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Encyclopedia > Veliky Novgorod

Coordinates: 58°32′N 31°16′E / 58.533, 31.267 The name Novgorod is used for the following cities. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
The medieval walls of Novgorod (pictured) withstood many sieges
State Party Russian Federation
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv, vi
Reference 604
Region European Russia
Inscription History
Inscription 1992  (16th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Veliky Novgorod (Russian: Вели́кий Но́вгород) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia,[1] the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast. It is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Moscow and St. Petersburg. "Novgorod" is the Russian word for "new city", whereas "Veliky" means "the Great". The city lies along the Volkhov River just below its outflow from Lake Ilmen. Its population in the 2002 census was 216,856; down from 229,126 recorded in the 1989 Census. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Natalya_dulchenko_kokui. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Types of inhabited localities in Russia, Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states have certain peculiarities with respect to the English language traditions. ... Coat of arms Khutyn Monastery in Novgorod Oblast Novgorod Oblast (Russian: , Novgorodskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... M10 is a state route in Russia connecting the two largest cities: Moscow and Saint Petersburg. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Volkhov River, also called Olhava river (Russian: Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. ... Ilmen (Russian: ) is a historically important lake in the Novgorod Oblast of Russia, formerly a vital part of the Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... The 1989 Soviet Census was the final and most comprehensive census taken within The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics The census officially recorded the popullation of the USSR at 286,717,000, making it the third most populous country in the world. ...

Contents

History

Early developments

Notwithstanding its name, Novgorod is among the most ancient cities among the Eastern Slavs. The Sofia First Chronicle first mentions it in 859; the Novgorodian First Chronicle mentions it first under the year 862 when it was allegedly already a major station on the trade route from the Baltics to Byzantium. Archaelogical excavations in the middle to late twentieth century, however, have found cultural layers dating back only to the late tenth century, the time of the Christianization of Rus' and a century after it was allegedly founded, suggesting that the chronicle entries mentioning Novgorod in the 850s or 860s are later interpolations.[2] The Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Путь «из варяг в греки» in Russian) was a trade route, which connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus and the Byzantine Empire. ...


The Varangian name of the city Holmgard (Holmgarðr or Holmgarðir) is mentioned in Norse Sagas as existing at a yet earlier stage, but historical facts cannot here be disentangled from legend.[3] Originally, Holmgard referred only to the stronghold southeast of the present-day city, Riurikovo Gorodishche (named in comparatively modern time after Rurik, who supposedly made it his "capital"). Archeological data suggests that the Gorodische, the residence of the Knyaz (konung or prince), dates from the middle of 9th century, whereas the town itself dates only from the end of the 10th century, hence the name Novgorod, "new city". The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Excerpt NjÃ¥ls saga in the Möðruvallabók (AM 132 folio 13r) circia 1350. ... Rurik or Riurik (Russian: , Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a nobility rank. ... Germanic monarchy, also called barbarian monarchy, was a monarchical system of government which predominated among the Germanic tribes of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. ...

Bronze monument to the Millennium of Russia (1862)
Bronze monument to the Millennium of Russia (1862)

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x3008, 1662 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Novgorod ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x3008, 1662 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Novgorod ... The Millennium of Russia (1862). ...

Princely state within Kievan Rus'

In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, captured Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus. Novgorod's size as well as its political, economic, and cultural influence made it the second city in Kievan Rus. According to a custom, the elder son and heir of the ruling Kievan monarch was sent to rule Novgorod even as a minor. When the ruling monarch had no such son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as legendary Gostomysl, Dobrynya, Konstantin, and Ostromir. Fyodor Bruni. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Posadnik (Посадник in Russian) was a deputy of Kniaz in some East Slavic places assigned to rule a city or a land. ... Gostomysl is a legendary 9th-century posadnik of Novgorod who was introduced into the historiography by Vasily Tatishchev, an 18th-century historian. ... Dobrynya was Vladimir the Greats maternal uncle and tutor who was later transformed in Russian folklore into the invincible bogatyr Dobrynya Nikitich. ... Konstantin Dobrynich (? - 1022) was an 11th-century posadnik of Novgorod. ...


