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Encyclopedia > Veganism
The logo of the world's first organisation for vegans, the Vegan Society, registered in 1944.

Veganism is a philosophy and lifestyle that seeks to exclude the use of animals for food, clothing, or any other purpose.[1][2] Vegans do not use or consume animal products of any kind.[3] The most common reasons for becoming a vegan are ethical commitment or moral convictions concerning animal rights, the environment, human health, and spiritual or religious concerns.[4][5][2] Of particular concern are the practices involved in factory farming and animal testing, and the intensive use of land and other resources required for animal farming. Vegan may refer to: Vegan, a person who practices veganism. ... Image File history File links VeganSociety. ... The Vegan Society is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, promoting the vegan diet. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Animal products are either produced by an animal or taken from the body of an animal. ... A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ...


Various polls have reported vegans to be between 0.2%[4] and 1.3%[6] of the U.S. population, and between 0.25%[5] and 2.24%[7] of the UK population.


Vegan diets (sometimes called strict or pure vegetarian diets) are a subset of vegetarian diets, which are credited with lowering the risk of colon cancer, heart attack, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, prostate cancer, and stroke.[8] However, vegan diets can be low in levels of calcium, iodine, vitamin B12 and vitamin D. Vegans are therefore encouraged to plan their diet and take dietary supplements as appropriate.[9] A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood [1]. It is not a disease but a metabolic derangement that can be secondary to many diseases and can contribute to many forms of disease, most notably cardiovascular disease. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... HRPC redirects here. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... In the United States, a dietary supplement is defined under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 as a product taken by the mouth that contains a dietary ingredient that is intended as a supplement to the diet. ...

Contents

Definition

A variety of vegan ingredients
A variety of vegan ingredients

The word vegan, pronounced /ˈviːgən/,[10] or /ˈvɛdʒən/[11], was originally derived from "vegetarian" in 1944 when Elsie Shrigley and Donald Watson, frustrated that the term "vegetarianism" had come to include the eating of dairy products, founded the UK Vegan Society.[12] They combined the first three and last two letters of vegetarian to form "vegan," which they saw as "the beginning and end of vegetarian."[12][13] The British Vegan Society defines veganism in this way: Download high resolution version (640x896, 136 KB)Foods from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (640x896, 136 KB)Foods from http://www. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... The Vegan Society is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, promoting the vegan diet. ...

[T]he word "veganism" denotes a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude — as far as is possible and practical — all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose; and by extension, promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of humans, animals and the environment. In dietary terms it denotes the practice of dispensing with all products derived wholly or partly from animals.[1]

Other vegan societies use similar definitions.[14][15][16]


Demographics

Data regarding the number of vegans is available in some countries.


United States

Former 2008 Democratic presidential candidate Dennis Kucinich and his wife Elizabeth. Kucinich is known for his veganism and support of animal welfare.
Former 2008 Democratic presidential candidate Dennis Kucinich and his wife Elizabeth. Kucinich is known for his veganism and support of animal welfare.[17]

A 2002 Time/CNN poll found that 4% of American adults consider themselves vegetarians, and 5% of self-described vegetarians consider themselves vegans, which implies that 0.2% of American adults are vegans.[4] A 2006 poll conducted by Harris Interactive in the US listed specific foods and asked respondents to indicate which items they never eat, rather than asking respondents to self-identify. The survey found that of the 1,000 adults polled, 1.4% never eat meat, poultry, fish, seafood, dairy products, or eggs and were therefore essentially vegan in their eating habits. The survey also found that about 1.4% of men and 1.3% of women have vegan diets.[6] The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... Dennis John Kucinich (IPA: ) (born October 8, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic party and a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in both 2004 and 2008. ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer. ... TIME redirects here. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... An Opinion poll is a survey of public opinion from a particular sample or pool. ... Harris Interactive is a company. ...


Europe

In 2002, the UK Food Standards Agency reported that 5% of respondents self-identified as vegetarian or vegan. Though 29% of that 5% said they avoided "all animal products", only 5% reported avoiding dairy products.[5] Based on these figures, approximately 0.25% of the UK population follow a vegan diet. In 2005, The Times estimated there were 250,000 vegans in Britain, which suggests around 0.4% of the UK population is vegan.[18] However, a 2007 survey for the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs into the UK population's attitudes and behaviour towards the environment found that 2.24% of the population identified themselves as vegan.[7] In the same study, vegetarians who did not also eat chicken or fish made up 2.7% of the population. The DEFRA study also indicated that slightly more men than women are vegan, that more vegans live in towns or cities than the country, and that people aged 16-29 were vegan more often than any other age group. The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in England. ...


Various polls and research conducted during the 1990s put the percentage of Swedish residents being vegan at between 0.27% and 1.6% of the entire population.[19] A study of the eating patterns of 2,538 Swedish children of ages 4, 8 and 11 by the Swedish National Food Administration found that about 1% of the children were vegetarian, less than 1% were lacto-vegetarians, but found no children to be vegans.[20] The website VeganWelt estimates there to be between 250,000 and 460,500 vegans in Germany, or between 0.3% and 0.5% of the German population.[21] The Netherlands Association for Veganism estimates there to be approximately 16,000 vegans in the Netherlands, or around 0.1% of the Dutch population.[22] The Swedish National Food Administration (Livsmedelsverket) is a Swedish government agency that answers to the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Affairs. ... A lacto vegetarian diet is a vegetarian diet that includes dairy products such as milk, cheese, yogurt, butter, cream, and kefir. ...


Animal products

Main article: Animal product

The term "animal product" in a vegan context refers to any material derived from animals for human use.[2] Notable animal products include meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, dairy products, honey, fur, leather, wool, and silk.[3] Common animal by-products include gelatin, lanolin, rennet, whey, casein, beeswax, and shellac.[3] Animal products are either produced by an animal or taken from the body of an animal. ... Animal products are either produced by an animal or taken from the body of an animal. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ... Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For the art collective, see Gelitin. ... Lanolin, also called Adeps Lanae, wool wax, wool fat, or wool grease, a greasy yellow substance from wool-bearing animals, acts as a skin ointment, water-proofing wax, and raw material (such as in shoe polish). ... Rennet (IPA pronunciation: ) is a natural complex of enzymes produced in any mammalian stomach to digest the mothers milk. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Casein (from Latin caseus cheese) is the most predominant phosphoprotein found in milk and cheese. ... For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ... For the post-punk band, see Shellac (band). ...


Animal ingredients can be found in countless products and are used in the production of—though not always present in the final form of—many more;[23][24][25] many of these ingredients are esoteric,[26][27] also have non-animal sources,[28] and especially in non-food products may not even be identified.[23] Although some vegans attempt to avoid all these ingredients, Vegan Outreach argues that "it can be prohibitively expensive and time-consuming to shun every minor or hidden animal-derived ingredient," and therefore that doing what is "best for preventing suffering" is more important than identifying and excluding every animal ingredient.[29][30] Vegan Outreach is a successful animal rights group working to promote an vegan lifestyle through methods generally considered less aggressive than those of fellow activist group, PETA. They distribute pamphlets, generally on college campuses, designed to educate the public on the realities of meat production, vivisection, and other related topics. ...


Although honey and silk are by definition animal products, some vegans consider their use and the use of other insect products to be acceptable.[31] For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ...


Ethical concerns

Sows at an intensive pig farm. Opposition to factory farming is one of the most common ethical reasons given for veganism.[32]
See also: Animal rights, Ethics of eating meat, and Factory farming

Vegan organisations maintain that animals have certain rights, and as such it is not ethical for humans to use animals in ways that infringe those rights.[33][34][35] Practices seen as cruel to animals include factory farming,[32][36][37] animal testing,[3][38] and displaying animals for entertainment in circuses,[39] rodeos,[40] and zoos.[41] Image File history File links Gestcrate01. ... Image File history File links Gestcrate01. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... Intensively farmed pigs in batch pens Intensive piggeries (or hog lots) are a type of factory farm specialized for the raising of domestic pigs up to slaughter weight. ... Hardy Meyers chicken operation near Petal, Mississippi. ... A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... Various Meats While some people have no ethical objections to eating certain types of animal meat, others object to the act of killing and eating an animal and/or the agricultural practices surrounding the production of meat. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Circus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation). ...


