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Encyclopedia > Venezuela
República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela[1]
Flag of Venezuela Coat of arms of Venezuela
Flag Coat of arms
MottoDios y Federación  (Spanish)
God and Federation
AnthemGloria al Bravo Pueblo  (Spanish)
Glory to the Brave People

Capital
(and largest city)
Caracas
10°30′N, 66°58′W
Official languages Spanish[2]
Demonym Venezuelan
Government Presidential republic
 -  President Hugo Chávez Frías
Independence
 -  from Spain July 5, 1811 
 -  from Gran Colombia January 13, 1830 
 -  Recognized March 30, 1845 
Area
 -  Total 916,445 km² (33rd)
353,841 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.32[3]
Population
 -  February 2008 estimate 28,199,822 (40th)
 -  2001 census 23,054,210 
 -  Density 30.2/km² (173rd)
77/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $335 billion (30th)
 -  Per capita $12,800 (63th)
Gini (2000) 44.1 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.792 (medium) (74th)
Currency Bolívar fuerte[4] (VEF)
Time zone UTC-4:30
Internet TLD .ve
Calling code +58
^  The "Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela" has been the full official title since the adoption of the new Constitution of 1999, when the state was renamed in honor of Simón Bolívar
.
^  The Constitution also recognizes all indigenous languages spoken in the country.
^  Area totals include only Venezuelan-administered territory.
^  On 1 January 2008 a new bolivar, the bolívar fuerte (ISO 4217 code VEF), worth 1,000 VEB, was introduced.

Venezuela (pronounced /ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə/, Spanish pronunciation: [beneˈswela]), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America. Venezuela may refer to: Venezuela, a country in Latin America Venezuela (second republic), republic founded by Simón Bolívar in 1813 Venezuela (song), a song written by Pablo Herrero and José Luis Armentero Venezuela, Cuba, municipality in Ciego de Ávila Province, Cuba Category: ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela_(state). ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Venezuela. ... New 8-star Flag of Venezuela Flag ratio: 2:3 New 8-star Flag of Venezuela Flag ratio: 2:3, civil/merchant variant Old 7-star Flag of Venezuela. ... The current Coat of Arms of Venezuela was primarly approved by the Congress on April 18, 1836, undergoing small modifications through history, reaching the version described below. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Gloria al Bravo Pueblo (Glory to the Brave People) was adopted as Venezuelas national anthem by President Antonio Guzmán Blanco on May 25, 1881. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... The Demographics of Venezuela are the condition and overview of Venezuelas peoples. ... Nickname: Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela)1 is a country in northern South America. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... The President of Venezuela (Spanish: Presidente de Venezuela) is both the head of state and head of government of Venezuela. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... Gran Colombia Capital Bogotá Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic History  - Established December 17, 1819  - Disestablished November 19, 1831 Gran Colombia (Spanish for Greater Colombia) is a name used today for the Republic of Colombia of the period 1819-1831. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code VEB User(s) Venezuela Inflation 16% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .ve is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Venezuela. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... This article is about the South American independence leader. ... Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The country comprises a continental mainland and numerous islands located off the Venezuelan coastline in the Caribbean Sea. Currently, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela possesses borders with Guyana to the east, Brazil to the south, and Colombia to the west. Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, St. Lucia, Barbados, Curaçao, Bonaire, Aruba, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and the Leeward Antilles lie just north, off the Venezuelan coast. Falling within the tropics, Venezuela sits close to the equator, in the Northern Hemisphere. Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... This article is about the country in the Caribbean; for the Catholic saint, see Saint Lucy Saint Lucia is an island nation in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. ... For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Tera di Solo y suave biento Capital (and largest city) Kralendijk Official languages Dutch Government See Politics of the Netherlands Antilles  - Bonaire Administrator  - Governor of N.A. Frits Goedgedrag Constitutional monarchy part of the Netherlands Antilles  Area  - Total 288 km² 111 sq mi  Population  - 2001 census 10,791  - Density... The Leeward Antilles are a chain of islands in the Caribbean – specifically, the southerly islands of the Lesser Antilles (and, in turn, the West Indies) along the southeastern fringe of the Caribbean Sea, just north of the Venezuelan coast of the South American mainland. ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ...


A former Spanish colony, which has been an independent republic since 1821, Venezuela holds territorial disputes with Guyana, largely concerning the Essequibo area, and with Colombia concerning the Gulf of Venezuela. In 1895, after the dispute over the Guyana border flared up, it was submitted to a neutral commission, which in 1899 decided it mostly in Guyana's favour.[1] Today, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is known widely for its petroleum industry, the environmental diversity of its territory, and its natural features. Venezuela is considered to be among the world's 17 most biodiverse countries.[2] This article needs cleanup. ... Guayana Esequiba is the territory of Guyana claimed by Venezuela. ... Satellite image of the Gulf of Venezuela The Gulf of Venezuela is a gulf of the Carribean Sea bounded by the Venezuelan states of Zulia and Falcón. ... Petro redirects here. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... The Megadiverse countries are a group of countries in which less than the 10% of the global surface has more than the 70% of the biodiversity. ...


Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America;[3][4] the vast majority of Venezuelans live in the cities of the north, especially in the capital Caracas which is also the largest city. Other major cities include Maracaibo, Valencia, Maracay, Barquisimeto, Ciudad Guayana and the popular tourist city of Mérida. Venezuela is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Nickname: Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... Nickname: Motto: Muy noble y leal Maracaibo Municipality in Zulia State Coordinates: , Country State Municipality Maracaibo Founded 1529 Government  - Mayor Gian Carlo Di Martino (MVR) Area  - Total 550 km² (212. ... City motto: (English:) City nickname: Capital industrial de Venezuela (English: Industrial capital of Venezuela) Location of Valencia Mayor Francisco Cabrera Santos (2004 – 2008) Population   â€“Total (2001)   â€“Density Metropolitan area 1,400,000 xxx - km² Time zone UTC –4 Latitude Longitude 10º 10´11 N 68º.59´12 W Official website... Nickname: Motto: none Coordinates: , Country Venezuela State Aragua Counties Girardot Government  - Mayor Humberto Prieto (2004 – 2008) Area  - City 311. ... Nickname: Motto: (none) Coordinates: , Country Venezuela State Lara Counties Iribarren Municipality Government  - Mayor Henry Falcón (2004 – 2008) Elevation 556 m (2,198 ft) Website: alcaldiadebarquisimeto. ... Ciudad Guayana is a city in Venezuela. ... Funded as: Santiago de los Caballeros de Mérida Motto of the city: La ciudad de los caballeros Estado Mérida Municipio Municipio Libertador Alcalde Carlos León (2004 – 2008) Surface 25 km² (aprox. ... The fauna of Venezuela consists of a huge variety of unique animals; some 23% of reptilian and 50% of amphibian species that inhabit the country are endemic to Venezuela. ... List of national parks of Venezuela: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...

Contents

Etymology

A palafito, similar to those seen by Amerigo Vespucci.

The name "Venezuela" is believed to have originated from the cartographer Amerigo Vespucci who, along with Alonso de Ojeda, led a 1499 naval expedition along the northwestern coast's Gulf of Venezuela. On reaching the Guajira Peninsula, the crew observed villages (palafitos) that the people had built over the water. This reminded Vespucci of the city of Venice (Italian: Venezia), so he named the region "Venezuola",[5] meaning "little Venice" in Italian. In Spanish, the suffix -zuela is used as a diminutive term (e.g., plaza / plazuela, cazo / cazuela); thus, the term's original sense would have been that of a "little Venice".[6] Image File history File links Palafito. ... Image File history File links Palafito. ... A palafito is an Amerindian stilt village or dwelling erected on bodies of water. ... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ... Amerigo Vespucci (Américo Vespucio in Spanish) (March 8, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. ... Alonso de Ojeda (c. ... Satellite image of the Gulf of Venezuela The Gulf of Venezuela is a gulf of the Carribean Sea bounded by the Venezuelan states of Zulia and Falcón. ... Guajira is a style of Cuban acoustic music. ... A palafito is an Amerindian stilt village or dwelling erected on bodies of water. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. ... The German colonization of the Americas consisted of a failed attempt to settle Venezuela (Klein-Venedig in German) in the 16th century. ...


Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of Vespucci and de Ojeda's crew, states in his work Summa de Geografía that the indigenous population they found were called "Veneciuela", suggesting that the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from a native word.[7] The Vespucci story, however, remains the most popular and accepted version of the origin of the country's name. In English, the word Venezuela is pronounced as IPA: /ˌvɛnɨzˈweɪlə/. The Venezuelan Spanish is IPA: [beneˈswela]. Martín Fernández de Enciso was a navigator and geographer who was instrumental in colonising the Isthmus of Darien. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Venezuelan Spanish is a dialect of the Spanish language spoken in Venezuela. ...


