ply regular routes along the major canals and between the city's islands. The city also has many private boats. The only gondolas still in common use by Venetians are the traghetti, foot passenger ferries crossing the Grand Canal at certain points without bridges. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2253 KB)Two vaporetti approaching each other on the Canale Grande, Venice, Italy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2253 KB)Two vaporetti approaching each other on the Canale Grande, Venice, Italy. ... A boat is a watercraft designed to float on, and provide transport over, water. ... A Venetian gondola A gondola is a traditional Venetian rowing boat. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, ca. ... --68. ...


Venice is served by the newly rebuilt Marco Polo International Airport, or Aeroporto di Venezia Marco Polo, named in honor of its famous citizen. The airport is on the mainland and was rebuilt away from the coast so that visitors now need to get a bus to the pier, from which a water taxi or Alilaguna waterbus can be used. Marco Polo Venice Airport (IATA: VCE, ICAO: LIPZ) is an airport located on the Italian mainland near Venice, Italy, in Tessera, a frazione of the commune of Venice nearest to Mestre that, before Fascism, was an autonomous commune. ...

View of Venice from St Mark's Campanile.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4136x1073, 7193 KB) Description View to Venice from St Marks Campanile Photo by Anatoly Terentiev, 28 April 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4136x1073, 7193 KB) Description View to Venice from St Marks Campanile Photo by Anatoly Terentiev, 28 April 2004. ... The Campanile from the west The Campanile from the south St Marks Campanile is the bell tower of St Marks Basilica in Venice, located in the square (piazza) of the same name. ...

Main sights

Grand Canal
Grand Canal
A small canal in Venice (Rio della Verona).
A small canal in Venice (Rio della Verona).
A winter sunset across the Grand Canal from the Rialto Bridge.
A winter sunset across the Grand Canal from the Rialto Bridge.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 771 KB) photo by Radomil 26. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 771 KB) photo by Radomil 26. ... A small canal in Venice, by Jerome Herr. ... A small canal in Venice, by Jerome Herr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 854 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 854 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Sestieri

The sestieri are the primary traditional divisions of Venice. The city is divided into the six districts of Cannaregio, San Polo, Dorsoduro (including the Giudecca), Santa Croce, San Marco (including San Giorgio Maggiore), and Castello (including San Pietro di Castello and Sant'Elena). At the front of the Gondolas that work in the city there is a large piece of metal intended as a likeness of the Doge's hat. On this sit six notches pointing forwards and one pointing backwards. Each of these represent one of the Sestieri (the one which points backwards represents Giudecca). Map of the sestieri, also showing the inland district of Mestre. ... The Cannaregio Canal, the main artery of Cannaregio, seen from the Tre Archi Bridge The Cannaregio Canal, the main artery of Cannaregio, seen from the Grand Canal of Venice Cannaregio is one of the six historic sestieri (districts) of Venice, and the northernmost of the city. ... San Polo is the smallest of the six sestieri of Venice, covering just 86 acres (350,000 m²) along the Grand Canal. ... Dorsoduro is one of the six sestieri of Venice. ... The Giudecca is an island in the Venetian Lagoon lying immediately south of the central islands, from which it is separated by the Giudecca Canal. ... For the basilica in Florence, see Basilica di Santa Croce di Firenze Santa Croce is one of the six sestieri of Venice. ... San Marco is one of the six sestieri of Venice, lying in the heart of the city. ... San Giorgio Maggiore. ... Castello is the largest of the six sestieri of Venice. ... San Pietro di Castello is an island in the Venetian Lagoon, forming part of the Castello sestiere. ... SantElena is an island of Venice. ... A Venetian gondola A gondola is a traditional Venetian rowing boat. ... The Giudecca is an island in the Venetian Lagoon lying immediately south of the central islands, from which it is separated by the Giudecca Canal. ...


Piazzas and campi of Venice

Piazza San Marco with the Basilica, by Canaletto, 1730. ... Campo San Polo Campo di San Polo is the largest campo in Venice after that of San Marco. ...

Palaces and palazzi

Doges Palace. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ca dOro façade overlooking the Grand Canal Ca dOro (correctly the Palazzo Santa Sofia) is one of the most beautiful palazzos on the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy and surely the most famous. ... Ca Rezzonico is a palazzo on the Grand Canal in Venice. ... The Peggy Guggenheim Collection is a small museum on the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy. ... The Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo (also called Palazzo Contarini Minelli dal Bovolo) is a a small palace in Venice, best known for the external spiral staircase with a plethora of arches, known as the Scala Contarini del Bovolo (of the snail). ... The Fondacho dei Turchi, or Fondega dei Turchi, is a 13th century palazzo on the Grand Canal of Venice. ... Palazzo Labia viewed from Cannaregio Canal Palazzo Labia, is a Venetian, Baroque, palazzo built at the beginning of the 18th century. ... The Scuola Grande of San Marco. ...

