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Encyclopedia > Venice
Comune di Venezia
Venice city centre
Venice city centre
Coat of arms of Comune di Venezia
Municipal coat of arms
Country Flag of Italy Italy
Region Veneto
Province Venice (VE)
Mayor Massimo Cacciari (since April 18, 2005)
Elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Area 412 km² (159 sq mi)
Population (as of January 1, 2004)
 - Total 271,251
 - Density 658/km² (1,704/sq mi)
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 45°26′N 12°19′E / 45.433, 12.317Coordinates: 45°26′N 12°19′E / 45.433, 12.317
Gentilic Veneziani
Dialing code 041
Postal code 30100
Frazioni Chirignago, Favaro Veneto, Mestre, Marghera, Murano, Burano, Giudecca, Lido, Zelarino
Patron St. Mark the Evangelist
 - Day April 25
Website: www.comune.venezia.it
Venice and its Lagoon*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Venice in summer, with the Rialto Bridge in the background.
State Party Flag of Italy Italy
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi
Reference 394
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1987  (11th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.

Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). Together with Padua, the city is included in the Padua-Venice Metropolitan Area (population 1,600,000). Venice has been known as the "La Dominante", "Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Bridges", and "The City of Light". It is considered by many to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world[1]. Venice refers to: Venice, Italy and the historic republic of Venice Venice, California Venice, Florida Venice, Illinois Venice, Louisiana Venice, New York List of places known as the Venice of something Venice, the band from Venice, CA [1] This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Image File history File links Venezia-Stemma. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Veneto is my fatherland. ... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... Venice (It. ... Massimo Cacciari (June 5, 1944) is an Italian philosopher and politician, currently mayor of Venice. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Here are a list of area codes in Italy. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... Watchtower of Mestre. ... Marghera, also known as Venezia Marghera, ia a frazione of the comune of Venice, Italy. ... A shop with boats, Murano Murano is usually described as an island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an archipelago of islands linked by bridges. ... Colourfully painted houses on Burano. ... The Giudecca is an island in the Venetian Lagoon lying immediately south of the central islands, from which it is separated by the Giudecca Canal. ... Lido and the Venetian Lagoon. ... Mark the Evangelist (מרקוס, Greek: Μάρκος) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark and a companion of Peter. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 256 KB) Summary Venice in 2004 summer, photo taken by my brother Martti Mustonen Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Northern Italy comprises of two areas belonging to NUTS level 1: North-West (Nord-Ovest): Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Lombardy, Liguria North-East (Nord-Est): Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Aosta Valley are regions with a... Capital City is a 60-minute television show produced by Euston Films that ran for 13 episodes in 1989 on ITV. This drama focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Veneto is my fatherland. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Padua, Italy, (It. ...


The city stretches across 118 small islands in the marshy Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic Sea in northeast Italy. The saltwater lagoon stretches along the shoreline between the mouths of the Po (south) and the Piave (north) Rivers. The population estimate of 272,000 inhabitants includes the population of the whole Comune of Venezia; around 62,000 in the historic city of Venice (Centro storico); 176,000 in Terraferma (the Mainland), mostly in the large frazione of Mestre and Marghera; and 31,000 live on other islands in the lagoon. The Venetian Lagoon The Venetian Lagoon or the Venetian Riviera is a lagoon off the Adriatic Sea in which the city of Venice is situated. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... Piave (from Latin Plavis ) is a river in north Italy. ... In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic administrative unit of both provinces and regions, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... Watchtower of Mestre. ... Marghera, also known as Venezia Marghera, ia a frazione of the comune of Venice, Italy. ...


The Venetian Republic was a major maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as a very important center of commerce (especially silk, grain and spice trade) and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century. The Republic of Venice was a city-state in Venetia in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... USMC convoys staging prior to going north into Iraq in March of 2004 A staging area is a temporary location where military units, aircraft and warships plus their matériel are assembled ahead of an attack or invasion. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Three battles have been known as the Battle of Lepanto: Battle of Lepanto (1499) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1500) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1571) defeat of the Turkish fleet An earlier battle near modern Lepanto was called the Battle of Naupactus (429... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Spices at the central market of Agadir, Morocco in May 2005 The spice trade has been of major economic importance throughout human history and it particularly helped spur the Age of Exploration. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...

Contents

History

Main article: Republic of Venice

Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ...

Origins and history

Location of Venice in Italy and the Venetian Lagoon
Location of Venice in Italy and the Venetian Lagoon

While there are no historical records that deal directly with the origins of Venice, the available evidence has led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice comprised refugees from Roman cities such as Padua, Aquileia, Altino and Concordia (modern Portogruaro) who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic invasions.[2] Download high resolution version (800x777, 246 KB)A map of the Venetian Lagoon (Laguna Veneta) and the surrounding cities of Venice, Murano, and Lido. ... Download high resolution version (800x777, 246 KB)A map of the Venetian Lagoon (Laguna Veneta) and the surrounding cities of Venice, Murano, and Lido. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ... The altino, essentially a male contralto, is a rare male voice type, commonly considered the true countertenor. ... Panarama of Portogruaro in 1631 Portogruaro is a town in the province of Venezia, Veneto, Italy. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ...


Starting in 166-168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main center in the area, the current Oderzo. The Roman defenses were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years later, by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring inruption was that of the Lombards in 568. This left the Eastern Roman Empire a small strip of coast in current Veneto, and the main administrative and religious entities were therefore transferred to this remaining dominion. New ports were built, including those at Malamocco and Torcello in the Venetian lagoon. The Quadi were a smaller Germanic tribe, about which little definitive information is known. ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ... Oderzo is a town in the province of Treviso, Veneto, Italy. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ...


The Byzantine domination of central and northern Italy was subsequently largely eliminated by the conquest of the Exarchate of Ravenna in 751 by Aistulf. During this period, the seat of the local Byzantine governor (the "duke/doux", later "doge") was situated in Malamocco. Settlement across the islands in the lagoon probably increased in correspondence with the Lombard conquest of the Byzantine territories. The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ...


In 775-776, the bishopric seat of Olivolo (Helipolis) was created. During the reign of duke Agnello Particiaco (811-827) the ducal seat was moved from Malamocco to the highly protected Rialto (Rivoalto, "High Shore") island, the current location of Venice. The monastery of St. Zachary and the first ducal palace and basilica of St. Mark, as well as a walled defense (civitatis murus) between Olivolo and Rialto were subsequently built here. Agnello Participazio (Angelo Particiaco) was the tenth (traditional) or eighth (historical) Doge of Venice from 811 to 827. ...