History

Main article: History of Venezuela

Human habitation of Venezuela is estimated to have commenced at least 15,000 years ago from which period leaf-shaped flake tools, together with chopping and plano-convex scraping implements, have been found exposed on the high riverine terraces of the Rio Pedregal in western Venezuela.[8] Late Pleistocene hunting artifacts, including spear tips, have been found at a similar series of sites in northwestern Venezuela known as "El Jobo"; according to radiocarbon dating, these date from 13,000 to 7,000 BC.[9] In the 16th century, when the Spanish colonization of Venezuela began, indigenous peoples such as the Mariches, themselves descendants of the Caribs, were systematically killed. Indian caciques (leaders) such as Guaicaipuro and Tamanaco attempted to resist Spanish incursions, but were ultimately subdued; Tamanaco himself, by order of Caracas' founder Diego de Losada, was also put to death.[10] This is the history of Venezuela. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flake can be: fish flake, a platform made from dried timber where fish (predominantly cod-fish) can be cured in the sun. ... This article is about the instrument. ... Look up chop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up plane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up convex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A scrape is another name for a nest made by ground birds, it usually describes a nest made in a shallow depression. ... Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... Spears were one of the most common personal weapons from the late Bronze Age until the advent of firearms. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... ... Mariche is the name of a former native Venezuelan tribe. ... Carib family (by John Gabriel Stedman) Drawing of a Carib woman Carib, Island Carib or Kalinago people, after whom the Caribbean Sea was named, live in the Lesser Antilles islands. ... Look up cacique in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Minted gold coin depicting Guaicaipuro Guaicaipuro, (circa 1530 – 1568) was a native (indigenous) Venezuelan chief of both the Teques and Caracas tribes. ... Minted Gold coin depicting Tamanaco Tamanaco, was a native Venezuelan chief, who as leader of the Mariches and Quiriquires tribes led during part of the XVI century the resistance against the Spanish conquest of Venezuelan territory in the central region of the country, specially in the Caracas valley. ... Diego de Losada (b. ...

Detail of Martín Tovar y Tovar's La Batalla de Carabobo
Detail of Martín Tovar y Tovar's La Batalla de Carabobo

Venezuela was first colonized by Spain in 1522, when it hosted the Spanish Empire's first permanent South American settlement[citation needed] in what is now Cumaná. Originally part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, most of Venezuela eventually became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada; portions of eastern Venezuela were incorporated into New Andalusia. After a series of unsuccessful uprisings, Venezuela—under the leadership of Francisco de Miranda, a Venezuelan marshal involved in the French Revolutiondeclared independence on 5 July 1811. This began the Venezuelan War of Independence. However, a devastating earthquake that struck Caracas in 1812, together with the rebellion of the Venezuelan llaneros, helped bring down the first Venezuelan republic.[11] A second Venezuelan republic, proclaimed on 7 August 1813, lasted several months before being crushed as well. www. ... www. ... Martín Tovar y Tovar (10 February 1827 — 17 December 1902) was one of the most important and high-profile Venezuelan painters of the 19th century. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... A traditional fishermans boat called Peñero at Mochimas National Park. ... Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río... The Viceroyalty of New Granada was the name given to a group of colonial provinces in northern South America, corresponding mainly to modern Colombia. ... New Andalusia (in Spanish, Nuevo Andalucía) was a Spanish viceroyalty in the 1500s. ... Francisco de Miranda Sebastián Francisco de Miranda Rodríguez (commonly known as Francisco de Miranda March 28, 1750 – July 14, 1816) was a South American revolutionary whose own plan for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, but who is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bol... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... By means of the signing of the Venezuelan Declaration of Independence on July 5, 1811, Venezuelans of the time took the decision, supported by several politicians, of breaking away from the Kingdom of Spain and to build a new nation to split the premises of equality between individuals, abolition of... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... The Venezuelan War of Independence in 1811-1812 was Venezuelas first war for independence from Spanish colonial rule. ... A Llanero or the Llaneros is the name given to Venezuelan and Colombia cowboys and means plainsmen. ... The First Republic of Venezuela (Primera República de Venezuela in Spanish) was founded by Simón Bolívar in 1811 during the Venezuelan War of Independence from Spain. ... The Second Republic of Venezuela was founded by Simón Bolívar on August 7, 1813 during the Venezuelan War of Independence from Spanish colonial rule. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Sovereignty was only attained after Simón Bolívar, known as El Libertador ("The Liberator") and aided by Alexandre Petion of Haiti,José Antonio Páez and Antonio José de Sucre, won the Battle of Carabobo on 24 June 1821. José Prudencio Padilla and Rafael Urdaneta's victory in the Battle of Lake Maracaibo on 24 July 1823 helped seal Venezuelan independence. New Granada's congress gave Bolívar control of the Granadian army; leading it, he liberated several countries and founded Gran Colombia. Sucre, who won many battles for Bolívar, went on to liberate Ecuador, and later become the second president of Bolivia. Venezuela remained part of Gran Colombia until 1830, when a rebellion led by Páez allowed the proclamation of a new Republic of Venezuela; Páez became its first president. This article is about the South American independence leader. ... José Antonio Páez José Antonio Páez (June 13, 1790 - May 6, 1873) was the first President of Venezuela. ... Antonio José de Sucre (February 3, 1795 – June 4, 1830) was a South American independence leader. ... The Battle of Carabobo was fought between South American independence fighters, led by Simón Bolívar, and royalist forces seeking to preserve Spanishs American empire. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... José Prudencio Padilla (19 March 1788 — 2 February 1828) was a famous military leader who fought in the Bolivars War and the South American Wars of Independence. ... Hero of the Latin American war for independence, Rafael José Urdaneta y Faría was born on October 24th, 1788, in the province of Maracaibo in Venezuela from an aristocratic family of spanish descent. ... Combatants Greater Colombia Spanish Empire Commanders José Prudencio Padilla Ángel Laborde The Battle of Lake Maracaibo was fought on July 24, 1823 in Venezuelas Lake Maracaibo between Almirante (Admiral) José Prudencio Padilla and Royalist Captain Ángel Laborde. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Capital Bogotá Created December 1819 Dissolved November 1831 Demonym Colombian Departments of the Republic Greater Colombia (Gran Colombia in Spanish) is the name given to the Republic of Colombia of 1819-1830, which was a short-lived republic in South America consisting of present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama. ...


Much of Venezuela's nineteenth century history was characterized by political turmoil and dictatorial rule.[12] During first half of the 20th century, caudillos (military strongmen) continued to dominate, though they generally allowed for mild social reforms and promoted economic growth. Following the death of Juan Vicente Gómez in 1935 and the demise of caudillismo (authoritarian rule), pro-democracy movements eventually forced the military to withdraw from direct involvement in national politics in 1958. Since that year, Venezuela has had a series of democratically elected governments.[13] The discovery of massive oil deposits, totaling some 400 million barrels,[citation needed] during World War I prompted an economic boom that lasted into the 1980s; by 1935, Venezuela's per capita GDP was Latin America's highest,[14]. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... Caudillo is a Spanish (caudilho in Portuguese) word usually used to designate a political-military leader at the head of an authoritative power. ... Juan Vicente Gómez. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... “bbl” redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


After WWII the globalization and heavy immigration from Southern Europe (mainly from Spain, Italy, Portugal) and poorer Latin American countries markedly diversified Venezuelan society. German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ...


The huge public spending and accumulation of internal and external debts by the government and private sector during the Petrodollar years of the 1970s and early 80s, followed by the collapse of oil prices during the 1980s, crippled the Venezuelan economy. As the government devalued the currency in order to face its mounting local and non-local financial obligations, Venezuelans' real standard of living fell dramatically. A number of failed economic policies and increasing corruption in government and society at large, has led to rising poverty and crime and worsening social indicators and increasing political instability,[15][opinion needs balancing] resulting in two major coup attempts in 1992. Hugo Chávez meets with fellow conspirator Francisco Arias Cárdenas prior to the February 4, 1992 coup attempt. ...


In the February 1992 coup, Hugo Chávez, a former paratrooper, attempted to overthrow the government of President Carlos Andrés Pérez as anger grew against the President's economic austerity measures. Chávez was unsuccessful and landed in jail. In November of that year, another unsuccessful coup attempt occurred, organized by other revolutionary groups in the Venezuelan Armed Forces and those that remained from Chávez’s previous attempt.[16] By 2002, the tables had turned, and Hugo Chávez, now a democratically elected president, was temporarily ousted from power by right-wing elements in the army and the business sector. The current president Hugo Chávez, who led the first unsuccessful coup in 1992, was elected as a reaction against the established political parties and the corruption and inequalities their policies created. Since coming to power, Chávez has attracted some controversy through his reforms of the Constitution, the implementation of his "Bolivarian Revolution." Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez (born October 27, 1922), best known as CAP was President of Venezuela from 1974 to 1979 and again from 1989 to 1993. ... The Bolivarian Revolution refers to a mass social movement and political process in Venezuela. ...


Government

The National Assembly, Caracas
The National Assembly, Caracas

The Venezuelan president is elected by a vote, with direct and universal suffrage, and functions as both head of state and head of government. The term of office is six years, and a president may be re-elected to a single consecutive term. The president appoints the vice-president and decides the size and composition of the cabinet and makes appointments to it with the involvement of the legislature. The president can ask the legislature to reconsider portions of laws he finds objectionable, but a simple parliamentary majority can diminish these objections. Current President Hugo Chávez was elected in December 1998 on a platform that called for the creation of a National Constituent Assembly in order to write a new Constitution. ... Image File history File links National_Assembly,_Caracas,_Venezuela. ... Image File history File links National_Assembly,_Caracas,_Venezuela. ... List of Presidents of Venezuela José Antonio Páez (1830-1835) José María Vargas (1835-1837) Carlos Soublette (1837-1839) José Antonio Páez (1839-1843) Carlos Soublette (1843-1847) José Tadeo Monagas (1847-1851) José Gregorio Monagas (1851-1855) José Tadeo Monagas (1855-1858) Julián Castro (1858... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... This article is about the governmental body. ...


