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Encyclopedia > Venera
Venera 7 lander
Venera 7 lander
Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander
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Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander

The Venera (Russian: Венера; formerly, sometimes referred to as Venusik in the West) series of probes was developed by the USSR to gather data from Venus. As with some of the USSR's other planetary probes, the later versions were launched in pairs with a second vehicle being launched soon (a week or two) after the first of the pair. Image File history File links Venera 7 landing capsule image source: http://nssdc. ... Image File history File links Venera 7 landing capsule image source: http://nssdc. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (918x385, 51 KB)Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (918x385, 51 KB)Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ...


Among the other results, probes of the series became the first man-made devices to enter the atmosphere of another planet, to make a soft landing on another planet, to return images from the planetary surface and to perform high-resolution radar mapping studies of Venus. So, the entire series could be considered as highly successful. Unfortunately, while Venus' orbit is closer to Earth than Mars, its surface conditions were far more extreme, which often meant that the probes did not survive long. For the Roman god, see Mars (mythology). ...


Venera is the Russian name for Venus. (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ...

Contents


The Venera probes

Venera 3 to 6

The Venera 3 to 6 probes were similar. Weighing approximately one ton and launched by the Molniya type booster rocket, they included a cruise "bus" and a spherical atmospheric entry probe. The probes were optimised for atmospheric measurements and not equipped with any special landing apparatus, although it was hoped they would reach the surface still functioning. The bus entered the atmosphere with the entry probe and burned up. The probes transmitted directly to Earth. Molniya 8K78 is a modification of the well-known R-7 Semyorka rocket and has four stages. ...


Venera 7

The Venera 7 probe was the first one designed to survive Venus surface conditions and to make a soft landing. Scientific output from the mission was limited due to an internal switchboard failure, though the control scientists succeeded in recovering the pressure and temperature data, which resulted from the first direct surface measurements. The Doppler measurements of the Venera 4 to 7 probes were the first evidence of the existence of high-speed zonal winds (up to 100 m/s) in the Venus atmosphere (superrotation).


Venera 8

Venera 8 was equipped with an extended set of scientific instruments for studying the surface (gamma-spectrometer etc.). The cruise bus of Venera 7 and 8 was similar to that of earlier ones, with the design ascending to the Zond 3 mission. Mars 3MV-4A Zond 3, a member of the Soviet Zond program, was the first Zond spacecraft to successfully complete its mission (a Lunar flyby) and took a number of amazing photographs for its time, though it is believed that it was initially intended to fly by Mars with Zond...


Venera 9 to 14

The Venera 9 to 14 probes were of a different design.

Venera 9 lander
Venera 9 lander

They weighed approximately five tons and were launched by the powerful Proton booster. They included a transfer and relay bus that had engines to brake into Venus orbit (Venera 9 and 10, 15 and 16) and to serve as receiver and relay for the entry probe's transmissions. The entry probe was attached to the top of the bus in a spherical heat shield. The probes were optimized for surface operations with an unusual looking design that included a spherical compartment to protect the electronics from atmospheric pressure and heat for as long as possible. Beneath this was a shock absorbing "crush ring" for landing. Above the pressure sphere was a cylindrical antenna structure and a wide dish shaped structure that resembled an antenna but was actually an aerobrake. They were designed to operate on the surface for a minimum of 30 minutes. Instruments varied on different missions, but included cameras and atmospheric and soil analysis equipment. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (512x652, 64 KB) Venera 9 and 10 landing capsule image source: http://nssdc. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (512x652, 64 KB) Venera 9 and 10 landing capsule image source: http://nssdc. ... The Proton (Прото́н) rocket (formal designation: UR-500, also known as D-1) is a Russian unmanned space vehicle design first launched in 1965 and still in use as of 2005. ...


Veneras 15 and 16

Veneras 15 and 16 were similar but replaced the entry probes with surface imaging radar equipment.


The Vega probes to Venus and comet Halley launched in 1985 also used this basic Venera design, including landers but also atmospheric balloons which relayed data for about two days. The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, more generally known as Halleys Comet after Edmond Halley, is a comet that can be seen every 75-76 years. ...


Venera camera failures and success

The Venera 9 and 10 landers had two cameras each. Only one functioned because the lens covers failed to separate from the second camera on each lander. The design was changed for Venera 11 and 12, but this made the problem worse and all cameras failed on those missions. Venera 13 and 14 were the only landers on which all cameras worked properly; although ironically, the lens cap on Venera 14 landed exactly in the way of the soil compression probe...


The external link at the bottom of the page shows all lander imagery.