In 828, the new city's prestige was raised by the liberation of the relics of St. Mark the Evangelist from Alexandria, which were placed in the new basilica. The patriarchal seat was also moved to Rialto. As the community continued to develop and as Byzantine power waned, it led to the growth of autonomy and eventual independence. Mark the Evangelist (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. ...

These Horses of Saint Mark are a replica of the Triumphal Quadriga captured in Constantinople in 1204 and carried to Venice as a trophy
These Horses of Saint Mark are a replica of the Triumphal Quadriga captured in Constantinople in 1204 and carried to Venice as a trophy

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (950x1267, 1216 KB)St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (950x1267, 1216 KB)St. ... Piazza San Marco with the Basilica, by Canaletto, 1730, looking just as it does today. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... The original Horses of Saint Mark The Triumphal Quadriga or Horses of Saint Mark is a set of Roman or Greek bronze statues of four horses, originally part of a monument depicting a quadriga. ...

Expansion

From the ninth to the twelfth century Venice developed into a city state (an Italian thalassocracy or Repubblica Marinara, the other three being Genoa, Pisa, and Amalfi). Its strategic position at the head of the Adriatic made Venetian naval and commercial power almost invulnerable. The city became a flourishing trade center between Western Europe and the rest of the world (especially the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic world). A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. ... The term thalassocracy (from the Greek Θαλασσο-κρατία) refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities. ... The Repubbliche Marinare ( ) is the collectie name of a number of important city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia in the Middle Ages. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pisa (disambiguation). ... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...


In the 12th century the foundations of Venice's power were laid: the Venetian Arsenal was under construction in 1104; Venice wrested control of the Brenner Pass from Verona in 1178, opening a lifeline to silver from Germany; the last autocratic doge, Vitale Michiele, died in 1172. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Porta Magna at the Venetian Arsenal The Venetian Arsenal (Italian: Arsenale di Venezia) is a shipyard and naval depot that played a leading role in Venetian empire-building. ... The Brenner Pass (Italian Passo del Brennero) is a mountain pass that creates a link through the Tyrolean Alps along the current border between the nations of Austria and Italy, one of the principal passes of the Alps. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


The Republic of Venice seized a number of locations on the eastern shores of the Adriatic before 1200, mostly for commercial reasons, because pirates based there were a menace to trade. The Doge already carried the titles of Duke of Dalmatia and Duke of Istria. Later mainland possessions, which extended across Lake Garda as far west as the Adda River, were known as the "Terraferma", and were acquired partly as a buffer against belligerent neighbours, partly to guarantee Alpine trade routes, and partly to ensure the supply of mainland wheat, on which the city depended. In building its maritime commercial empire, the Republic acquired control of most of the islands in the Aegean, including Cyprus and Crete, and became a major power-broker in the Near East. By the standards of the time, Venice's stewardship of its mainland territories was relatively enlightened and the citizens of such towns as Bergamo, Brescia and Verona rallied to the defence of Venetian sovereignty when it was threatened by invaders. Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea. ... Lake Garda (Italian Lago di Garda or Benaco) is the largest lake in Italy. ... Adda (anc. ... Alp redirects here. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... Small street (via della Noca) leading to città alta. ... The Capitoline Temple. ... This page is about the city in Italy; for other uses, see Verona (disambiguation). ...


Venice remained closely associated with Byzantium, being twice granted trading privileges in the Empire, through the co-called Golden Bulls or 'chrysobuls' in return for aiding the Eastern Empire resist Norman and Turkish incursions. In the first Venice acknowledged its homage to the Empire but not in the second, reflecting the decline of Byzantium and the rise of Venice's power.[3][4] The Golden Bull of 1356 issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV. A Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal (a bulla aurea or golden seal in Latin), attached to a decree issued by monarchs in Europe and the Byzantine Empire during the Middle Ages and...


Venice became an imperial power following the Fourth Crusade, which seized Constantinople in 1204 and established the Latin Empire; Venice herself carved out a sphere of influence known as the Duchy of the Archipelago. This seizure of Constantinople would ultimately prove as decisive a factor in ending the Byzantine Empire as the loss of the Anatolian themes after Manzikert. Though the Byzantines recovered control of the ravaged city a half century later, the Byzantine Empire was greatly weakened, and existed as a ghost of its old self, struggling on with the help, among other things, of loans from Venice (never repaid) until Sultan Mehmet The Conqueror took the city in 1453. Considerable Byzantine plunder was brought back to Venice, including the gilt bronze horses which were placed above the entrance to St Mark's cathedral. Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople The Latin Empire with its vassals and the Greek successor states after the partition of the Byzantine Empire, c. ... The Duchy of Naxos and states in the Morea, carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Republic of Venices Duchy of the Archipelago (also called Egeon Pelagos in Greek) was a maritime state created in the Cyclades islands of... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The themata circa 950. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Great Seljuk Sultanate Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic... Mehmed II Mehmed II, also known as Muhammed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; also known as el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ...

Situated on the Adriatic Sea, Venice traded with the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world extensively. By the late thirteenth century, Venice was the most prosperous city in all of Europe. At the peak of its power and wealth, it had 36,000 sailors operating 3,300 ships, dominating Mediterranean commerce. During this time, Venice's leading families vied with each other to build the grandest palaces and support the work of the greatest and most talented artists. The city was governed by the Great Council, which was made up of members of the most influential families in Venice. The Great Council appointed all public officials and elected a Senate of 200 to 300 individuals. The Senate then chose the Council of Ten, a secretive group which held the utmost power in the administration of the city. One member of the great council was elected "Doge", or duke, the ceremonial head of the city, who held the title until his death. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1756x1144, 3011 KB) Description View to San Giorgio Maggiore island in Venice from St Marks Campanile. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1756x1144, 3011 KB) Description View to San Giorgio Maggiore island in Venice from St Marks Campanile. ... San Giorgio Maggiore. ... St Marks Campanile is the bell tower of St Marks Basilica in Venice, located in the square (piazza) of the same name. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century Doges Palace Complex For some thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Republic of Venice was the Doge (Duke). ...


The Venetian governmental structure was similar in some ways to the republican system of ancient Rome, with an elected executive power (the Doge), a senate-like assembly of nobles, and a mass of citizens with limited political power, who originally had the power to grant or withhold their approval of each newly elected Doge. Church and various private properties were tied to military service, though there was no knight tenure within the city itself. The Cavalieri di San Marco was the only order of chivalry ever instituted in Venice, and no citizen could accept or join a foreign order without the government's consent. Venice remained a republic throughout its independent period and politics and the military were kept completely separate, except when on occasion the Doge personally led the military. War was regarded as a continuation of commerce by other means (hence, the city's early production of large numbers of mercenaries for service elsewhere, and later its reliance on foreign mercenaries when the ruling class was preoccupied with commerce). For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ...

Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo.
Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo.

The chief executive was the Doge (duke), who, theoretically, held his elective office for life. In practice, a number of Doges were forced by pressure from their oligarchical peers to resign the office and retire into monastic seclusion when they were felt to have been discredited by perceived political failure. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1144x1756, 2918 KB) Description Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo in Venice Photo by Evgenia Kononova, 29 April 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1144x1756, 2918 KB) Description Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo in Venice Photo by Evgenia Kononova, 29 April 2004. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century Doges Palace Complex For some thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Republic of Venice was the Doge (Duke). ... Look up Oligarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ...


Though the people of Venice generally remained orthodox Roman Catholics, the state of Venice was notable for its freedom from religious fanaticism and it enacted not a single execution for religious heresy during the Counter-Reformation. This apparent lack of zeal contributed to Venice's frequent conflicts with the Papacy. Venice was threatened with the interdict on a number of occasions and twice suffered its imposition. The second, most famous, occasion was on April 27, 1509, by order of Pope Julius II (see League of Cambrai). The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... For other meanings see Interdict The word interdict usually refers to an ecclesiastical penalty in the Roman Catholic Church. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... The League of Cambrai was a league against Venice formed on December 10, 1508 under the leadership of Pope Julius II. It included, besides the Pope, Louis XII of France, Emperor Maximilian I, and Ferdinand of Aragon. ...


Venetian ambassadors sent home still-extant secret reports of the politics and rumours of European courts, providing fascinating information to modern historians.


Venice’s Decline

Venice’s long decline started in the 15th century, when she first made an unsuccessful attempt to maintain Thessalonica against the Ottomans (1423-1430). She also sent ships to help defend Byzantine Constantinople against the besieging Turks (1453). After the city fell to Sultan Mehmet II he declared war on Venice. It lasted thirty years and cost Venice much of her eastern Mediterranean possessions. Next, Spain discovered the New World. Then Portugal found a sea route to India, destroying Venice’s land route monopoly. France, England and Holland followed them. Venice’s oared galleys could not traverse the great oceans. She was left behind in the race for colonies. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


The Black Death devastated Venice in 1348 and once again between 1575 and 1577.[5] In three years the plague killed some 50,000 people.[6] In 1630, the plague killed a third of Venice's 150,000 citizens.[7] Venice began to lose its position as a center of international trade during the later part of the Renaissance as Portugal became Europe's principal intermediary in the trade with the East, striking at the very foundation of Venice's great wealth, while France and Spain fought for hegemony over Italy in the Italian Wars, marginalising her political influence. However, the Venetian empire was a major exporter of agricultural products and, until the mid-18th century, a significant manufacturing center. This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... The history of international trade chronicles the way that the flow of trade over long distances has shaped, and been shaped by history. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Look up hegemony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants France, the Holy Roman Empire, the states of Italy (notably the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, Florence, and the Duchy of Ferrara), England, Scotland, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the Swiss, Saxony, and others The Italian Wars, often referred to as... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ...


Military and naval affairs

Several gondolas docked in Venice
Several gondolas docked in Venice
Gondolas in Venice
Gondolas in Venice
Gondola on Grand Canal beside Rialto Bridge

By 1303, crossbow practice had become compulsory in the city, with citizens training in groups. As weapons became more expensive and complex to operate, professional soldiers were assigned to help work merchant sailing ships and as rowers in galleys. The company of "Noble Bowmen" was recruited in the later 14th century from among the younger aristocracy and served aboard both war-galleys and as armed merchantmen, with the privilege of sharing the captain's cabin. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 646 KB) photo by Radomil 26. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 646 KB) photo by Radomil 26. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 581 pixelsFull resolution (1107 × 804 pixel, file size: 546 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 581 pixelsFull resolution (1107 × 804 pixel, file size: 546 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Gondola in Venice with Daniela Palacios. ... Gondola in Venice with Daniela Palacios. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ...


Though Venice was famous for its navy, its army was equally effective. In the 13th century, most Italian city states already were hiring mercenaries, but Venetian troops were still recruited from the lagoon, plus feudal levies from Dalmatia (the very famous Schiavoni or Oltremarini)[8] and Istria. In times of emergency, all males between seventeen and sixty years were registered and their weapons were surveyed, with those called to actually fight being organized into companies of twelve. The register of 1338 estimated that 30,000 Venetian men were capable of bearing arms; many of these were skilled crossbowmen. As in other Italian cities, aristocrats and other wealthy men were cavalrymen while the city's conscripts fought as infantry. Naval redirects here. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize...


By 1450, more than 3,000 Venetian merchant ships were in operation, and most of these could be converted when necessary into either warships or transports. The government required each merchant ship to carry a specified number of weapons (mostly crossbows and javelins) and armour; merchant passengers were also expected to be armed and to fight when necessary. A reserve of some 25 (later 100) war-galleys was maintained in the Arsenal. Galley slaves did not exist in medieval Venice, the oarsmen coming from the city itself or from its possessions, especially Dalmatia. Those from the city were chosen by lot from each parish, their families being supported by the remainder of the parish while the rowers were away. Debtors generally worked off their obligations rowing the galleys. Rowing skills were encouraged through races and regattas. This article is about the weapon. ... Reconstruction of a post-Marian pilum A Roman coin showing Antoninianus of Carinus holding pilum and globe. ... For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galley (disambiguation). ... The Porta Magna at the Venetian Arsenal The Venetian Arsenal (Italian: Arsenale di Venezia) is a shipyard and naval depot that played a leading role in Venetian empire-building. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... A regatta is a boat race or series of boat races. ...


Early in the 15th century, as new mainland territories were expanded, the first standing army was organized, consisting of condottieri on contract. In its alliance with Florence in 1426, Venice agreed to supply 8,000 cavalry and 3,000 infantry in time of war, and 3,000 and 1,000 in peacetime. Later in that century, uniforms were adopted that featured red-and-white stripes, and a system of honors and pensions developed. Throughout the 15th century, Venetian land forces were almost always on the offensive and were regarded as the most effective in Italy, largely because of the tradition of all classes carrying arms in defense of the city and official encouragement of general military training. Condottieri (singular condottiere (in English) or condottiero (in Italian)) were mercenary leaders employed by Italian city-states from the late Middle Ages until the mid-sixteenth century. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ...