Philosopher Tom Regan argues that animals are entities which possess "inherent value"[42] and therefore have "basic moral rights," and that the principal moral right they possess is "the right to respectful treatment."[43] Regan additionally argues that animals have a "basic moral right not to be harmed," which can be overridden only when the individual's right to be harmed is "morally outweighed" by "other valid moral principles."[44][45] From this "rights view," Regan argues that "animal agriculture, as we know it, is unjust" even when animals are raised "humanely."[46][47] Regan argues against various justifications for eating meat including that "animal flesh is tasty," that it is "habit" for "individuals and as a culture", that it is "convenient," that "meat is nutritious," that there is an obligation the economic interests of farmers or to the economic interests of a country, or that "farm animals are legal property," and finds that all fail to treat animals with the respect due to them by their basic rights.[48] Regan therefore argues that "those who support current animal agriculture by purchasing meat have a moral obligation to stop doing so" and that "the individual has a duty to lead a vegetarian way of life."[49] Tom Regan (born November 28, 1938 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American philosopher and animal-rights activist. ...


Legal theorist Gary L. Francione argues that animals are sentient, and that this is sufficient to grant them moral consideration.[50] Francione argues that "all sentient beings should have at least one right—the right not to be treated as property" and that there is "no moral justification for using nonhumans for our purposes."[50] Francione further argues that adopting veganism should be regarded as the "baseline" action taken by people concerned with animal rights.[50] Gary Lawrence Francione (1954) is an American law professor at Rutgers University. ... Not to be confused with sapience. ...


Utilitarian philosopher Peter Singer argues that there is "no moral justification" for refusing to take sentient animal suffering into consideration in ethical decisions.[51] Singer argues that an animal's interests warrant equal consideration with the interests of humans, and that not doing so is "speciesist."[51] Based upon his evaluation of these interests, Singer argues that "our use of animals for food becomes questionable—especially when animal flesh is a luxury rather than a necessity."[52] Singer does not contend that killing animals is always wrong, but that from a practical standpoint it is "better to reject altogether the killing of animals for food, unless one must do so to survive."[53] Singer therefore advocates both veganism and improved conditions for farm animals as practical means to reduce animal suffering.[54][55][56] Preference utilitarianism is a particular variant of utilitarianism which defines utility in terms of preference satisfaction. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Equal consideration of interests is the name of a moral principle that states that one should both include all affected interests when calculating the rightness of an action and weigh those interests equally. ... The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ...


Steven Davis, a professor of animal science at Oregon State University, argues that following Tom Regan's "least harm principle" may not necessarily require the adoption a vegan diet.[57] Davis suggests that there are non-vegetarian diets which "may kill fewer animals" than are killed in the intensive crop production necessary to support vegetarian diets. In particular, Davis argues that adopting a diet based upon "forage-ruminant-based agriculture" in the United States would kill an estimated 380-450 million fewer animals annually than a vegan diet and therefore that "humans may be morally obligated to consume a diet from plant-based plus pasture-forage-ruminant sysems."[58] Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Oregon State University (OSU) is a coeducational, public research university located in Corvallis, Oregon, United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ruminantia. ...


Gaverick Matheny, a Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economics at the University of Maryland, counters that Davis' reasoning contains several major flaws, including miscalculating the number of animal deaths based on land area rather than per consumer, and incorrectly equating "the harm done to animals […] to the number of animals killed." Matheny notes that Davis' proposal is "a world apart" from agriculture "prevalent in the United States" which would "greatly improve the lives of farmed animals," but argues that per-consumer, a vegan diet would kill fewer wild animals than a diet adhering to Davis' model, and that vegetarianism "involves better treatment of animals, and likely allows a greater number of animals with lives worth living to exist."[59]


William Jarvis, writing for The National Council Against Health Fraud, characterizes veganism as "a hygienic religion that meets deep emotional needs of its followers," who revel "in self-denial and wars against pleasure," and who "cannot be trusted to be objective, reliable sources of information on anything that bears upon its fundamental paradigm."[60] Jarvis attacks "ideologic vegetarians," whom he claims believe that "all life is sacred" and that "all forms of life have equal value," saying that these beliefs "can lead to absurdities such as allowing mosquitoes to spread malaria, or vipers to run loose on one's premises."[61] The National Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF) is a voluntary private nonprofit health agency that focuses on what they consider to be health misinformation, fraud, and quackery related to public health problems. ...


Health

Main article: Vegan nutrition

The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine recommends what they call the "Four New Food Groups."[62] They suggest that vegans and vegetarians eat at least three servings of vegetables a day, including dark green, leafy vegetables such as broccoli, and dark yellow and orange such as carrots; five servings of whole grains (bread, rice, pasta); three of fruit; and two of legumes (beans, peas, lentils).[62] For general information, see Veganism. ... The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research. ...


Benefits

Vegan version of the nutritional food pyramid which normally includes meat and animal products. Click to enlarge.
Vegan version of the nutritional food pyramid which normally includes meat and animal products. Click to enlarge.

Certain widespread diets (such as the standard American diet, which is high in animal-based foods and low in plant-based foods) are detrimental to health, and a vegan diet thus represents an improvement,[63][64] in part because vegan diets are often high enough in fruit and vegetables to meet or exceed the recommended fruit and vegetable intakes. Conversely, based on a study in Japan, researchers suggest that increased consumption of some animal products coincided with a decrease in risk for some forms of cerebrovascular disease and stroke mortality.[65] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This Food Pyramid diagram can be found on much of the food packaging in the United States The food guide pyramid, informally known as the food pyramid, is a nutrition guide created by the USDA. Released in 1992, it suggests how much of each food category one should eat each... Standard American Diet, or S.A.D., is a derogatory term used by naturalist health food advocates to describe the dietary habits of average Americans; advocates say that the average American has a diet that is relatively high in saturated fat, trans fat, chemical additives, and refined sugar. ... Cerebrovascular disease is damage to the blood vessels in the brain, resulting in a stroke. ...


Benefits of vegetarian diets might be valid also for strict vegan diets: according to the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada, diets that avoid meat tend to have lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, and phytochemicals.[9] People who avoid meat are reported to have lower body mass index than those following the average Canadian diet; from this follows lower death rates from ischemic heart disease; lower blood cholesterol levels; lower blood pressure; and lower rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and prostate and colon cancer.[9] This article is about the nutrient. ... Tocopherol, or vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Look up body mass index in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ischaemic heart disease is a disease characterized by reduced blood supply to the heart. ...


A 1999 meta-study of five studies comparing vegetarian and non-vegetarian mortality rates in western countries found equivalent mortality rates for vegans and those who eat meat regularly. The study also found equivalent and lower mortality rates for vegetarians and those who eat meat infrequently. [66] A 2003 study of British vegetarians, including vegans, found similar mortality rates between vegetarians and other groups.[67] A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ...


A 2006 study found that in people with type 2 diabetes a low-fat vegan diet reduced weight, BMI, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol and did so to a greater extent than the diet prescribed by the American Diabetes Association.[68] Look up body mass index in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... The American Diabetes Association, or the ADA, is an American health organization providing diabetes research, information and advocacy. ...