Churches

San Marco di Venezia, as seen from the Piazza San Marco St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco) is the most famous of the churches of Venice and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ... The Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute (Basilica of St Mary of Health/Salvation), commonly known simply as the Salute, is one of the largest churches of Venice and has the status of a minor basilica. ... San Marco Basilica di San Marco San Bartolomeo San Basso San Beneto Santa Croce degli Armeni (Armenian Catholic) San Fantin San Luca Santa Maria Zobenigo (Santa Maria del Giglio) San Maurizio San Moisè San Salvador San Samuele Santo Stefano San Vidal San Zulian San Polo Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa...

Other buildings

The Accademia di Belle Arti is Venice’s school of art and is uniformly known throughout Venice as the Accademia. ... The Porta Magna at the Venetian Arsenal The Venetian Arsenal (Italian: Arsenale di Venezia) is a shipyard and naval depot that played a leading role in Venetian empire-building. ... Teatro La Fenice (the phoenix) is an opera house in Venice, Italy. ... New York State Theater, Lincoln Center, home of the New York City Opera Bolshoi Theatre. ... St Marks Clocktower undergoing restoration in 2004 St Marks Clock is the clock housed in the St Marks Clocktower, on St Marks Square in Venice, adjoining the Procuratie Vecchie. ...

Bridges and canals

The Rialto Bridge Rialto Bridge The Rialto Bridge (Italian: Ponte di Rialto) The Rialto Bridge (Italian: Ponte di Rialto) spans the Grand Canal in Venice. ... For other bridges of this name, see Bridge of Sighs (Cambridge) and Bridge of Sighs (Oxford). ... The Ponte dellAccademia is one of only three in Venice to span the Grand Canal. ... Ponte degli Scalzi The Ponte degli Scalzi (or Ponte dei Scalzi), literally, bridge of the barefoot, is one of only three in Venice to span the Grand Canal. ...

Surroundings

The Venetian Lagoon The Venetian Lagoon or the Venetian Riviera is a lagoon off the Adriatic Sea in which the city of Venice is situated. ... Colourfully painted houses on Burano. ... Lido and the Venetian Lagoon. ... A shop with boats, Murano Murano is usually described as an island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an archipelago of islands linked by bridges. ... San Michele, nicknamed The Island of the Dead, is the cemetery island of Venice. ... SantErasmo is an island in the Venetian Lagoon lying north of the Lido and north east of Venice. ... View of Saint Lazarus Island. ... San Servolo is an island belonging to Italy in the Venetian Lagoon, to the southeast of San Giorgio Maggiore. ... Torcello is a quiet island at the northern end of the Venetian Lagoon. ... The Giudecca is an island in the Venetian Lagoon lying immediately south of the central islands, from which it is separated by the Giudecca Canal. ...

Venetian Villas

The villas of the Veneto, rural residences for nobles during the Republic, are one of the most interesting aspects of Venetian countryside. City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto is a cluster of works by Andrea Palladio and his disciples which were inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1994 and expanded two years later. ...


They are surrounded by elegant gardens, suitable for fashionable parties of high society. Most of these villas were designed by Palladio, and are now a UNESCO World Heritage site. Illustration from a 1736 English edition of I Quattro Libri dellArchitettura. ... City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto is a cluster of works by Andrea Palladio and his disciples which were inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1994 and expanded two years later. ...


According to the architects, water around the villas was a very important architectural element because it added more brilliance to the façade.


Sinking of Venice

High water in Venice.
Venice and surroundings in false colour, from TERRA satellite. The picture is oriented with North at the top.
Venice and surroundings in false colour, from TERRA satellite. The picture is oriented with North at the top.

The buildings of Venice are constructed on closely spaced wood piles (under water, in the absence of oxygen, wood does not decay) which penetrate alternating layers of clay and sand. Wood for piles was cut in the most western part of today's Slovenia, resulting in the barren land in a region today called Kras, and in two regions of Croatia, Lika and Gorski kotar (resulting in the barren slopes of Velebit). Most of these piles are still intact after centuries of submersion. The foundations rest on the piles, and buildings of brick or stone sit above these footings. The buildings are often threatened by flood tides pushing in from the Adriatic between autumn and early spring. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1965x1512, 1946 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Venice Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1965x1512, 1946 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Venice Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... The tide is the cyclic rising and falling of Earths ocean surface caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the Earth. ... Download high resolution version (981x663, 164 KB)Venice viewed from 438 miles (705 km) by TERRA satellite. ... Download high resolution version (981x663, 164 KB)Venice viewed from 438 miles (705 km) by TERRA satellite. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Look up Pile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... An image of Italian Karst (Monfalcone). ... Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the Plješevica mountain from the northeast. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... The middle part of Velebit Velebit is the largest though not the highest mountain range in Croatia. ... An old brick wall in English bond laid with alternating courses of headers and A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry construction and sized to be layed with one hand using mortar. ... The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... It has been suggested that Theory of tides be merged into this article or section. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Spring is one of the four seasons of temperate zones, the transition from winter into summer. ...


Six hundred years ago, Venetians protected themselves from land-based attacks by diverting all the major rivers flowing into the lagoon and thus preventing sediment from filling the area around the city. This created an ever-deeper lagoon environment.