The command structure in the army was different from that in the fleet. By ancient law, no nobleman could command more than twenty-five men (to prevent against sedition by private armies), and while the position of Captain General was introduced in the mid-14th century, he still had to answer to a civilian panel of twenty Savi or "wise men". Not only was efficiency not degraded, this policy saved Venice from the military takeovers that other Italian city states so often experienced. A civilian commissioner (not unlike a commissar) accompanied each army to keep an eye on things, especially the mercenaries. The Venetian military tradition also was notably cautious; they were more interested in achieving success with a minimum expense of lives and money than in the pursuit of glory. Sedition is a term of law which refers to covert conduct, such as speech and organization, that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Russian political officer during winter war Commissar is the English transliteration of an official title (комисса́р) used in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution and in the Soviet Union, as well as some other Communist countries. ...


Modern Venice

A map of the historical heart of Venice
A map of the historical heart of Venice

After 1070 years, the Republic lost its independence when Napoleon Bonaparte on May 12, 1797, conquered Venice during the First Coalition. The French conqueror brought to an end the most fascinating century of its history: It was during the Settecento (1700s) that Venice became perhaps the most elegant and refined city in Europe, greatly influencing art, architecture, and literature. Napoleon was seen as something of a liberator by the city's Jewish population, although it can be argued they had lived with fewer restrictions in Venice. He removed the gates of the Ghetto and ended the restrictions on when and where Jews could live and travel in the city. Download high resolution version (1220x900, 673 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1220x900, 673 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The name First Coalition (1793–1797) designates the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... Settecento is the Italian word for seven hundred, and is the standard Italian term for the 18th century (not the 17th century, but the years beginning with 17). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about building architecture. ... This article is about (usually written) works. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... A store window in Venices Jewish ghetto. ...


Venice became Austrian territory when Napoleon signed the Treaty of Campo Formio on October 12, 1797. The Austrians took control of the city on January 18, 1798. It was taken from Austria by the Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 and became part of Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy, but was returned to Austria following Napoleon's defeat in 1814, when it became part of the Austrian-held Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia. In 1848-1849 a revolt briefly reestablished the Venetian Republic under Daniele Manin. In 1866, following the Seven Weeks War, Venice, along with the rest of Venetia, became part of Italy. The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Treaty of Pressburg was signed on December 26, 1805 between France and Austria as a consequence of the Austrian defeats by France at Ulm (September 25 - October 20) and Austerlitz (December 2). ... The flag of the Kingdom of Italy was a rectangular version of the flag of the Italian Republic, with Napoleons emblem on the green field. ... The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Italian: ; German: ) (1815 - 1866) was established after the defeat of Napoleon, according to the decisions of the Congress of Vienna (9 June 1815). ... Danièle Manin (May 13, 1804 - September 22, 1857), Venetian patriot and statesman, was born in Venice. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead...


After 1797, the city fell into a serious decline, with many of the old palaces and other buildings abandoned and falling into disrepair, although the Lido became a popular beach resort in the late 19th century. Lido and the Venetian Lagoon. ...


Climate

Weather averages for Venice
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 6 (43) 8 (46) 12 (54) 16 (61) 21 (70) 24 (75) 27 (81) 27 (81) 23 (73) 18 (64) 11 (52) 7 (45)
Average low °C (°F) -1 (30) 1 (34) 3 (37) 8 (46) 12 (54) 16 (61) 18 (64) 17 (63) 14 (57) 9 (48) 4 (39) 0 (32)
Precipitation mm (inches) 58 (2.3) 53 (2.1) 58 (2.3) 63 (2.5) 68 (2.7) 76 (3) 63 (2.5) 83 (3.3) 66 (2.6) 68 (2.7) 86 (3.4) 53 (2.1)
Source: Weather.com[9] 2008

Transportation

Venice is world-famous for its canals. It is built on an archipelago of 118 islands formed by about 150 canals in a shallow lagoon. The islands on which the city is built are connected by about 400 bridges. In the old center, the canals serve the function of roads, and every form of transport is on water or on foot. In the 19th century a causeway to the mainland brought a railway station to Venice, and an automobile causeway and parking lot was added in the 20th century. Beyond these land entrances at the northern edge of the city, transportation within the city remains, as it was in centuries past, entirely on water or on foot. Venice is Europe's largest urban car free area, unique in Europe in remaining a sizable functioning city in the 21st century entirely without motorcars or trucks. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 752 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Venice ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 752 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Venice ... For other bridges of this name, see Bridge of Sighs (Cambridge) and Bridge of Sighs (Oxford). ... The Bridge of Sighs in Venice. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Car redirects here. ... Venice (J.H. Crawford) Auto-free zones are also known as car-free zones and pedestrianised zones. ...


Waterways

The classical Venetian boat is the gondola, although it is now mostly used for tourists, or for weddings, funerals, or other ceremonies. Most Venetians now travel by motorised waterbuses (vaporetti) which ply regular routes along the major canals and between the city's islands. The city also has many private boats. The only gondolas still in common use by Venetians are the traghetti, foot passenger ferries crossing the Grand Canal at certain points without bridges. Visitors can also take the watertaxis between areas of the city. A Venetian gondola A gòndola is a traditional Venetian sculling boat. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... The Grand Canal in Venice, Italy. ...


Public transportation

Azienda Consorzio Trasporti Veneziano (ACTV) is the name of the public transport system in Venice. It combines both land transportation, with buses, and canal travel, with water buses (vaporetti). In total, there are 25 routes which connect the city.


Airports

Venice is served by the newly rebuilt Marco Polo International Airport, or Aeroporto di Venezia Marco Polo, named in honor of its famous citizen. The airport is on the mainland and was rebuilt away from the coast, however the water taxis or Alilaguna waterbus' to Venice are only a seven minute walk from the terminals. Marco Polo Venice Airport (IATA: VCE, ICAO: LIPZ) is an airport located on the Italian mainland near Venice, Italy, in Tessera, a frazione of the commune of Venice nearest to Mestre that, before Fascism, was an autonomous commune. ...


Some airlines market Treviso Airport in Treviso, 20km from Venice, as a Venice gateway. Some simply advertise flights to "Venice" without naming the actual airport except in the small print.[10] SantAngelo Treviso airport (IATA: TSF, ICAO: LIPH) is located in Treviso in the Province of Treviso, Italy. ... Treviso (French: Trévise, Latin: Tarvisium, Venetian: Trèviso) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. ...


Car

The streets in Venice are too narrow to allow cars. Cars can enter via the bridge (Ponte della Liberta) (SR11). It comes in from the West from Bologna. There are two parking lots which serve the city: Tronchetto and Piazzelo Roma. Cars can be parked here 24hrs for around 20euros. The Tranchetto parking lot also features a ferry to Lido. Tronchetto is served by Line 2 of the public transportation.

