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Encyclopedia > Velar approximant
IPA – number 154
IPA – text ɰ
IPA – image {{{imagesize}}}
Entity ɰ
X-SAMPA M
Kirshenbaum j<vel>
Sound sample 

The velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɰ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is M. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... HTML has been in use since 1991 (note that the W3C international standard is now XHTML), but the first standardized version with a reasonably complete treatment of international characters was version 4. ... The Extended SAM Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. ... Kirshenbaum, sometimes called ASCII-IPA, is a system used to represent the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in ASCII. It was developed for Usenet, notably the newsgroups sci. ... Image File history File links Voiced_velar_approximant. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Extended SAM Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. ...


The IPA symbol ɣ, sometimes with a lowering diacritic, is also used for the velar approximant. In phonetics, a lowered sound is articulated with the tongue or lip lowered (the mouth more open) than some reference point. ...


Features

Features of the velar approximant:

  • Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by bringing one articulator close to another but without the vocal tract being narrowed to such an extent that a turbulent airstream is produced.
  • Its place of articulation is velar which means it is articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the velum).
  • Its phonation type is voiced, which means the vocal cords are vibrating during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by allowing the airstream to flow over the middle of the tongue, rather than the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic egressive, which means it is articulated by pushing air out of the lungs and through the vocal tract, rather than from the glottis or the mouth.

In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The soft palate, or velum, is the soft tissue comprising the back of the roof of the mouth. ... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... An oral consonant is a consonant sound in speech that is made by allowing air to escape from the mouth. ... A central or medial consonant is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue. ... In phonetics, initiation is the action by which an air-flow is created through the vocal tract. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ...

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Cherokee /wa-tsi [ɰatsi] 'watch' also represented by , , , , and
Irish naoi [n̪ˠɰiː] 'nine' Occurs only between broad consonants and front vowels. See Irish phonology
Japanese /watashi [ɰataɕi] 'I' Pronounced with lip compression. See Japanese phonology
Korean 의자/uija [ɰiʤa] 'chair' Occurs only before /i/
Spanish pagar [paˈɰaɾ] 'to pay' Intervocalic allophone of /g/. See Spanish phonology

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Original distribution of the Cherokee language Cherokee (; Tsalagi) is an Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people which uses a unique syllabary writing system. ... Sequoyah The Cherokee language is written in a syllabary invented by Sequoyah (also known as George Gist or George Guess). ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Irish orthography has a reputation as being very difficult to learn and bearing only a tenuous relationship to the pronunciation. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... The phonology of Irish varies from dialect to dialect; there is no standard pronunciation of the language. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The romanization of Japanese is the use of the Latin alphabet (called rōmaji )   in Japanese) to write the Japanese language, which is normally written in logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic scripts... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Jamo redirects here. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

See also

  Consonants (List, table) See also: IPA, Vowels  
Pulmonics Bilabial Lab'den. Dental Alveolar Postalv. Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglottal Glottal Non-pulmonics and other symbols
Nasals m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ Clicks  ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ
Plosives p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ Implo­­sives  ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Fricatives  ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ Ejec­­tives 
Approximants  β̞ ʋ ð̞ ɹ ɻ j ɰ Other laterals  ɺ ɫ
Trills ʙ r ʀ Co-articulated approximants ʍ w ɥ
Flaps & Taps ѵ ɾ ɽ Co-articulated fricatives ɕ ʑ ɧ
Lat. Fricatives ɬ ɮ Affricates  ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ
Lat. Appr'mants l ɭ ʎ ʟ Co-articulated stops  k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m
This page contains phonetic information in IPA, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged impossible.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Velar consonant at AllExperts (276 words)
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum)against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum).
Since the velar region of the roof of the mouth is relatively extensive and the movements of the dorsumare not very precise, velars easily undergo assimilation, shifting their articulation back or to the frontdepending on the quality of adjacent vowels.
Palatalised velars (like English /k/ in keen or cube) are sometimes referred to as palatovelars.Many languages also have labialized velars, such as, in which the articulation is accompanied by rounding of the lips.
Approximant consonant at AllExperts (429 words)
When emphasized, approximants may be slightly fricated (that is, the airstream may become slightly turbulent), which is reminiscent of fricatives.
Tibetan has a voiceless lateral approximant,, and Welsh has a voiceless lateral fricative, but the distinction is not always clear from descriptions of these languages.
Occasionally the glottal "fricatives" are called approximants, since [h] typically has no more frication than voiceless approximants, but they are often phonations of the glottis without any accompanying manner or place of articulation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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