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Encyclopedia > Vegetarian nutrition
A variety of vegetarian ingredients
A variety of vegetarian ingredients

Vegetarian nutrition is the set of health-related challenges and advantages of vegetarian diets. Download high resolution version (640x969, 132 KB) These foods are typical of those eaten by the 12 volunteers during a study of how plant-rich diets affect blood lipids, antioxidant defenses, and colon function. ... Download high resolution version (640x969, 132 KB) These foods are typical of those eaten by the 12 volunteers during a study of how plant-rich diets affect blood lipids, antioxidant defenses, and colon function. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ...


Evidence suggests that vegetarians are generally healthier and live longer than non-vegetarians. They have lower rates of coronary heart disease, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and some forms of cancer. Vegetarian diets tend to be rich in carbohydrates, omega-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium and magnesium. They are generally low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein. Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Dietary sources of omega-6 fatty acids include: cereals whole-grain breads margarine most vegetable oils eggs and poultry baked goods. ... Dietary fibers are long-chain carbohydrates (polysaccharides) that are indigestible by the human digestive tract. ... Carotenoids are organic pigments naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ...


However, vegetarian diets can sometimes be relatively low in protein, iron, zinc, vitamin B12, calcium and other nutrients. Nonetheless, well-planned vegetarian and vegan diets can meet all these nutrient requirements and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ...

Contents

Benefits of a vegetarian diet

Vegetarian diets are usually rich in carbohydrates, omega-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium and magnesium.[1][2] They contain lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein.[1] Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Dietary sources of omega-6 fatty acids include: cereals whole-grain breads margarine most vegetable oils eggs and poultry baked goods. ... Dietary fibers are long-chain carbohydrates (polysaccharides) that are indigestible by the human digestive tract. ... Carotenoids are organic pigments naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ...


Evidence suggests that the health of vegetarians compares favourably with that of non-vegetarians.[3] British vegetarians have lower death rates than non-vegetarians,[3][4] although this may be due to non-dietary lifestyle factors, such as a low prevalence of smoking and the generally high socio-economic status of vegetarians, or to aspects of the diet other than the avoidance of meat and fish.[5] Most notably, a vegetarian diet avoids the multitude of negative health effects of red meat. Red meat in culinary terminology refers to meat which is red-colored when raw, while in nutritional terminology, it refers to meat from mammals. ...


One review found that mortality from coronary heart disease was 24% lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians.[6] Studies of cancer have shown a clear link between large amounts of red meat and cancer. There is evidence that vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index,[1][2] lower risk of obesity,[7] lower blood cholesterol levels,[1][2] lower homocysteine levels,[2], lower risk of high blood pressure,[1][7] and lower risk of type 2 diabetes.[1][7] One large prospective study found that non-meat-eaters had only half the risk of meat eaters of requiring an emergency appendectomy.[3] Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. ... Red meat in culinary terminology refers to meat which is red-colored when raw, while in nutritional terminology, it refers to meat from mammals. ... A graph of body mass index is shown above. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Homocysteine is a chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CH2CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a homologue of the naturally-occurring amino acid cysteine, differing in that its side-chain contains an additional methylene (-CH2-) group before the thiol (-SH) group. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ... A Study design is a way to set up an epidemiological investigation, as a form of clinical trial. ... An appendicectomy (or appendectomy) is the surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. ...


Potential nutrient deficiencies

Poorly planned vegetarian diets can be relatively low in protein, iron, zinc, vitamin B12, calcium, omega-3 fatty acids, retinol (vitamin A), vitamin D, riboflavin (vitamin B2) and iodine.[1][2] Vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B12 and calcium.[2] Nonetheless, well-balanced vegetarian and vegan diets can meet all these nutrient requirements and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.[1] A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in certain fish tissues, and in vegetable sources such as flax seeds, walnuts, and canola oil. ... Retinol, the animal form of vitamin A, is a yellow fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed, water-soluble micronutrient with a key role in maintaining human health. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Kittens nursing Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. ... “Baby” redirects here. ... Childhood (song) Childhood is a broad term usually applied to the phase of development in humans between infancy and adulthood. ... Adolescent redirects here. ...


Protein

The typical vegetarian gets adequate protein as long as caloric intake is adequate and a variety of foods is eaten.[8] Vegetarian diets are usually relatively low in protein,[2] which may be beneficial.[9][10] USDA's tables provide information about the protein content of most foods, and the Institute of Medicine's DRI tables show the amount of recommended protein intake. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


Due to the lower digestibility of plant proteins, however, the American Dietetic Association (ADA) states "protein needs might be higher than the RDA in vegetarians whose dietary protein sources are mainly those that are less well digested, such as some cereals and legumes."[1] The American Dietetic Association (ADA) is the United States largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, with nearly 65,000 members. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Daily values. ...


