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Encyclopedia > Vedic Sanskrit

Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. The earliest of the Vedas, the Rigveda, is said to have been composed in the 2nd millennium BC, and use of the Vedic dialect was continued for the composition of religious texts until roughly 500 BC, when the later Classical Sanskrit language began to emerge. However it must be noted that many scholars throughout India and parts of Europe highly dispute these two dates and feel that the Vedas are much older then given credit for. The Vedas (Sanskrit वेद) are an extremaly large series of writings originating in Ancient India. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns counted among the four Hindu religious texts known as the Vedas. ... (3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – other millennia) // Events To grasp the spirit of the 2nd millennium BC, we must divide it in two parts, for there is a period of change around its middle so important that it creates two separate sub-millennia. First half (2000... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ...


The Vedic form of Sanskrit is an early descendant of Proto-Indo-Iranian (spoken around 2000 BC), and still comparatively similar (being removed by maybe 1500 years) to the Proto-Indo-European language. Vedic Sanskrit is the oldest attested language of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. It is also still closely related to Avestan, the oldest preserved Iranian language. The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, believed to have been spoken around 4000 BC in Central Asia (according to the Kurgan hypothesis) or millennia before that in Anatolia (according to the Anatolian hypothesis). ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the hymns of the Zoroastrian holy book, the Avesta. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ...

Contents


History

Five chronologically distinct strata can be identified within the Vedic language.

  1. Rigvedic. The Rigveda is by far the most archaic of the Vedic texts preserved, and it retains many common Indo-Iranian elements, both in language and in content, that are not present in any other Vedic texts. Its creation must have taken place over several centuries, and apart from the youngest books (1 and 10), it must have been essentially complete by 1500 BC.
  2. Mantra language. This period includes both the mantra and prose language of the Atharvaveda (Paippalada and Shaunakiya), the Rigveda Khilani, the Samaveda Samhita (containing some 75 mantras not in the Rigveda), and the mantras of the Yajurveda. These texts are largely derived from the Rigveda, but have undergone certain changes, both by linguistic change and by reinterpretation. Conspicuous changes include change of viśva "all" to sarva, and the spread of kuru- (for Rigvedic kṛno-) as the present tense form of the verb kar- "make, do". This period corresponds to the early Iron Age in north-western India (iron is first mentioned in the Atharvaveda), and to the kingdom of the Kurus, dating from about the 12th century BC.
  3. Samhita prose (roughly 1100 BC to 800 BC). This period marks the beginning collection and codification of a Vedic canon. An important linguistic change is the complete loss of the injunctive and of the modi of the aorist. The commentary part of the Black Yajurveda (MS, KS) belongs to this period.
  4. Brahmana prose (roughly 900 BC to 600 BC). The Brahmanas proper of the four Vedas belong to this period, as well as the oldest of the Upanishads (BAU, ChU, JUB).
  5. Sutra language. This is the last stratum of vedic Sanskrit leading up to 500 BC, comprising the bulk of the Shrauta and Grhya Sutras, and some Upanishads (E.g. KathU, MaitrU. Younger Upanishads are post-Vedic).

Around 500 BC, cultural, political and linguistic factors all contribute to the end of the Vedic period. The codification of Vedic ritual reached its peak, and counter movements such as the Vedanta and early Buddhism emerged, using the vernacular Pali, a Prakrit dialect, rather than Sanskrit for their texts. Darius I of Persia invaded the Indus valley and the political center of the Indo-Aryan kingdoms shifted further East, to the Gangetic plain. Around this time (5th century BC), Panini fixes the grammar of Classical Sanskrit. The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns counted among the four Hindu religious texts known as the Vedas. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the... The Khilani are are a collection of 98 apocryphal hymns of the Rigveda, recorded in the Bashakala, but not in the Shakala school. ... The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, a tatpurusha compound of ritual chant + knowledge ), is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... The Yajurveda (Sanskrit , a tatpurusha compound of sacrifice + veda knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... (Redirected from 1100 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC - 1100s BC - 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC Events and Trends 1100 BC - Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the Hittites... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC - 800s BC - 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC Events and Trends 804 BC - Hadad-nirari IV of Assyria conquers Damascus. ... The injunctive mood was a mood in Sanskrit characterized by secondary endings but no augment, and usually looked like an augmentless aorist or imperfect. ... Modus can mean: A grammatical mood The Renault Modus, a small car made by Renault This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Aorist (from Greek αοριστος, indefinite) is a term used in certain Indo-European languages to refer to a particular grammatical tense and/or aspect. ... The Yajur Veda (Sanskrit (Devanagari ) from sacrifice + veda knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas; it contains religious texts focussing on liturgy and ritual. ... Centuries: 11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC Decades: 950s BC 940s BC 930s BC 920s BC 910s BC - 900s BC - 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC 850s BC Events and Trends 909 BC - Zhou xiao wang becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... The Brahmanas (Brahmin Books) are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures focus on sacrifice -- particularly that of horses and soma. ... The Upanishads (; Devanagari ) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most forms of Hinduism. ... The Upanishad is one of the older, primary (mukhya) Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana (JUB) is a Vedic text associated with the Jaiminiya shakha of the Samaveda. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Sutra (सूत्र) in Sanskrit is derived from the verb √siv, meaning to sew. ... Sutra (सूत्र) in Sanskrit is derived from the verb √siv, meaning to sew. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... The Kaá¹­ha Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The Maitrāyaṇi Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads. ... Vedanta (Vedānta, वेदान्त, pronounced as ) means the anta or culmination or essence of the Vedas. ... Buddhism is a religion, philosophy, and arguably a psychology, focusing on the teachings of the Buddha Śākyamuni (Siddhārtha Gautama), who lived in ancient India most likely from the mid-6th to the early 5th century BCE. Buddhism spread throughout the Indian subcontinent in the five centuries following the Buddha... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Prakrit (Sanskrit prāká¹›ta प्राकृत (from pra-ká¹›ti प्रकृति), original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Darius I of Persia Darius the Great (ca. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India and parts of Pakistan. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // Overview The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Phonology