The unicameral Venezuelan parliament is the National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional. Its 167 deputies, of which three are reserved for indigenous people, serve five-year terms and may be re-elected for a maximum of two additional terms. They are elected by popular vote through a combination of party lists and single member constituencies. The highest judicial body is the Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia, whose magistrates are elected by parliament for a single twelve-year term. The National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral, or CNE) is in charge of electoral processes; it is formed by five main directors elected by the National Assembly. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... The National Assembly (Spanish Asamblea Nacional) is the current legislative branch of the Venezuelan government. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Spanish: Tribunal Supremo de Justicia) is the highest court of law in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and is the head of the judicial branch. ... The National Electoral Council (Spanish: Consejo Nacional Electoral), or CNE, is the institution in charge of all electoral processes that take place in Venezuela. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Venezuela

There are currently two major blocs of political parties in Venezuela: the leftist United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) and its major allies Fatherland for All (PPT), and the Communist Party of Venezuela (PCV); and A New Era (UNT) together with its allied parties Project Venezuela, Justice First, Movement for Socialism (Venezuela) and others. Following the fall of Marcos Pérez Jiménez in 1958, Venezuelan politics was dominated by the center-right Christian democratic COPEI and the center-left social democratic Democratic Action (AD) parties; this two-party system was formalized by the puntofijismo arrangement. However, this system has been sidelined following the initial 1998 election of current president Hugo Chávez, which started the Bolivarian Revolution. It has been suggested that ONIDEX be merged into this article or section. ... Political parties in Venezuela lists political parties in Venezuela. ... The United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Spanish: , PSUV) is a proposed political party in Venezuela. ... Fatherland for Everybody (Patria por Todos ) is a political party in Venezuela. ... PCV logo Communist Party of Venezuela (in Spanish: Partido Comunista de Venezuela) a communist political party in Venezuela. ... A New Era (Un Nuevo Tiempo) is a political party of social democracy in Venezuela. ... The Project Venezuela (Proyecto Venezuela) is a political party in Venezuela. ... Primero Justicia Primero Justicia ( in English: Justice First) is a new political movement in Venezuela. ... The Movement toward Socialism (Spanish: Movimiento al Socialismo, or MAS) is a social-democratic political party in Venezuela. ... Marcos Pérez Jiménez Marcos Pérez Jiménez (April 25, 1914 – September 20, 2001) was president of Venezuela from 1952 to 1958. ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... Copei - Social Christian Party of Venezuela (Copei, Partido Social Cristiano de Venezuela) is a political party in Venezuela. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Democratic Action (Spanish: Acción Democrática, abbreviated as AD) is a Venezuelan social democratic political party. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A two-party system is a form of party system where two major political parties dominate voting in nearly all elections. ... Puntofijismo was a formal arrangement arrived at between representatives of Venezuelas two formerly main political parties, which have since been marginalized due to lack of popular support. ... A presidential election was held in the Republic of Venezuela on 6 December 1998. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ...


The voting age in Venezuela is 18 and older. Voting is not compulsory.[17] Most of the political opposition boycotted the 2005 parliamentary election. Consequently, the MVR-led bloc secured all 167 seats in the National Assembly. Then, the MVR voted to dissolve itself in favor of joining the proposed United Socialist Party of Venezuela, while Chávez requested that MVR-allied parties merge themselves into it as well. The National Assembly has twice voted to grant Chávez the ability rule by decree in several broadly defined areas, once in 2000 and again in 2007. This power has been granted to previous administrations as well.[18][19][20] Compulsory voting is a practice that requires citizens to vote in elections or to attend a polling place to get their name crossed off the electoral roll. ... Venezuela held a parliamentary election on 4 December 2005. ... The United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Spanish: , PSUV) is a proposed political party in Venezuela. ... Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators and absolute monarchs. ...


Public health

See also: Water supply and sanitation in Venezuela

Infant mortality in Venezuela stood at 16 deaths per 1,000 births in 2004, much lower than the South American average (by comparison, the U.S. stands at 5 deaths per 1,000 births in 2006).[21][22][23] Child malnutrition (defined as stunting or wasting in children under age five) stands at 17%; Delta Amacuro and Amazonas have the nation's highest rates.[24] According to the United Nations, 32% of Venezuelans lack adequate sanitation, primarily those living in rural areas.[25] Diseases ranging from typhoid, yellow fever, cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis D are present in the country.[26] Only 3% of sewage is treated; most major cities lack treatment facilities.[27] 17% of Venezuelans lack access to potable water.[28] Water supply and sanitation in Venezuela is characterized by insufficient coverage and service quality, despite the countrys oil wealth. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... UN redirects here. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... Hepatitis D is a disease caused by a small circular RNA virus (Hepatitis delta virus); this virus is replication defective and therefore cannot propagate in the absence of another virus. ...


Travelers to Venezuela are advised to obtain vaccinations for a variety of diseases including typhoid, yellow fever, cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis D.[29] In a cholera epidemic of contemporary times in the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela's political leaders were accused of racial profiling of their own indigenous people to deflect blame from the country's institutions, thereby aggravating the epidemic.[30] This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... Hepatitis D is a disease caused by a small circular RNA virus (Hepatitis delta virus); this virus is replication defective and therefore cannot propagate in the absence of another virus. ... For other uses, see Orinoco (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity...


As had previous administrations, the government is attempting to create a national universal health care system that is free of charge. The current vehicle for this idea is Misión Barrio Adentro.[31] Barrio Adentro (Inside the neighborhood, or Into the neighborhood) is a government-sponsored Venezuelan program to provide free health care and dental care to poor and traditionally underserved communities. ...


Foreign relations

Soil from Venezuela and four other countries—Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru—liberated by the Venezuelan leader Simón Bolívar is buried at the Parque de las Cinco Repúblicas in Mérida.
Soil from Venezuela and four other countries—Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru—liberated by the Venezuelan leader Simón Bolívar is buried at the Parque de las Cinco Repúblicas in Mérida.

Throughout most of the 20th century, Venezuela maintained friendly relations with most Latin American and Western nations. Relations between Venezuela and the United States worsened in 2002, when the U.S. government helped to instigate the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt and recognized the short-lived unconstitutional regime of Pedro Carmona. Correspondingly, ties to various leftist-led Latin American and Middle Eastern countries not allied to the U.S. have strengthened. Venezuela seeks alternative hemispheric integration via such proposals as the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas trade proposal and the newly launched pan-Latin American television network teleSUR. Venezuela was a proponent of OAS's decision to adopt its Anti-Corruption Convention, and is actively working in the Mercosur trade bloc to push increased trade and energy integration. Globally, it seeks a "multi-polar" world based on strengthened ties among Third World countries. Venezuelas declared priorities in the international arena are: Respect for human rights; The right of all people to self-determination; Nonintervention in the internal affairs of other nations; Peaceful settlement of disputes between nations, including border disputes; The right of all people to peace and security; and Support for... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article is about the South American independence leader. ... Funded as: Santiago de los Caballeros de Mérida Motto of the city: La ciudad de los caballeros Estado Mérida Municipio Municipio Libertador Alcalde Carlos León (2004 – 2008) Surface 25 km² (aprox. ... The Venezuelan coup attempt of 2002 was a failed coup détat on April 11, 2002. ... This page concerns the president of Venezuela for two days in 2002. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (Spanish: Alternativa Bolivariana para las Américas or ALBA - which also means dawn in Spanish) is a political, social and economic cooperation and complementation vision of integration between the Latin American countries, proposed by the government of Venezuela as an alternative to the Free... A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ... For the unrelated telecommunications company in Suriname, see Telesur (Suriname). ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Portuguese, Spanish Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza Chile (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... Motto (Spanish) (Portuguese) (Guaraní) Our North is the South  â€¢  â€¢ Pro Tempore Secretariat Montevideo, Uruguay Largest city São Paulo, Brazil Official languages 3 Portuguese Spanish Guaraní Membership 5 Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  Carlos Álvarez Establishment  -  Declaration of Foz do Iguaçu 30 December 1985   -  Treaty of Asunción... Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Military

See also: Military of Venezuela

Venezuela's national armed forces include roughly 100,000 personnel spread through four service branches: the Ground Forces, the Navy (including the Marine Corps), the Air Force, and the Armed Forces of Cooperation (FAC), commonly known as the National Guard. As of 2008, a further 600,000 soldiers were incorporated into a new branch, known as the Armed Reserve; these troops bear more semblance to a militia than the older branches. The President of Venezuela is the commander-in-chief of the national armed forces. As of 2008, the National Armed Forces of Venezuela (FAN, Spanish: ) is comprised of roughly 100,000 individuals in four service branches--the Army, Navy (including the Marine Corps), Air Force, and the Armed Forces of Cooperation (FAC), commonly known as the National Guard. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The navy of Venezuela is categorized as a modern, medium naval force with limited oceanic capabilities. The estimated numerical strength of the Navy is of 18,300 troops, which include 7,800 marines and 500 Naval Aviation troops. ... The UKs Royal Marines in a Rigid Raider assault watercraft A marine corps (from French corps de marine) is a branch of a nations armed forces incorporating Marines, intended to be capable of mounting amphibious assaults using infantry, armour, aircraft, and watercraft. ... The Air Force of Venezuela, since 2006: Aviación Militar Venezolana (previously Fuerza Aérea Venezolana, FAV) is a professional armed body designed to defend Venezuelas sovereignty and airspace. ... National Guard emblem The Venezuelan National Guard, Officially the Armed Forces of Cooperation (esp:Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperación), is one of the four components of the National Armed Forces of Venezuela. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... List of Presidents of Venezuela José Antonio Páez (1830-1835) José María Vargas (1835-1837) Carlos Soublette (1837-1839) José Antonio Páez (1839-1843) Carlos Soublette (1843-1847) José Tadeo Monagas (1847-1851) José Gregorio Monagas (1851-1855) José Tadeo Monagas (1855-1858) Julián Castro (1858... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ...