Combining proteins

Main article: Protein combining
Virtually all plant foods have all of the essential amino acids; and not only are the amino acids there, they are present in more than enough quantity to meet the needs of normal adults, if you are on a calorically adequate diet.

Keith Akers[8] Protein combining (also protein complementing) is the theory, now largely discredited (citation needed), that vegetarians must eat foods such as beans and rice together, or at least on the same day, so the different amino acids in the foods combine to form a complete protein, containing all eight essential amino... Keith Akers is the author of two books: The Lost Religion of Jesus and A Vegetarian Sourcebook. ...

Despite a widespread belief that vegetarians must eat grains and beans within a few hours of each other in order to make a 'complete' protein which contains all 9 "essential amino acids", this has never been substantiated by research. The protein-combining theory was brought to popular attention in Frances Moore Lappé's 1971 bestseller Diet for a Small Planet.[8] In later editions of the book, as early as 1981, Lappé withdrew her contention that protein 'combining' is necessary.[11] An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... // Frances Moore Lappé (born February 10, 1944) is a noted social change and democracy activist, and the author of 15 books, including the three-million-copy bestseller, Diet for a Small Planet (originally published in 1971). ... Diet for a Small Planet is a book by Frances Moore Lappé presenting her theory of Complementary Protein sources in the human diet. ...


Iron

Meat, fish and poultry are the only sources of heme iron; plants contain only non-heme iron, which is absorbed less efficiently by the human body.[12] However, cereals, eggs, legumes (including peas, beans, chickpeas, lentils and soy foods) and nuts are significant sources of iron,[13] so a well planned vegetarian diet should not lead to iron deficiency. Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Lens culinaris Medikus Red lentils Lentils (Lens culinaris, Fabaceae) are lens-shaped pulses that grow on an annual, bushlike plant. ...


A study in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association found that while iron-deficiency anemia is not more common among vegetarians, "vegetarian children had ... reduced levels of haemoglobin and iron compared to omnivores" due "to the absence of animal iron sources with high utilizability".[12] This article discusses the medical condition. ...

Tofu can be a valuable source of protein, iron, zinc and calcium for vegetarians and vegans
Tofu can be a valuable source of protein, iron, zinc and calcium for vegetarians and vegans

Download high resolution version (680x1024, 85 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (680x1024, 85 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ...

Zinc

Western vegetarians and vegans have not been found to suffer from overt zinc deficiencies any more than meat-eaters.[14] However, phytates in many whole-grains and fiber in many foods may interfere with zinc absorption and marginal zinc intake has poorly understood effects.[1] General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Phytic acid (known as inositol hexaphosphate, or phytate when its salt form) is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially seeds. ...


Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 deficiency is potentially extremely serious, leading to pernicious anemia, nerve degeneration and irreversible neurological damage.[15] A regular source of vitamin B12 is particularly important for those over the age of 50 years, and pregnant and lactating women (and for breastfed infants if the mother's diet is not supplemented).[1] Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Pernicious anemia (also known as Biermers anaemia or Addisons anaemia or Addison-Biermer anaemia) is a form of megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency dependent on impaired absorption of vitamin B12 in the setting of atrophic gastritis, and more specifically of loss of gastric parietal cells. ...


Evidence suggests that vegetarians and vegans who are not taking vitamin B12 supplements do not consume sufficient servings of B12 and often have abnormally low blood concentrations of vitamin B12.[16] This is because, unless fortified, plant foods do not contain significant amounts of active vitamin B12.[1] Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ...


It is essential, therefore, that vegetarians consume adequate amounts of dairy products, eggs, dietary supplements or foods that have been fortified with B12 (such as certain yeast extracts, vegetable stock, veggie burger mixes, textured vegetable protein, soy milks, vegetable and sunflower margarines, and breakfast cereals).[15] Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... Yeast extract is the common name for yeast autolysates, that is, concentrations of yeast cells that are allowed to die and break up, so that the yeasts digestive enzymes break their proteins down into simpler compounds. ... Stock is a flavoured liquid. ... A homemade veggie burger. ... Dry TVP flakes are an inexpensive protein source when purchased in bulk and can be added to a variety of vegetarian dishes or used as a supplement to bulk out a meat dish. ... A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Greek Café Frappé prepared with soy milk, topped with additional cinnamon 1 l (2. ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Omega-3 fatty acids

Vegetarian sources of omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseeds and flaxseed oil, olive oil, walnuts, canola (rapeseed) oil, avocado, and eggs. See Nomenclature of essential fatty acids for terms and discussion of ω (omega) nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... In agriculture, Canola is a trademarked cultivar of genetically engineered rapeseed variants from which rapeseed oil is obtained. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Binomial name Mill. ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ...