In Norse sagas the city is mentioned as the capital of Gardariki (i.e., the East Slavic lands). Four Viking kings — Olaf I of Norway, Olaf II of Norway, Magnus I of Norway, and Harald Haardraade — sought refuge in Novgorod from enemies at home. No more than a few decades after the death and subsequent canonization of Olaf II of Norway, in 1028, the city's community had erected a church in his memory as testified by the late 11th century Sjusta Runestone. Excerpt NjÃ¥ls saga in the Möðruvallabók (AM 132 folio 13r) circia 1350. ... Gardariki (compare Icl. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Olaf Tryggvason (Old Norse: Óláfr Tryggvason, Norwegian: Olav Tryggvason), (960s-September 9? 1000), was King of Norway from 995 to 1000. ... Olaf II Haraldsson (995 – July 29, 1030), king from 1015–1028, (known during his lifetime as the Stout or Thick (Olav Digre) and after his canonization as Saint Olaf), was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvason came to Norway. ... Magnus I (1024 - October 25, 1047) was a King of Norway (1035 - 1047) and king of Denmark (1042 - 1047). ... Harald III Sigurdsson (1015 – September 25, 1066), later surnamed Harald HardrÃ¥de (Old Norse: Haraldr harðráði, roughly translated as Harald stern council or hard ruler) was the king of Norway from 1047[1] until 1066. ... Icon of St. ... The geographic distribution of the runestones. ...


Of all their princes, Novgorodians cherished most the memory of Yaroslav the Wise, who had sat as prince while his father, Vladimir the Great, was prince in Kiev. Yaroslav promulgated the first written code of laws (later incorporated into Russkaya Pravda) among the Eastern Slavs and is said to have granted the city a number of freedoms or privileges, which they often referred to in later centuries as precedents in their relations with other princes. His son, Vladimir, sponsored construction of the great St Sophia Cathedral, more accurately translated as The Cathedral of Holy Wisdom, which stands to this day. Mikhail Gerasimovs reconstruction of Yaroslavs appearance, based on his examination of Yaroslavs skull Yaroslav I the Wise (c. ... Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c. ... Russkaya Pravda is being read to people Russkaya Pravda (Russian: , Russkaya Pravda; Ukrainian: ; Archaic: Правда Роська, Pravda Roska) was the legal code of Kievan Rus and the subsequent Rus principalities during the times of feudal division. ... Vladimir is buried in this cathedral he built in Novgorod. ... The Cathedral of St Sophia in Novgorod is the oldest preserved church in Russia. ...


Medieval Republic

Main article: Novgorod Republic

In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed their prince Vsevolod Mstislavich. This date is seen as the traditional beginning of the Novgorod Republic. The city was able to invite and dismiss a number of princes over the next two centuries, but the princely office was never abolished and powerful princes, such as Alexander Nevsky, could assert their will in the city irrespective of the Novgorodians' wishes.[4] The city state controlled most of Europe's North-East, from today's Estonia to the Ural Mountains, making it one of the largest states in medieval Europe, although much of the territory north and east of Lakes Lagoda and Onega were sparsely populated and never organized politically. Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... For the eponymous Rurikids, see Vsevolod Mstislavich. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Saint Alexander Nevsky   (Алекса́ндр Яросла́вич Не́вский in Russian; transliteration: Aleksandr Yaroslavich Nevskiy) (May 30, 1220? – November 14, 1263) was the Grand Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir during some of the most trying times in the countrys history. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Onezhskoe ozero (from Russian, Онежское озеро), and Onezhskoe lake) is a lake in the Russian Federation. ...

12-century Novgorod icon called Angel with Golden Locks
12-century Novgorod icon called Angel with Golden Locks

One of the most important local figures in Novgorod was the Posadnik or mayor, an official elected by the public assembly (called the Veche) from among the city's boyarstvo or aristocracy. The tysyatsky, or "thousandman," originally the head of the town militia but later a commercial and judicial official, was also elected by the veche. The Archbishop of Novgorod were also important local officials and shared power with the boyars.[5] They were elected by the veche or by the drawing of lots; after their election, they were sent to the metropolitan for consecration.[6] Image File history File links 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod, called Golden-Locked Angel, currently exhibited in the State Russian Museum. ... Image File history File links 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod, called Golden-Locked Angel, currently exhibited in the State Russian Museum. ... Posadnik (Посадник in Russian) was a deputy of Kniaz in some East Slavic places assigned to rule a city or a land. ... Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ... Tysyatsky (tysiatsky, Russian: ; sometimes translated dux or Heerzog) was a military leader in Ancient Rus, who commanded a peoples volunteer army called тысяча (tysyacha, or a thousand). ... The Archbishop of Novgorod, alternatively known as Vladyka (Russian: Владыка), is the head of the eparchy of Novgorod the Great and is one of the oldest offices in the Russian Orthodox Church. ...