Precautions

Specific nutrients

The American Dietetic Association has said that "appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases."[9] However, poorly planned vegan diets can be deficient in nutrients such as vitamin B12,[69] vitamin D,[70] calcium,[71][70] iodine[72] and omega-3 fatty acids.[73] These deficiencies have potentially serious consequences, including anemia,[74] rickets[75] and cretinism[76] in children, and osteomalacia[75] and hypothyroidism[76] in adults. The American Dietetic Association (ADA) is the United States largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, with nearly 65,000 members. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... For an explanation of n and numerical nomenclature (such as n−3 or 18:3), see Nomenclature of fatty acids. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Rickets is a softening of the bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Osteomalacia is a softening of the bones, resulting from defective bone mineralisation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Vitamin B12

Deficiencies in Vitamin B12, a bacterial product that cannot be reliably found in plant foods,[77][78][74] can have serious health consequences, including anemia and neurodegenerative disease.[79] Although clinical B12 deficiency is rare in vegans,[74] if a person has not eaten more than the daily needed amount of B12 over a long period before becoming a vegan then they may not have built up any significant store of the vitamin.[80] In a 2002 laboratory study, more of the strict vegan participants' B12 and iron levels were compromised than those of lacto- or lacto-ovo-vegetarian participants.[81] Cyanocobalamin is a compound that is metabolized to a vitamin in the B complex commonly known as vitamin B12 (or B12 for short). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Neurodegenerative disease (Greek νέυρο-, néuro-, nerval and Latin dēgenerāre, to decline or to worsen) is a condition in which cells of the brain and spinal cord are lost. ...


The Vegan Society and Vegan Outreach, and others, recommend that vegans either consistently eat foods fortified with B12 or take a B12 supplement.[82][83][84] Tempeh, seaweed, spirulina, organic produce, soil on unwashed vegetables, and intestinal bacteria have not been shown to be reliable sources of B12 for the dietary needs of vegans.[85][86][74] The Vegan Society is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, promoting the vegan diet. ... Vegan Outreach is a successful animal rights group working to promote an vegan lifestyle through methods generally considered less aggressive than those of fellow activist group, PETA. They distribute pamphlets, generally on college campuses, designed to educate the public on the realities of meat production, vivisection, and other related topics. ... Fresh tempeh at the market, Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... Species About 35. ... Organic vegetables at a farmers market in Argentina. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ...


Calcium & Vitamin D

It is recommended that vegans eat three servings per day of a high calcium food, such as fortified soy milk, and take a calcium supplement as necessary.[70][9] The EPIC-Oxford study showed that vegans have an increased risk of bone fractures over both meat eaters and vegetarians, likely due to lower dietary calcium intake, but that vegans consuming more than the UK's estimated average requirements for calcium of 525 mg/day had risk of bone fractures similar to other groups.[71][87] A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Greek Café Frappé prepared with soy milk, topped with additional cinnamon 1 l (2. ... The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study is a Europe-wide prospective cohort study of the relationships between diet and cancer, as well as other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Internal and external views of an arm with a compound fracture, both before and after surgery A bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone has cracked or broken. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ...


The authors of The China Study argue that osteoporosis is linked to the consumption of animal protein because animal protein, unlike plant protein, increases the acidity of blood and tissues which is then neutralized by calcium pulled from the bones.[88] The authors add that "in our rural China Study, where the animal to plant ratio [for protein] was about 10%, the fracture rate is only one-fifth that of the U.S."[89] The China Study The China Study (ISBN 1-932100-38-5) is a book by T. Colin Campbell and his son, Thomas M. Campbell II, that was published in 2005. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone - leading to an increased risk of fracture. ...


For light skinned people, adequate amounts of vitamin D may also be obtained by spending 15 to 30 minutes in the sunlight every few days. Dark skinned people need significantly more sunlight to obtain the same amount of vitamin D, and sunlight exposure may be difficult for vegans in areas with low levels of sunlight during winter; in these cases supplementation is recommended.[75][90][77] Mushrooms are one of the few sources of Vitamin D suitable for vegans.


Iodine

Iodine supplementation may be necessary for vegans in countries where salt is not typically iodized, where it is iodized at low levels, or where, as in Britain or Ireland, animal products are used for iodine delivery.[82][72] Iodine can be obtained from most vegan multivitamins or from regular consumption of kelp.[82][72] For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Iodised salt is ordinary table salt mixed with a tiny amount of iodine salts, so that it prevents disease of the thyroid gland. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Pregnancies and children

According to the US National Institute of Health, "with appropriate food choices, vegan diets can be adequate for children at all ages."[91] The American Dietetic Association also considers well-planned vegan diets "appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy and lactation,"[9] but recommends that vegan mothers supplement for iron, vitamin D, and vitamin B12.[92][93] Vitamin B12 deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers has been linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children.[94][95] Some research suggests that the essential omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and its derivatives should also be supplemented in pregnant and lactating vegan mothers, since they are very low in most vegan diets, and the metabolically related docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential to the developing visual system.[96] A maternal vegan diet has also been associated with low birth weight,[97] and a five times lower likelihood of having twins than those who eat animal products.[98] The National Institutes of Health is an institution of the United States government which focuses on medical research. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Suckling redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Cyanocobalamin is a compound that is metabolized to a vitamin in the B complex commonly known as vitamin B12 (or B12 for short). ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... For an explanation of n and numerical nomenclature (such as n−3 or 18:3), see Nomenclature of fatty acids. ... Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid. ... Docosahexaenoic acid (commonly known as DHA; 22:6(ω-3), all-cis-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid; trivial name cervonic acid) is an omega-3 essential fatty acid. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... For other uses, see Twin (disambiguation). ...


Several cases of severe infant malnutrition and some fatalities have been associated with a poorly planned vegan diet,[99][100][101] and provoked criticism of vegan diets for children.[102][103] Parents involved in these cases were convicted on charges ranging from assault to felony murder. Addressing criticism of veganism, Dr. Amy Lanou, an expert witness for the prosecution in one of the cases, asserted that the child "was not killed by a vegan diet" but that "the real problem was that he was not given enough food of any sort."[104] Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... The felony murder rule is a legal doctrine according to which anyone who commits, or is found to be involved in, a serious crime (a felony), during which any person dies, is guilty of murder. ... An expert witness is a witness, who by virtue of education, profession, publication or experience, is believed to have special knowledge of his or her subject beyond that of the average person, sufficient that others may officially (and legally) rely upon his opinion. ...


Eating disorders

The American Dietetic Association indicates that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders but that the evidence suggests that the adoption of a vegetarian diet does not lead to eating disorders, rather that "vegetarian diets may be selected to camouflage an existing eating disorder."[9] Other studies and statements by dietitians and counselors support this conclusion.[105][106][107].


Resources and the environment

Cattle - especially when kept on enormous feedlots such as this one - have been named as a contributing factor in the rise in greenhouse gas emissions.
Cattle - especially when kept on enormous feedlots such as this one - have been named as a contributing factor in the rise in greenhouse gas emissions.

People who adopt veganism for environmental reasons do so on the basis that veganism consumes far fewer resources and causes less environmental damage than an animal-based diet.[108][109][110] Animal agriculture is linked to climate change, water pollution, land degradation, and a decline in biodiversity.[111][110][112] Additionally, an animal-based diet uses more land,[112][113] water,[114] and energy than a vegan diet.[112][115][116] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (830x520, 54 KB) Feedlot in the Texas Panhandle taken by myself I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (830x520, 54 KB) Feedlot in the Texas Panhandle taken by myself I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Beef cattle on a feedlot in the Texas Panhandle A feedlot or feedyard is a type of concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) (also known as factory farming) which is used for finishing livestock, notably beef cattle, prior to slaughter. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Environmental vegetarianism is the practice of vegetarianism based on the belief that the production of meat by intensive agriculture is environmentally unsustainable. ...


A 2006 study by Gidon Eshel and Pamela Martin, assistant professors of geophysics at the University of Chicago, found that a person switching from the average American diet to a vegan diet would reduce CO2 emissions by 1,485 kg per year.[117] For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Kg redirects here. ...