During the 20th century, when many artesian wells were sunk into the periphery of the lagoon to draw water for local industry, Venice began to subside. It was realized that extraction of the aquifer was the cause. This sinking process has slowed markedly since artesian wells were banned in the 1960s. However, the city is still threatened by more frequent low-level floods (so-called Acqua alta, "high water") that creep to a height of several centimeters over its quays, regularly following certain tides. In many old houses the former staircases used by people to unload goods are now flooded, rendering the former ground floor uninhabitable. Thus, many Venetians resorted to moving up to the upper floors and continuing with their lives. Geological strata giving rise to an Artesian well. ... A road destroyed by subsidence and shear. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ...


Some recent studies have suggested that the city is no longer sinking[citation needed], but this is not yet certain; therefore, a state of alert has not been revoked. In May 2003 the Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi inaugurated the MOSE project (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico), an experimental model for evaluating the performance of inflatable gates; the idea is to lay a series of 79 inflatable pontoons across the sea bed at the three entrances to the lagoon. When tides are predicted to rise above 110 centimetres, the pontoons will be filled with air and block the incoming water from the Adriatic sea. This engineering work is due to be completed by 2011.   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... MOSE Project is a project intented to protect the city of Venice, Italy, against the rise of sea level. ... A pontoon boat, like this small pleasure boat, typically floats and balances by means of two pontoons oriented in the direction of travel. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ...


Some experts say that the best way to protect Venice is to physically lift the City to a greater height above sea level - by pumping water into the soil underneath the city. This way, some hope, it could rise above sea levels, protecting it for hundreds of years, and eventually the MOSE project may not be necessary (it will, controversially, alter the tidal patterns in the lagoon, damaging some wildlife). A further point about the "lifting" system would be that it would be permanent - the MOSE Project is, by its very nature, a temporary system: it is expected to protect Venice for only 100 years.

Typical masks worn during the Carnival of Venice.

Image File history File links Mascaras_carnaval. ... Image File history File links Mascaras_carnaval. ... Example of masks used during the carnival Venice Shop Window (Spring 2002). ...

Art Biennal

The Venice Art Biennal stands as one of the most important art events that have happened in the world. Site in English and Italian


In 1893 headed by the mayor of Venice, Riccardo Selvatico, the Venetian City Council passed a resolution on 19th April to set up an Esposizione biennale artistica nazionale (biennial exhibition of Italian art), to be inaugurated on 22nd April 1894.[1] Following the outbreak of hostilities during the Second World War, the activities of the Biennale were interrupted in September 1942. The last edition of the Art Exhibition took place in 1942 to resume only in 1948. [2] The event has since been held on a regular basis since 1948. In 2007 Mexico made its official debut at the Venice Art Biennal with an exhibition by artist Rafel Lozano-Hemmer. Art News NonstarvingArtists.com


Venice in culture, the arts, and fiction

In the 14th century, many young Venetian men began wearing tight-fitting multicoloured hose, the designs on which indicated the Compagnie della Calza ("Trouser Club") to which they belonged. The Senate passed sumptuary laws, but these merely resulted in changes in fashion in order to circumvent the law. Dull garments were worn over colourful ones, which then were cut to show the hidden colours — which resulted in the wide spread of men's "slashed" fashions in the 15th century. Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuariae leges) were laws that regulated and reinforced social hierarchies and morals through restrictions on clothing, food, and luxury expenditures. ...


During the 16th century, Venice became one of the most important musical centers of Europe, marked by a characteristic style of composition (the Venetian school) and the development of the Venetian polychoral style under composers such as Adrian Willaert, who worked at San Marco. Venice was the early center of music printing; Ottaviano Petrucci began publishing music almost as soon as this technology was available, and his publishing enterprise helped to attract composers from all over Europe, especially from France and Flanders. By the end of the century, Venice was famous for the splendor of its music, as exemplified in the "colossal style" of Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli, which used multiple choruses and instrumental groups. In music history, the Venetian School is a term used to describe the composers working in Venice from about 1550 to around 1610; it also describes the music they produced. ... The Venetian polychoral style was a type of music of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras which involved spatially separate choirs singing in alternation. ... Adrian Willaert (c. ... San Marco di Venezia, as seen from the Piazza San Marco St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco) is the most famous of the churches of Venice and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; the constituent governing institution... Andrea Gabrieli (c. ... Giovanni Gabrieli Giovanni Gabrieli (c. ...


Canvases (the common painting surface) originated in Venice during the early renaissance. These early canvases were generally rough. Look up Canvas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Life in 1750s Venice is illustrated by the biography A Venetian Affair, which is based on the prolific love letters between a Venetian nobleman and his illegitimate half-English lover.


A remarkable, and unflattering, portrait of Venetian politics appears in The Bravo, published in 1831 by American novelist James Fenimore Cooper. A bravo is an assassin under contract to the state, typically carrying out his assignments with a stiletto. Cooper's novel depicts Venice as a brutal dictatorship, governed through intrigue and murder, masked by the placid facade of the Repubblica Serenissima (serene republic). Cooper portrait by John Wesley Jarvis, 1822 James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. ... A stiletto is a long, narrow-bladed dagger. ...