While a basic outline of the various officials and the veche can be drawn up, the city-state's exact political constitution remains uncertain. The boyars and the archbishop ruled the city collectively, although where one officials power ended and another's began is uncertain. The prince, although reduced in power beginning in about the mid-twelfth century, was represented by his namestnik or lieutenant, and still played important roles as a military commander, legislator, and jurist. The exact composition of the veche, too, is uncertain, with some scholars such as Vasily Kliuchevksii claiming it was democratic in nature, while later scholars, such as Valentin Ianin and Alesandr Khoroshev, see it as a "sham democracy" controlled by the ruling elite. Namestnik (Russian: ) was an office position in the history of Russia. ...


In the 13th century, Novgorod, while not a member of the Hanseatic League, was the easternmost kontor, or entrepot, of the league, being the source of enormous quanties of luxury (sable, ermine, fox, marmot) and non-luxury furs (squirrel-pelts).[7] Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... A Kontor was a trading post of the Hanseatic League. ...


Throughout the Middle Ages, the city thrived culturally. A large number of birch bark letters have been unearthed in excavations, perhaps suggesting wide-spread literacy, although this is uncertain (some scholars suggest that a clerical or scribal elite wrote them on behalf of a largely illiterate populace). It was in Novgorod that the oldest Slavic book written north of Macedonia and the oldest inscription in a Finnic language were unearthed. Some of the most ancient Russian chronicles were written in the archbishops' scriptorium and the archbishops also promoted iconography and patronized church construction. The Novgorod merchant Sadko became a popular hero of Russian folklore. A Birch bark document is a document written on pieces of birch bark. ... First page of the Novgorod Codex Novgorod Codex (Russian Новгородский кодекс) is a name for the oldest book of Rus’, unearthed on July 13, 2000 in Novgorod. ... The Birch bark letter given the document number 292, found in 1957 in excavations in Novgorod, is the oldest known document in any Finnic language. ... The Novgorod First Chronicle (Russian: ) is the most ancient extant chronicle of the Novgorod Republic. ... Sadko, Palekh painting Sadko (Russian: ) was a legendary hero of a Russian bylina (epic tale) with the same name, a merchant and gusli musician from Novgorod. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Novgorod was never conquered by the Mongols during the Mongol invasion of Rus. The Mongol army turned back about 100 km from the city, not due to the city's strength, but probably because the Mongol commanders did not want to get bogged down in the marshlands surrouding the city. That being said, the grand princes of Moscow, who acted as the tax-collectors for the khans of the Golden Horde, did collect tribute (dan) in Novgorod, most notably Yury Danillovich and his brother, Ivan Kalita. The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... Yuriy Danilovich, also known as Georgiy Danilovich (Юрий Данилович in Russian)(unknown - November 21, 1325) was Prince of Moscow (1303 - 1325) and Grand Prince of Vladimir (since 1317). ... Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (Иван I Данилович Калита in Russian)(? - March 31, 1340), Prince of Moscow (since 1325), Grand Prince of Vladimir (since 1328), son of Daniil Aleksandrovich (Prince of Moscow). ...


Within the united Russian state

The city's downfall was a result of its inability to feed its large population, making it dependent on the Vladimir-Suzdal region for grain. The main cities in this area, Moscow and Tver, used this dependence to gain control over Novgorod. Eventually Ivan III annexed the city to Muscovy in 1478. Novgorod remained the third largest Russian city, however, until the famine of 1560s and Ivan the Terrible sacking the city and slaughtering thousands of its inhabitants in 1570. The city's merchant elite and nobility were deported to Moscow, Yaroslavl, and elsewhere. Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ) (August 25, 1530, Moscow â€“ March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Czar of Russia from 1547 until his death. ... The Massacre of Novgorod was a State-sponsored genocide that occoured in the city of Novgorod, Russia in 1570. ... Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ...