Subdivisions

Venezuela is divided into twenty-three states (Estados), a capital district (distrito capital) corresponding to the city of Caracas, the Federal Dependencies (Dependencias Federales, a special territory), and Guayana Esequiba (claimed in a border dispute with Guyana). Venezuela is further subdivided into 335 municipalities (municipios); these are subdivided into over one thousand parishes (parroquias). The states are grouped into nine administrative regions. (regiones administrativas), which were established by presidential decree. Historically, Venezuela has also claimed all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River; this 159,500 square kilometres (61,583 sq mi) tract was dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación (the "zone to be reclaimed").[32] Venezuela is divided into 23 states (estados), 1 Capital District (Distrito Capital) and the Federal Dependencies (Dependencias Federales de Ultramar) that consist of a large number of Venezuelan islands. ... Venezuelas states, capital district, and federal dependencies have been grouped into administrative regions since a 1969 decree on regionalization that institutionalized a process of region development. ... Capital District (spanish Distrito Capital) is the capital area of Venezuela which is placed on the same rank of states. ... Guayana Esequiba is the territory of Guyana claimed by Venezuela. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... The Essequibo River is the longest river in Guyana, and the largest river between the Orinoco and Amazon. ...

States
 Name Capital
1 Flag of Amazonas Amazonas Puerto Ayacucho
2  Anzoátegui Barcelona
3 Flag of Apure Apure San Fernando de Apure
4 Flag of Aragua Aragua Maracay
5 Flag of Barinas Barinas Barinas
6 Flag of Bolívar Bolívar Ciudad Bolívar
7 Flag of Carabobo Carabobo Valencia
8 Flag of Cojedes Cojedes San Carlos
9 Flag of Delta Amacuro Delta Amacuro   Tucupita
10 Flag of Falcón Falcón Coro
11 Flag of Guárico Guárico San Juan De Los Morros      
12 Flag of Lara Lara Barquisimeto
 Name Capital
13 Flag of Mérida Mérida Mérida
14  Miranda Los Teques
15 Flag of Monagas Monagas Maturín
16 Flag of Nueva Esparta Nueva Esparta   La Asunción
17 Flag of Portuguesa Portuguesa Guanare
18 Flag of Sucre Sucre Cumaná
19  Táchira San Cristóbal  
20 Flag of Trujillo Trujillo Trujillo
21 Flag of Vargas Vargas La Guaira
22 Flag of Yaracuy Yaracuy San Felipe
23  Zulia Maracaibo
Dependencies
         Name Capital
   Flag of Venezuela Federal Dependencies (none)
Administrative regions
      Name Subregions
     Andean Barinas, Mérida, Táchira, Trujillo, Páez Municipality of Apure
     Capital Miranda, Vargas, Capital District
     Central Aragua, Carabobo, Cojedes
     Central-Western Falcón, Lara, Portuguesa, Yaracuy
     Guayana Bolívar, Amazonas, Delta Amacuro
     Insular Nueva Esparta, Federal Dependencies
     Llanos Apure (excluding Paez Municipality), Guárico
     North-Eastern Anzoátegui, Monagas, Sucre
     Zulian Zulia

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 778 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2160 × 1664 pixel, file size: 625 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Venezuela ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Estado Amazonas is one of the 23 states (estados) into which Venezuela is divided. ... Puerto Ayacucho is the capital and largest city of Amazonas state in Venezuela. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anzoátegui State Anthem State motto: Tumba de sus tiranos (English: Tomb of their tyrants) Location whithin Venezuela Created (given the current status) 1909 Capital city Barcelona Area 43,300 km² Population 1,222,225 hab. ... Barcelona is the capital of Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Apure may refer to: Apure (state) Apure River This article consisting of geographical locations is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... San Fernando de Apure is a city in Apure State, Venezuela. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Aragua State Anthem State motto: none Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1899 State capital Maracay Area    â€¢% 7,014 km² 0,76   (Ranked ) Population    â€¢% 1,629,433 hab. ... Nickname: Motto: none Coordinates: , Country Venezuela State Aragua Counties Girardot Government  - Mayor Humberto Prieto (2004 – 2008) Area  - City 311. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Barinas State Anthem State motto: Dios y Federación (Spanish: God and Federation) Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1937 State capital Barinas Area    â€¢% 35,200 km² 3,84   (Ranked ) Population    â€¢% 730,407 hab. ... Barinas is a city in west central Venezuela. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 513 pixel Image in higher resolution (935 × 600 pixel, file size: 28 KB, MIME type: image/png) The w:flag of Bolívar State of w:Venezuela. ... Bolívar State Anthem Motto: none Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1901 State capital Ciudad Bolívar Area    â€¢% 238,000 km² 26,24   (Ranked 1st) Population    â€¢% 1,490,612 hab. ... Ciudad Bolívar is the capital of the eastern Venezuelan state of Bolívar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Carabobo State Anthem Motto: Ocassus servitutis (Latin: Decline of servitude) Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1864 State capital Valencia Area    â€¢% 4,650 km² 0,51   (Ranked 21st) Population    â€¢% 2,227,000 hab. ... Valencia is the capital city of Carabobo State, Venezuela. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cojedes State Anthem State motto: Ad sum (Latin: I am here) Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1864 State capital San Carlos Area    â€¢% 14,800 km²   (Ranked 1,62) Population    â€¢% 291,234 hab. ... San Carlos is the capital of the Venezuelan state of Cojedes. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Estado Delta Amacuro is one of the 23 states (estados) into which Venezuela is divided. ... Tucupita (Lat 9:03:25N Long 62:02:59W) is the capital city of the Venezuelan state of Delta Amacuro. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Falcón State Anthem Motto: Dios y Federación (Spanish: God and Federation) Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1864 ¹ State capital Coro Area    â€¢% 24,800 km² 2,71   (Ranked 10th) Population    â€¢% 877,386 hab. ... CORO ROCKS MAN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! OOOOO YAA BABY!!!!! WHO ROCKS DA HOUSE? WHO ROCKS DA HOUSE??? CORO DOES!!!!!! CORO DOES!!!!!!!!! OK TIME TO CALM DOWN NOW..........The city of Santa Ana de Coro was founded in 1527 by Spanish colonists. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Guárico State Anthem Motto: Si amas la libertad, ven a mis pampas (Spanish: If you love liberty, come to my plains) Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1900 State capital San Juan de los Morros Area    â€¢% 64,986 km² 7,1   (Ranked 4th) Population    â€¢% 723,965 hab. ... Primero comencemos hablando del estado Guárico. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Lara State Anthem State motto: none Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1901 State capital Barquisimeto Area    â€¢% 19,800 km² 2. ... Nickname: Motto: (none) Coordinates: , Country Venezuela State Lara Counties Iribarren Municipality Government  - Mayor Henry Falcón (2004 – 2008) Elevation 556 m (2,198 ft) Website: alcaldiadebarquisimeto. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mérida State Anthem Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1864 State capital Mérida Area 11,300 km² Population (2001 est. ... The Venezuelan city of Mérida is capital of the state of the same name, Mérida State. ... Miranda State Anthem Motto: none Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1909 State capital Los Teques Area    â€¢% 7,950 km² 0,87   (Ranked 17th) Population    â€¢% 2,857,900 hab. ... Los Teques is the capital city of the Venezuelan state of Miranda. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Monagas State Anthem Motto: Resistió con valor (Spanish: Resisted with courage) Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1909 State capital Maturín Area    â€¢% 28,900 km² 3,15   (Ranked ) Population    â€¢% 828,363 hab. ... Maturín is the capital of the Venezuelan state of Monagas. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nueva Esparta State Anthem Motto: none Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1909 State capital La Asunción Area    â€¢% 1,150 km² 0,12   (Ranked 23rd) Population    â€¢% 436,900 hab. ... La Asunción is a city in Venezuela. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Portuguesa State Anthem State motto: Honor y Gloria (Spanish: Honor and Glory) Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1909 State capital Guanare Area    â€¢% 15,200 km² 1,65   (Ranked ) Population    â€¢% 848,259 hab. ... Guanare is the capital city of Portuguesa State, Venezuela. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sucre_State. ... Sucre State Anthem Motto: none Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1909 State capital Cumaná Area    â€¢% 11,800 km² 1. ... A traditional fishermans boat called Peñero at Mochimas National Park. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Táchira State Anthem Motto: none Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1899 State capital San Cristóbal Area    â€¢% 11,100 km² 1,2   (Ranked 16th) Population    â€¢% 1,145,374 hab. ... San Cristóbal is the capital city of the Venezuelan state of Táchira. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Trujillo State Anthem State motto: none Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1899 State capital Trujillo Area    â€¢% 7,400 km² 0,81   (Ranked ) Population    â€¢% 691,908 hab. ... Trujillo is the capital city of the Venezuelan state of Trujillo. ... Vargas This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 50 years. ... Vargas State Anthem State motto: Igualdad, Libertad, Propiedad y Seguridad. ... Punta de Mulatos Town of La Guaira La Guaira is the capital of the Venezuelan state of Vargas and the countrys chief port. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Estado Yaracuy is one of the 23 states (estados) of Venezuela. ... San Felipe is the capital of the Venezuelan state of Yaracuy. ... Image File history File links Bandezulia. ... Estado Zulia is one of the 23 states (estados) into which Venezuela is divided. ... Nickname: Motto: Muy noble y leal Maracaibo Municipality in Zulia State Coordinates: , Country State Municipality Maracaibo Founded 1529 Government  - Mayor Gian Carlo Di Martino (MVR) Area  - Total 550 km² (212. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ... The Federal Dependencies of Venezuela encompass all of Venezuelas off shore islands in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Venezuela. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2160x1664, 382 KB) Summary Map of Venezuelas states, coloured according to the administrative regions. ...