Other major works involving Venice include:


Literature

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) The Merchant of Venice is one of William Shakespeares best-known plays, written sometime between 1596 and 1598. ... Othello and Desdemona by Alexandre-Marie Colin. ... Italo Calvino, on the cover of Lezioni americane: Sei proposte per il prossimo millennio Italo Calvino (October 15, 1923 – September 19, 1985) (pronounced ) was an Italian writer and novelist. ... Invisible Cities is a book by Italo Calvino that sets out to explore the meaning and symbols of cities that as the title indicates, exist on another level of perception, via interpretation of symbols, or signs. ... Wilkie Collins William Wilkie Collins (8 January 1824 – 23 September 1889) was an English novelist, playwright, and writer of short stories. ... Philippe Sollers (b. ... Watteau in Venice ( in French La fête à Venise) is a novel by French author Philippe Sollers published in 1991 by Editions Gallimard, and translated by Alberto Manguel, published in 1994 by Charles Scribners Sons. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... Volpone, or The Fox, is a black comedy by Ben Jonson first produced in 1606, and considered one of the finest comedies of the Jacobean period. ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... The Aspern Papers is a novella written by Henry James, originally published in The Atlantic Monthly in 1888, with its first book publication later in the same year. ... The novella Death in Venice was written by the German author Thomas Mann, and was first published in 1912 as Der Tod in Venedig. ... Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 – August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... The Silent Gondoliers is a 1983 novel written by William Goldman, under the pseudonym of , about why the gondoliers of Venice, Italy no longer sing. ... William Goldman (born August 12, 1931) is an American novelist, playwright and two-time Academy Award-winning screenwriter. ... This article is about the novelist. ... 1962 publicity photo of Patricia Highsmith Patricia Highsmith (January 19, 1921 - February 4, 1995) was an American novelist who is known mainly for her psychological crime thrillers which have led to more than two dozen film adaptations. ... Jeanette Winterson OBE (born August 27, 1959) is a British novelist. ... Dorothy Dunnett (August 25, 1923 – November 9, 2001) was a Scottish historical novelist. ... John Berendt is the author of the best-selling non-fiction book Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil. ... Cover of The City of Falling Angels The City of Falling Angels, by author John Berendt, most famous for his book Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil, tells the story of the inhabitants of Venice, Italy and the fire that destroyed the historic Fenice Theater opera house. ... Anne Rice. ... Cry to Heaven is a stand-alone historical novel by Anne Rice copyrighted 1982. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, editor, critic and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ethan Mordden is an American author. ... Cornelia Caroline Funke (born December 10, 1958, in Dorsten, Northrhine-Westphalia) is a celebrated, multiple award-winning German author of childrens fiction. ... The Thief Lord (ISBN 0-439-40437-1) is a 2000 childrens book by German author, Cornelia Funke, whose books have been published in many other languages. ... Ian McEwan CBE, (born June 21, 1948), is a British novelist (sometimes nicknamed Ian Macabre because of the nature of his early work). ... Donna Jo Napoli is an author of childrens and young adult books, as well as a prominent linguist with work in syntax, phonetics, phonology, morphology, historical and comparative linguistics, Romance studies, structure of Japanese, structure of American Sign Language, poetics, writing for ESL students, and mathematical and linguistic analysis... Count Francesco da Mosto (born 1961 in Venice) is an Italian architect, film maker and TV presenter. ... Count Francesco da Mosto (born 1961 in Venice) is an Italian architect, film maker and TV presenter. ... For the sport horse, see Voltaire (horse). ... Candide, ou lOptimisme, (Candide, or Optimism) (1759) is a French language picaresque novel by the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire. ...