View of Venice from St Mark's Campanile
View of Venice from St Mark's Campanile

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4136x1073, 7193 KB) Description View to Venice from St Marks Campanile Photo by Anatoly Terentiev, 28 April 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4136x1073, 7193 KB) Description View to Venice from St Marks Campanile Photo by Anatoly Terentiev, 28 April 2004. ... The Campanile from the west The Campanile from the south St Marks Campanile is the bell tower of St Marks Basilica in Venice, located in the square (piazza) of the same name. ...

Landmarks

Grand Canal
Grand Canal
A small canal in Venice (Rio della Verona)
A small canal in Venice (Rio della Verona)
A winter sunset across the Grand Canal from the Rialto Bridge
A winter sunset across the Grand Canal from the Rialto Bridge
Piazza San Marco and its famous pigeons
Piazza San Marco and its famous pigeons

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 771 KB) photo by Radomil 26. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 771 KB) photo by Radomil 26. ... A small canal in Venice, by Jerome Herr. ... A small canal in Venice, by Jerome Herr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 854 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 854 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (2546 × 1693 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (2546 × 1693 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Sestieri

The sestieri are the primary traditional divisions of Venice. The city is divided into the six districts of Cannaregio, San Polo, Dorsoduro (including the Giudecca), Santa Croce, San Marco (including San Giorgio Maggiore), and Castello (including San Pietro di Castello and Sant'Elena). At the front of the Gondolas that work in the city there is a large piece of metal intended as a likeness of the Doge's hat. On this sit six notches pointing forwards and one pointing backwards. Each of these represent one of the Sestieri (the one which points backwards represents the Giudecca). Map of the sestieri, also showing the inland district of Mestre. ... Cannaregio shown within Venice. ... San Polo is the smallest of the six sestieri of Venice, covering just 86 acres (350,000 m²) along the Grand Canal. ... Dorsoduro is one of the six sestieri of Venice. ... The Giudecca is an island in the Venetian Lagoon lying immediately south of the central islands, from which it is separated by the Giudecca Canal. ... For the basilica in Florence, see Basilica di Santa Croce di Firenze Santa Croce is one of the six sestieri of Venice. ... San Marco shown within Venice. ... San Giorgio Maggiore. ... Castello is the largest of the six sestieri of Venice. ... San Pietro di Castello is an island in the Venetian Lagoon, forming part of the Castello sestiere. ... SantElena is an island of Venice. ... A Venetian gondola A gòndola is a traditional Venetian sculling boat. ... The Giudecca is an island in the Venetian Lagoon lying immediately south of the central islands, from which it is separated by the Giudecca Canal. ...


Piazzas and campi

Piazza San Marco with the Basilica, by Canaletto, 1730. ... Campo San Polo Campo di San Polo is the largest campo in Venice after that of San Marco. ...

Palaces and palazzi

Doges Palace with Bridge of Sighs to the right Carved marble façade inside courtyard The Doges Palace is a gothic palace in Venice. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ca dOro façade overlooking the Grand Canal Ca dOro (correctly the Palazzo Santa Sofia) is one of the most beautiful palazzos on the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy and surely the most famous. ... Ca Rezzonico is a palazzo on the Grand Canal in Venice. ... The Peggy Guggenheim Collection is a small museum on the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy. ... The Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo (also called Palazzo Contarini Minelli dal Bovolo) is a a small palace in Venice, best known for the external spiral staircase with a plethora of arches, known as the Scala Contarini del Bovolo (of the snail). ... The Fondacho dei Turchi, or Fondega dei Turchi, is a 13th century palazzo on the Grand Canal of Venice. ... Palazzo Labia viewed from Cannaregio Canal Palazzo Labia, is a Venetian, Baroque, palazzo built at the beginning of the 18th century. ... The Scuola Grande of San Marco. ... Malipieros coat-of-arms on the Palace entrance Palazzo Malipiero is a palace in Venice, Italy. ... The Palazzo Foscari (known in Venice as Ca Foscari) was built on the waterfront of Venices Grand Canal circa 1452 by the Doge Francesco Foscari, who required its design to demonstrate his wealth and power. ...

Churches

San Marco di Venezia, as seen from the Piazza San Marco St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco) is the most famous of the churches of Venice and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ... The Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute (Basilica of St Mary of Health/Salvation), commonly known simply as the Salute, is one of the largest churches of Venice and has the status of a minor basilica. ... San Marco Basilica di San Marco San Bartolomeo San Basso San Beneto Santa Croce degli Armeni (Armenian Catholic) San Fantin San Luca Santa Maria Zobenigo (Santa Maria del Giglio) San Maurizio San Moisè San Salvador San Samuele Santo Stefano San Vidal San Zulian San Polo Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa...

Other buildings

The Accademia di Belle Arti is Venice’s school of art and is uniformly known throughout Venice as the Accademia. ... The Porta Magna at the Venetian Arsenal The Venetian Arsenal (Italian: Arsenale di Venezia) is a shipyard and naval depot that played a leading role in Venetian empire-building. ... Teatro La Fenice (the phoenix) is an opera house in Venice, Italy. ... New York State Theater, Lincoln Center, home of the New York City Opera Bolshoi Theatre. ... St Marks Clocktower undergoing restoration in 2004 St Marks Clock is the clock housed in the St Marks Clocktower, on St Marks Square in Venice, adjoining the Procuratie Vecchie. ...

Bridges and canals

The Rialto Bridge Rialto Bridge The Rialto Bridge (Italian: Ponte di Rialto) The Rialto Bridge (Italian: Ponte di Rialto) spans the Grand Canal in Venice. ... For other bridges of this name, see Bridge of Sighs (Cambridge) and Bridge of Sighs (Oxford). ... The Ponte dellAccademia is one of only three in Venice to span the Grand Canal. ... Ponte degli Scalzi The Ponte degli Scalzi (or Ponte dei Scalzi), literally, bridge of the barefoot, is one of only three in Venice to span the Grand Canal. ...

Surroundings

The Venetian Lagoon The Venetian Lagoon or the Venetian Riviera is a lagoon off the Adriatic Sea in which the city of Venice is situated. ... Colourfully painted houses on Burano. ... Lido and the Venetian Lagoon. ... A shop with boats, Murano Murano is usually described as an island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an archipelago of islands linked by bridges. ... San Michele, nicknamed The Island of the Dead, is the cemetery island of Venice. ... SantErasmo is an island in the Venetian Lagoon lying north of the Lido and north east of Venice. ... View of Saint Lazarus Island. ... San Servolo is an island belonging to Italy in the Venetian Lagoon, to the southeast of San Giorgio Maggiore. ... Torcello is a quiet island at the northern end of the Venetian Lagoon. ... The Giudecca is an island in the Venetian Lagoon lying immediately south of the central islands, from which it is separated by the Giudecca Canal. ...