The growing demand for meat in developing countries may be aggravating the greenhouse gas spiral.
The growing demand for meat in developing countries may be aggravating the greenhouse gas spiral.

The United Nations released a report in November 2006 linking animal agriculture to environmental damage. The report, Livestock's Long Shadow [118] concludes that the livestock sector (primarily cows, chickens, and pigs) emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to our most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global. It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases - responsible for 18% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents. In comparison, the proportion of total CO2 emissions by passenger vehicles is 12% of the total CO2.[119] It produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO2) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO2). A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Livestocks Long Shadow - Environmental Issues and Options is a United Nations report, released by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) on 29 November 2006,[1] that aims to assess the full impact of the livestock sector on environmental problems, along with potential technical and policy...


The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis argues that while most meat production in industrialized countries uses inefficient grain feeding methods through intensive farming, meat production is not invariably a poor use of land, especially in countries like China and Brazil. Since a proportion of all grain crops produced are not suitable for human consumption, they can be fed to animals to turn into meat, thus improving efficiency.[120][121] Nevertheless this does not apply to the majority of grain crops worldwide, but only to small parts of them in developing countries. Further, greenhouse gas emissions are not limited to animal husbandry; but the only known, recognizable, plant based source of methane emission is rice cultivation.[122] The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) is a non-governmental research organization. ... Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital or labour relative to land area. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


A 2007 study which simulated various diets' land use for the geography of New York State concluded that although vegetarian diets used the smallest amount of land per capita, a diet which included some meat and dairy—though significantly less than consumed by the average American—could support more people on the same available land, since animal food crops can be grown on lower quality land than crops for human consumption.[123][124] This article is about the state. ...


Similar diets and lifestyles

Sample of vegan Buddhist cuisine from a Zen temple in Japan.
Sample of vegan Buddhist cuisine from a Zen temple in Japan.
See also: Vegetarianism and religion

Diets such as raw veganism and fruitarianism are related to veganism, but have significant differences from standard veganism. There are also numerous religious groups that regularly or occasionally practice a similar diet, including adherents to some Buddhist traditions,[125] Eastern Orthodox Christians,[126] Jains,[127] Hindus,[128] Rastafarians,[129] and Seventh-day Adventists.[130] Buddhist cuisine is a kind of East Asian cuisine mainly for the believers of Buddhism. ... Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya Buddhist temples, monasteries, and stupas sorted by location. ... Many religions, including Hinduism, Taoism, Buddhism, and especially Jainism, teach that ideally life should always be valued and not willfully destroyed for unnecessary human gratification. ... Raw veganism is a variation of veganism but consists of consuming only plant-based foods that are in their natural uncooked state, such as fresh fruit, vegetables, seeds, nuts, sprouts, and superfoods. ... A fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... In Buddhism, the views on vegetarianism vary from school to school. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ...


Cuisine

A vegan raspberry pear tart.
A vegan raspberry pear tart.
See also: Vegetarian cuisine
Also see the Wikibooks Cookbook articles on vegan cuisine and vegan substitutions and its listing of vegan recipes.

The cuisines of most nations contain dishes suitable for a vegan diet, including ingredients such as tofu, tempeh and the wheat product seitan in Asian diets.[131][132][133][134] Many recipes that traditionally contain animal products can be adapted by substituting plant-based ingredients. For example, nut, grain or soy milks can be used to replace cow's milk[134][135] and eggs can be replaced by applesauce or commercial starch-based substitute products, depending upon the recipe.[134][135][136] Additionally, artificial "meat" products ("analogs" or "mock meats") made from non-animal derived ingredients such as soy, gluten, or mycoprotein, including imitation sausages, ground beef, burgers, and chicken nuggets are widely available.[134][137] A tart is a pastry dish, usually sweet, that is a type of pie, with an open top that is not covered with pastry. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients. ... For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ... Fresh tempeh at the market, Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Seitan (say-tahn), also called wheat gluten, wheat meat, or wheatmeat, is the Japanese term for wheat gluten, a vegan/vegetarian food often used in place of meat. ... A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Greek Café Frappé prepared with soy milk, topped with additional cinnamon 1 l (2. ... A meat analogue, also called meat substitute, mock meat or veat, approximates the aesthetic qualities (primarily texture, flavor and appearance) and/or chemical characteristics of certain types of meat. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous mixture of ergastic (i. ... Mycoprotein is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as: the albuminoid which is the principal constituent of the protoplasm of the cell. ... A vegetarian hot dog (sometimes referred to as a veggie dog) is a hot dog produced completely from non-meat products. ... Image:Minced beef USDA.jpg Minced beef in industrial grinder Ground beef, beef mince or hamburger meat, is a meat product, made of beef finely chopped by a meat grinder. ... A homemade veggie burger. ... Chicken nuggets A chicken nugget is either whole or composed from a paste of finely minced chicken or chicken skin, which is then coated in batter or breadcrumbs before being cooked. ...


See also

Farm Sanctuarys shelter in upstate New York. ... The following is a list of notable people who practice (or practiced) veganism. ... Raw veganism is a variation of veganism but consists of consuming only plant-based foods that are in their natural uncooked state, such as fresh fruit, vegetables, seeds, nuts, sprouts, and superfoods. ... The Vegan Prisoners Support Group (VPSG) is a British group formed in April 1994 to give assistance to vegan prisoners. ...