City plan of Novgorod in the first half of the 18th century
City plan of Novgorod in the first half of the 18th century

During the Time of Troubles, Novgorodians eagerly submitted to Swedish troops led by Jacob De la Gardie in summer of 1611. The city was restituted to Russia only six years later, by the Treaty of Stolbovo and regained a measure of its former prosperity by the end of the century, when such ambitious buildings as the Cathedral of the Sign and the Vyazhischi Monastery were constructed. The most famous of Russian patriarchs, Nikon, occupied the metropolian see of Novgorod between 1648 and 1652. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2128x1513, 1053 KB) Novgorod 1701-1745 from: T. Arne, Novgorod vo vremja s^vedskogo vladyc^estva po Baltijskomu Pomorju (1611-1617). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2128x1513, 1053 KB) Novgorod 1701-1745 from: T. Arne, Novgorod vo vremja s^vedskogo vladyc^estva po Baltijskomu Pomorju (1611-1617). ... The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of the Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Treaty of Stolbovo is a peace treaty of 1617 that ended the Ingrian War, fought between Sweden and Russia. ... Nikon (Russian: Ни́кон, Old Russian: Нїконъ), born Nikita Minin (Никита Минин; May 7, 1605 Valmanovo, Russia—August 17, 1681), was the seventh patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. ...


In 1727, Novgorod was made an administrative centre of the Novgorod Governorate of the Russian Empire, which was detached from Saint Petersburg Governorate (see Administrative divisions of Russia in 1727-1728). This administrative division existed until 1927. Between 1927 and 1944 the city was a part of Leningrad Oblast, and then became an administrative center of the newly formed Novgorod Oblast. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Map of Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1900. ... The administrative reform of 1727 was carried out soon after Peter the Greats death, when it became apparent that previous reform was not working as planned. ... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... Coat of arms Khutyn Monastery in Novgorod Oblast Novgorod Oblast (Russian: , Novgorodskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ...


During World War II, on August 15, 1941, the city was occupied by the German Army. Its historic monuments were systematically annihilated. When the Red Army liberated the city on January 19, 1944, out of 2,536 stone buildings, fewer than forty were still standing. After the war, the downtown was gradually restored according to a plan worked out by Alexey Shchusev. Its chief monuments have been declared the World Heritage Site. In 1998, the city was officially renamed Veliky Novgorod, thus partly reverting to its medieval title "Lord Novgorod the Great". Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Alexey Viktorovich Shchusev (Russian: ) (September 26, 1873, Kishinev—May 24, 1949, Moscow) was an acclaimed Russian architect whose works may be regarded as a bridge connecting Revivalist architecture of Imperial Russia with Stalins Empire Style. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Sights

No other Russian or Ukrainian city can compete with Novgorod in the variety and age of its medieval monuments. The foremost among these is the St Sophia Cathedral, built between 1045 and 1050 under the patronage of Vladimir Yaroslavich, the son of Yaroslav the Wise (Vladimir is buried in the cathedral along with his mother, Anna.)[8] It is the best preserved of 11th century churches, probably the oldest structure still in use in Russia and the first one to represent original features of Russian architecture (austere stone walls, five helmet-like cupolas). Its frescoes were painted in the 12th century originally on the orders of Bishop Nikita (died 1108) (the "porches" or side chapels were painted in 1144 under Archbishop Nifont) and renovated several times over the centuries, most recently in the nineteenth century.[9] The cathedral features famous bronze gates, which now hang in the west entrance, allegedly made in Magdeburg in 1156 (other sources see them originating in Plock in Poland) and reportedly snatched by Novgorodians from the Swedish town of Sigtuna in 1187. More recent scholarship has determined that the gates probably were purchased in the mid-fifteenth century, apparently at the behest of Archbishop Evfimii II (1429-1458), a lover of Western art and architectural styles.[10] The Cathedral of St Sophia in Novgorod is the oldest preserved church in Russia. ... Yaroslav I the Wise (978?-1054) (Christian name: Yury, or George) was thrice prince of Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. ... This article is about the German city. ... Sigtuna is a city in central Sweden in the metropolitan area of Stockholm. ...