Geography

Monte Roraima, a tepui in Canaima National Park in southeastern Venezuela. The park lies atop the Guiana Shield; its Precambrian geological formations rank among the world's oldest.
Monte Roraima, a tepui in Canaima National Park in southeastern Venezuela. The park lies atop the Guiana Shield; its Precambrian geological formations rank among the world's oldest.

Venezuela's mainland rests on the South American Plate; With 2,800 kilometres (1,740 mi) of coastline, Venezuela is home to a wide variety of landscapes. The extreme northeastern extensions of the Andes reach into Venezuela's northwest and continue along the northern Caribbean coast. Pico Bolívar, the nation's highest point at 4,979 metres (16,335 ft), lies in this region. The country's center is characterized by the llanos, extensive plains that stretch from the Colombian border in the far west to the Orinoco River delta in the east. To the south, the dissected Guiana Highlands is home to the northern fringes of the Amazon Basin and Angel Falls, the world's highest waterfall. The Orinoco, with its rich alluvial soils, binds the largest and most important river system of the country; it originates in one of the largest watersheds in Latin America. The Caroní and the Apure are other major rivers. Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 66 00 W Map references: South America, Central America and the Caribbean Area: total: 912,050 km² land: 882,050 km² water: 30,000 km² Area - comparative: slightly... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Monte Roraima (Also: Mount Roraima, Cerro Roraima, Pico do Roraima, Roroima) is the highest of the table-top tabletop mountains (or tepuis) shared between Venezuela, Guyana (disputed by Venezuela) and the Roraima state of Brazil. ... Canaima National Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional Canaima) is a 30,000 km² park in south-eastern Venezuela that borders Brazil and Guyana. ... Mt Roraima in Guyana The Guiana Shield (Spanish: Guayana) forms a portion of the northern coast of South America. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ...  The South American plate, shown in purple The South American Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of South America and extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... For the peak named after Bolivar in Colombia, see Pico Simón Bolívar. ... Los Llanos (meaning the flat plains) is a vast tropical grassland plain situated at the east of the Andes in northwestern South America (Colombia and Venezuela). ... This page is about the Orinoco River, for the Aphra Behn novel see Oroonoko With a length of 2140 km, the Orinoco is one of the largest rivers of South America. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Guiana (also known as the Guiana highlands or the Guiana shield) forms a portion of the northern coast of South America. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... Angel Falls (indigenous name: Kerepakupai merú) is the worlds highest free-falling waterfall at 979 m (3,212 ft), with a clear drop of 807 m (2,648 ft). ... For other uses, see Waterfall (disambiguation). ... Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, to wash against) is soil or sediments deposited by a river or other running water. ... In geomorphology, a drainage system is the pattern formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular watershed. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... The Caroní River is a major river of the Orinoco basin in South America, having its source in South Eastern Venezuela, in the Guiana Highlands. ... The Apure River is a river of western Venezuela, in the north of South America, formed by the confluence of the Sarare and Uribante at 6° 45 N. lat. ...

Pico Bolívar in the northwestern state of Mérida.
Pico Bolívar in the northwestern state of Mérida.

The country can be further divided into ten geographical areas, some corresponding to climatic and biogeographical regions. In the north are the Venezuelan Andes and the Coro region, a mountainous tract in the northwest, is home to several sierras and valleys. East of it are lowlands abutting Lake Maracaibo and the Gulf of Venezuela. The Central Range runs parallel to the coast and includes the hills surrounding Caracas; the Eastern Range, separated from the Central Range by the Gulf of Cariaco, covers all of Sucre and northern Monagas. The Llanos region comprises a third of the country's area north of the Orinoco River. South of it lies the Guiana Shield, a massive two billion year old Precambrian geological formation featuring tepuis, mysterious table-like mountains. The Insular Region includes all of Venezuela's island possessions: Nueva Esparta and the various Federal Dependencies. The Deltaic System, which forms a triangle covering Delta Amacuro, projects northeast into the Atlantic Ocean. Image File history File links Bolívar_usgs. ... Image File history File links Bolívar_usgs. ... For the peak named after Bolivar in Colombia, see Pico Simón Bolívar. ... Places named Mérida or Merida include: Mexico Mérida, Yucatán, capital city of the state of Yucatán Philippines Mérida, Leyte, a municipality in Leyte province Spain Mérida, Spain, capital city of the Extremadura Autonomous Community Venezuela Mérida, Mérida, capital city of the state... The Coro region is the hilly and semi-mountainous area in northwest Venezuela, north of the Mérida Andes and east of the Maracaibo Basin, extending north to the Caribbean coast. ... Look up sierra in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lake Maracaibo from space, August 1985. ... Satellite image of the Gulf of Venezuela The Gulf of Venezuela is a gulf of the Carribean Sea bounded by the Venezuelan states of Zulia and Falcón. ... The Cordillera de la Costa Central is a range of mountains in Venezuela, which run east to west along the countrys northern coast. ... Nickname: Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... Gulf of Cariaco, Venezuela The Cariaco Basin lies off the north central coast of Venezuela and forms the Gulf of Cariaco. ... Sucre State Anthem Motto: none Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1909 State capital Cumaná Area    â€¢% 11,800 km² 1. ... Estado Monagas is one of the 23 states (estados) into which Venezuela is divided. ... Los Llanos (meaning the flat plains) is a vast tropical grassland plain situated at the east of the Andes in northwestern South America (Colombia and Venezuela). ... Mt Roraima in Guyana The Guiana Shield (Spanish: Guayana) forms a portion of the northern coast of South America. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Kukenan tepui. ... The Insular Region is one of the ten traditional geographical regions of Venezuela; it comprises all of the nations islands, and is formed by Nueva Esparta and the Federal Dependencies. ... Nueva Esparta State Anthem Motto: none Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1909 State capital La Asunción Area    â€¢% 1,150 km² 0,12   (Ranked 23rd) Population    â€¢% 436,900 hab. ... The Federal Dependencies of Venezuela encompass all of Venezuelas off shore islands in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Venezuela. ... The Deltaic System (Sistema Deltáico) is one of the nine geographical regions into which Venezuela is divided. ... Estado Delta Amacuro is one of the 23 states (estados) into which Venezuela is divided. ...


Though Venezuela is entirely situated in the tropics, its climate varies substantially; it varies from that of humid low-elevation plains, where average annual temperatures range as high as 28 °C (82 °F), to glaciers and highlands (the páramos) with an average yearly temperature of 8 °C (46 °F). Annual rainfall varies between 430 millimetres (17 in) in the semiarid portions of the northwest to 1,000 millimetres (39 in) in the Orinoco Delta of the far east. Most precipitation falls between May and November (the rainy season or "winter"); the drier and hotter remainder of the year is known as "summer", though temperature variation throughout the year is not as pronounced as at temperate latitudes.[12] A tropic is either of two circles of latitude: Tropic of Cancer, at 23½°N Tropic of Capricorn, at 23½°S Tropic is also the name of a town in Utah, United States. ...


Flora and fauna

The araguaney (Tabebuia chrysantha), Venezuela's national tree.
The araguaney (Tabebuia chrysantha), Venezuela's national tree.