References

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  2. ^ a b c Stepaniak, Joanne (2000). Being Vegan. McGraw-Hill Contemporary, 2,6,17,148-150. ISBN 978-0737303230. 
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  17. ^ About Dennis Kucinich (PDF). Dennis for President 2. Kucinich for President 2008. Retrieved on 2008-04-23. “Congressman Kucinich is one of the few vegans in Congress, a dietary decision he credits not only with improving his health, but in deepening his belief in the sacredness of all species.”
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  21. ^ VeganWelt: vegan FAQ. veganwelt.de. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. “In Deutschland gibt es zwischen 250 000 und 460 500 Veganer (5 Millionen Vegetarier)”
  22. ^ Wat is veganisme?. veganisme.org. Nederlandse Vereniging voor Veganisme. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. “Er zijn nu ongeveer 2,4 miljoen parttime vegetariërs en vleesverlaters, 300.000 vegetariërs en 16.000 veganisten in Nederland.”
  23. ^ a b Vegan FAQs. Vegan Outreach. Retrieved on 2007-03-11. “Is refined sugar vegan? It depends on how you define 'vegan.' Refined sugars do not contain any animal products, and so by an ingredients-based definition of vegan, refined sugar is vegan. ... However, if one accepts a process-based definition of vegan, then many other familiar products would also not be considered vegan. For instance, steel and vulcanized rubber are produced using animal fats and, in many areas, groundwater and surface water is filtered through bone charcoal filters.”
  24. ^ IVU FAQ: Drinks. International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union (2006-08-03). Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  25. ^ Information Sheet: Alcohol. Vegetarian Society. Retrieved on 2007-03-11. “The use of animal derived products in the production of alcoholic beverages is fairly widespread not because no alternatives exist, but because they always have been used and there is little demand from the consumer for an alternative. ... The main appearance of animal derived products is in the fining or clearing process, though others may be used as colorants or anti-foaming agents.”
  26. ^ IVU FAQ: Ingredients. International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union. Retrieved on 2006-10-30.
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  29. ^ On Living With Compassion. Vegan Outreach. Retrieved on 2007-03-10. “Our desire to oppose and help end cruelty to animals can help guide our choices, as well as provide a simple, easy-to-understand explanation of our actions. The question isn't, "Is this vegan?" but, "What is best for preventing suffering?"”
  30. ^ On Living With Compassion (Old version). Vegan Outreach. Retrieved on 2007-03-10. “We believe that framing veganism as the avoidance of a specific list of “bad” ingredients is not the best way to achieve results. When looked at closely, any ingredients-based definition of vegan collapses into inconsistencies. This is why we stress that the essence of being vegan is working to end cruelty to animals.”
  31. ^ Is honey vegan?. Vegan FAQ's. Vegan Action. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  32. ^ a b Factory Farms. Why Vegan. Vegan Outreach. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  33. ^ About Veganism: For the Animals. Vegan Action. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “Veganism emerges as the lifestyle most consistent with the philosophy that animals are not ours to use.”
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  35. ^ About Mercy for Animals. Mercy for Animals. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “Mercy For Animals is a 501(c)(3) non-profit animal advocacy organization that believes non-human animals are irreplaceable individuals with morally significant interests and hence rights, including the right to live free of unnecessary suffering.”
  36. ^ Cruelty to Animals: Mechanized Madness. GoVeg.com. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  37. ^ Exploitation. Vegan Society. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “The vast majority of these animals will have spent their brief lives in the cramped, distressing conditions of the factory farm. Their close confinement and the overworking of their bodies will have led to increased susceptibility to injury and disease. They will have been reared on an unnatural diet designed to increase productivity and many will have undergone various painful and traumatic procedures.”
  38. ^ Testing. Vegan Society. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “Every year, millions of animals are subjected to the most horrifically painful experiments just so people can have a new brand of shampoo or a differently scented perfume.”
  39. ^ Circuses: Three Rings of Abuse. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “Colorful pageantry disguises the fact that animals used in circuses are captives who are forced, under threat of punishment, to perform confusing, uncomfortable, repetitious, and often-painful acts.”
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  42. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 244-245. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. “…moral patients (e.g., animals in the wild)…For these reasons, the subject-of-a-life criterion can be defended as citing a relevant similarity between moral agents and patients, one that makes the attribution of equal inherent value to them both intelligible and nonarbitrary.” 
  43. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 327. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. “The principal conclusion reached in the present chapter is that all moral agents and patients have certain basic moral rights. … The principal basic moral right possessed by all moral agents and patients is the right to respectful treatment.” 
  44. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 328. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. “It was also argued that all moral agents and patients have a prima facie basic moral right not to be harmed.” 
  45. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 287. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. “To say this right is a prima facie right is to say that (1) consideration of this right is always a morally relevant consideration, and (2) anyone who would harm another, or allow others to do so, must be able to justify doing so by (a) appealing to other valid moral principles and by (b) showing that these principles morally outweigh the right not to be harmed in a given case.” 
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  47. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 394. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. “Animal agriculture, as we know it, is wrong, not only when farm animals are raised in close confinement in factory farms, but also when they are raised "humanely," since even in this case their lives are routinely brought to an untimely end because of human interests” 
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  49. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 394. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. “Those who support current animal agriculture by purchasing meat have a moral obligation to stop doing so. … the rights view holds that the individual has a duty to lead a vegetarian way of life” 
  50. ^ a b c Francione, Gary (2006-12-27). Mission Statement. Animal Rights: The Abolitionist Approach. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “We have no moral justification for using nonhumans for our purposes. … A shorthand way of describing the view presented here is to say that all sentient beings should have at least one right—the right not to be treated as property. … This site also seeks to make clear that the moral baseline of an animal rights movement is veganism.”
  51. ^ a b Singer, Peter [1993] (1999). "Equality for Animals?", Practical Ethics, Second Edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 57–58. ISBN 0-521-43971-X. “If a being suffers, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration. … This is why the limit of sentience…is the only defensible boundary of concern for the interests of others. … Similarly those I would call 'speciesists' give greater weight to their own species when there is a clash between their interests and the interests of those of other species.” 
  52. ^ Singer, Peter [1993] (1999). "Equality for Animals?", Practical Ethics, Second Edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 62. ISBN 0-521-43971-X. “The use of animals for food is probably the oldest and most widespread form of animal use. There is also a sense in which it is the most basic form of animal use, the foundation stone on which rests the belief that animals exist for our pleasure and convenience. If animals count in their own right, our use of animals for food becomes questionable—especially when animal flesh is a luxury rather than a necessity.” 
  53. ^ Singer, Peter [1993] (1999). "Taking Life: Animals", Practical Ethics, Second Edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 134. ISBN 0-521-43971-X. “In any case, at the level of practical moral principles, it would be better to reject altogether the killing of animals for food, unless one must do so to survive.” 
  54. ^ Clyne, Catherine (10 2006). Singer Says. Satya. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “If you read the book, it does make clear that going vegan is a good solution to a lot of the ethical problems.”
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  56. ^ Broudy, Oliver (2006-05-08). The practical ethicist. Salon.com. Salon Media Group, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “If you can be vegetarian or vegan that's ideal. If you can buy organic and vegan that's better still, and organic and fair trade and vegan, better still, but if that gets too difficult or too complicated, just ask yourself, Does this product come from intensive animal agriculture?”
  57. ^ Davis, S.L. (2001). The least harm principle suggests that humans should eat beef, lamb, dairy, not a vegan diet.. Proceedings of the Third Congress of the European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics 449-450. EurSafe 2001. Food Safety, Food Quality and Food Ethics.. Retrieved on 2008-04-22. “In conclusion, applying the Least Harm Principle as proposed by Regan would actually argue that we are morally obligated to move to a ruminant-based diet rather than a vegan diet.”
  58. ^ Davis S.L. (2003). "The least harm principle may require that humans consume a diet containing large herbivores, not a vegan diet" (PDF). Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (4): 387-394. doi:10.1023/A:1025638030686. “An examination of this question shows that the LHP may actually be better served using food production systems that include both plant-based agriculture and forage-ruminant-based agriculture as compared to a strict plant-based (vegan) system. Perhaps we are morally obligated to consume a diet containing both plants and ruminant (particularly cattle) animal products. … According to this model then, fewer animals (1.35 billion) would die than in the vegan model (1.8 billion). … the total number of animals that would need to be killed under this alternative method would still only be 1.424 billion, still clearly less than the vegan model. … Several alternative food production models exist which may kill fewer animals than the vegan model.” 
  59. ^ Gaverick Matheny (2003). "Least harm: a defense of vegetarianism from Steven Davis’s omnivorous proposal". Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (5): 505-511. doi:10.1023/A:1026354906892. “While eating animals who are grazed rather than intensively confined would vastly improve the welfare of farmed animals given their current mistreatment, Davis does not succeed in showing this is preferable to vegetarianism. First, Davis makes a mathematical error in using total rather than per capita estimates of animals killed; second, he focuses on the number of animals killed in ruminant and crop production systems and ignores important considerations about the welfare of animals under both systems; and third, he does not consider the number of animals who are prevented from existing under the two systems. After correcting for these errors, Davis’s argument makes a strong case for, rather than against, adopting a vegetarian diet.” 
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    Regular meat eaters (n = 31766): 1.00 (3017)
    Vegans (n = 753): 1.00 (68)”
     