This section treats the differences of Vedic Sanskrit compared to Classical Sanskrit - see there for a basic account.

Sound changes between Proto-Indo-Iranian and Vedic Sanskrit include loss of the voiced sibilant z. ...


Vedic Sanskrit had a bilabial fricative similar to English [f], called upadhmaniya, and a velar fricative [x], called jihvamuliya. These are both allophones to visarga: upadhmaniya occurs before p and ph, jihvamuliya before k and kh. Vedic also had a separate symbol for retroflex l, an intervocalic allophone of , transliterated as or ḷh. In order to disambiguate vocalic l from retroflex l, vocalic l is sometimes transliterated with a ring below the letter, ; when this is done, vocalic r is also represented with a ring, , for consistency.


Vedic Sanskrit had a pitch accent. Since a small number of words in the late pronunciation of Vedic carry the so-called "independent svarita" on a short vowel, one can argue that late Vedic was marginally a tonal language. Note however that in the metrically restored versions of the Rig Veda almost all of the syllables carrying an independent svarita must revert to a sequence of two syllables, the first of which carries an udātta and the second a (so called) dependent svarita. Early Vedic was thus definitely not a tone language but a pitch accent language. See Vedic accent. Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... The pitch accent of Vedic Sanskrit, or Vedic accent for brevity, is traditionally divided by Sanskrit grammarians into three qualities, udātta raised (acute accent, high pitch), anudātta not raised (grave accent, low pitch) and svarita sounded (circumflex, falling pitch). ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... The pitch accent of Vedic Sanskrit, or Vedic accent for brevity, is traditionally divided by Sanskrit grammarians into three qualities, udātta raised (acute accent, high pitch), anudātta not raised (grave accent, low pitch) and svarita sounded (circumflex, falling pitch). ... The pitch accent of Vedic Sanskrit, or Vedic accent for brevity, is traditionally divided by Sanskrit grammarians into three qualities, udātta raised (acute accent, high pitch), anudātta not raised (grave accent, low pitch) and svarita sounded (circumflex, falling pitch). ... The pitch accent of Vedic Sanskrit, or Vedic accent for brevity, is traditionally divided by Sanskrit grammarians into three qualities, udātta raised (acute accent, high pitch), anudātta not raised (grave accent, low pitch) and svarita sounded (circumflex, falling pitch). ... The pitch accent of Vedic Sanskrit is traditionally divided by Sanskrit grammarians into three qualities, udātta raised (acute accent), anudātta not raised (grave accent) and svarita sounded (circumflex). ...


Pitch accent was not restricted to Vedic: early Sanskrit grammarian Panini gives (1) accent rules for the spoken language of his (post-Vedic) time and (2) the differences of Vedic accent. We have, however, no extant post-Vedic text with accents.


The pluti vowels (trimoraic vowels) were on the verge of becoming phonological during middle Vedic, but disappeared again. Pluti is the term for overlong vowels in Sanskrit. ... Mora (plural moras or morae) is a unit of sound used in phonology that determines syllable weight (which in turn determines stress) in some languages. ...


Grammar

Vedic had a subjunctive absent in Panini's grammar and generally believed to have disappeared by then at least in common sentence constructions. The subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a grammatical mood of the verb that expresses wishes, commands (in subordinate clauses), and statements that are contrary to fact. ... Panini can refer to: Pāṇini, the 5th century BC Sanskrit grammarian Panini (sandwich), a type of Italian sandwich Panini (stickers), a brand of collectible stickers Giovanni Paolo Panini, an Italian artist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Long-i stems differentiate the Devi inflection and the Vrkis inflection, a difference lost in Classical Sanskrit. In Vedic Sanskrit, the Devi inflection is one of the two types of inflection of ī-stems. ... In Vedic Sanskrit, the Vrkis inflection is one of the two types of inflection of ī-stems. ...


See also

The Vedic Civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...

References

  • Michael Witzel, Tracing the Vedic dialects in Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes ed. Caillat, Paris, 1989, 97–265.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sanskrit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6648 words)
Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, a large collection of hymns, incantations, and religio-philosophical discussions which form the earliest religious texts in India and the basis for much of the Hindu religion.
Vedic Sanskrit had a pitch accent which could even change the meaning of the words, and was still in use in Panini's time, as we can infer by his use of devices to indicate its position.
Sanskrit is claimed to be spoken natively by the population in Mattur, a village in central Karnataka.
Vedic Sanskrit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (958 words)
Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India and the Aryan people.
Vedic Sanskrit was first known used in the age of the Indus valley civilization between 4000 and 1700 BC.
Vedic Sanskrit is the oldest attested language of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family.
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