Venezuela lies within the Neotropic ecozone; large portions of the country were originally covered by moist broadleaf forests. One of seventeen megadiverse countries and among the top twenty countries in terms of endemism, some 38% of the over 21,000 plant species are unique to the country; 23% of reptilian and 50% of amphibian species are also endemic.[33] Venezuela hosts significant biodiversity across habitats ranging from xeric scrublands in the extreme northwest to coastal mangrove forests in the northeast.[12] Its cloud forests and lowland rainforests are particularly rich, for example hosting over 25,000 species of orchids. These include the flor de mayo orchid (Cattleya mossiae), the national flower. The fauna of Venezuela consists of a huge variety of unique animals; some 23% of reptilian and 50% of amphibian species that inhabit the country are endemic to Venezuela. ... The flora of Venezuela consists of a huge variety of unique plants; around 38% of the estimated 21,000 species of plants found in the country are endemic to Venezuela. ... Picture of a mayflower orchid. ... This is a list of the bird species recorded in Venezuela. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Species See text Tabebuia impetiginosa flowers Tabebuia is a Neotropical genus of about 100 species in the tribe Tecomeae of the family Bignoniaceae. ... The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... The Megadiverse countries are a group of countries in which less than the 10% of the global surface has more than the 70% of the biodiversity. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... In isolation, Hawaiis Silverswords have adapted to xeric microclimates within volcanic craters, trapping and channeling dew and protecting leaves with reflective hairs. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... A cloud forest is a tropical or subtropical montane forest characterized by a high incidence of low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level, promoting development of an abundance of vascular epiphytes. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ...

The golden silk orb-weaver is among the more common of Venezuela's arthropods.
The golden silk orb-weaver is among the more common of Venezuela's arthropods.

Venezuela's national tree is the araguaney, whose characteristic lushness after the rainy season led novelist Rómulo Gallegos to name it «[l]a primavera de oro de los araguaneyes» ("the golden spring of the araguaneyes"). Notable mammals include the giant anteater, jaguar, and the capybara, the world's largest rodent. More than half of Venezuelan avian and mammalian species are found in the Amazonian forests south of the Orinoco.[34] Manatees, Boto river dolphins, and Orinoco crocodiles, which reach up to 7 metres (23 ft) in length, are notable aquatic species. Venezuela also hosts a huge number of bird species, a total of 1,417, 48 of which are endemic.[35] Important birds include ibises, ospreys, kingfishers, and the yellow-orange turpial, the national bird. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In Aramaic culture, the term Nephila specifically referred to the constellation and myth of Orion. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Binomial name (Jacq. ... Rómulo Gallegos Freire (2 August 1884 – 4 April 1969) was a Venezuelan novelist and politician. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Giant Anteater, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, is the largest species of anteater. ... keels is bent and she has a big nose which she picks every day. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Capybara range Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris[1], known as carpincho in Spanish and capivara in Portuguese[2]) is the largest rodent still in existence in the world,[3] related to guinea pigs, agouti, coyphillas and chinchillas. ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... For other uses, see Manatee (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Blainville, 1817 Boto range The Boto, Boutu, Amazon River Dolphin or Pink River Dolphin[1] (Inia geoffrensis) is a freshwater river dolphin endemic to the Amazon River and Orinoco River systems. ... Families See text River dolphins are four species of dolphin which reside in freshwater rivers and estuaries. ... Binomial name Crocodylus intermedius Graves, 1819 The Orinoco Crocodile Crocodylus intermedius is a crocodilian found in freshwater in northern South America, in particular the Orinoco river. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... Genera Threskiornis Pseudibis Thaumatibis Geronticus Nipponia Bostrychia Theristicus Cercibis Mesembrinibis Phimosus Eudocimus Plegadis Lophotibis Ibises are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae. ... For other uses, see Osprey (disambiguation). ... Families Alcedinidae Halcyonidae Cerylidae Kingfishers are birds of the three families Alcedinidae (river kingfishers), Halcyonidae (tree kingfishers), and Cerylidae (water kingfishers). ... Binomial name Icterus icterus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Troupial or Turpial Icterus icterus is the national bird of Venezuela. ...


In recent decades, logging, mining, shifting cultivation, development, and other human activities have posed a major threat to Venezuela's wildlife; between 1990 and 2000, 0.40% of forest cover was cleared annually.[33] In response, federal protections for critical habitat were implemented; for example, 20% to 33% of forested land is protected.[34] Venezuela is currently home to a biosphere reserve that is part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.[36] In 2003, 70% of the nation's land was under conservation management in over 200 protected areas, including 43 national parks.[37] For methods, see slash and burn Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned. ... A biosphere reserve is an international conservation designation given by UNESCO under its Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB). ... The World Network of Biosphere Reserves was established at the International Conference on Biosphere Reserves in Seville in 1995. ... The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Venezuela
The 20 Venezuelan bolívar fuerte banknote featuring a portrait of Luisa Cáceres de Arismendi.
The 20 Venezuelan bolívar fuerte banknote featuring a portrait of Luisa Cáceres de Arismendi.

The petroleum sector dominates Venezuela's mixed economy, accounting for roughly a third of GDP, around 80% of exports, and more than half of government revenues. The country's main petroleum deposits are located around and beneath Lake Maracaibo, the Gulf of Venezuela, and in the Orinoco River basin, where the country's largest reserve is located. The economy of Venezuela is based on oil, although efforts have been made to develop heavy industry, e. ... ISO 4217 Code VEB User(s) Venezuela Inflation 16% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... Luisa Cáceres de Arismendi (Caracas, 1779 – 1866) was a heroine of the Venezuelan War of Independence. ... Petro redirects here. ... A mixed economy is an economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system. ... Lake Maracaibo from space, August 1985. ... Satellite image of the Gulf of Venezuela The Gulf of Venezuela is a gulf of the Carribean Sea bounded by the Venezuelan states of Zulia and Falcón. ...


Demographics

Caracas, Libertador Avenue
Caracas, Libertador Avenue

Since 1926, Venezuelan Census does not contain information about ethnicity so only rough estimates are available. Some 70% of the population are Mestizo, defined as a mixture of any other races; another 20% are unmixed caucasians, mostly of Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and German descent. Other important groups include Afro-Venezuelans, though their numbers are unclear due to poor census data.[38] Asians, predominantly Arab, Chinese and Turkish descent, make up a small percentage of the population. Only about 5% of Venezuelans are Indigenous.[39] These groups were joined by sponsored migrants from throughout Europe and neighboring parts of South America by the mid-20th century economic boom. The Demographics of Venezuela are the condition and overview of Venezuelas peoples. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire to designate people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The word indigenous is an adjective derived from the Latin word indigena, meaning native, belonging to, aboriginal; and has several applications: Indigenous peoples, communities and cultures native or indigenous to a territory; Indigenous (band), a Native American blues-rock band; In biology, indigenous means native to a place or biota... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


About 85% of the population live in urban areas in northern Venezuela; 73% live less than 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the coastline.[40] Though almost half of Venezuela's land area lies south of the Orinoco, only 5% of Venezuelans live there.


The national and official language is Spanish; 31 indigenous languages are also spoken, including Guajibo, Pemon, Warao, Wayuu, and the various Yanomaman languages. Nominally, 96% of the population belongs to the Roman Catholic Church. Guahibo is a Guahiban language that is spoken by about 19,000 people in Colombia and additional 5000 in Venezuela. ... Pemon or Pemong (in Spanish: Pemón) is a Carib language spoken mainly in Venezuela, specifically in the regions Bolivar State, Gran Sabana, an estimated 4,800 people in Venezuela speak Pemon. ... The Warao are an indigenous people inhabiting eastern Venezuela. ... Area inhabited by the Wayuus, between Colombia and Venezuela. ... Yanomaman (also Yanomam, Yanomáman, Yamomámi, Yanomamana, Shamatari, Shirianan) is small family of languages spoken in northwestern Brazil (Roraima, Amazonas) and southern Venezuela. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Culture

Basílica de La Chinita, Our Lady of Rosario of Chiquinquirá Basilica, Maracaibo

Venezuela's heritage, art, and culture have been heavily influenced by its Latin American context. These elements extend to its historic buildings, architecture,[41] art,[42] landscape, boundaries, and monuments. Venezuelan culture has been shaped by indigenous, Spanish and African influences. Before this period, indigenous culture was expressed in art (petroglyphs), crafts, architecture (shabonos), and social organization. Aboriginal culture was subsequently assimilated by Spaniards; over the years, the hybrid culture had diversified by region. The Venezuelan people have a very rich and very diverse cultural heritage. ... // Racial and Cultural Identity The term mestizaje [1], addresses a nation-building ideology, present in the collective imagination of the cultural and racial panorama. ... Image File history File links Basilicachinita. ... Image File history File links Basilicachinita. ... One of the many popular representations of the Virgin Mary by the people of Venezuela. ... Nickname: Motto: Muy noble y leal Maracaibo Municipality in Zulia State Coordinates: , Country State Municipality Maracaibo Founded 1529 Government  - Mayor Gian Carlo Di Martino (MVR) Area  - Total 550 km² (212. ... // Racial and Cultural Identity The term mestizaje [1], addresses a nation-building ideology, present in the collective imagination of the cultural and racial panorama. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Venezuelan people have a very rich and very diverse cultural heritage. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Petroglyph (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Craft (disambiguation). ... A shabano (also xapono or yano) is a hut used by the Yanomami Amerindians of extreme southern Venezuela and extreme northern Brazil. ...