Venetian Villas

The villas of the Veneto, rural residences for nobles during the Republic, are one of the most interesting aspects of Venetian countryside. They are surrounded by elegant gardens, suitable for fashionable parties of high society. Most of these villas were designed by Palladio, and are now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. According to the architects, water around the villas was a very important architectural element because it added more brilliance to the façade. Villa Capra La Rotonda in Vicenza The City centre of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto are a cluster of works by Andrea Palladio and his students which were inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1994 and expanded two years later. ... Illustration from a 1736 English edition of I Quattro Libri dellArchitettura. ... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Sinking of Venice

High water in Venice
High water in Venice
Venice and surroundings in false color, from TERRA satellite. The picture is oriented with North at the top
Venice and surroundings in false color, from TERRA satellite. The picture is oriented with North at the top

The buildings of Venice are constructed on closely spaced wood piles, which were imported from the mainland. (Under water, in the absence of oxygen, wood does not decay.) The piles penetrate alternating layers of clay and sand. Wood for piles was cut in the most western part of today's Slovenia, resulting in the barren land in a region today called Kras, and in two regions of Croatia, Lika and Gorski kotar (resulting in the barren slopes of Velebit). Most of these piles are still intact after centuries of submersion. The foundations rest on the piles, and buildings of brick or stone sit above these footings. The buildings are often threatened by flood tides pushing in from the Adriatic between autumn and early spring. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1965x1512, 1946 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Venice Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1965x1512, 1946 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Venice Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... The tide is the cyclic rising and falling of Earths ocean surface caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the Earth. ... Download high resolution version (981x663, 164 KB)Venice viewed from 438 miles (705 km) by TERRA satellite. ... Download high resolution version (981x663, 164 KB)Venice viewed from 438 miles (705 km) by TERRA satellite. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... A deep foundation installation for a bridge in Napa, California. ... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... An image of Italian Karst (Monfalcone). ... Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the Plješevica mountain from the northeast. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... The middle part of Velebit Velebit is the largest though not the highest mountain range in Croatia. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ...


Six hundred years ago, Venetians protected themselves from land-based attacks by diverting all the major rivers flowing into the lagoon and thus preventing sediment from filling the area around the city. This created an ever-deeper lagoon environment.


During the 20th century, when many artesian wells were sunk into the periphery of the lagoon to draw water for local industry, Venice began to subside. It was realized that extraction of the aquifer was the cause. This sinking process has slowed markedly since artesian wells were banned in the 1960s. However, the city is still threatened by more frequent low-level floods (so-called Acqua alta, "high water") that creep to a height of several centimeters over its quays, regularly following certain tides. In many old houses the former staircases used by people to unload goods are now flooded, rendering the former ground floor uninhabitable. Many Venetians have resorted to moving up to the upper floors and continuing with their lives. Geological strata giving rise to an Artesian well. ... A road destroyed by subsidence and shear. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ...


Some recent studies have suggested that the city is no longer sinking,[11][12] but this is not yet certain; therefore, a state of alert has not been revoked. In May 2003 the Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi inaugurated the MOSE project (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico), an experimental model for evaluating the performance of inflatable gates; the idea is to lay a series of 79 inflatable pontoons across the sea bed at the three entrances to the lagoon. When tides are predicted to rise above 110 centimetres, the pontoons will be filled with air and block the incoming water from the Adriatic sea. This engineering work is due to be completed by 2011.   (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, media proprietor, and Prime Minister of Italy (President of the Council of Ministers of Italy), a position he has held three times; 1994-1995, 2001-2006 and since 2008. ... MOSE Project is a project intented to protect the city of Venice, Italy, against the rise of sea level. ... A pontoon boat, like this small pleasure boat, typically floats and balances by means of two pontoons mounted lengthwise. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ...


Some experts say that the best way to protect Venice is to physically lift the City to a greater height above sea level, by pumping water into the soil underneath the city.[13] This way, some hope, it could rise above sea levels, protecting it for hundreds of years, and eventually the MOSE project may not be necessary (it will, controversially, alter the tidal patterns in the lagoon, damaging some wildlife). A further point about the "lifting" system would be that it would be permanent; the MOSE Project is, by its very nature, a temporary system: it is expected to protect Venice for only 100 years.


In 1604, to defray the cost of flood relief Venice introduced what could be considered the first example of what became elsewhere a 'stamp tax'. When the revenue fell short of expectations in 1608 Venice introduced paper with the superscription 'AQ' and imprinted instructions which was to be used for 'letters to officials'. Initially this was to be a temporary tax but in fact remained in effect to the fall of the Republic in 1797. Shortly after the introduction of the tax Spain produced similar paper for more general taxation purposes and the practice spread to other countries. Stamp duty is a form of tax that is levied on documents. ...


Culture

See also: Venice in media
Typical masks worn during the Carnival of Venice
Typical masks worn during the Carnival of Venice

In the 14th century, many young Venetian men began wearing tight-fitting multicoloured hose, the designs on which indicated the Compagnie della Calza ("Trouser Club") to which they belonged. The Senate passed sumptuary laws, but these merely resulted in changes in fashion in order to circumvent the law. Dull garments were worn over colourful ones, which then were cut to show the hidden colours — which resulted in the wide spread of men's "slashed" fashions in the 15th century. Image File history File links Mascaras_carnaval. ... Image File history File links Mascaras_carnaval. ... Example of masks used during the carnival Venice Shop Window (Spring 2002). ... Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuariae leges) were laws that regulated and reinforced social hierarchies and morals through restrictions on clothing, food, and luxury expenditures. ...


During the 16th century, Venice became one of the most important musical centers of Europe, marked by a characteristic style of composition (the Venetian school) and the development of the Venetian polychoral style under composers such as Adrian Willaert, who worked at San Marco. Venice was the early center of music printing; Ottaviano Petrucci began publishing music almost as soon as this technology was available, and his publishing enterprise helped to attract composers from all over Europe, especially from France and Flanders. By the end of the century, Venice was famous for the splendor of its music, as exemplified in the "colossal style" of Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli, which used multiple choruses and instrumental groups. San Marco in the evening. ... The Venetian polychoral style was a type of music of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras which involved spatially separate choirs singing in alternation. ... Adrian Willaert (c. ... San Marco di Venezia, as seen from the Piazza San Marco St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco) is the most famous of the churches of Venice and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Andrea Gabrieli (c. ... Giovanni Gabrieli Giovanni Gabrieli (c. ...