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  86. ^ Jack Norris, RD. Vegan Health: Are Intestinal Bacteria a Reliable Source of B12?. veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach. Retrieved on 2007-02-22.
  87. ^ Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford.. Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
  88. ^ Campbell, T. Colin (2006). The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-term Health. Benbella Books, 205. ISBN 1-932100-38-5. 
  89. ^ Campbell, T. Colin (2006). The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-term Health. Benbella Books, 208. ISBN 1-932100-38-5. 
  90. ^ Information Sheet: Vegan Nutrition. Vegetarian Society. Retrieved on 2007-02-22.
  91. ^ Messina, V; Mangels, AR (June 2001). "Considerations in planning vegan diets: children.". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 101 (6): 661-9. PMID 11424545. Retrieved on 2007-06-12. 
  92. ^ Lucia Lynn Kaiser; Lindsay Allen (2002-05-03). Nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. American Dietetic Association. Retrieved on 2007-02-14.
  93. ^ ADA’s Public Relations Team (2006-10-03). The Vegetarian Mom-to-Be. American Dietetic Association. Retrieved on 2007-02-14.
  94. ^ Kuhne T, Bubl R, Baumgartner R (1991). "Maternal vegan diet causing a serious infantile neurological disorder due to vitamin B12 deficiency". Eur J Pediatr 150 (3): 205-8. PMID 2044594. 
  95. ^ Weiss R, Fogelman Y, Bennett M (2004). "Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an infant associated with a maternal deficiency and a strict vegetarian diet". J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 26 (4): 270-1. PMID 15087959. 
  96. ^ Sanders TA (1999). "Essential fatty acid requirements of vegetarians in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70 (3 Suppl): 555S-559S. PMID 10479231. 
  97. ^ Sanders TA (1999). "The nutritional adequacy of plant-based diets". The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58 (2): 265-9. PMID 10466165. 
  98. ^ Steinman, G. (05 2006). "Mechanisms of twinning: VII. Effect of diet and heredity on the human twinning rate." (PDF, fee required). Journal of Reproductive Medicine 51 (5): 405-10. PMID 16779988. Retrieved on 2007-02-25. 
  99. ^ Retsinas, Greg. "Couple Guilty Of Assault In Vegan Case", New York Times, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr., April 5, 2003. Retrieved on 2007-07-17. 
  100. ^ "Vegan Parents Get Prison In Infant's Death", KSBW 8, May 9, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-17. 
  101. ^ Susannah Nesmith; David Kidwell. "Parents jailed in baby's death", Miami Herald, Miami Herald Media Co., 2003-06-07. Retrieved on 2007-09-17. Archived from the original on 2003-12-17. "A Miami-Dade medical examiner's office autopsy concluded Woyah died of severe malnutrition, according to an arrest report." 
  102. ^ Planck, Nina. "Death by Veganism", New York Times, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr., May 21, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-17. 
  103. ^ Nipps, Emily. "Custody battle over quints questions vegan lifestyle", St. Petersburg Times, June 25, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-17. 
  104. ^ Amy Joy Lanou. "Just the facts: A vegan diet is safe, healthy for infants", Houston Chronicle, 2007-06-25. Retrieved on 2007-09-17. Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. 
  105. ^ Dedyna, Katherine. "Healthy lifestyle, or politically correct eating disorder?", Victoria Times Colonist, CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc., 2004-01-30. Retrieved on 2006-10-30. "Vesanto Melina, a B.C. registered dietitian and author of Becoming Vegetarian, stresses there is no cause and effect relationship between vegetarianism and eating disorders although people who have eating disorders may label themselves as vegetarians "so that they won't have to eat."" 
  106. ^ O'Connor MA, Touyz SW, Dunn SM, Beumont PJ (1987). "Vegetarianism in anorexia nervosa? A review of 116 consecutive cases". Med J Aust 147 (11–12): 540-2. PMID 3696039. “In only four (6.3%) of these did meat avoidance predate the onset of their anorexia nervosa.” 
  107. ^ Davis, Brenda; Vesanto Melina (2002). Becoming Vegan: The Complete Guide to Adopting a Healthy Plant-Based Diet. Healthy Living Publications, 224. ISBN 1-57067-103-6. 
  108. ^ Brown LR (1981). "World food resources and population: the narrowing margin". Population bulletin 36 (3): 1-44. PMID 12263473. 
  109. ^ About Veganism: For the Environment. Vegan Action. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “Animal agriculture takes a devastating toll on the earth. It is an inefficient way of producing food, since feed for farm animals requires land, water, fertilizer, and other resources that could otherwise have been used directly for producing human food.”
  110. ^ a b Environmental Destruction. Why Vegan?. Vegan Outreach. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  111. ^ Mosier AR, Duxbury JM, Freney JR, Heinemeyer O, Minami K and Johnson DE, (1998). "Mitigating Agricultural Emissions of Methane". Climatic Change 40 (1): 39-80. doi:10.1023/A:1005338731269. 
  112. ^ a b c Factory Farming: Mechanized Madness. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “Factory farms are harmful to the environment as well. Each day, factory farms produce billions of pounds of manure, which ends up in lakes, rivers, and drinking water. ... Of all the agricultural land in the U.S., 80 percent is used to raise animals for food and grow the grain to feed them—that’s almost half the total land mass of the lower 48 states. ... it takes more than 1,250 gallons of water to produce a pound of cow flesh, whereas it takes about 235 gallons of water to grow 1 pound of wheat.”
  113. ^ Environment: Land. Vegan Society. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “In all, the raising of livestock takes up more than two-thirds of agricultural land, and one third of the total land area.”
  114. ^ Environment: Water. Vegan Society. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “If we put all of these figures together, we find that whilst wheat provides us with an average 27.5 kcal for each litre of water used, beef provides only 0.76 kcal per litre. This means that - based on the data presented to show that other figures were "overstated" - beef still requires 36 times as much water per calorie as wheat.”
  115. ^ Environment: Energy. Vegan Society. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “A plant-based vegan diet uses substantially less energy than a diet based on animal products. This energy is virtually all derived from fossil fuels, making meat and dairy consumption a contributing factor in air pollution, acidification, oil spills, habitat destruction and global warming.”
  116. ^ Resources. Why Vegan?. Vegan Outreach. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  117. ^ Eshel, G., and P.A. Martin (2006). "Diet, Energy and Global Warming" (PDF). Earth Interactions 10 (9): 1-17. doi:10.1175/EI167.1. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. “We conclude that a person consuming a mixed diet with the mean American caloric content and composition causes the emissions of 1,485 kg CO2-equivalent above the emissions associated with consuming the same number of calories, but from plant sources. Far from trivial, nationally this difference amounts to over 6% of the total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions.” 
  118. ^ Livestock’s Long Shadow–Environmental Issues and Options. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  119. ^ Regulating car emissions: How tough will Canada be?
  120. ^ NSW Department of Primary Industries - Feeding frosted cereal grain to ruminants
  121. ^ How harmful is animal protein consumption for the environment?
  122. ^ Methane Emission from Rice Fields - Wetland rice fields may make a major contribution to global warming by Heinz-Ulrich Neue
  123. ^ Peters, Christian J.; Jennifer L. Wilkinsa and Gary W. Ficka (2007). "Testing a complete-diet model for estimating the land resource requirements of food consumption and agricultural carrying capacity: The New York State example". Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 22 (02): 145-153. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/S1742170507001767. Retrieved on 2008-02-07. 
  124. ^ Lang, Susan. "Diet for small planet may be most efficient if it includes dairy and a little meat, Cornell researchers report", Cornell Chronicle Online, Cornell University, 2007-10-04. Retrieved on 2008-02-07. 
  125. ^ Karma Lekshe Tsomo (2006), Into the Jaws of Yama, Lord of Death: Buddhism, Bioethics, and Death, SUNY Press, ISBN 0791468313, <http://books.google.co.uk/books?vid=ISBN0791468313&id=TvJjnIYXGzYC&pg=PA131&lpg=PA131&ots=15GajcCxBq&dq=vegan+buddhism&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html&sig=cp7z245xN5l6HxPrXzDsKi5fDxE> 
  126. ^ The Fasting Rule of the Orthodox Church. God is Wonderful in His Saints: Orthodox Resources. Retrieved on 2007-11-15. “Unless a fast-free period has been declared, Orthodox Christians are to keep a strict fast every Wednesday and Friday. The following foods are avoided: Meat, including poultry, and any meat products such as lard and meat broth. Fish (meaning fish with backbones; shellfish are permitted). Eggs and dairy products (milk, butter, cheese, etc.)”
  127. ^ The role of religion in protecting the Earth (Jainism and the environment: precursors of modern ecology). Forum 2004: Parliament of the World's Religions. Universal Forum of Cultures (2004). Retrieved on 2007-02-22. “Naresh Jain, Co-Chair of the Interfaith Committee of Jainism Associations in North America, said that the difference lies in Jainists’ strict approach to the vegetarian (or vegan) diet. “Jainism is the only religion that materialises the ideal of non-violence through the vegan diet” he said.”
  128. ^ Jyoti Mehta. Veganism and Hinduism. The Young Indian Vegetarians. Retrieved on 2007-02-22.
  129. ^ Campbell, M; W S Lofters, W N Gibbs (12 1982). "Rastafarianism and the vegans syndrome". British Medical Journal 285: 1617–1618. 1617–1618. Retrieved on 2007-02-22. 
  130. ^ Fraser, Gary (08 1999). "Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 (3). 532S-538S. Retrieved on 2007-02-22. 
  131. ^ Shurtleff, William. History of Tofu. LA Tofu Festival. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  132. ^ Jacobs, Leonard; Aveline Kushi, and Barbara Jacobs (1994). Cooking with Seitan: The Complete Vegetarian "Wheat-meat" Cookbook. Avery, 5–6. ISBN 978-0895295996. 
  133. ^ History of Tempeh. tempeh.info. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  134. ^ a b c d Vegan proteins. BBC Food. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-02-23.
  135. ^ a b Baking without eggs, milk and buttah. Post Punk Kitchen. Retrieved on 2007-02-23.
  136. ^ Vegan Substitution for Egg Whites. Ochef.com. Food News Service. Retrieved on 2007-02-23. “Q. What is a vegan substitute for egg whites? A. And the mystery ingredient is… flax seed.”
  137. ^ Bryanna Clark Grogan. Vegan Meat Analogs, Dairy Substitutes, and Egg Alternatives. Bryanna's Vegan Feast. Retrieved on 2007-02-23.