Films

From Russia with Love is the second James Bond film in the official EON Productions series, and the second to star Sean Connery as the suave and sophisticated British Secret Service agent James Bond. ... Flemings commissioned image of James Bond to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists. ... Ian Lancaster Fleming (May 28, 1908 – August 12, 1964) was a British author, journalist and Second World War Naval Officer. ... The Honey Pot is a 1967 film, directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz. ... Joseph Leo Mankiewicz (February 11, 1909–February 6, 1993) was an American Hollywood screenwriter, director and producer. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... Volpone, or The Fox, is a black comedy by Ben Jonson first produced in 1606, and considered one of the finest comedies of the Jacobean period. ... Sir Reginald Carey Rex Harrison (b. ... Capucine (6 January 1931 – 17 March 1990) was a French actress. ... Dame Margaret Natalie Smith, DBE (born 28 December 1934), better known as Dame Maggie Smith, is a two-time Academy Award, and Emmy-winning English film, stage, and television actress. ... For other uses, see Death in Venice (disambiguation). ... Luchino Visconti. ... Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 – August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... Dont Look Now is an Anglo-Italian thriller, directed by Nicolas Roeg and released in 1973. ... Nicolas Jack Roeg, born on August 15, 1928 in London, is an internationally-known cinematographer and film director. ... For other persons named Donald Sutherland, see Donald Sutherland (disambiguation). ... Julie Frances Christie (born 14 April 1941) is an English Academy Award-winning film actress. ... Moonraker is a 1979 James Bond film starring Roger Moore, based on the book by Ian Fleming. ... Flemings commissioned image of James Bond to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists. ... Casino Royale is the 21st film in the James Bond series and the first to star Daniel Craig as MI6 agent James Bond. ... Flemings commissioned image of James Bond to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists. ... Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade is a 1989 film directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Harrison Ford, Sean Connery, Denholm Elliott, Julian Glover, Alison Doody, River Phoenix, and John Rhys-Davies. ... The Comfort of Strangers is a 1990 film directed by Paul Schrader. ... Paul Joseph Schrader (born July 22, 1946 in Grand Rapids, Michigan) is a screenwriter and film director, renowned for his characters that fall into desperation while their world crumbles around them. ... Nikita is the title of a 1990 French movie written and directed by Luc Besson, and a Canadian television series of the same title, which was based upon the film. ... The Wings of the Dove is a 1902 novel by Henry James. ... Dangerous Beauty (1998) is a biographical drama film directed by Marshall Herskovitz. ... The Honest Courtesan is a 1992 biographical book by Margaret Rosenthal about a 16th century Venetian courtesan named Veronica Franco. ... Veronica Franco (1546-1591) was a poet and courtesan of Venice during the sixteenth century. ... The Italian Job is a 2003 action-adventure film, directed by F. Gary Gray. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long. ... Just Married is a comedy / romance film directed by Shawn Levy and written by Sam Harper which opened on January 10th, 2003. ... The Merchant of Venice is a 2004 movie based on Shakespeares play with the same name. ... Casanova is a 2005 comedy film directed by Lasse Hallström based on the life of Giacomo Casanova. ... Giacomo Casanova “Casanova” redirects here. ... Heathcliff Andrew Ledger (born April 4, 1979) is an Academy Award-nominated Australian actor. ... Sienna Rose Miller (born December 28, 1981) is an American-born English[1] actress and model. ... Categories: Movie stubs | Action films | Adventure films | 2001 films | Films based on video games ... Tomb Raider logo. ... Fellinis Casanova (Il Casanova di Federico Fellini) is a 1976 Italian film by director Federico Fellini. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Senso is an Italian novella by Camillo Boito, a famous Italian author and architect. ... Luchino Visconti. ... Everyone Says I Love You (1996) is a musical film written and directed by Woody Allen. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... Julia Roberts is an Academy Award-winning American film actress and former fashion model. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... The Story of Us is a 1999 film starring Bruce Willis and Michelle Pfeiffer as a married couple of 15 years directed by Rob Reiner. ... Robert Rob Reiner (born March 6, 1947) is an American actor, director, producer, and writer. ... Convenience store window poster featuring American actor Bruce Willis. ... Michelle Pfeiffer (born April 29, 1958) is an American actress. ... Tim Matheson, an American actor, was born Timothy Lewis Matthieson on December 31, 1947, in Glendale, California, a suburb of Los Angeles. ... Katharine Hepburn and Rossano Brazzi in Summertime Summertime is a 1955 film directed by David Lean starring Katharine Hepburn and Rossano Brazzi. ... Katharine Houghton Hepburn (May 12, 1907 – June 29, 2003) was an iconic four-time Academy Award-winning American star of film, television and stage, widely recognized for her sharp wit, New England gentility and fierce independence. ... Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ... One of Welles more complicated shoots, Othello was filmed off and on over a period of three years. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... Suzanne Cloutier (July 10, 1927 – December 2, 2003) was a Canadian film actor. ... Juliette Binoche (born March 9, 1964) is a French Academy Award-winning actress. ... Benoît Magimel (born May 11, 1974) is a French actor. ... Aaron Johnson (April 30, 1983) in Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia is a professional ice hockey player who currently plays defense for the National Hockey Leagues Columbus Blue Jackets. ... Rollo Weeks (born March 20, 1987 in Cardiff, Wales) is a British actor. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long. ... Chasing Liberty is a 2004 romantic comedy directed by Andy Cadiff about the American Presidents daughter. ... Amanda Leigh Mandy Moore (born April 10, 1984) is an American pop singer and actress. ... Stark Sands (b. ... Doctor Who is a long-running British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC, (and a 1996 television movie). ... The Stones of Venice cover The Stones of Venice is a Big Finish Productions audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ... Casino Royale can refer to: In fiction: Casino Royale (novel), the first James Bond novel by Ian Fleming. ...

Television Shows

  • The 1980s "Jem" episode, "In Stitches" takes place in this city.
  • The manga and anime series ARIA take place in the town of Neo-Venezia, based on Venice.

This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... ARIA ) is an ongoing manga by Kozue Amano. ...