By the end of the 15th century, Venice had become the European capital of printing, being one of the first cities in Italy (after Subiaco and Rome) to have a printing press after those established in Germany, by 1500 having 417 printers. The most important printing office was the Aldine Press of Aldus Manutius, which in the 1499 printed the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, considered the most beautiful book of Renaissance, and established the modern punctuation, page format and italic type, and he first printed the work of Aristotle. Aldine Press was the printing office started by Aldus Manutius in 1494 in Venice, from which were issued the celebrated Aldine editions of the classics of that time. ... Aldus Manutius (1449/50 - February 6, 1515), the Latin form of Aldo Manuzio (born Teobaldo Mannucci) was the founder of the Aldine Press. ... It has been suggested that Poliphilo be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... In typography, italic type /tælk/ or /atælk/ refers to cursive typefaces based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


Canvases (the common painting surface) originated in Venice during the early renaissance. These early canvases were generally rough. Look up Canvas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Festivals

The Venice Art Biennale is one of the most important events in the arts calendar. During 1893 headed by the mayor of Venice, Riccardo Selvatico, the Venetian City Council passed a resolution on 19 April to set up an Esposizione biennale artistica nazionale (biennial exhibition of Italian art), to be inaugurated on 22 April 1894.[14] Following the outbreak of hostilities during the Second World War, the activities of the Biennale were interrupted in September 1942, but resumed in 1948.[15] is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Famous Venetians

For persons from Venice, see People from Venice. Others closely associated with the city include:

Dandolo Preaching the Crusade, by Gustav Dore Tomb of Enrico Dandolo Enrico Dandolo (1107?-1205) was the Doge (1192-1205) of Venice during the Fourth Crusade. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Publication of Defensor pacis by Marsilius of Padua Mansa Kankan Musa I, ruler of the Mali Empire arrives in Cairo on his hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. ... Explorer redirects here. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... A page of The Travels of Marco Polo The Travels of Marco Polo is the usual English title of Marco Polos travel book, Il Milione. ... Naked Young Woman in Front of the Mirror, Bellinis first female nude, painted when he was about 85 years old. ... Aldus Manutius (1449/50 - February 6, 1515), the Latin form of Aldo Manuzio (born Teobaldo Mannucci) was the founder of the Aldine Press. ... Pietro Bembo (May 20, 1470 - 18 January 1547), Italian cardinal and scholar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... A cardinal is an official of the second-highest rank of the Roman Catholic Church, inferior in rank only to the Pope. ... Lorenzo Lotto (c. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... San Marco in the evening. ... Sebastian Cabot. ... This list of explorers is sorted by surname. ... For other uses, see Titian (disambiguation). ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Cadore, a town and contado (countship) of in the North Italian region of Friuli, is a barren and poor district, watered by the Piave torrent poured forth from the Carnic Alps, and is at no great distance from Tirol. ... Marc Antonio Bragadin (Venice, 21 April 1523 - Famagusta, 17 August 1571) was the Christian commander of forces at Famagusta which fell to the Islamic Ottoman Turks in August 1571. ... Magusa redirects here. ... Sebastiano Venier. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 17 - formation of the Cathay Company to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold May 28 - Publication of the Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings. ... Andrea Gabrieli (c. ... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin; September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... Veronica Franco (1546-1591) was a poet and courtesan of Venice during the sixteenth century. ... Giovanni Gabrieli Giovanni Gabrieli (c. ... Monteverdi redirects here. ... San Marco is one of the six sestieri of Venice, lying in the heart of the city. ... Baldassarre Longhena (Venice, 1598 – Venice, 1682), was a 17th century Venetian architect, who worked mainly in Venice itself, where he was one of the greatest exponents of Baroque architecture of the period. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni (June 8, 1671, Venice, Italy – January 17, 1751, Venice) was an Italian baroque composer. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Rosalba Carriera, self-portrait 1715 Rosalba Carriera (October 7, 1675 – April 15, 1757) was a Venetian Rococo painter. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Vivaldi redirects here. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 - March 27, 1770) was a Venetian painter and printmaker, considered among the last Grand Manner fresco painters from the Venetian republic. ... This article is about the day. ... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... The Stonemasons Yard, painted 1726-30. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The River Thames from Somerset House: a classic veduta by Canaletto, 1747. ... Carlo Goldoni Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (25 February 1707 - 6 February 1793) was a celebrated Italian playwright, whom critics today rank among the European theatres greatest authors. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Luigi Pirandello (June 28, 1867 – December 10, 1936) was an Italian dramatist and novelist, awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1934. ... Carlo, Count Gozzi (13 December 1720 – April 4, 1806), was an Italian dramatist. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Casanova redirects here. ... Duchcov, also known as Dux, Tokczav , is a town in Czech Republic. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... Duchcov, also known as Dux, Tokczav , is a town in Czech Republic. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Brion-Vega Cemetery, 1968-1978. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sendai ) is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, and the largest city in the Tōhoku (northeast) region. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Emilio Vedova (born Venice, August 9, 1919) is an Italian modern painter, considered one of most important to emerge in his country artistic scene after World War II. Categories: 1919 births | Italian painters ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia (June 5, 1646 - July 26, 1684) was an Italian mathematician of noble descent, and the first woman to receive a doctor of philosophy degree. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1646 (MDCXLVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... Bruno Maderna (April 21, 1920 - November 13, 1973) was an Italian-German conductor and composer. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Grave of Nono in the San Michele Cemetery, Venice. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Foreign words of Venetian origin

This article is about armaments factories. ... Look up ciao in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Ghetto (disambiguation). ... A Venetian gondola A gòndola is a traditional Venetian sculling boat. ... A lazaretto or lazaret is a quarantine station for maritime travellers. ... This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... Lido and the Venetian Lagoon. ... For other uses see Quarantine (disambiguation) Quarantine is voluntary or compulsory isolation, typically to contain the spread of something considered dangerous, often but not always disease. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... A regatta is a boat race or series of boat races. ...

Twinnings

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... This article is about the city in Jiangsu. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... County Area 159. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantines reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantines death in 337) Ottoman period 1453... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Nuremberg coat of arms Location of Nuremberg Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Tsingtao redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Broward Established 27 March 1911 Government  - Type Commission-Manager  - Mayor Jim Naugle Area [1]  - City 36. ...