The Novgorod Kremlin, traditionally known as the Detinets, also contains the oldest palace in Russia (the so-called Chamber of the Facets, 1433), which served as the main meeting hall of the archbishops; the oldest Russian bell tower (mid-15th cent.), and the oldest Russian clock tower (1673). The Palace of Facets, the bell tower, and the clock tower were originally built on the orders of Archbishop Evfimii II, although the clock tower collapsed in the seventeenth century and had to be rebuilt and much of the palace of Evfimii II is no longer extant. Among later structures, the most remarkable are a royal palace (1771) and a bronze monument to the Millennium of Russia, representing the most important figures from the country's history (unveiled in 1862). Novgorod Kremlin The Detinets (Young Mans Compound, from the same root as the Russian word deti = children) is the ancient name for the Kremlin or fortress in Novgorod the Great, which stands on the left bank of the Volkhov River about two miles north of where it empties out... The Millennium of Russia (1862). ...

St Nicholas Cathedral, built by Mstislav I near his palace at Yaroslav's Court, Novgorod, contains 12th-century frescoes depicting his illustrious family
St Nicholas Cathedral, built by Mstislav I near his palace at Yaroslav's Court, Novgorod, contains 12th-century frescoes depicting his illustrious family

Outside the kremlin walls, there are three large churches constructed during the reign of Mstislav the Great. St Nicholas Cathedral (1113-23), containing frescoes of Mstislav's family, graces Yaroslav's Court (formerly the chief square of Novgorod). The Yuriev Monastery (one of the oldest in Russia, 1030) contains a tall, three-domed cathedral from 1119 (built by Mstislav's son, Vsevolod. and Kyurik, the head of the monastery. A similar three-domed cathedral (1117), probably designed by the same masters, stands in the Antoniev Monastery, built on the orders of Antonii, the founder of that monstery. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 473 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1129 × 1432 pixel, file size: 285 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 473 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1129 × 1432 pixel, file size: 285 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... Mstislav I Vladimirovich the Great (Мстислав Владимирович Великий in Russian) (June 1, 1076 — April 14, 1132), Grand Prince of Kiev (1125-1132), the eldest son... A view of the Yuriev Monastery. ... The Antoniev Monastery (Russian: ) was one of the most important monasteries in medieval Novgorod the Great; it stands along the right bank of the Volkhov River north of the city centre. ...


There are now some fifty still-extant medieval and early modern churches scattered throughout the city and its environs. Some of them were blown up by the Nazis and subsequently restored. The most ancient pattern is represented by those dedicated to Sts Peter and Pavel (on the Swallow's Hill, 1185-92), to Annunciation (in Myachino, 1179), to Assumption (on Volotovo Field, 1180s) and to St Paraskeva-Piatnitsa (at Yaroslav's Court, 1207). The greatest masterpiece of early Novgorod architecture is the Saviour church at Nereditsa (1198).

Nereditsa church formerly contained the finest 12th-century frescoes in Russia. The frescoes were destroyed when the church was blown up by the Germans in 1944.

In the 13th century, tiny churches of the three-paddled design were in vogue. These are represented by a small chapel at the Peryn Monastery (1230s) and St Nicholas' on the Lipnya Islet (1292, also notable for its 14th-century frescoes). The next century saw development of two original church designs, one of them culminating in St Theodor's church (1360-61, fine frescoes from 1380s), and another one leading to the Saviour church on Ilyina street (1374, painted in 1378 by Feofan Grek). The Saviour' church in Kovalevo (1345) was originally frescoed by Serbian masters, but the church was destroyed during the war. While the church has since been rebuilt, the frescoes have not been restored. Image File history File links Photo of the Saviour church at Nereditsa near Novgorod (1198), as taken in the 1960s. ... Image File history File links Photo of the Saviour church at Nereditsa near Novgorod (1198), as taken in the 1960s. ... Dormition of Mary (Uspenie Bogoroditsy) 1392 Biography Feofan Grek 1340?-1410? is one of Russian greatest icon painters or iconographer. ...