Venezuelan art was initially dominated by religious motifs, but began emphasizing historical and heroic representations in the late 19th century, a move led by Martín Tovar y Tovar. Modernism took over in the 20th century. Notable Venezuelan artists include Arturo Michelena, Cristóbal Rojas, Armando Reverón, Manuel Cabré, the kinetic artists Jesús-Rafael Soto and Carlos Cruz-Diez. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Martín Tovar y Tovar (10 February 1827 — 17 December 1902) was one of the most important and high-profile Venezuelan painters of the 19th century. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Artists Martín Tovar y Tovar (1827 - 1902) Cristóbal Rojas (1857 - 1890) Arturo Michelena (1863 - 1898) Federico Brandt (1878 - 1932) Armando Reverón (1889 - 1954) Manuel Cabré (1890 - 1984) Gertrude Goldschmidt (1912 - 1994) - a. ... Arturo Michelena (June 16, 1863 - July 29, 1898) was a Venezuelan painter born in Valencia, Carabobo State. ... Cristóbal Rojas (15 December 1857 — 8 November 1890) was one of the most important and high-profile Venezuelan painters of the 19th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Manuel Cabré (25 January 1890 – 26 February 1984) was a noted Venezuelan painter. ... The Tinguely Fountain in front of the Tinguely Museum in Basel Kinetic art is sculpture that contains moving parts. ... Jesús Rafael Soto (June 5, 1923 in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela - January 14, 2005 in Paris, France) was a Venezuelan artist. ... ACTIVITIES 1923 Carlos Cruz-Diez Born in Caracas 17 August / 1940-1945 Studies école des Beaux Arts à Caracas. ...


Venezuelan literature originated soon after the Spanish conquest of the mostly pre-literate indigenous societies; it was dominated by Spanish influences. Following the rise of political literature during the War of Independence, Venezuelan Romanticism, notably expounded by Juan Vicente González, emerged as the first important genre in the region. Although mainly focused on narrative writing, Venezuelan literature was advanced by poets such as Andrés Eloy Blanco and Fermín Toro. Major writers and novelists include Rómulo Gallegos, Teresa de la Parra, Arturo Uslar Pietri, Adriano González León, Miguel Otero Silva, and Mariano Picón Salas. The great poet and humanist Andrés Bello was also an educator and intellectual. Others, such as Laureano Vallenilla Lanz and José Gil Fortoul, contributed to Venezuelan Positivism. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... The culture of Spain has roots in Iberian and Latin influences, Catholicism, Moorish Islam, tension between the centralized Castilian state and its regions, and its minority peoples. ... Romantics redirects here. ... A narrative is a construct created in a suitable medium (speech, writing, images) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. ... Andrés Eloy Blanco (1897 - 1955) was a Venezuelan poet and politician. ... Rómulo Gallegos Freire (2 August 1884 – 4 April 1969) was a Venezuelan novelist and politician. ... Teresa de la Parra (Ana Teresa Parra Sanojo) was born in October 5, 1889 in Paris, daughter of Venezuelan Ambassador in Berlin, Rafael Parra Hernáiz and Isabel Sanojo de Parra. ... Arturo Uslar Pietri (May 16, 1906 – February 26, 2001) Was one of the most prominent Venezuelan figures of the twentieth century. ... Miguel Otero Silva (October 26, 1908 - August 28, 1985), was a Venezuelan writer, journalist, humorist and politician. ... Mariano Picón Salas, an influential Venezuelan writer of the 20th century, was born in Mérida (Mérida State) on January 26, 1901 and died in Caracas on January 1, 1965. ... Andrés Bello (Caracas, Venezuela, November 11, 1781 - Santiago, Chile, October 15, 1865), Venezuelan humanist, poet, lawmaker, philosopher, educator and philologist, whose work constitutes an important part of Spanish American culture. ... Venezuelan thinker, sociologist, and republican. ... Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ...

The Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex in Caracas.
The Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex in Caracas.
The joropo, as depicted in a 1912 drawing by Eloy Palacios.
The joropo, as depicted in a 1912 drawing by Eloy Palacios.

Carlos Raúl Villanueva was the most important Venezuelan architect of the modern era; he designed the Central University of Venezuela, (a World Heritage Site) and its Aula Magna. Other notable architectural works include the Capitol, the Baralt Theatre, the Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex, and the General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge. Image File history File links Teatro_Teresa_Carreño. ... Image File history File links Teatro_Teresa_Carreño. ... Joropo. ... Joropo. ... Eloy Palacios was born in Maturín, Monagas, June 27, 1847 in of one of the most rich Eastern families. ... Carlos Raúl Villanueva working in the house of the Hacienda Ibarra during the construction of the Ciudad Universitaria of Caracas (1959) Carlos Raúl Villanueva (London May 30, 1900 - Caracas August 16, 1975) was the most prominent Venezuelan architect of the 20th century and one of the great Modernists. ... Universidad Central de Venezuela The Central University of Venezuela (or Universidad Central de Venezuela in Spanish) is a premier public university of Venezuela and is located in Caracas. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Baralt Theatre The Barlat Theatre is an important cultural complex located in Maracaibo, Venezuela. ... The Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex The Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex is one of most important Theaters of Caracas and Venezuela, where symphonic and popular concerts imagine frequently, operas, ballet and theater. ... The General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge is located on Lake Maracaibo, in western Venezuela. ...


Indigenous musical styles of Venezuela are exemplified by the groups Un Solo Pueblo and Serenata Guayanesa. The national musical instrument is the cuatro. Typical musical styles and pieces mainly emerged in and around the llanos region, including Alma Llanera (by Pedro Elías Gutiérrez and Rafael Bolivar Coronado), Florentino y el Diablo (by Alberto Arvelo Torrealba), Concierto en la Llanura by Juan Vicente Torrealba, and Caballo Viejo (by Simón Díaz). The Zulian gaita is also a popular style, generally performed during Christmas. The national dance is the joropo. Teresa Carreño was a world-famous 19th century piano virtuosa. Venezuelan Joropo. ... This article may be excessively or inappropriately using first, second or third person, contrary to the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... The name cuatro can refer to any of several Latin American instruments of the guitar or lute family. ... Alma Llanera is a popular Joropo song composed by Pedro Elías Gutiérrez with lyrics by Rafael Bolívar Coronado. ... Pedro Elías Gutiérrez Pedro Elías Gutiérrez (La Guaira, 14 March 1870 - Macuto, 31 May 1954) was a Venezuelan musician who is mainly remembered by the joropo song Alma Llanera, whose music composed. ... Rafael Bolivar Coronado Rafael Bolivar Coronado was born June 6, 1884 in Villa de Cura, ( Aragua (state) ), He is the author of the lyrics of the popular joropo Alma Llanera. He arrives to Caracas in 1912 and he begins to canalize his restlessness towards to the intellectuality, collaborating with the... Alberto Arvelo Torrealba Alberto Arvelo Torrealba (Barinas, Venezuela, September 4, 1905 - Caracas, March 28, 1971) was a Venezuelan lawyer, educator and poet, author of the famous poem Florentino y El Diablo. ... Juan Vicente Torrealba Pérez (born February 20, 1917) in Caracas, Venezuela, is a Venezuelan harpist and composer of popular music. ... Caballo Viejo album cover Caballo Viejo is a Venezuelan folk song by Simón Díaz. ... Simón Díaz (1928- ). Celebrated singer and composer of Venezuelan music, whose work is regarded as one of the most important legacies for both Venezuelan and Latin American popular music. ... The gaita gruoping Maracaibo 15 appearing on the Venezuelan television channel Venevision in 2004 The Gaita is the name of a venezuelan folk music from Maracaibo, Zulia state, it is normally considered a christmas-time music. ... Venezuelan Joropo. ... Maria Teresa Carreño (December 22, 1853 - June 12, 1917) was a Venezuelan pianist, singer, and conductor. ...