Video games

Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade is a graphical adventure game, originally released in 1989, published by Lucasfilm Games (now LucasArts). ... Core Design was a video game developer best known for creating the popular Tomb Raider series. ... The second game in the tomb raider series by Eidos and Core Design. ... The companys original logo (1998-2006) Free Radical Design is a video game developer, based in Nottingham, England. ... TimeSplitters: Future Perfect Categories: 2005 computer and video games | GameCube games | PlayStation 2 games | Xbox games | First-person shooters | Computer and video game stubs ... Soul Calibur II is the sequel to Soul Calibur and the third game in the Soul fighting game series. ... Tekken is a fighting game and first of the series of the same name. ... The Sony PlayStation ) is a video game console of the 32/64-bit era, first produced by Sony Computer Entertainment in the mid-1990s. ... Wolfenstein: Enemy Territory (ET) is a freeware first-person shooter (FPS) computer game, and a standalone sequel to Return to Castle Wolfenstein, created by Splash Damage. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Painkiller is a first-person shooter PC game released on April 12, 2004. ... The Sonic the Hedgehog series is a franchise of video games released by Sega starring and named after their mascot character Sonic the Hedgehog. ... Sonic the Hedgehog (also called Sonic 2006, Sonic 06, Sonic 360, or Sonic Next-Gen, written as SONIC THE HEDGEHOG on Xbox Live, to avoid confusion with the original Genesis game or the Sonic series in general) is a video game featuring Sonic for the Xbox 360 and the PlayStation... The Super Nintendo Entertainment System, also known as Super Nintendo, Super NES or SNES, is a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Brazil, Europe, and Australia. ... Tales of Phantasia ) is a Super Famicom game in the RPG genre published by Namco and released in Japan in 1995. ... Gears of War (usually shortened Gears or GoW) is a tactical third-person shooter video game developed by Epic Games (the creators of the Unreal Tournament series) using Unreal Engine 3. ... The Nintendo GameCube (Japanese: ゲームキューブ; originally code-named Dolphin during development; abbreviated as GCN) is Nintendos fourth home video game console, belonging to the 128-bit era; the same generation as Segas Dreamcast, Sonys PlayStation 2, and Microsofts Xbox. ... Wave Race: Blue Storm is a jet ski racing game released on November 18, 2001 for the Nintendo GameCube. ... Gran Turismo 4 (also known as GT4) was released on December 28, 2004 in Japan and Hong Kong (NTSC-J), February 22, 2005 in the United States (NTSC-U/C), and March 9, 2005 in Europe (PAL), and has since been re-issued under Sonys Greatest Hits line. ... The PlayStation 2 , abbreviated PS2) is Sonys second video game console, the successor to the PlayStation and the predecessor to the PlayStation 3. ...

Music

Grave of Nono in the San Michele Cemetery, Venice Luigi Nono (29 January 1924 - 8 May 1990) was an Italian composer of contemporary music. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their avant-garde style and for being pioneers of progressive rock music. ... A Momentary Lapse of Reason is Pink Floyds 1987 album, the bands first release after Roger Waters official departure from the band in 1985. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Madonna Louise Ciccone Ritchie (born August 16, 1958), better known as simply Madonna, is a six-time Grammy[1] and one-time Golden Globe award winning American pop singer, songwriter, record and film producer, dancer, actress, author and fashion icon. ... Like a Virgin is the first number-one single from American singer Madonna, topping the charts at the end of 1984, and the beginning of 1985. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Charles Aznavour (Armenian: Õ‡Õ¡Õ¼Õ¬ Ô±Õ¦Õ¶Õ¡Õ¾Õ¸Ö‚Ö€; born May 22, 1924) is an Armenian-French singer, songwriter and actor. ... Que Cest Triste Venise (literal English translation: How Sad Venice Is) is a song written and sung by Armenian-French artist Charles Aznavour about Venice. ...

Miscellaneous

Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Mark the Evangelist (מרקוס, Greek: Μάρκος) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark and a companion of Peter. ... Example of masks used during the carnival Venice Shop Window (Spring 2002). ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

Famous Venetians

For persons from Venice, see People from Venice. Others closely associated with the city include:

Dandolo Preaching the Crusade, by Gustav Dore Tomb of Enrico Dandolo Enrico Dandolo (1107?-1205) was the Doge (1192-1205) of Venice during the Fourth Crusade. ... January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire April 1 - King Amalric II of Jerusalem (born 1145) May 7... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Cadore, a town and contado (countship) of in the North Italian region of Friuli, is a barren and poor district, watered by the Piave torrent poured forth from the Carnic Alps, and is at no great distance from Tirol. ... Pietro Bembo (May 20, 1470 - 18 January 1547), Italian cardinal and scholar. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (141st in leap years). ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... A cardinal is an official of the second-highest rank of the Roman Catholic Church, inferior in rank only to the Pope. ... Marc Antonio Bragadin (Venice, 21 April 1523 - Famagusta, 17 August 1571) was the Christian commander of forces at Famagusta which fell to the Islamic Ottoman Turks in August 1571. ... Famagusta (Greek: Αμμόχωστος, Ammochostos; Turkish: GazimaÄŸusa; Italian: Famagosta) is a city on the east coast of Cyprus and capital of the Famagusta District. ... Lorenzo Lotto (c. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... In music history, the Venetian School is a term used to describe the composers working in Venice from about 1550 to around 1610; it also describes the music they produced. ... Veronica Franco (1546-1591) was a poet and courtesan of Venice during the sixteenth century. ... Unconfirmed portrait of Antonio Vivaldi[1] Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (March 4, 1678 – July 27 or 28, 1741), nicknamed Il Prete Rosso (The Red Priest), was a Venetian priest and baroque music composer, as well as a famous violinist. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Giacomo Casanova “Casanova” redirects here. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Duchcov, also known as Dux, Tokczav , is a town in Czech Republic. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Duchcov, also known as Dux, Tokczav , is a town in Czech Republic. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Portrait of a boy of the Leblond family, c. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (281st in leap years). ... Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim June 18 - Battle of Fehrbellin August 10 - King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London - construction begins November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Emilio Vedova (born Venice, August 9, 1919) is an Italian modern painter, considered one of most important to emerge in his country artistic scene after World War II. Categories: 1919 births | Italian painters ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin) September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... Giovanni Bellini painted his first female nude when he was about 85 years old. ... Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia (June 5, 1646 - July 26, 1684) was an Italian mathematician of noble descent, and the first woman to receive a doctor of philosophy degree. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1646 (MDCXLVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... Bruno Maderna (1920-1973) was an Italian composer of 20th century music. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, c. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (65th in leap years). ... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... Baldassarre Longhena (Venice, 1598 – Venice, 1682), was a 17th century Venetian architect, who worked mainly in Venice itself, where he was one of the greatest exponents of Baroque architecture of the period. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England May 6 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles. ... Carlo Goldoni Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (25 February 1707 - 6 February 1793) was a celebrated Italian playwright, whom critics today rank among the European theatres greatest authors. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Luigi Pirandello (June 28, 1867 – December 10, 1936) was an Italian dramatist and novelist, awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1934. ... Carlo, Count Gozzi (13 December 1720 – April 4, 1806), was an Italian dramatist. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Grave of Nono in the San Michele Cemetery, Venice Luigi Nono (29 January 1924 - 8 May 1990) was an Italian composer of contemporary music. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Brion-Vega Cemetery, 1968-1978. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Sendai ) is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, and the largest city in the Tōhoku (northeast) region. ... An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... Sebastian Cabot (1484-1557). ... This list of explorers is sorted by surname. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Publication of Defensor pacis by Marsilius of Padua Mansa Kankan Musa I, ruler of the Mali Empire arrives in Cairo on his hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. ... Exploration is the act of searching or traveling for the purpose of discovery, e. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... A page of The Travels of Marco Polo The Travels of Marco Polo is the usual English title of Marco Polos travel book, Il Milione. ... Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni (June 8, 1671, Venice, Italy – January 17, 1751, Venice) was an Italian baroque composer. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750 (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... The Stonemasons Yard, painted 1726-30. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The River Thames from Somerset House: a classic veduta by Canaletto, 1747. ... Sebastiano Venier. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ... Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... Events March 17 - formation of the Cathay Company to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold May 28 - Publication of the Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings. ...

Foreign words of Venetian origin

View of the Entrance to the Arsenal, by Canaletto, 1732. ... Look up ciao in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily. ... A Venetian gondola A gondola is a traditional Venetian rowing boat. ... A lazaretto or lazaret is a quarantine station for maritime travellers. ... This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... Lido and the Venetian Lagoon. ... Quarantine, a medical term (from Italian: quaranta giorni, forty days) is the act of keeping people or animals separated for a period of time before, for instance, allowing them to enter another country. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006   -  Recognized...

See also

The Venice Film Festival (it: Mostra Internazionale dArte Cinematografica) is the oldest Film Festival in the World (began in the 1932) and takes place every year in late August/early September on the Lido di Venezia in the historic Palazzo del Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi, in Venice, Italy. ... Detail of exhibition. ... Canaletto (Giovanni Antonio Canal) // A Antonio Abbondi Jacopo Amigoni Giuseppe Angeli Antonello da Messina Carlo Antonini Andrea Appiani B Giovanni Bellini, Madonna. ... Doges Palace // A Ala Napoleonica Arsenal B Biennale di Venezia C Campanile di San Marco Campanile di San Marco Campo di SantAngelo Campo Santa Margherita Campo San Polo Campo San Samuele Campo San Zanipolo Ca Da Mosto Ca Foscari Ca dOro Ca Pesaro Ca Rezzonico Corte del... This partial list of city nicknames compiles the aliases, sobriquets and slogans that cities are sometimes known by, officially and unofficially, to locals, outsiders or their tourism boards. ... The Veneti (Enetoi in Greek) were an ancient people who inhabited todays northeastern Italy, in a area comprised in the modern-day region Veneto. ... Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language that was spoken in ancient times in the Veneto region of Italy, between the Po River delta and the southern fringe of the Alps. ... A business sign in Venetian Venet or Venetian is a Romance language spoken by over ten million people, mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Venetian glass is a type of glass object made in Venice, Italy, world-renowned for being colorful, elaborate, and skilfully made. ... The Su e zo per i ponti is a non-competitive run held in Venice between March and April. ... Venezia Mestre Rugby FC are an Italian rugby union club. ...