Vegetarian sources of omega-3 fatty acids are primarily the short chain variety and likely to have lower concentrations of the particular essential fatty acids (EFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The body can synthesize small quantities of EPA and DHA from other omega-3 fatty acids, such as alpha-linolenic acids, which are present in vegetarian sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The human body can also convert DHA into EPA. DHA supplements derived from DHA-rich microalgae are available. Whilst the human body can in theory do this conversion, in practice modern diets and lifestyles reduce the effectiveness of the conversion systems. Roughly ten times more of the short chain omega-3s must be consumed to have the same effect as the long chain form from fish oil.[17] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 361 pixel Image in higher resolution (3444 × 1555 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 361 pixel Image in higher resolution (3444 × 1555 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article is about the walnut tree. ... See Nomenclature of essential fatty acids for terms and discussion of ω (omega) nomenclature. ... Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components (generally all references are to humans) by any known chemical pathways; and therefore must be obtained from the diet. ... Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid. ... Docosahexaenoic acid (commonly known as DHA; 22:6(ω-3), all-cis-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid; trivial name cervonic acid) is an omega-3 essential fatty acid. ... Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Fish Oil is oil derived from fishes. ...


While there is no scientific consensus on the role of omega-3 fatty acids, it is generally believed that they may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, lower triglycerides, stabilize mood and help prevent depression, help prevent ADD, reduce joint pain and other rheumatoid problems and reduce the risk of dementia in older age. Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... Triglyceride (blue: fatty acid; red: glycerol backbone) Triglycerides are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or Hyperkinetic Disorder as officially known in the UK though ADHD is more commonly used, is generally considered to be a developmental disorder, largely neurological in nature, affecting about 5% of the worlds population. ... Rheumatism or Rheumatic disorder is a non-specific term for medical problems affecting the heart, bones, joints, kidney, skin and lung. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ...


Vitamin D

The human body can synthesize Vitamin D when skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Vegans who do not eat foods or pills fortified with synthetic vitamin D and with little exposure to the sun's ultraviolet radiation, e.g. who don't expose their extremities for at least 15-30 minutes per day or those living at latitudes close to the poles, are vulnerable to Vitamin D deficiencies. Synthesis (from the Greek words syn = plus and thesis = position) is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about the geographical term. ...


Vitamin D acts as a hormone, sending a message to the intestines to increase the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, which produces strong bones. Vitamin D also works in concert with a number of other vitamins, minerals, and hormones to promote bone mineralization. Research also suggests that vitamin D may help maintain a healthy immune system and help regulate cell growth and differentiation. For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) A vitamin is a nutrient that is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Mineralization is the process of depositing minerals or naturally occuring inorganic chemicals. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ...


Iodine

According the British Journal of Nutrition there is a "potential danger of [Iodine] deficiency disorders due to strict forms of vegetarian nutrition, especially when fruits and vegetables grown in soils with low [Iodine] levels are ingested."[18] Iodine, however, is usually supplied by iodized salt and other sources in first world countries. Iodised salt is ordinary table salt mixed with a tiny amount of iodine salts, so that it prevents disease of the thyroid gland. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ...