Cooperation agreements

Venice has cooperation agreements with the Greek city of Thessaloniki, the German city of Nuremberg, signed on September 25, 1999, and a the Turkish city of Istanbul, signed on March 4, 1993, within the framework of the 1991 Istanbul Declaration. It is also a Science and Technology Partnership City with Qingdao, China. Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantines reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantines death in 337) Ottoman period 1453... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Tsingtao redirects here. ...


The City of Venice and the Central Association of Cities and Communities of Greece (KEDKE) established, in January 2000, in pursuance of the EC Regulations n. 2137/85, the European Economic Interest Grouping (E.E.I.G.) Marco Polo System to promote and realise European projects within transnational cultural and tourist field, particularly referred to the artistic and architectural heritage preservation and safeguard. Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ...


See also

The Venice Film Festival ( ) is the oldest film festival in the world. ... Detail of exhibition. ... Canaletto (Giovanni Antonio Canal) // A Antonio Abbondi Jacopo Amigoni Giuseppe Angeli Antonello da Messina Carlo Antonini Andrea Appiani B Giovanni Bellini, Madonna. ... Doges Palace // A Ala Napoleonica Arsenal B Biennale di Venezia C Campanile di San Marco Campanile di San Marco Campo di SantAngelo Campo Santa Margherita Campo San Polo Campo San Samuele Campo San Zanipolo Ca Da Mosto Ca Foscari Ca dOro Ca Pesaro Ca Rezzonico Corte del... The Veneti (Enetoi in Greek) were an ancient people who inhabited todays northeastern Italy, in a area comprised in the modern-day region Veneto. ... Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language that was spoken in ancient times in the Veneto region of Italy, between the Po River delta and the southern fringe of the Alps. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Venetian glass is a type of glass object made in Venice, Italy, world-renowned for being colorful, elaborate, and skilfully made. ... The Su e zo per i ponti is a non-competitive run held in Venice between March and April. ... Venezia Mestre Rugby FC are an Italian rugby union club. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: Favet Neptunus eunti (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Pays de la Loire Department Loire-Atlantique (44) Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault  (PS) (since 1989) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... Sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North, Bruges has many waterways that run through the city. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ THE MOST BEAUTIFUL CITY IN THE WORLD - The New York Times
  2. ^ Bosio, Le origini di Venezia
  3. ^ Herrin, Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire, Penguin, Harmondsworth, ISBN 9780141031026
  4. ^ http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=fqa
  5. ^ []
  6. ^ History of Plague
  7. ^ Santa Maria della Salute Church
  8. ^ Italian site about Schiavoni
  9. ^ Monthly Averages for Venice, Italy. Weather.com. Retrieved on 2008-06-01.
  10. ^ Home Page", Wizz Air
  11. ^ "Technology: Venetians put barrage to the test against the Adriatic" (1989-04-15) (1660). New Scientist magazine. Retrieved on 2007-10-10. 
  12. ^ Venice's 1,500-year battle with the waves. BBC News (2003-07-17). Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  13. ^ Keeping Venice from Sinking into the Sea
  14. ^ The Venice Biennale: History of the Venice Biennale
  15. ^ The Venice Biennale: History From the beginnings until the Second World War (1893-1945)

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wizz Air is a Hungarian[1][2] low-cost airline with headquarters in Vecsés, Hungary. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Scholarship

  • Bosio, Luciano. Le origini di Venezia. Novara: Istituto Geografico De Agostini. 
  • Chambers, D.S. (1970). The Imperial Age of Venice, 1380-1580. London: Thames & Hudson. The best brief introduction in English, still completely reliable.
  • Contarini, Gasparo (1599). The Commonwealth and Gouernment of Venice. Lewes Lewkenor, trsl. London: "Imprinted by I. Windet for E. Mattes." The most important contemporary account of Venice's governance during the time of its blossoming. Also available in various reprint editions.
  • Drechsler, Wolfgang (2002). "Venice Misappropriated." Trames 6(2), pp. 192-201. A scathing review of Martin & Romano 2000; also a good summary on the most recent economic and political thought on Venice.
  • Garrett, Martin, "Venice: a Cultural History" (2006). Revised edition of "Venice: a Cultural and Literary Companion" (2001).
  • Grubb, James S. (1986). "When Myths Lose Power: Four Decades of Venetian Historiography." Journal of Modern History 58, pp. 43-94. The classic "muckraking" essay on the myths of Venice.
  • Lane, Frederic Chapin. Venice: Maritime Republic (1973) (ISBN 0801814456) standard scholarly history; emphasis on economic, political and diplomatic history
  • Laven, Mary, "Virgins of Venice: Enclosed Lives and Broken Vows in the Renaissance Convent (2002). The most important study of the life of Renaissance nuns, with much on aristocratic family networks and the life of women more generally.
  • Martin, John Jeffries and Dennis Romano (eds). Venice Reconsidered. The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State, 1297-1797. (2002) Johns Hopkins UP. The most recent collection on essays, many by prominent scholars, on Venice.
  • Muir, Edward (1981). Civic Ritual in Renaissance Venice. Princeton UP. The classic of Venetian cultural studies, highly sophisticated.
  • Rösch, Gerhard (2000). Venedig. Geschichte einer Seerepublik. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. In German, but the most recent top-level brief history of Venice.

Other

  • Cole, Toby. Venice: A Portable Reader, Lawrence Hill, 1979. ISBN 0-88208-097-0 (hardcover); ISBN 0-88208-107-1 (softcover).
  • Morris, Jan (1993), Venice. 3rd revised edition. Faber & Faber, ISBN 0-571-16897-3. A subjective and passionate written introduction to the city and some of its history. Not illustrated.
  • Ruskin, John (1853). The Stones of Venice. Abridged edition Links, JG (Ed), Penguin Books, 2001. ISBN 0-14-139065-4. Seminal work on architecture and society
  • di Robilant, Andrea (2004). A Venetian Affair. Harper Collins. ISBN 1-84115-542-X Biography of Venetian nobleman and lover, from correspondence in the 1750s.

Lawrence Hill is a Canadian writer, whose memoir Black Berry, Sweet Juice: On Being Black and White in Canada, was a Canadian bestseller in 2001. ... Jan Morris CBE (born James Humphrey Morris on 2 October 1926, in Clevedon, Somerset, England, but by heritage and adoption Welsh) is a British historian and travel writer. ... Faber and Faber is a celebrated publishing house in the UK, notable in particular for publishing the poetry of T. S. Eliot. ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... Andrea di Robilant is the author of A Venetian Affair, a 2003 novel set in 18th century Venice. ... Collins was a Scottish printing company founded by a schoolmaster, William Collins, in Glasgow in 1819. ...

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