Baseball is Venezuela's most popular sport, although football (soccer), spearheaded by the Venezuela national football team, is gaining influence. Famous Venezuelan baseball players include Luis Aparicio (inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame), David (Dave) Concepción, Oswaldo (Ozzie) Guillén (current White Sox manager, World Series champion in 2005), Cubs Ace Carlos Zambrano, Freddy Garcia, Andrés Galarraga, Omar Vizquel (an eleven-time Gold Glove winner), Luis Sojo, Miguel Cabrera, Bobby Abreu, Félix Hernández, Magglio Ordóñez, Ugueth Urbina, Víctor Martínez, Rafael Betancourt, and Johan Santana (a two-time unanimously selected Cy Young Award winner). This article is about the sport. ... Soccer redirects here. ... First international Panama 3 - 1 Venezuela (Panama City, Panama; 12 February 1938) Biggest win Venezuela 6 - 0 Puerto Rico (Barranquilla, Colombia; 26 December 1946) Biggest defeat Argentina 11 - 0 Venezuela (Buenos Aires, Argentina; 10 August 1975) Copa América Appearances 13 (First in 1967) Best result Fifth place, 1967 The... Luis Ernesto Aparicio Montiel (born April 29, 1934 in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela) is a former shortstop in professional baseball and a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame. ... The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, located at 62 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, is a semi-official museum operated by private interests serving as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, the display of baseball-related... David Ismael Concepción Benitez (born June 17, 1948) is a former star shortstop in Major League Baseball. ... Oswaldo José Guillén Barrios (born January 20, 1964 in Ocumare del Tuy, Miranda State, Venezuela), well known as Ozzie Guillén , is a former shortstop in Major League Baseball and the current manager of the 2005 World Series champion Chicago White Sox. ... Carlos Alberto Zambrano (born June 1, 1981 in Puerto Cabello, Venezuela) is a right-handed starting pitcher in Major League Baseball who has played for the Chicago Cubs since 2001. ... Freddy Antonio García (born June 10, 1976 in Caracas, Venezuela) is a Major League Baseball right-handed starting pitcher who plays for the Chicago White Sox. ... Andrés José Padovani Galarraga [gal-lar-RAH-ga] (born June 18, 1961 in Caracas, Venezuela) was a Major League Baseball first baseman who played for the Montreal Expos, St. ... Omar Enrique Vizquel (born April 24, 1967 in Caracas, Venezuela) is a Major League Baseball shortstop playing for the San Francisco Giants. ... Luis Beltrán Sojo [SO-ho] (born January 3, 1966 in Petare, Miranda State, Venezuela) is a former Major League Baseball infielder and right-handed batter who played with the Toronto Blue Jays (1990, 1993), California Angels (1991-92), Seattle Mariners (1994-96), New York Yankees (1996-2001, 2003) and... For the Mexican painter, see Miguel Cabrera (painter). ... Bob Kelly Abreu (nicknamed El Comedulce) (born March 11, 1974 in Maracay, Aragua State, Venezuela) is a Major League Baseball right fielder who plays for the New York Yankees. ... Félix Abraham Hernández (born April 8, 1986 in Valencia, Venezuela) is a Major League Baseball starting pitcher for the Seattle Mariners. ... Magglio Jose Maggs Ordóñez (IPA /or. ... Ugueth Urbina (IPA pronunciation: ), born Ugueth Urtaín Urbina Villarreal (February 15, 1974 in Caracas, Venezuela), is a former relief pitcher in Major League Baseball. ... For other persons of the same name, see Víctor Martínez. ... Rafael José Betancourt (born April 29, 1975 Cumaná, Sucre State, Venezuela) is a Major League Baseball right-handed relief pitcher who has pitched with the Cleveland Indians since 2003. ... Johan Alexander Santana Araque (born March 13, 1979) is a Major League Baseball left-handed starting pitcher who plays for the Minnesota Twins. ... The Cy Young Award of the American League, 1983. ...


The World Values Survey has consistently shown Venezuelans to be among the happiest people in the world, with 55% of those questioned saying they were "very happy".[43] The World Values Survey is an academic project by social scientists to assess the state of sociocultural and political values of different cultures around the world. ...


References

  1. ^ Venezuela Boundary Dispute, 1895–1899.
  2. ^ "South America Banks on Regional Strategy to Safeguard Quarter of Earth's Biodiversity", Conservation International. Retrieved on 2007-06-29. 
  3. ^ South America. Encarta. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
  4. ^ ANNEX TABLES (pdf). World Urbanization Prospects: The 1999 Revision. United Nations. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
  5. ^ Dydynski, K & C Beech (2004), Venezuela, Lonely Planet, ISBN 1-74104-197-X, <http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&vid=ISBN174104197X&id=JDdb1alDGYIC>. Retrieved on 10 March 2007. p. 177.
  6. ^ Thomas, Hugh (2005). Rivers of Gold: The Rise of the Spanish Empire, from Columbus to Magellan. Random House, p. 189. ISBN 0-37550-204-1. 
  7. ^ "Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos" (in Spanish) (1958): 386. Instituto de Cultura Hispánica (Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional). 
  8. ^ Kipfer, Barbara Ann (2000). Encyclopedic Dictionary of YUPArchaeology. Springer, p. 91. ISBN 0-30646-158-7. 
  9. ^ Kipfer 2000, p. 172.
  10. ^ Alcaldía del Hatillo: Historia (Spanish). Universidad Nueva Esparta. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  11. ^ Chasteen, J (2001), Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America, Norton, ISBN 0-39305-048-3, <http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0393050483&id=fC90B5xkYyIC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&ots=XlrvsIB381&dq=Born+in+blood+and+fire&sig=CkLd_-rnp2QQK_m8Da3C6Yha6QE>. Retrieved on 10 March 2007. p. 103.
  12. ^ a b c Country Profile: Venezuela. Library of Congress (Federal Research Division) (2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  13. ^ Venezuela. The World Factbook. CIA (2007-03-08). Retrieved on 2007-03-13. “From 1935 to 1958 Venezuela was ruled by military strongmen who promoted the oil industry and encouraged modernization and allowed for some social reforms. Popularly elected governments have held sway since 1959.
  14. ^ Crow, JA (1980), Epic of Latin America, University of California Press, ISBN 0-52004-107-0. pp. 616–617.
  15. ^ Schuyler, George W. (2001). "Health and Neoliberalism: Venezuela and Cuba": p. 10. 
  16. ^ Profile: Hugo Chavez. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  17. ^ Compulsory voting around the world. The Guardian (4 July 2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  18. ^ Historia de Venezuela en Imágenes. Capítulo VIII 1973 /1983. La Gran Venezuela. La experiencia democrática 1958 / 1998. Fundación Polar. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.(Spanish)
  19. ^ El tema: Historia democrática venezolana. Globovisión (2006-11-28). Retrieved on 2007-01-21.(Spanish)
  20. ^ Ramón José Velásquez Mújica. Centro de Investigación de Relaciones Internacionales y desarrollo (2006-09-21). Retrieved on 2007-01-21.(Spanish)
  21. ^ CNN.com - U.S. has second worst newborn death rate in modern world, report says - May 10, 2006
  22. ^ UNDP. Human Development Report 2006: Venezuela. Accessed 8 March 2007.
  23. ^ Population, Health, and Human Well-Being—Venezuela. EarthTrends Country Profiles. World Resources Institute (2003). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  24. ^ FAO. Venezuela. Accessed 20 September 2006.
  25. ^ Unicef. Venezuela. Accessed 20 September 2006.
  26. ^ Venezuela Guardian. Accessed 20 September 2006.
  27. ^ Appropriate Technology for Sewage Pollution Control in the Wider Caribbean Region, Caribbean Environment Programme Technical Report #40 1998 available online at http://www.cep.unep.org/pubs/Techreports/tr40en/chapter5.html
  28. ^ UNICEF. Safe Drinking Water. Accessed 20 September 2006.
  29. ^ Venezuela Guardian. Accessed 20 September 2006.
  30. ^ Powell's Books - Stories in the Time of Cholera by Charles L. Briggs
  31. ^ Health Care for All: Venezuela's Health Missions at Work. Venezuela Information Office (2007). Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
  32. ^ EL ACUERDO DE GINEBRA DEL 17 FEB 1966. Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Exteriores. Retrieved on 2007-12-01.(Spanish)
  33. ^ a b Venezuela: Overview. Global Forest Watch. Retrieved on 2007-03-10..
  34. ^ a b Bevilacqua, M; L Cardenas & AL et al. Flores (2002), "State of Venezuela's forests: A case study of the Guayana Region", World Resources Institute, <http://pubs.wri.org/pubs_content_text.cfm?ContentID=1607>. Retrieved on 10 March 2007.
  35. ^ Lepage, Denis. Checklist of birds of Venezuela. Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  36. ^ Peck, D (2000). The Annotated Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance: Venezuela. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Ramsar Convention Secretariat. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  37. ^ Biodiversity and Protected Areas—Venezuela. EarthTrends Country Profiles. World Resources Institute (2003). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  38. ^ Afro-Venezuelans and the Struggle to End Racism. Venezuela Information Office (2007). Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
  39. ^ Indigenous Peoples in Venezuela. Venezuela Information Office (2007). Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
  40. ^ Coastal and Marine Ecosystems—Venezuela. EarthTrends Country Profiles. World Resources Institute (2003). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  41. ^ Coro and its Port. UNESCO World Heritage Centre (1993).
  42. ^ Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas. UNESCO World Heritage Centre (2000).
  43. ^ Happiness Statistics By Country. Nationmaster.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Globovision is a Venezuelan 24-hour news channel. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... West Indies redirects here. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Image File history File links Flag_of_the_League_of_Arab_States. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_League_of_Arab_States. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Venezuela - MSN Encarta (733 words)
Venezuela’s landscapes range from the towering peaks of the Andes Mountains in the north to tropical jungles in the south.
Venezuela is bounded by Colombia to the west, Brazil to the south, and Guyana to the east.
The Maracaibo lowlands are situated in the northwest corner of Venezuela and nearly enclosed by the mountains and highlands.
Venezuela - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3472 words)
Venezuela borders Brazil to the south, Guyana to the east, and Colombia to the west.
Venezuela is home to a wide variety of landscapes, such as the north-easternmost extensions of the Andes mountains in the northwest and along the northern Caribbean coast, of which the highest point is the Pico Bolívar at 4,981 metres (16,341 ft).
Venezuela's national symbols are the the Flag, the Coat of Arms, and the National Anthem.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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