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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vegan Outreach is a successful animal rights group working to promote an vegan lifestyle through methods generally considered less aggressive than those of fellow activist group, PETA. They distribute pamphlets, generally on college campuses, designed to educate the public on the realities of meat production, vivisection, and other related topics. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vegan Outreach is a successful animal rights group working to promote an vegan lifestyle through methods generally considered less aggressive than those of fellow activist group, PETA. They distribute pamphlets, generally on college campuses, designed to educate the public on the realities of meat production, vivisection, and other related topics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vegan Society is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, promoting the vegan diet. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vegan Society is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, promoting the vegan diet. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vegan Society is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, promoting the vegan diet. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vegan Outreach is a successful animal rights group working to promote an vegan lifestyle through methods generally considered less aggressive than those of fellow activist group, PETA. They distribute pamphlets, generally on college campuses, designed to educate the public on the realities of meat production, vivisection, and other related topics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vegetarian Society is a British registered charity established on 30 September 1847 with the aim of promoting understanding and respect for vegetarian lifestyles. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vegan Outreach is a successful animal rights group working to promote an vegan lifestyle through methods generally considered less aggressive than those of fellow activist group, PETA. They distribute pamphlets, generally on college campuses, designed to educate the public on the realities of meat production, vivisection, and other related topics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vegan Society is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, promoting the vegan diet. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vegan Outreach is a successful animal rights group working to promote an vegan lifestyle through methods generally considered less aggressive than those of fellow activist group, PETA. They distribute pamphlets, generally on college campuses, designed to educate the public on the realities of meat production, vivisection, and other related topics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vegan Outreach is a successful animal rights group working to promote an vegan lifestyle through methods generally considered less aggressive than those of fellow activist group, PETA. They distribute pamphlets, generally on college campuses, designed to educate the public on the realities of meat production, vivisection, and other related topics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vegetarian Society is a British registered charity established on 30 September 1847 with the aim of promoting understanding and respect for vegetarian lifestyles. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Dietetic Association (ADA) is the United States largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, with nearly 65,000 members. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Dietetic Association (ADA) is the United States largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, with nearly 65,000 members. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... KSBW is a television station in the United States and is the NBC affiliate for the Monterey-Salinas-Santa Cruz, CA market, with studios in Salinas. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by Knight Ridder. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nina Planck was born in 1971 and was brought up on a vegetable farm in Virginia. ... Nina Planck was born in 1971 and was brought up on a vegetable farm in Virginia. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of the St. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vegan Outreach is a successful animal rights group working to promote an vegan lifestyle through methods generally considered less aggressive than those of fellow activist group, PETA. They distribute pamphlets, generally on college campuses, designed to educate the public on the realities of meat production, vivisection, and other related topics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vegan Society is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, promoting the vegan diet. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vegan Society is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, promoting the vegan diet. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vegan Society is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, promoting the vegan diet. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vegan Outreach is a successful animal rights group working to promote an vegan lifestyle through methods generally considered less aggressive than those of fellow activist group, PETA. They distribute pamphlets, generally on college campuses, designed to educate the public on the realities of meat production, vivisection, and other related topics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Universal Forum of Cultures logo The Universal Forum of Cultures is an international cultural event intended to take place every four years (except for the 2007 Forum). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks' Cookbook has more about this subject:
Vegan cuisine
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Veganism
Vegan Societies
  • The Vegan Society (UK)
  • American Vegan Society
  • Vegan Society of Australia
  • Vegans in South Africa (V.I.S.A.)
General
  • Vegan Outreach, creators of the popular "Why Vegan?" pamphlet
  • Vegan Action, administrators of vegan product certification in the US and Canada
  • I Can't Believe It's Vegan!, a list of vegan commercial food products
Health/Nutrition
  • American Dietetic Association position on vegetarian diet
  • American Dietetic Association: A new food guide for North American vegetarians
  • Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine
  • Vegan nutrition, from the Vegan Society
  • The Vegetarian and Vegan Foundation
Ethical
  • Farm Sanctuary
  • Friends of Animals
  • Mercy for Animals
  • Movement for Compassionate Living
  • People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA)
A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... Nicolas Atwood is an American animal rights activist based in West Palm Beach, Florida. ... Greg Avery (born 1963), also known as Greg Jennings and Greg Harrison, is a British animal rights activist and co-founder of Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC), an international campaign to force the closure of Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS), a controversial animal-testing company with bases in Huntingdon, England, and... David Barbarash was the North American press officer for the Animal Liberation Front between 2000 and 2003. ... Rod Coronado Rodney Adam Coronado is an American eco-anarchist and animal rights activist who has been convicted of arson, conspiracy and other crimes in connection with his activism but now advocates non-violent action. ... Barry Horne Barry Horne was a British animal rights activist who died of kidney failure in Ronkswood Hospital, Worcester on November 5, 2001, following a series of four hunger strikes while serving an 18-year sentence for planting incendiary devices. ... Ronnie Lee is a British animal rights activist, and founder of the Animal Liberation Front. ... Keith Mann is a British animal-rights campaigner, believed to be a senior Animal Liberation Front activist. ... PETAs president and co-founder Ingrid Newkirk Ingrid Newkirk (born July 11, 1949) is a British-born animal rights activist, author, and president of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), the worlds largest animal rights organization. ... Alex Pacheco Alexander Fernando Pacheco (born August 1958) is an American animal rights activist. ... Jill Phipps Jill Phipps (January 15, 1964 – February 1, 1995) was a British animal rights activist. ... Henry Spira (June 19, 1927 – September 12, 1998) was a prominent animal rights activist, and architect of the movement in the United States to stop the use of animals in experiments. ... Marianne Louise Thieme (Ede, March 6, 1972) is a Dutch politician, animal activist and publicist. ... Andrew Tyler is the director of Animal Aid, the UKs second largest animal rights organization (after peta). ... Jerry Vlasak is a U.S. physician and prominent member of several controversial nonprofit organizations, including Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. ... Paul Watson (born December 2, 1950) is the founder of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society and is a significant, albeit controversial, figure in the environmental movement and the movement for animal rights. ... Robin Webb runs the Animal Liberation Press Office in the UK, which releases material to the media on behalf of animal rights activists operating as the Animal Liberation Front (ALF), the Animal Rights Militia (ARM), and the Justice Department. ... Image File history File links Olive_baboon1. ... // Action for Animals [http://www. ... Animal Aid logo Animal Aid is the United Kingdoms largest animal rights group and one of the longest established in the world, having been founded in 1977. ... The Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) is an American non-profit animal rights law organization focused on protecting and advancing the interests of animals through the legal system. ... Beagles stolen by British ALF activists from a testing laboratory owned by the Boots Group. ... The Animal Liberation Front Supporters Group (ALFSG) is an organization that provides moral and financial support to people imprisoned for breaking the law in the name of animal rights, in particular Animal Liberation Front activists. ... The Animal Liberation Press Office was set up in October 1991 to relay information to the media about direct action undertaken by the Animal Liberation Front, the Animal Rights Militia, the Justice Department, and other radical animal-rights groups. ... The Animal Rights Militia (ARM) is a name used by animal-rights activists who are prepared to carry out acts of violence against human beings. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... The Justice Department is a militant animal-rights organization, set up in Britain in 1993, and active there and in the United States. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research. ... The Primate Freedom Project is a 501(c)3 not for profit grassroots abolitionist animal rights organization based in Atlanta, Georgia. ... The Sea Shepherd Conservation Society is a non-profit, non-governmental maritime organization founded by Paul Watson in 1977. ... The Southern Animal Rights Coalition (SARC) is an umbrella organisation for groups campaigning against animal abuse in southern England. ... SPEAK, the Voice for the Animals is a British animal rights campaign that aims to end animal experimentation and vivisection in the UK. Its current focus is opposition to a new animal testing center being built by Oxford University. ... A monkey inside Huntingdon Life Sciences in the United States. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (ASPA) is a law passed by the U.K. parliament in 1986, which regulates the use of laboratory animals in the U.K. Fundamentally, actions that have the potential of causing pain, distress or lasting harm to animals are illegal in the U.K. under... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... A bile bear in Huizhou Farm, Vietnam. ... Bull attacking a matador Bullfighting or tauromachy (Spanish toreo, corrida de toros or tauromaquia; Portuguese corrida de touros or tauromaquia) is a blood sport that involves, most of the times, professional performers (matadores) who execute various formal moves with the goal of appearing graceful and confident, while masterful over the... Covance (NYSE: CVD), formerly Hazleton Laboratories, with headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey, is one of the worlds largest and most comprehensive drug development services companies, according to its own website, with annual revenues over $1 billion, global operations in 17 countries, and approximately 6,700 employees worldwide. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... A mink farm in the United States Fur farming is the practice of breeding or raising certain types of animals for their fur. ... A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... Several greyhounds before a race. ... The term Green Scare, alluding to the Red Scares, periods of fear over communist infiltration of U.S. society, is a term popularized by environmental activists to refer to legal action by the U.S. government against the radical environmentalist movement. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Horse slaughter is the practice of slaughtering horses for meat. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) is a contract animal-testing company founded in 1952 in England, now with facilities in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire and Eye, Suffolk in the UK; New Jersey in the U.S.; and in Japan. ... The international trade in primates sees 32,000 wild-caught primates sold on the international market every year. ... The meat industry is the industrial aspect of agriculture. ... Nafovannys maternity clinic. ... Filmed by PETA, Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004-5. ... Open rescue is a term for a form of direct action practiced by certain animal rights and animal welfare activists. ... Operation Backfire is an ongoing multi-agency criminal investigation, led by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), into destructive acts in the name of animal rights and environmental causes in the United States. ... A pet store or pet shop is a store at which one can purchase supplies for pets and, often, the pets themselves. ... Puppy mill — puppy farming in the United Kingdom and Australia—is a disparaging term for the practices of some dog breeders. ... Sericulture, or silk farming, is the rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk. ... The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ... Veal is the meat of young calves (usually male) appreciated for its delicate taste and tender texture. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... The Brown Dog affair was a controversy and cause célèbre for a brief period in Edwardian England, from 1903 to 1910, and revolving around vivisection and a statue erected in memory of a dog killed in the cause of medical research. ... Britches after being removed from the laboratory by the Animal Liberation Front Britches was the name given by researchers to a stumptail macaque monkey who was born into a breeding colony at the University of California, Riverside in March 1985. ... A marmoset inside Cambridge University, filmed by BUAV The use of primates in experiments at Cambridge University is controversial, first coming to widespread public attention in the UK following undercover investigations lasting ten months in 1998 by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV), the results of which... Harry Harlows pit of despair The pit of despair, or vertical chamber, was a device used in experiments conducted on rhesus macaque monkeys during the 1970s by American comparative psychologist Harry Harlow and his students at the University of Wisconsin. ... The Silver Spring monkeys were 17 monkeys kept in small wire cages inside the Institute of Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland, by Dr. Edward Taub, who was researching regeneration of severed nerves with a grant from the National Institute of Health (NIH). ... Unnecessary Fuss is the name of a film produced by Ingrid Newkirk and Alex Pacheco of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), showing footage shot inside the University of Pennsylvanias Head Injury Clinic in Philadelphia, described by the university as the longest standing and most respected center... Image:Steven best. ... Dr. Stephen Clark Stephen Richard Lyster Clark (born October 30, 1945) is a British philosopher and international authority on animal rights, currently professor of philosophy and Leverhulme Research Fellow at the University of Liverpool. ... Gary Lawrence Francione (1954) is an American law professor at Rutgers University. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Tom Regan (born November 28, 1938 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American philosopher and animal-rights activist. ... Richard D. Ryder (born 1940) is a British psychologist who, after performing psychology experiments on animals, began to speak out against the practice, and became one of the pioneers of the modern animal liberation and animal rights movements. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Steven M. Wise is the author of Though the Heavens May Fall, a book concerning the 18th century trial in England which led to the abolition of slavery. ... Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals is a book by Australian philosopher Peter Singer. ... Behind the Mask: The Story Of The People Who Risk Everything To Save Animals is a 2006 documentary film about the Animal Liberation Front. ... Earthlings is a 2005 multi-award winning documentary written, produced and directed by Shaun Monson and co-produced by Persia White. ... Arkangel is a British-based bi-annual animal liberation magazine, first published in the winter of 1989. ... Bite Back is a website that promotes the cause of the Animal Liberation Front (ALF). ... No Compromise is a San Francisco-based bi-annual animal liberation magazine, first published in the winter of 1989. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
International Vegetarian Union - 11th World Vegetarian Congress 1947 - Veganism (645 words)
DONALD WATSON (Leicester), said that the vegan believed that if they were to be true emancipators of animals they must renounce absolutely their traditional and conceited attitude that they had the right to use them to serve their needs.
If the vegan ideal of non-exploitation were generally adopted it would be the greatest peaceful revolution ever known, abolishing vast industries and establishing new ones in the better interests of men and animals alike.
The vegan certainly need not go short of starch, sugar, vitamins, fats, mineral salts or roughage, for plants were rich in all these factors.
Veganism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4868 words)
Vegans typically have high levels of vitamin C in their diets, which may account for the rarity of anaemia amongst them.
The results, though, were more complex: the vegan subjects lost bone density at the same rate as their vegetarian and non-vegetarian peers; when put on a weight-bearing exercise regimen, the vegan subjects built bone density at a significantly higher rate than the other subjects.
Vegans are recommended to eat foods with vegan B12 added (such as fortified soy milk, fortified margarines, or many commercial breakfast cereals), certain brands of nutritional yeast, or take dietary supplements (a good multivitamin will likely include B12 in sufficient quantities).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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