Twinnings

Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Nickname: Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia_(bordered). ... County Harju County Mayor Jüri Ratas Area 159. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Suzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; ancient name: 吳) is a city with a long history on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Lake Taihu in the province of Jiangsu, China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Nuremberg coat of arms Location of Nuremberg Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Thessaloniki, (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη), is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia and the periphery of Central Macedonia. ...

Cooperation agreements

Cooperation agreement between the City of Venice and the City of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki, (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη), is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia and the periphery of Central Macedonia. ...


Cooperation agreement between the Cities of Nuremberg and Venice, signed on September 25, 1999 Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg, Polish: Norymberga) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ...


Co-operation Protocol signed by the Cities of Istanbul and Venice on March the 4th 1993, within the framework of the Istanbul Declaration (1991). Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


The City of Venice and the Central Association of Cities and Communities of Greece (KEDKE) established, in January 2000, in pursuance of the EC Regulations n. 2137/85, the European Economic Interest Grouping (E.E.I.G.) Marco Polo System to promote and realise European projects within transnational cultural and tourist field, particularly referred to the artistic and architectural heritage preservation and safeguard. Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ...


Establishment of the Science and Technology Partnership Cities Between Qingdao and Venice   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


References

Scholarship

  • Bosio, Luciano. Le origini di Venezia. Novara: Istituto Geografico De Agostini. 
  • Chambers, D.S. (1970). The Imperial Age of Venice, 1380-1580. London: Thames & Hudson. The best brief introduction in English, still completely reliable.
  • Contarini, Gasparo (1599). The Commonwealth and Gouernment of Venice. Lewes Lewkenor, trsl. London: "Imprinted by I. Windet for E. Mattes." The most important contemporary account of Venice's governance during the time of its blossoming. Also available in various reprint editions.
  • Drechsler, Wolfgang (2002). "Venice Misappropriated." Trames 6(2), pp. 192-201. A scathing review of Martin & Romano 2000; also a good summary on the most recent economic and political thought on Venice. For more balanced, less tendentious, and scholarly reviews of the Martin-Romano anthology, see "The Historical Journal" (2003) "Rivista Storica Italiana" (2003).
  • Garrett, Martin, "Venice: a Cultural History" (2006). Revised edition of "Venice: a Cultural and Literary Companion" (2001).
  • Grubb, James S. (1986). "When Myths Lose Power: Four Decades of Venetian Historiography." Journal of Modern History 58, pp. 43-94. The classic "muckraking" essay on the myths of Venice.
  • Lane, Frederic Chapin. Venice: Maritime Republic (1973) (ISBN 0801814456) standard scholarly history; emphasis on economic, political and diplomatic history
  • Laven, Mary, "Virgins of Venice: Enclosed Lives and Broken Vows in the Renaissance Convent (2002). The most important study of the life of Renaissance nuns, with much on aristocratic family networks and the life of women more generally.
  • Martin, John Jeffries and Dennis Romano (eds). Venice Reconsidered. The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State, 1297-1797. (2002) Johns Hopkins UP. The most recent collection on essays, many by prominent scholars, on Venice.
  • Muir, Edward (1981). Civic Ritual in Renaissance Venice. Princeton UP. The classic of Venetian cultural studies, highly sophisticated.
  • Rösch, Gerhard (2000). Venedig. Geschichte einer Seerepublik. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. In German, but the most recent top-level brief history of Venice.

Other

  • Morris, Jan (1993), Venice. 3rd revised edition. Faber & Faber, ISBN 0-571-16897-3. A subjective and passionate written introduction to the city and some of its history. Not illustrated.
  • Ruskin, John (1853). The Stones of Venice. Abridged edition Links, JG (Ed), Penguin 2001. ISBN 0-14-139065-4. Seminal work on architecture and society
  • di Robilant, Andrea (2004). A Venetian Affair. Harper Collins. ISBN 1-84115-542-X Biography of Venetian nobleman and lover, from correspondence in the 1750s.

Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... Andrea di Robilant is the author of A Venetian Affair, a 2003 novel set in 18th century Venice. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Bosio, Le origini di Venezia

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Venice - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2753 words)
Venice (Italian: Venezia), the "city of canals", is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′ N 12°19′ E, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01).
In the 12th century the essentials for the power of Venice were laid: the Venetian Arsenal was under construction in 1104; Venice wrested control of the Brenner pass from Verona in 1178, opening a lifeline to silver from Germany; the last autocratic doge, Vitale Michiele, died in 1172.
The buildings of Venice are constructed on closely spaced wood piles (under water, in the absence of oxygen, wood does not decay) which penetrate alternating layers of clay and sand.
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