During the last century of republican government, some new churches were consecrated to Sts Peter and Paul (on Slavna, 1367; in Kozhevniki, 1406), to Christ's Nativity (at the Cemetery, 1387), to St John the Apostle's (1384), to the Twelve Apostles (1455), to St Demetrius (1467), to St Simeon (1462), and other saints. Generally, they are not thought so innovative as the churches from the previous epoch. Several 12th-century shrines (i.e., in Opoki) were demolished brick by brick and then reconstructed exactly as they used to be, several of them in the mid fifteenth century, again under Archbishop Evfimii II, perhaps one of the greatest patrons of architecture in medieval Novgorod.


Novgorod's conquest by Ivan III in 1478 decisively changed the character of local architecture. Large commissions were thenceforth executed by Muscovite masters and patterned after cathedrals of Moscow Kremlin: e.g., the Saviour Cathedral of Khutyn Monastery (1515), the Cathedral of the Mother of God of the Sign (1688), the St. Nicholas Cathedral of Vyaschizhy Monastery (1685). Nevertheless, the styles of some parochial churches were still in keeping with local traditions: e.g., the churches of Myrrh-bearing Women(1510) and of Sts Boris and Gleb (1586). Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken by westerners as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... Khutyn Monastery of Saviours Transfiguration and of St. ...


In Vitoslavlitsy, along the Volkhov River and the Myachino Lake, close to the Yuriev Monastery, a picturesque museum of wooden architecture was established in 1964. Over 20 wooden buildings (churches, houses and mills) dating from the 14th to the 19th century were transported there from all around the Novgorod region. Volkhov River, also called Olhava river (Russian: Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. ...


Transport

Intercity transport

Novgorod has connections to Moscow (531 km) and St. Petersburg (189 km) by the federal highway M10. There are public shuttle buses to Petersburg, and other directions. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... M10 is a state route in Russia connecting the two largest cities: Moscow and Saint Petersburg. ...


The city has direct railway passenger connections to Moscow (to Leningradsky Rail Terminal, by night trains), St. Petersburg (to Moscow Rail Terminal and Vitebsk Rail Terminal, by suburban trains) and major cities of northwestern Russia such as Pskov and Murmansk. View from Three Station Square. ... View on the terminal from Uprising Square. ... Vitebsk Railway Station in May 2005. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and...

Walls of the Novgorod Kremlin
Walls of the Novgorod Kremlin

The city's airports Yurievo and Krechevitsy do not serve any regular flights since the middle 1990s. The nearest international airport is St. Petersburg's Pulkovo, some 180 km north of the city. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 1898 KB) Description: Россия Великий Новгород Russland Weliki Nowgorod Date: 2005-08-06 photographer: Heidas Wikipedia account All pictures Please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 1898 KB) Description: Россия Великий Новгород Russland Weliki Nowgorod Date: 2005-08-06 photographer: Heidas Wikipedia account All pictures Please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Yurievo (Russian: ) is one of the two airports in the city of Velikiy Novgorod, Russia. ... For other uses of Krechevitsy, see Krechevitsy (disambiguation). ... Pulkovo Airport (Russian: ) (IATA: LED, ICAO: ULLI) is the international airport serving St. ...


Local transport

The local transport consists of a network of buses and trolleybuses. The trolleybus network which currently consists of 5 routes started operation in 1995, and is the first trolley system opened in Russia after the fall of the Soviet Union. A Polish Solaris trolleybus in Landskrona, Sweden. ...


Trivia

In 1994–1997 Veliky Novgorod was home to chess supertournament "Lord Novgorod the Great" [1] (see also list of strong chess tournaments). For other uses, see Chess (disambiguation). ... Depicts many of the strongest international chess tournaments in history. ...


Micheal Palin visited Novgorod in his Documentary Series 'Pole to Pole' where he participated in a ceremony regarding the twinning of the town with Watford.


Sister cities

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Rochester: Made for Living Location of Rochester in New York State Country State County Monroe Government [1]  - Mayor Robert Duffy (D) Area  - City  37. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Bielefeld is a district-free town in the Regierungsbezirk Detmold in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Watford is a town and district in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, situated 34 km (21 miles) northwest of London and within the bounds of the M25 motorway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Zibo (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Ivano-Frankivsk highlighted. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... http://www. ...