Riboflavin

According to the American Dietetic Association, “Some studies have shown vegans to have lower intakes of riboflavin, compared with nonvegetarians; however, clinical riboflavin deficiency has not been observed.”[1] Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m “Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2003, 06. Accessed 4 January 2007.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Key TJ, Appleby PN, Rosell MS: “Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets”. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2006, 65:35-41. Accessed 4 January 2007.
  3. ^ a b c Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJ: “The Oxford Vegetarian Study: an overview”. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999, 70:525S-531S. Accessed 4 January 2007.
  4. ^ Key TJ, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Allen NE, Spencer EA, Travis RC: “Mortality in British vegetarians: review and preliminary results from EPIC-Oxford”. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003, 78:533S-538S. Accessed 4 January 2007.
  5. ^ Appleby PN, Key TJ, Thorogood M, Burr ML, Mann J: “Mortality in British vegetarians”. Public Health Nutrition, 2002, 5:29-36. Accessed 4 January 2007.
  6. ^ Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Beral V, Reeves G, Burr ML, Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Kuzma JW, Mann J, McPherson K: “Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies”. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999, 70:516S-524S. Accessed 4 January 2007.
  7. ^ a b c American Heart Association: Vegetarian Diets. Accessed 4 January 2007.
  8. ^ a b c Akers, Keith: But How Do You Get Enough Protein?. Vegetarian Society of Colorado. Accessed 11 April 2007.
  9. ^ Food Navigator USA: Low-protein diets could protect against cancer, says new study. 7 December 2006. Accessed 4 January 2007.
  10. ^ Diabetic nephropathy
  11. ^ Lappé, Frances Moore (1981). Diet for a Small Planet, p. 162. ISBN 0-345-32120-0
  12. ^ a b Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, Simoncic R, Bederova A, Grancicova E, Magalova T: “Influence of vegetarian and mixed nutrition on selected haematological and biochemical parameters in children.” Nahrung, October 1997, 41:311-314.
  13. ^ Nutrition Australia: FAQ on Vegetarian Diets. Accessed 11 April 2007.
  14. ^ Freeland-Graves J. H., Bodzy P. W., Epright M. A.: “Zinc status of vegetarians”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 1980, 77:655-661
  15. ^ a b The Vegetarian Society. Information Sheet: Vitamin B12. Accessed 26 April 2007.
  16. ^ See, for example, Hokin BD and Butler T: “Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) status in Seventh-day Adventist ministers in Australia” in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, September 1999, 70:576S-578S; and Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, Blazicek P, Kopcova J, Bederova A and Babinska K: “Homocysteine Levels in Vegetarians versus Omnivores” in Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 2000, 44:135-138; and VeganHealth.org: B12 and Chronic Disease: Homocysteine. Accessed 26 April 2007.
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ Thomas Remer, Annette Neubert and Friedrich Manz: “Increased risk of iodine deficiency with vegetarian nutrition”. British Journal of Nutrition, 1999, 81:45-49. Accessed 4 January 2007.

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke American Stroke Association Web site. ... Keith Akers is the author of two books: The Lost Religion of Jesus and A Vegetarian Sourcebook. ... // Frances Moore Lappé (born February 10, 1944) is a noted social change and democracy activist, and the author of 15 books, including the three-million-copy bestseller, Diet for a Small Planet (originally published in 1971). ... Diet for a Small Planet is a book by Frances Moore Lappé presenting her theory of Complementary Protein sources in the human diet. ...

See also

The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... Vegan redirects here. ... For general information, see Veganism. ... This article is about the dietary lifestyle, Vegan can also mean relating to vega, especially the star Vega, as in astronomical references to the Vegan system, or Science Fiction references to aliens from that system. ...

Further reading

  • VeggieBoards
  • Mayo Clinic's synopsis.
  • Vegetarian Resource Group
  • Veg News
  • Vegetarian Recipes
  • Simple Vegetarian Recipes
  • Protein Basics Chart: tells how much and what kinds of proteins are required for different lifestyles and has great detailed charts showing how much protein is in various foods.
  • Focus on vegetarians research from EPIC-Oxford.
  • The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-Term Health (2005) by: T. Colin Campbell ISBN 1-932100-66-0
  • Becoming a 'Veggie' : The Smart Move
  • Vegetarian Nutrition Resource List - USDA, NAL Food and Nutrition Information Center (PDF|72 KB)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vegetarian nutrition - definition of Vegetarian nutrition in Encyclopedia (1707 words)
For example, vegetarians have lower body mass indices, lower levels of cholesterol, lower blood pressure, and less incidence of heart disease, hypertension, some forms of cancer, type 2 diabetes, renal disease, osteoporosis, dementias such as Alzheimer’s Disease, and more.
Some vegetarian sources of iron are tofu, potato skins, nuts and seeds, some beans and peas, green leafy vegetables, sea vegetables, whole-grain and/or enriched breads, miso, raisins, wheat germ, and foods cooked in cast-iron.
Vegetarian sources of omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseeds and flaxseed oil, walnuts, and canola (rapeseed) oil, and eggs.
Vegetarian nutrition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2024 words)
Vegetarian nutrition is a subject of importance to both vegetarians and dietitians.
As an example, vegetarians tend to have lower body mass indices, lower levels of cholesterol, lower blood pressure, and less incidence of heart disease, hypertension, some forms of cancer, type 2 diabetes, renal disease, osteoporosis, dementias such as Alzheimer’s Disease and other disorders that may be diet-related.
Vegetarian sources of iron include tofu, potato skins, nuts and seeds, some beans and peas, green leafy vegetables, sea vegetables, whole-grain and enriched breads, miso, raisins, wheat germ and even foods cooked in cast-iron containers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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