Flight data for all Venera missions

  • 1VA (proto-Venera) - Flyby - launched February 4, 1961 : Failed to leave earth orbit
  • Venera 1 - Flyby - launched February 12, 1961 : Communications lost en route to Venus
  • Venera 2 - Flyby - launched November 12, 1965 : Communications lost just before arrival
  • Venera 3 - Atmospheric Probe - launched November 16, 1965 : Communications lost just before atmospheric entry. This was the first manmade object to land on another planet on March 1966 (crash). Probable landing region : -20º to 20º N, 60º to 80º E.
  • Kosmos 96/Venera 4 - Atmospheric Probe - launched November 23, 1965 : Failed to leave Earth orbit, and reentered the atmosphere. Believed by some researchers to have crashed near Kecksburg, Pennsylvania on December 9, 1965, an event which became known as the "Kecksburg Incident" among UFO researchers. All Soviet spacecraft that never left Earth orbit were customarily renamed "Kosmos" regardless of the craft's intended mission.
  • Venera 4 - Atmospheric Probe - launched June 12, 1967 : Arrived October 18, 1967 and was the first probe to enter another planet's atmosphere and return data. Although it did not transmit from the surface, this was the first interplanetary broadcast of any probe. Landed somewhere near latitude 19° N, longitude 38° E.
  • Venera 5 - Atmospheric Probe - launched January 5, 1969 : Arrived May 16, 1969 and successfully returned atmospheric data before being crushed by pressure within 26km of the surface. Landed at 3° S, 18° E.
  • Venera 6 - Atmospheric Probe - launched January 10, 1969 : Arrived May 17, 1969 and successfully returned atmospheric data before being crushed by pressure within 11km of the surface. Landed at 5° S, 23° E.
  • Venera 7 - Lander - launched August 17, 1970 : Arrived December 15, 1970, was the first successful landing of a spacecraft on another planet and survived for 23 minutes before succumbing to the heat and pressure. This was the first broadcast from another planet's surface. Landed at 5° S, 351° E.
  • Venera 8 - Lander - launched March 27, 1972 : Arrived July 22, 1972 and survived for 50 minutes before succumbing to the heat and pressure. Landed within a 150 km radius of 10.70° S, 335.25° E.
  • Venera 9 - Orbiter and Lander - launched June 8, 1975 : Arrived October 22, 1975, sent back the first (black and white) images of Venus' surface while the lander survived 53 minutes before succumbing to the heat and pressure. Landed within a 150km radius of 31.01° N, 291.64° E.
  • Venera 10 - Orbiter and Lander - launched June 14, 1975 : Arrived October 25, 1975, the lander surviving 65 minutes before succumbing to the heat and pressure. Landed within a 150 km radius of 15.42° N, 291.51° E.
  • Venera 11 - Flyby and Lander - launched September 9, 1978 : Arrived December 25, 1978, the lander survived for 95 minutes; however the imaging systems had failed. Landed at 14° S 299° E.
  • Venera 12 - Flyby and Lander - launched September 14, 1978 : Arrived December 21, 1978, the lander surviving for 110 minutes and recorded what is thought to be lightning. Landed at 7° S 294° E.
  • Venera 13 - Flyby and Lander - launched October 30, 1981 : Arrived March 1, 1982, returned the first colour images of Venus' surface and discovered leucite basalt in a soil sample using a spectrometer. Landed at 7.5° S, 303° E
  • Venera 14 - Flyby and Lander - launched November 14, 1981 : Arrived March 5, 1982, a soil sample revealed tholeiitic basalt (similar to that found on Earth's mid-ocean ridges). Landed at 13.25° S, 310° E.
  • Venera 15 - Orbiter - launched June 2, 1983 : Arrived October 10, 1983 and mapped (along with Venera 16) the northern hemisphere down to 30 degrees from North (resolution 1-2km)
  • Venera 16 - Orbiter - launched June 7, 1983 : Arrived October 14, 1983 and mapped (along with Venera 15) the northern hemisphere down to 30 degrees from North (resolution 1-2km)

February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Venera 1 was the first spacecraft to fly by Venus. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Venera 2 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Venera 3 was a Venera program space probe that was built and launched by the Soviet Union to explore the surface of Venus. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kecksburg UFO incident of Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, USA occurred on December 9, 1965. ... UFO can mean: Unidentified flying object United Future Organization, a Japanese-Brazilian electronic jazz band UFO, the rock band that previously featured Michael Schenker UFO, the Gerry Anderson TV series United Farmers of Ontario, a political party that formed the government in Ontario from 1919 to 1923 U.F.O... Venera 4 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in Leap years). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Venera 5 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Venera 6 Sketch of Venera 6 Venera 6 (Russian:Венера-6) was a Soviet spacecraft, launched from a Tyazheliy Sputnik (69-002C) on January 10 1969 towards Venus to obtain atmospheric data. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Diagram of Venera-7 The Venera 7 (Russian: Венера-7) was launched as part of the Venera program by the Soviet Union. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... Venera 8 Venera 8 landing capsule Venera 8 (Russian: Венера-8) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in Leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1972 calendar). ... 22 July is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1972 calendar). ... Venera 9 lander Surface of Venus taken by Venera 9 Venera 9 (Russian: Венера-9) was a USSR unmanned space mission to Venus. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Venera 10 was a USSR unmanned space mission to Venus. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... The Venera 11 was an USSR unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... The Venera 12 (Russian: Венера-12) was an USSR unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... Venera 13 Soviet Venus lander Venera 13 and Venera 14 were a pair of identical probes in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Venera 13 Soviet Venus lander Venera 13 and Venera 14 were a pair of identical probes in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Earth is the third planet in the Solar system. ... Venera 15 and Venera 16 were two identical spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union. ... 2 June is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Venera 15 and Venera 16 were two identical spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
:Category:Venus Missions
  • The Soviet Exploration of Venus
  • Catalog of Soviet Venus images
  • Venera 9 and 10 images of Venus
  • Venera 13 images of Venus
  • The Soviets and Venus, Part 1 of 3, by Larry Klaes
  • The Soviets and Venus, Part 2 of 3, by Larry Klaes
  • The Soviets and Venus, Part 3 of 3, by Larry Klaes

  Results from FactBites:
 
Venera (3366 words)
Venera 7 entered the atmosphere of Venus on December 15, 1970, and a landing capsule was jettisoned.
Venera 11 was part of a two-spacecraft mission to study Venus and the interplanetary medium.
Venera 15 was part of a two spacecraft mission (along with Venera 16) designed to use side-looking radar mappers to study the surface properties of Venus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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