See also

Old Novgorod dialect (Russian древненовгородский диалект, also translated as Old Novgorodian or Ancient Novgorod dialect) is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak (Андр&#1077... A Birch bark document is a document written on pieces of birch bark. ...

References

  1. ^ The Archaeology of Novgorod, by Valentin L. Yanin, in Ancient Cities, Special Issue, (Scientific American), pp 120–127, c 1994. Covers, History, Kremlin of Novgorod, Novgorod Museum of History, preservation dynamics of the soils, and the production of Birch bark documents.
  2. ^ V. L. (Valentin Lavrent’evich) Ianin and M. Kh. (Mark Khaimovich) Aleshkovskii, “Proskhozhdenie Novgoroda: (k postanovke problemy),” Istoriia SSSR 2 (1971): 32-61.
  3. ^ The meaning of this Norse toponym, "island garden", has no satisfactory explanation. According to Rydzevskaya, the Norse name is derived from the Slavic "Holmgrad" which means "town on a hill" and may allude to the "old town" preceding the "new town", or Novgorod.
  4. ^ Michael C. Paul, “The Iaroslavichi and the Novgorodian Veche 1230-1270: A Case Study on Princely Relations with the Veche,” Russian History/ Histoire Russe 31, No. 1-2 (Spring-Summer 2004): 39-59.
  5. ^ Michael C. Paul, “Secular Power and the Archbishops of Novgorod Before the Muscovite Conquest.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 8, no. 2 (Spring 2007): 231-270.
  6. ^ Michael C. Paul, “Episcopal Election in Novgorod, Russia 1156-1478.” Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture 72, No. 2 (June 2003): 251-275.
  7. ^ Janet Martin, Treasure of the Land of Darkness: the Fur Trade and its Significance for Medieval Russia. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985).
  8. ^ Tatiana Tsarevskaia, St. Sophia's Cathedral in Novgorod (Moscow: Severnyi Palomnik, 2005), 3.
  9. ^ Ibid, 14, 19-22, 24, 29, 35.
  10. ^ Irena Daniec Jadwiga, The Message of Faith and Symbol in European Medieval Bronze Church Doors (Danbury, CT: Rutledge Books, 1999), Chapter III "An Enigma: The Medieval Bronze Church Door of Płock in the Cathedral of Novgorod," 67-97; Mikhail Tsapenko, ed., Early Russian Architecture (Moscow: Progress Publisher, 1969), 34-38

Valentin Lavrentievich Yanin (born 6 February 1929 in Kirov) is a leading Russian historian who authored more than 700 books and articles. ... A Birch bark document is a document written on pieces of birch bark. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ...

Cities and towns in Novgorod Oblast Flag of Russia
Administrative center: Veliky Novgorod

Borovichi | Chudovo | Kholm | Malaya Vishera | Okulovka | Pestovo | Soltsy | Staraya Russa | Valday Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coat of arms Khutyn Monastery in Novgorod Oblast Novgorod Oblast (Russian: , Novgorodskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Historic coat of arms of Borovichi Borovichi (Russian: ) is the second largest town in Novgorod Oblast, Russia, with a population of 57,755 (2002 Census). ... Chudovo (Russian: Чудово) is a town in the Novgorod Oblast in Russia, located on the Kerest River (Lake Ladoga basin). ... CheÅ‚m (Ukrainian: , Kholm) is a town in eastern Poland with 68,595 inhabitants (2004). ... Malaya Vishera (Russian: ) is a town in Novgorod Oblast, Russia. ... Okulovka (Russian: ) is a town in Novgorod Oblast, Russia, in the Valdai Hills. ... Pestovo (Russian: ) is a town in the eastern part of Novgorod Oblast, Russia, situated on the Mologa River, in the Valdai Hills. ... Soltsy (Russian: ) is a town in the western part of Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the Shelon River, 78 km south-west of Velikiy Novgorod. ... Staraya Russa (Russian: ) is an old Russian town located 99 km south of Veliky Novgorod. ... Valdai or Valday (Russian: Валда́й) is a town in Novgorod Oblast, Russia, an administrative center of Valdaysky District. ...


 
 

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